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[UNIT 1 PHYSICS ON THE GO 2.

0 MATERIALS] 1

1.6 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS


1. Hookes Law
2. Stress, strain and Young Modulus
3. Elastic and Plastic deformation
4. Characteristics of a material
5. Elastic strain energy

1. Hookes Law
The force exerted by a spring, F is given by:F=k x
where k spring constant
x extension
Negative sign due to
A higher k

is in the opposite direction

indicates a stiffer spring

F x

until elastic limit. Beyond this limit, Hookes law is no longer


obeyed and the spring undergoes plastic deformation.

Limit of proportionality - F x ends here.


Elastic limit Spring becomes permanently deformed beyond this
point.
Which of the above graphs show higher stiffness?

2. Stress, Strain and Young Modulus


Tensile stress ~ force per unit area, is given by:F
=
A
where F tensile force, N
A cross-sectional area, m2
Unit of

is Nm-2 or Pa

Tensile strength is thus the

when the material breaks.

Tensile strain ~ extension per unit length, is given by:x


E=
x
No unit
Which of the above has a higher Young Modulus, E?

Young Modulus,
E=

Unit of

E is Nm-2 or Pa

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[UNIT 1 PHYSICS ON THE GO 2.0 MATERIALS] 3

Compression stress ~ compressive force per unit area

Compressive stress=

Compressive force
Crosssectional area

Unit =

Compressive strain=
No unit

Extension
Original Strength

981
2.45
2 1011 =
Extension
10

Example 1
A 10 m steel cable has a load of 100kg.
(a) What should the minimum cross-sectional area of the cable be if
the tensile strength of steel is 4 x 108 Pa.

Extension = 2 x 10-08 m

Weight = 100 x 9.81 = 981 N

Tensile strength=
4 108=

Tensile Force
Crosssectional Area

981
A
A = 2.45 m2

3. Elastic and Plastic Deformation


Elastic
Returns to its original form after
force applied is removed

Plastic
Remains in the deform position
after force applied is removed

4. Characteristics of a Material
(b) How much would the cable extend if the Young Modulus of steel
is 2 x 1011 Pa
Tensile force

Area
E= =

Extension
Original length

I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.

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Brittle Materials that break of crack with little


deformation. Eg. Clay
Ductile Materials showing plastic deformation. Eg,
Copper, most metals.
Hard Materials resisting plastic deformation. Eg. Diamond
Malleable - Materials showing large plastic deformation
before breaking. Eg. Gold, Silver, most metals.
Stiff Elastic materials which resists deformation or tensile
force.
Tough Materials able to withstand large impact forces
without breaking. Eg. Wood, carbon fibre.

[UNIT 1 PHYSICS ON THE GO 2.0 MATERIALS] 5

5. Elastic strain energy


In safety clothing safety boots, harness.
~ is given by
In foodstuff cooking utensils

1
Eel = k x 2
2

Ans for page 64:


1. 0.8 Ncm-1
2.
a. F proportional to x
b. 333 Nm-1

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c. 0.0345 m
d. 5.04 x10-3 J
3. 800 J