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Student Number

49056301

Name & Surname

Phathutshedzo Mulaudzi

Course Name & Code :

Advanced operating Systems ICT3631

Assignment Number :

02

Due Date

29 March 2016

Question 1
1.1

The vim command is used particularly when the editing the


/etc/fstab file because it knows the format of that file. When you use
the vim, the columns are in colour and some error checking is done.

1.2
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

rsyslog service
rsyslogd daemon
Daemon configuration File - /etc/sysconfig
Kernel Module
In the left column are designations of what messages are matched ;
the right column shows where matched messages go
- /var/log/messages all of those matched messages are directed
to the /var/log/messages file.

1.3
/dev/sda3 hard disk partition
Size 29G Disk space available
Used 2.9G Used disk space
Avail 24G Available disk space
Use % 11% - Percentage disk space usage
Mounted on Where the hard disk partition is mounted on the / (root)
directory

1.4
a) There is a Wireless interface (wlan0), as well as an interface
representing a virtual private network (VPN) tunnel.
b) All other packets will go to the default route via the address
192.168.0.1
c) As for the flags shown in the output, a U says the route is up, a G
identifies the interface as a gateway, and an H says the target is a
host (as is the case with the VPN connection).

d) The tunnel goes from the local system over the wlan0 interface to a
host named vpn-a.example.com (some of the name is truncated).
e) A VPN provides a way to have encrypted, private communications
between a client and a remote network over an insecure network
(such as the Internet).
1.5

PEERDNS=no is used to prevent the DHCP server from overwriting


your DNS address. However, in that case you can edit the
resolv.config file directly to set your DNS server addresses.

1.6

gateway The IP address of the computer or device on the network


that acts as default route. The default route will route packets from
the local network to any address that is not available on the local
network or via some other custom route.
Address The IP address you want to assign to your local network
interface.
Netmask The subnetwrk mask that defines which part of the IP
address represents the network and which host.

Question 2
2.1

/etc/rc.d The directory used by the BSD init daemon.


/etc/init.d A directory also used by the sysvinit daemon, typically
on Debian-based distribution, such as Ubuntu.

2.2

The primary difference between the classics and Upstart is the


handling of stopping and starting services.
Upstart init daemon was created to operate in a flexible and
ever-changing environment.
The Upstart init daemon is not concerned with runlevels but with the
system events.

Older classic init daemon daemons could handle the first two
event examples, they could not deal well with the third
Event an event is a Linux server occurrence that triggers a
needed system state change, which is communicated to the upstart
init daemon.

2.3

systemd init - # systemct1 status cups.Service

2.4
a) Create a new or customized service configuration unit file for
the new or customized service.
b) Move the new or customized service configuration unit file to
the proper location for systemd management.
c) Add the service to a specific target units wants if you want to
have the new or customized service start automatically with
other services.

2.5
a) $ 1pr p canyonps doc1.ps
b) $ 1prm p 1p0
c) lpc command

Question 3

3.1
a) File Permissions A File permissions prevent access error
indicates that the apache process is running as a user that is unable
to open the requested file. By default, http is run by the apache user
group.
b) Access denied A Client denied by server configuration error
indicates that Apache was configured to deny access to the object.
c) Index not found The Directory index forbidden by rule error
indicate that Apache could not find an index file with a name
specified in the DirectoryIndex directive and was configured to not
create and index containing a list of files in a directory.
d) Script crashed Premature end of script headers errors can
indicate that a script is crashing before it finishes. On occasion, the
errors that caused this also show up in the error log.

3.2
a) Samba_run_unconfined allows samba to run unconfined scripts.
b) Allow_smbd_anon_write allows samba to let anonymous users
modify public files used for public file transfer services. Files and
directories must be labelled public_content_rw_t.
c) Samba_enable_home_dirs Allows samba to share users home
directories.
d) Samba_export_all_rw Allows samba to share any file or directory
read/write.

3.3
a) /etc/exports File
b) Directory Host (options) Host (options) # comments

3.4
a) Kill a process
b) Drop page caches
c) Kill an out-of memory process

3.5

A rootkit is a little more insidious than a virus.


And also is a malicious program that hides itself, often by replacing
system command or program.

3.6
a) Input, Forward, Output, Prerouting, and Postrouting
b) Accept, Reject, and drop
c) Iptables p INPUT ACCEPT sets the overall policy for a particular
chain. The rules in the chain are checked for matches. If no matches
occurs, then the chains mentioned above target is used.
d) Firewall rules-