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FunctionsPart3

MATHEMATICS
Learners Study and
Revision Guide for
Grade 12
FUNCTIONSPart3
TRIGONOMETRICCURVES

RevisionNotes,ExercisesandSolutionHints
by

RoseinnesPhahle

ExaminationQuestionsbytheDepartmentofBasicEducation

PreparationfortheMathematicsexaminationbroughttoyoubyKagisoTrust

Contents
Unit 7
Revisionnotes

Exercise7.1

Areviewofparentfunctionsintrigonometry

AnswerstoExercise7.1

Examinationquestionswithsolutionhintsandanswers

Morequestionsfrompastexaminationpapers

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Answers

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How to use this revision and study guide


1.Studytherevisionnotesgivenatthebeginning.Thenotesareinteractiveinthatinsomepartsyou
arerequiredtomakearesponsebasedonyourpriorlearningofthetopicfromyourteacherinclassor
fromatextbook.Furthermore,thenotescoveralltheMathematicsfromGrade10toGrade12.
2.Warmupexercisesfollowthenotes.SomeexercisescarrysolutionHINTSintheanswersection.Do
notreadtheanswerorhintsuntilyouhavetriedtoworkoutaquestionandarehavingdifficulty.
3.Thenotesandexercisesarefollowedbyquestionsfrompastexaminationpapers.
4.Theexaminationquestionsarefollowedbyblankspacesorboxesinsideatable.Dotheworkingout
ofthequestioninsidethesespacesorboxes.
5.AlongsidetheblankboxesareHINTSincaseyouhavedifficultysolvingapartofthequestion.Donot
readthehintsuntilyouhavetriedtoworkoutthequestionandarehavingdifficulty.
6.Whatfollowsnextaremorequestionstakenfrompastexaminationpapers.
7.Answerstotheextrapastexaminationquestionsappearattheend.SomeanswerscarryHINTSand
notestoenrichyourknowledge.
8.Finally,dontbealoner.Workthroughthisguideinateamwithyourclassmates.

FunctionsPart3

REVISIONUNIT7:SKETCHINGTRIGONOMETRICGRAPHS
Inthechapteronfunctionsyoustudiedthetransformationof y = f (x ) into y = af ( x p ) + q .In
otherwords,sawtheeffectthattheparameters a, p and q haveonthegraphof f (x ) .
InChapter5youlookedatwhateffecttheseparametershaveonthetrigonometricgraphsofsin,cos
andtan.Yousawtherethattheeffectsarethesameonthetrigonometricgraphsasongraphsfor
algebraicfunctionssoyoureallyhavenothingnewtolearnsolongasyoucandosketchesofthe
parentfunctionssin x ,cos x andtan x .
Inonerespect,though,thegraphsofthetrigonometricfunctionsaredifferentfromthoseofalgebraic
expressions.Theyaredifferentinthattheyareperiodicwhichmeansthattheirshapesrepeat
themselvesovercertainintervals.
Whathelpsindeterminingthe x interceptsistheperiodofthefunction.Forexample,given

f ( x ) = sin kx ,howdoyoudeterminetheperiodof f ( x ) ?
Period=

Thesineandcosinefunctionsalsohaveamplitudeswhichisgivenby:

Parentfunctionsintrigonometry
Inordertobeabletosketchtrigonometricfunctionsyouwillneedtoknowthebasicshapes:

y = f ( x ) = sin x

y = g ( x ) = cos x

y = h( x ) = tan x

andtheircharacteristicsorspecialfeatures.

Sketchinggraphsofthetrigonometricfunctions
Whatyoumustparticularlynoteandmarkonyoursketchesarethefollowing:

The x intercepts,thatiswherethegraphscrossthe x axis;

The y intercepts,thatiswherethegraphscrossthe y axis;

Themaximumvalueofthegraph;

Theminimumvalueofthegraph.
3

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Getyourselflotsofgraphpaperonwhichtopracticesketchingthefollowingtrigonometricfunctions:
1. Startbymakingsketchesofeachofsin x ,cos x andtan x overdifferentintervalssuchas

(0 ; 360 ), ( 360 ; 360 ), ( 180 ; 360 ), ( 90 ; 270 ) oranyintervalofyourchoice.


o

2. Overthesameintervalsasabove,nowmakesketchesof a sin x , a cos x and a tan x where a


=

1
,2,3oranyvalueofyourchoicebutchooseavaluethatdoesnotmakeitawkwardfor
2

yourself!

3. Overthesameintervalsasabove,makesketchesof sin ax , cos ax and tan ax .

4. Alsooverthesameintervalsmakesketchesofsin (x p ) ,cos (x p ) andtan (x p ) choosing


valuesof p suchas 90 0 , 60 0 , 45 0 ;or 30 0 .

5. Repeattheabovequestionfor a sin (x p ) , a cos (x p ) and a tan (x p ) whereyouchoose

a and p againasabove

EXERCISE7.1
A.Determinetheperiodsofthefollowingfunctionsandsketchthemovertheinterval (360 o ; 360 o ) :
1.

y = sin 2 x

2.

y = 3 cos 4 x

3.

y = tan

1
x
2

B.Drawsketchesorusecompoundangleformulae(seeUnit16)toprovethefollowing:

1. sin x + 90 o = cos x
2.
cos x + 90 o = sin x

AREVIEWOFTHEPARENTFUNCTIONSINTRIGONOMETRY
Afullreviewoftheparentfunctionsintrigonometryisgivenbelow.
Inthereview,generalformulaearegivenforthelocationofthe x intercepts,theturningpointsandthe
asymptotes.Intheseformulae, n standsfortheintegersfrom to + .
Thatis n =......4;3;2;1;0;1;2;3;....
orsimply, n Z
Youwillfindtheseformulaeusefulforworkingoutthe x coordinatesofcriticalpointswithinintervals
inwhichyouwillberequiredtomakesketchesoftrigonometricfunctions.Youneednotmemorisethe
formulaeasyoucanalwaysdrawveryroughsketchesoftheshapesofthefunctionsandfromsuch
sketchesveryeasilyderivethem.

FunctionsPart3

Parentfunctionsandtheircharacteristicsforvaluesof x ( 360 o ; 360 o )


Function

Graphandcharacteristics

y = sin x

x
-360-345-330-315-300-285-270-255-240-225-210-195-180-165-150-135-120-105 -90 -75 -60 -45 -30 -15

15

30

45

60

75

90 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 210 225 240 255 270 285 300 315 330 345 360

-1

Period= 360 o thatistheshaperepeatsitselfevery 360 o .


x interceptsat x = 0 o + k .180 o
y interceptat y = 0
Maximumvalue=+1andoccursat x = 90 o + k .360 o
Minimumvalue=1andoccursat x = 90 o + k .360 o
Domain(allvaluesof x forwhichthefunctionisdefined): x ( ; + )

Range(allvaluesof y forwhichthefunctionisdefined): y [ 1; + 1] or 1 y 1
Amplitude=(maximumvalueminimumvalue)/2=1

y = cos x
y

x
-360-345-330-315-300-285-270-255-240-225-210-195-180-165-150-135-120-105 -90 -75 -60 -45 -30 -15

15

30

45

60

75

90 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 210 225 240 255 270 285 300 315 330 345 360

-1

Period= 360 thatistheshaperepeatsitselfevery 360 .


x interceptsat x = 0 o + (2k + 1).90 o
y interceptat y = +1
Maximumvalue=+1andoccursat x = 0 o + k .360 o
Minimumvalue=1andoccursat x = 90 o + k .360 o
Domain(allvaluesof x forwhichthefunctionisdefined): x ( ; + )

Range(allvaluesof y forwhichthefunctionisdefined): y [ 1; + 1] or 1 y 1
Amplitude=(maximumvalueminimumvalue)/2=1

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Function

y = tan x

Graphandcharacteristics
y

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

-360-345-330-315-300-285-270-255-240-225-210-195-180-165-150-135-120-105 -90 -75 -60 -45 -30 -15

15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 210 225 240 255 270 285 30

-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
-9

Period= 180 o thatistheshaperepeatsitselfevery 180 o .


x interceptsat x = 0 o + k .180 o
y interceptat y = 0
Asymptotesat x = 0 o + (2k + 1).90 o
Nomaximumvalue
Nominimumvale
Domain: x ( ; + ) (2k + 1).90 o orallvaluesof x between and + but
excluding x = (2k + 1).90 o
Range: y orallrealvaluesof y between and + or < y < +

Althoughworkingwiththeformulaeofgeneralsolutionsthatappearinthetableaboveisveryuseful,as
advisedearlier,itwillbejustasgoodenoughtoalwaysdrawonroughpaperalittlesketchofthebasic
shapeinwhichyoumarkintheintercepts,turningpointsandasymptotesandfromwhichyouwillbe
abletodeducethecharacteristicsofwhateverfunctionyouarerequiredtosketch.
YouwillfindafullertreatmentofthesketchingoftrigonometricfunctionsinUNIT17.Youwoulddo
welltostudythissectionnowbecauseittiesinverywellwiththisunit.

FunctionsPart3

ANSWERS
EXERCISE7.1
A.1.Period= 180 o ;2.Period= 90 o ;3.Period= 360 o
B.IfyouusesketchestoprovetheseidentitiesthenthegraphoftheLHSmustcoincidewiththe

graphoftheRHS.
Takequestion1:

1.Solvinggraphically:Drawthegraphsof y = sin x + 90 o and y = cos x onthesamesetof


axes.Ifthegraphscoincidethenyouhaveprovedtheidentity.
2.Usingcompoundangleformulae:

LHS= sin x + 90 o
= sin x cos 90 o + sin 90 o cos x
= sin x 0 + 1 cos x
= cos x
=RHS
andsotheidentityisproved.
3.Youcouldalsouseyourknowledgeofanglesgreaterthan 90 o andthepropertyof
complementaryanglesasfollows:

))

sin x + 90 o = sin 180 o x + 90 o

= sin 180 o x 90 o

= sin 90 o x
= cos x
Nowquestion2
Repeatanyoftheaboveprocedures.

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PAPER1QUESTIONS7

DoE/ADDITIONALEXEMPLAR2008

FunctionsPart3

PAPER1QUESTION7
Number
7.1

7.2

7.3

Hintsandanswers
Revisionquestion:
Howdoyouworkouttheperiod
ofthesinorthecosineof kx ?

Andwhatabouttan kx ?

Nowwritedowntheperiodof g .

Answer:
180 o
Revisionquestion:
Atwhatvaluesof x doestan x
haveasymptotes?

Nowwritedownthevaluesof x
atwhich f willhaveasymptotes
inthegiveninterval.

Answer:
x = 45 o
Revisionquestion:
Whatdoyoudotoreflecta
functioninthe x axis?

Nowwritedowntheequationof
k .

Answer:
k (x ) = sin 2 x

Workoutthesolutionsintheboxesbelow
WARNING:allofQuestion7involvesverylittleorno
calculationtobeworkedouttogetananswer.Incases
suchasthesewhereyoucanseetheanswermake
doublysurethatyouunderstandtheanswerandthat
youcanfinditwithoutlookingattheanswer.

WARNING:seeabove.

WARNING:seeabove.

DoE/ADDITIONALEXEMPLAR2008

PreparationfortheMathematicsexaminationbroughttoyoubyKagisoTrust

PAPER1QUESTION6

DoE/NOVEMBER2008

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FunctionsPart3

PAPER1QUESTION6

Number
Hintsandanswers
6.1
What are the asymptotes of the parent
function tan x ?

So what are the asymptotes of


tan x 45 o ?

The answer you give must lie strictly


within the required interval for
x 90 o ;180 o .

6.2

6.3

Answer:
You write down the answer.
Use tan ( ) = tan and then
describe the transformation in words.

Answer:
You write down the answer.
What is the period of sin x ?
What is the period of sin kx ?
So what is the period of sin 2 x ?
Write down the equation of the
resulting function in the form y =
Answer:
You write down the answer.
11

DoE/NOVEMBER2008

Workoutthesolutionsintheboxesbelow

How is the graph of tan x transformed


when x is replaced by x 45 o ?

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MORE QUESTIONS FROM PAST EXAMINATION PAPERS


Exemplar 2008

12

FunctionsPart3

Preparatory Examination 2008

13

PreparationfortheMathematicsexaminationbroughttoyoubyKagisoTrust

Feb March 2009

DIAGRAM SHEET 1

14

FunctionsPart3

November 2009 (Unused paper)

15

PreparationfortheMathematicsexaminationbroughttoyoubyKagisoTrust

November 2009 (1)

16

FunctionsPart3

Feb March 2010

DIAGRAM SHEET 2

17

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ANSWERS
Exemplar2008
8.1Period= 360 o
8.2Theshiftchangestherangeof g and
will
Become[1;3].
8.3 h( x ) = cos x

PreparatoryExamination2008
8.12
8.2 180 o < x 180 o or
180 o ;180 o
8.3 g ( x ) = 2 sin x 60 o
8.4 0 o ; 90 o ; 180 o

Feb/March2009
8.1Sketch:

8.2 y [ 4;4]
8.3 720 o
8.4 = 90 o or = 90 o + n360 o

November2009(Unusedpapers)
6.1 p = 2 and q = 1
6.2 y [0;2]or 0 y 2
6.3.1Byfindingthe x valuesofthe
pointsof
Intersectionofthegraphsof f
and g .
6.3.2 180 o or 180 o orabout
112,5 o

November2009(1)
7.1 y [ 3;3] or 3 y 3
7.2 B 82,63o ;0,38 o
7.3Period= 120 o
7.4 x = 180 o

Feb/March2010
8.1Sketch:

8.2 x = 60 o
8.3Reflectionaboutthe x axis.

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