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COMPREHENSIVE

INDUSTRY DOCUMENT
SERIES: COINDS/18/1984-85

EMISSION REGULATIONS

~
~

'1IP,

CQJX@
CENTRAL POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD
(Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India)

Parivesh Bhawan, East Arjun Nagar


Delhi - 110 032

Published By: Member Secretary, Central Pollution Control Board, Delhi; and
Printed at:

Mis Sharma Printers and Stationers, Delhi - 110 093, Phone: 2297265,

~.
(NILAY CHAUDHURI)
CHAIRMAN

The emission standard

for Calcium Carbide, Copper, Lead and Zinc Smelting,

'Carbon Black, Fertilizer

(Phosphatid.

Oil Refineries

and Aluminillm Extractior

are given below in abstract.


As prescribed

in the

Air (Prevention

ana Control

of Pollution)

Act,

1981

Section 17(l)(g), the emission standards for the air polluting industrial operations,
as mentioned

above,

are evolved to be laid down by the State

Pollution

Control Boards.

The emission standards for other industrial operations covered

in the Schedule

will be evolved

subsequently.

The rationale

for evolving

these standards are given in the report.


These

standards

are

again in January,
data

obtained

applicable

till

December,

1988 based on experience

during this period.

1987 and will. be reviewed

and input from the monitoring

The stack

monitoring

shall be done as

prescribed by the Central Pollution Control Board.


The State

Boards may adopt

standards

given below depending on the location


is in a protected
A protected
industrial

area.

area

of its proximity

are

more stringent

of the industries

than those

and specially

if it

They shall not, however, relax the standards.

is one that

location.

that

is already

A protected
to national

polluted being in a metropolitan/

area also includes a sensitive

parks, forests,

historical

area because

monuments

and health

resorts.

While measuring

the

emission

humidity are to be recorded.


as concentration

in- a stack,

the

temperature,

pressure,

and

The emission limits prescribEd are expressed

per unit volume of air under standard or


normal conditions, _written as Nm3 The standard conditions for air in India,
hereinafter

termed

of pollutants

as Standard

ssure, and zero percent

moisture.

of air are to be computed


the prescribed limits.

Air, are 25C temperature,


Emissions measured

for Standard

Air for

760 mm Hg pre<\t other conditions

reporting

compliance

to

For example,
ed by the

if the volume
dry

mrn Hg and

gas

of the gas drawn

meter,

is Vm cubic

a temperature

where

Pbar

is the

calibration

collected

is the

metres

of TmoC;

then

Pbar

298
Vm Y

(273+ Tm)
barometric

factor

is Mn, mg, then

dry

the emission

the

the sampling

under

train,

a negatl\'e

standard

as measur-

pressure

voiume,

Vstd

site,

in mm

of Pm

is given by

- Pm
760

pressure,

of the

through

gas

at

the

sampling

metre.

Thus,

concentration

if the

is V~?d

total
mg/Nm3

Hg and

particulates

250 mg/Nm3
150 mg/Nm3

2.

COPPER,LEAD AND ZINC SMELTING


Standard

for particulate

matter

and oxides

of sulphur
150. mg/Nm3
matter

for

particulate

Off-gases
must go for H 50
Z
manufacture
: No release
o
52/53
shall be permitted
from
ter.

New Plants
(Built and Commissioned
after January
I, 1985)

the

smelter

150 mg/Nm3

or conver-

Existing Plants

250 mg/Nm3

(Built and Commissioned


before December 31, 1984)

(t

ill

December

31,

1986)

150 mg/Nm3
(from January 1, 1987)

4.

FER TlLIZER (Phosphatic)


Standard for flua-ide and particulate

matter

25 mg/Nm3 as total fluoride(F-)


150 mg/Nm3
matter
from

of particulate
each process

Distillation
(Atmospheric plus Vacuum~
2.5 kg/Te of feed
120 kg/Te
the feed

of

Sulphur

In

*Feed Indicates the feed for that part of the proce:;s under consideratLon
only .

250 mg/Nm3

of

1 kg (P-)/Te
produced

of

particulate
alUminIUm

and

pO

mg/Nm3
matter

of

particulate

Status in respect
of evolving
Emission
Regulations

Cement

and cement

products

Ceramic

and ceramic

Chemical

and allied

Coal and lignite

industries

products

Prepared

industries

chemical

Prepared
acid*

for

Sulphuric

Prepared

for Nitric

Acid*

Prepared

for Calcium

industries

metallurgical

UP
industr ies

Prepared
and Steel*
Prepared
Prepared
Fertilizer**

9.

Foundries

10.

Food and agricultural

11.

Mining industries

12.

Non-ferrous

Carbide**

UP

Engineer ing industries


Ferrous

industry*

UP

industries

based

for cement

for

Integrated

Iron

for Urea*
for

Phosphat

ic

UP
products

metallurgical

industries

UP
UP

industries

Ores/mineral
processing
industries
benef iciation,
pelletization,
etc.

Prepared

for

Aluminium**

Prepared

for Copper**

Prepared

for Lead**

Prepared

for Zinc**

including

UP

Power'(coal,
petroleum
and their
products) generating
plants and boiler
plants
Paper and pulp (including
industries
16.

Textile

17.

Petroleum

refineries

18.

Petroleum
industries

products

processing

Plants for recovery


of wastes

paper

products)

industries

and petro-chemical
from

and disposal

Incinerators

*Printed

in Emission

**Printed

in Emission

.Regulations
Re uIatlOns

- Part

- Pai't

II

Prepared

for Oil Ref iner ies ..

Prepared

for Carbon

Black

Calcium
There
the

carbide
are,

at

country

Calcium
with

is

the

present,

with

oxide

a total

the

decomposition

lump

fine

formed.

These

can

be

and

feed

in arc
control
arresting

of calcium

control.

furnaces.
equipment.

are
at

of

usually

by

High
can easily

tonnes

less

than

that

shaft
250

type

and

carbide
per

is made

graphite

to react

electrodes.

oxide

and carbo:,

type in which the


mg/Nm3,
by proper

IS

matter

collectf'd

scrubbers

or

of

this to less than

idters
150 mg/Nrn3.

Standard
250 mg!Nm3
150 mg/Nm-

tlw

dioxide
emissIon'>
operation

is generated

in a suitable
bdg

in

annum.

decomposition

of particulate

this

efficiency

This

acetylene.

out of the kiln by the carbon

vertical

control

1,00,000

to calcium

attrition

EnOrrTIOllS quantities
It is reqlJired

calcium

in kilns.

carbonate

be carried

levels

over

producing
of

SODERBERG

is generated

kilns

for

manufacturers

limestone

with

This could

maintained

devices

from

furnaces

powder

limestone.

major

required

production

is obtained
in arC

dioxide,

material

eight

carbon

During

basic

pollution
Wi1h

:,p"irl<

Ther~

will also

considered

for

be emissions
the present.

from

mining

Emission

and

regulations

lizer and power plant are separately

dealt

Part -I",.

Comprehensive

Document

The ore

is ground

The

final

In the

in rod and ball

concentrate

operation

Industry

after

mills

absence

of any

is

data

which

sulphuric

bearing
from

are

gases.
the

off-gases
assumed.

formed

Further

refining

converter

travel

from

smelter

the

These

gases

in the

sent

for

filtered.

froth

During

at

it is considered

is done

from

the

crossing

floatation.
Ie crushing

of dust is generated.

smelter,

through

ferti-

COIN DS/17 /1983-04.

rational

of bag filter, wet scrubber or ESP. Therefore,


limit of 150 mg/Nm3 is adopted for the concentrator
stack.

products

not

(July 1984)

the achievability

Three

are

acid,

Regulations

Series:

and then

amount

monitoring

from

in "Emission

thickening

in ball mills, considerable

ore handling,

namely,

slag,

crossing
tower

and

join

tower
finally

and

The

the

main

where
enter

an emission

metal

in a converter.

cyclones

to go by

S02

off-gases
stream

built-in

of

ESP

the

sulphuric

should

be

IS

acid

plant.

Under

normal

prIOr to the
less
hence

than

4.7

needs

operating

conditions

suiphuric

acid

percent

502

venting.

This

plant.
is not

no

s.ulphurdioxide

It is claimed
suitable

is considered

for

that

off-gases

production

extremely

of

emitted

containing

H S04
2
undesirable
for

and
the

protection

of vegetativ~

the

should

plant

sulphuric

attached

acid

and human

be maintained

No 50/503 emission
is generally

cover

plant

so that

is' permitted
in dosed

there

from

to the crossing
circuit

health.

Also for this

are

no fugitive

the duct/stack

tower.

reason,

emissions.

of smelter

which

All 50/503 must go to the

even

if the

concentration

of 502

is less than 4.7% in the off-gas.


SULPHURIC
TIME,

ACID

IF NECESSARY

CONTENT

PLANT

SHOULD

BY OXIDIZING

BE

MADE

SULPHUR

OPERATIVE
TO MAKE

ALL
UP

THE

THE S02

IN THE OFF-GASES.

150 mg/Nm3

for particulate

matter
Off-gases
H S04
2
release

must

go

for

manufacture.

No

of 50/503

shall be

permitted
or converter

from

the

smelter

The process
reducing

consists

conditions.

process

conditions,

Carbon

black,

devices

from getting

vessel

aromatic

The normal

product

there

is' a large

as particulate

hydrocarbons
is carbon

amount

matter,

black.

of carbon

is attempted

in reactors

under

Owing to the

monoxide

produced.

to be saved by control

lost into the atmosphere.

The gases from the reaction

lhrough

bag filters

vented

maintained

bag filters

pass

Properly

in burning

can control

the emissions

before

being

to

the

atmosphere.

with reverse

pulse-jet cleaning mechanism


150 mg/Nm3
However, some of the

to within

older plants
go upto

have bag filters of the shaker type, where the emissions can
250 mg/Nm3
Guided by the control efficiency
of bag filters

installed

in the existing plants the standard for !'itack emission is adopted


3
as 250 mg/Nm of particulate matter for existing plants.

The vent

gas is usually

very rich

in carbon

in the ambient

air which may cause harm to the people living in the neigh-

or oxidized

this,

it is required

in an after-combustor

stack shall be atleast

prior

that

build-up

adverse

conditions

To minimize

excessive

and under

meteorological
bourhood.

could cause

monoxide

in concentration

gases are either

to venting.

recycled

The height

of the

30 metres.

New plants
(Built and Commis:>ioned
after January 1, 198.5.)

150 mg/Nm3

Existing PlantS
(Built and Commissioned
before December 31, 1984)

250 mg/Nm3
(t ill December
150 mg/Nm3

31,

1986)

To

install

for

reactor

after-burners

December 1987.

off-gas,

by

In this group of fertilizers,

there

single super phosphate (SSP).


complex' phosphatic

are fifty

one companies

manutacturing

There are only ten com~anies manufacturing

fertilizers.

The annual

production

of SSP in India

is 1.2 million tonnes compared to 2.2 million tonnes of the total production
of phosphatIC fertilizers,

(Source

Fertilizer

Statistics,

Fertilizer

Association

of India, New Delhi, 1983-84).


Complex fertilizer

include Diammonium phosphate

(DAP), Nitro-phQsphate,

Ammonium Phosphate Sulphate (APS) and Urea ammonium phosphate (UAP).


Productioriwise

DAP tops the complex group.

Captive production

phoric acid from rock phosphate and sulphuric acid also exists;
directly

purchase.

Many complex fertilizers

of phos-

some units

involve only granulation

and

mixing of different basic fertilizers.

The rock phosp~t~


is liberated

during acidification

in the concentration
desired,

sulphuric,

Fluoride

is emitted

dust

generally has about 4 percent


of the

of phosphoric acid.
phosphoric
from

or nitric

rock phosphate

Fluoride

in digestors

and

Depending on the type of fertilizer


acid

becomes

the rock phosphate

or as vapour (Fluorine,

fluoride (as F-).

Hydrofluoric

the digesting

during dig~stion,

acid

or Silicon

acid.

either

as

Tetrafluoride)

Grinding of rock phosphate would create dust emissions.

Forty kilogram me (kg) of Fluoride (as F-) is the most that can be emitted
per tonne

of rock phosphate

medium is demonstrated

processed.

Scrubbing

to perform at an efficiency

with mildly alkaline

level above 99.9 percent

in arresting fluoride in plants in India (Data provided below).


emission can be less than 0.04 kg of F- ITe

The controlled

of rock phosphate

processed.

Fluoride

3.6 mg/Nm

emission

3
3

Total gas quantity

164,000 N m /hr

Phosphoric
production

165 Te/day

acid

Rock phosphate
ptocessed
3.6 x 164000 x 24
1000 x 1000 x 520

Efficiency
control

Tqking

99.5

percent

is 0.2 kg/Te
for total

fluoride

can De easily
of

of

(40 - 0.03) x 100/40 : 99.925 percent

as the

stable

of mixed

De used

of rock phosphate

efficiency,

the

processed.

fertilizers,

granuldtion

in these

achieved.

150 mg/Nm3

cases

care

and mixing.
whereby

Similarly,
shall

shall

also

processed

total

Consequently,
should be less than 25 mg/Nm3

is not lost puring

a limit

.03 kg/Te

rock phosphate

In the case
would

be taken

fluoride

emission

the measured

emission

so that

As such, good control


an emission

in the case

limit

of grinding

be achieved.

of

the

product

techniques
150 mg/Nm3

of rock phosphate

The following

limits

"dopted:

Acidification

of rock phosphate

Granulation,

mixing and grinding

of Jock phosphate

25 mg/Nm3

as total

F-

150 mg/N m 3 of particular

maHer

are

The spectrum
distillation

of operations

of refineries

units to plants having facilities

and blending.

needs to import almost


of imported

reforming

on the emissions.

of crude for processing.

crude ranges between

basic

varies widely depending on

This has an effect

30 percent

between

for polymerization,

The sulphur in the feedstock

the source Qf the crude oil.


content

in India ranges

India

The sulphur

1.8 and 2.0 percent

while that

in .the Bombay 'High crude is about 0.2 percent.


The source of the crude 'controls the type of products that can be obtainep.
'Some of the less valuable products,
to products

with a greater

such as heavy naptha,

are converted

sale value, such as diesel or kerosene because

of their special demand in India.

This conversion is accomplished

by crack-

ing, polY.merization and reforming.

The basic pollutant


either

in oil refineries

is sulphur dioxide.

from the fuel or from the process.

This can be liberated

'IIle crude oil is distilled

and

the heavy fraction obtained is used as a fuel in the refining process.


The emissions of sulphur dioxide because

of sulphur in the fuel is from

the follow ing processes:


i)

Atmospheri'c Distillation

ii)

Vacuum Distillation

iii)

Viscosity Breaker Unit (Vis Breaker)

iv)

Cokirg ullit

v)

Cat Cracker feed heater

vi)

Reformer Heater

Fluid catalytic

cracker (FCC)

Sulphur recovery unit (SRU)

In cases

where

the process

pher ic and vacuum


or 0.25

kg/Te

distillation,

of feed

units

(atmospheric

feed.

In those

cases

The

emissions

and

particul~te

of

The sulphur
feed

the

at

the

CO boiler

the

recommended

dioxide

emission

Mathura

in the fuel.

Amine

shall

off

SRU.
kept

gas,
The

above

Mathura

conven~ion

the

required

outlet

areas.

One

is, therefore,

high

kg/Te

of

it -is required

carbon

containing

efficiency

cyclones.

py having

an after

control

cleaning

of

shall

sulphur

from

sulphur

this

dioxide

the

the

dioxide

as the
shall

data

from the sulphur

standard,

through

unit

is

be

by the
90 kg/nr
efficiency

in the feed.

recovery

in
the

shall

maintained

concentration

of sulphur

combus-

sulphide

pass

recovery

The

be reduction

hydrogen
then

spent

or 0.25 kg/Te

This works out to a conversion


of 120 kg/Te

monoxide

chiefly

Adopting

sulphide

of

feed.

or an emission

ar~ twelve

for

hydrogen

this as the basis, the S02 emission

There

dioxide,

matter,

sulphur

As revealed

of sulphur

as 120 k~/Te of sulphur

distillation

as 0.25

was found to be 350 kg/hr

efficiency

98 percent.

or 17.5 Te/day
of 94 percent

be

The scrubped

Refinery,

sulphur

Refinery.

for

of sl,Jlphur content

the

atmos-

is 198 kg/hr

for

high sulphur,

shall be controlled

procedure

scrubbing

are

by installing

monoxide

FCC

adopted

contains

The particulate

be controlled

carbon

fuel

from

emission

The standard

is, therefor~,

the

stack

is reduced.

matter.

shall

particulate
tQr.

from

uncontrolled

Refinery).

vacuum)
where

the sulphur content

of having a common

the normal

(Mathura

plus

that

catalyst,

ccnsists

Using

unit is adopted

in the feed.

refineries

in India.

Three of these

of these

is in Mathura

and

applicable

to these

refineries.

three

two

are located

in Bombay.

in sensitive

This standard

The ambient
determine

air quality

should

be studied

the type of standards

applicable

data should be made available


Control

Boards

by the

refineries

for

format

published

on

Monitoring

document

industrialisation
Applicable

of

emission

the monitoring

a)

by the

Baroda,
standards

three

year,

refineries.

to
This

State PolJution

beginning

Pollution

Control

This is relevant
Haldia,

for these

years

April

1986.

this shall also be sent, by June 1987

Central

Cochin,

next

and the relevant

one

Regulations.

the

in the other

to the Central

If more than one year's data is available,


in the

for

Madras

refineries

and

Board,
considering

in its
the

Visakhapatnam.

will be evovled

after

data has been studied.

Emissions from power plants have already


Regulations

(Part-I),

17/1983-84.

Comprehensive

The stack heights

been dealt with the Emission

Industry Document

should be calculated

Series, COIN DS/

as per the formula

given in the above regulation.

S02 Emission Limits


1.

Distilldtl.:-n
(Atmospherk

plus Vacuum)

2.

Catalytic

Cracker

3.

Sulphur Recovery

2.5 kg/Te of feed


Unit

120 kg/Te

of Sl,Jlphur in the feed.

ppm

Vis Breaker
Unit
FCC
Charge Heater
FCC

CO

kg/hr

90250

42198

175200

3540

3060

23
194-

6501250

355

750020000

3090

Boiler
'Sulphur
Recovery
Unit

The raw material


oxide

which

for aluminium

has to be purified

can be extracted

There
'Two

are
of

six

these

through

into

control

The

an

use

VERTICAL

aluminium

kiln.

plants.

per day cement


is retained

at

draw

before

exhaust

aluminium

Hall-Heroult

process.

in the

method

it is possible

it through

hydroxide

Similar

steps

manufacturers

SODERBERG

the

This is aluminium

whil~

country.

the

others

to put the electrolytic

gases,

through

a pollution

the stack.

that

is precipitated

are collected
to cement

is calcined

by electrostatic
industries

in

precipitators

producing

200 tonnes

or more the emission limits for particulate


for kiln emissions
250 mg/Nm3 (Reference,
Emission Regulations
(July 1984)

One, COIN DS/ 17/1983:"84).

Aluminium
or for
in

aluminium

The kiln emissions

as in cement

Part

and

distinct

by the classical

In all cases,

prior to releasing

purified

rotary

ANODES.

enclosure

device

electrolysis

primary

the

is bauxite.

in several

existing

use PREBAKED
cell

manufacture

plants

power

'Emission

Document

generally

generation.
Regulations

Series:

have captive
Stack
(July

height
1984)

COIDS/ 17/1983-84'.

boilers

for their

and emission
Part

One,'

steam

requirement

standards

Comprehensive

are

given

Industry

2~3

Baking Furnace

Pre-baked

anodes

in order
process

generally

to Improve

their

utilize

a fuel

dry strength.

for baking

the

The emission

is usually sulphur dioxide, generated

"

(Reference

In the

anodes

from the. baking

from the sulphur in the fuel.

The control of sulphur dioxide shall be through controlling


I

green

the stack height

'Emission Regulations (July 1984) Part One: COINDS/17/ 1983-84)'.

manufacture

fluorspar

of aluminium

and aluminium

fluoride

by electrolysis
are added.

of

in the carbon

control

of fluoride emissions is either

alkaline

medium or a dry scrubber

by a bag filter to control carry-over


the stack.

liner.

(as

A negligible amount

The standard

methods 0.1

by a venturi scrubber with a mildly


with a fluidized-bed
of particulates,

reactor

Consequently,

followed

prior to release

In both these methods it is possible to get a collection

of at least 99.5 percent.

cryolite,

The flour ide emission

F-) is about 0.2 Te per Te of Aluminium produced.


of this may be absorbed

alumina;

from

efficiency

an emission of 1.0 kg (of F-) per

Te of aluminium is kept as the standard.


~imultaneously,

the

efficiency

of the control

to keep the emission of particulates

device

would be adequate

to less than 150 mg/N m 3:

250

mg/Nm3

1 kg (F-)!Te
duced

of

particulates

of aluminium

150 mg/N m 3
matter

of

pr.o-

particulate

2.

For plants where the sulphur dioxide emission


the stack height, H in metres is given by
H

3.

as Q(kg/hr)

14 (Q)0.3

For plants where the particulate matter emission


the stack height, H in metres is given by
H

4.

is estimated

IS

estimated as Q(tonnes/hr)

74 (Q)0.27

If by using the formula given in 2 or 3 above, the stack height arrived


at, is more than 30 m then this higher stack should be used.
~

In no case should the height of the stack be less than 30 m, for plants
~iven in the Schedule of the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution)
Act, 1981, and located in industrial areas of cities.