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Papadopoulos, M. (1996).

Motion in music: a study of movement and time through musical


interpretation. (Unpublished Doctoral thesis, City University London)

City Research Online

Original citation: Papadopoulos, M. (1996). Motion in music: a study of movement and time
through musical interpretation. (Unpublished Doctoral thesis, City University London)

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MOTION IN MUSIC
A Study of Movement and Time through Musical Interpretation

MARIOS P"ADOPOULOS

THESIS FOR
DOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTS

CITY UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC
FEBRUARY 1996

CONTENTS
Pagc
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

ABSTRACT

10

PREFACE

11

CHAPTERI

MOTION IN MUSIC

14

1.11NTRODUCTION

14

Summaryandconclusion

36

1.2 AESTHETICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL AND


PHILOSOPHICAL CONSIDERATIONS

37

Conclusion

46

1.3THE CONCEPTS

47

Modus Opcrandi

49

Stage1

49

Stage11

50

Stage111

51

StageIV

51

1.4 VISUAL REPRESENTATIONAS A MEANS TO


ACQUIRING A DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVETO
MUSICAL EXPERIENCE

57

Cheironomy

57

P--ge2

CHAPTER H

1.5TONALBODY

62

Tactility

64

Volume

67

Density

68

Weight

69

FORCES THAT SET SOUND IN MOTION

75

Part 1: MECHANISMS

75

2.1 THE PIANO

-75

Duration of impact

78

Resonator

79

Multiple tones

79

Personalexperience

80

Aestheticconsiderations

81

Tactile sensations

82

Conclusion

82

Part II: THE HUMAN APPARATUS

83

Lawsof Motion

84

2.2 LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM

85

Soundproduction

85
1) direction

86

2) mass

86

3)speed

87

Elasticity

89

Page 3

90

Basic Technical Patterns


FreeFall

90

Five-fingers,scalesand
Arpeggios

91

Rotation

92

Staccato

92

Thrust

93

2.3 STAGE I OF MODUS OPERAADI

CHAPTER III

Preparation

95

Awarenessbetweenperforming musicians

95

MUSIC IN MOTION (STAGE II - IMPACI)

97

SPEEDOF MUSIC - PART 1:

97

3.1 INNER METRE

97

Velocity and speed

98

3.2 MOTOR MECHANISMS AND SPEED

103

Bow speedasinnermetre

103

Variationsin constantelements

104

3.3 OUTER FLOW

106

Bow speed

106

Speedof the pianist'splaying mechanism

107

3.4 INNER METRE BECOMES INNER RHYTHM

110

3.5 APPLICATION

113

Page 4

PART 11:

116

3.6 SPEED AND DURATION OF CONTACT

116

Rapid attack

116

Slow attack

118

Duration:

118

1) Length of time during which the handmaintains


contactwith the key - Tactility

119

2) Length of time in which hammerremains

CHAPTER IV

in contactwith the string

120

3) Length of time in which soundis kept in vibration

121

MUSIC IN MOTION

123

4.1 MASS OF MUSIC

123

1) Interpretativefactors - Agogics

127

2) Loudnessvolume

127

3) Resistance- Density

128

4) Arm weight

130

4.2 SPEEDOF MUSIC IN RELATION TO MASS OF MUSIC

132

4.3 DURATION OF IMPACT AND SENSATION ON THE


UNDERSIDE OF THE FINGERTIP

134

The curve hasfurther implications

137

Page 5'

CHAPTER V

MUSIC IN MOTION (STAGE III - DIRECrION)

139

5.1 DISTANCE

140

Pitch

141

5.2 MUSICAL INTENSITY

144

5.3 CURVATURE

148

Density of the curve

148

5.4 DYNAMIC LEVELS

149

5.5 WAVE PATTERNS

152

a) Articulative

153

b) Passive

154

c) Transient

156

The two-note slur considered further

158

5.6 COMPOSITE PATTERNS

162

5.7 FOLLOW:THROUGH

164

5.8 MOMENTS OF INTENSITY CONSIDEREDFURTHER

165

5.9 THE INTENSIFICATION OF THE CURVATURE

172

Chords

174

Voicing of a Chord

175

Distension

177

5.10 THE REPEATED UPBEAT

178

5.11 THE AMALGAMATION OF THE VARIOUS


CONFIGURATIONS

183

Conclusion

190
Page

CH"TER

VI

CHAPTER VII

MASS IN MOTION (STAGE IV - IMPACT/RELEASE)

191

6.1 RELEASE

191

Instantaneous

191

Retarded

192

6.2 PEDAL LEGATO

193

6.3 MOVING ELEMENTS PRIOR TO IMPACT

194

6.4 PHANTOM NOTES

196

6.5 POLYPHONIC TEXTURES

197

6.6 FINGER PEDALLING

199

CONCLUSION

203

7.1 RELATIONSHIPS

205

7.2 PROGRESSIVEQUANTITATIVE TRANSITIONS

207

a) Dynamics

207

b) Pitch

208

c) Temporal

210

7.3 THE CONNECTING BOND

Page

214

APPENDICES

2.
3.

Excerpt from Tobias Matthay's book the Art of TOUCH

221

Victor Zuckerkandl:BiographicalProfile

222

A summaryof the main points in Dr Zuckerkandl'streatiseon


Soundand Symbol, relevantto this study:

224

4.

Metre analogousto distance

232

5.

Geometryin art

233

6.

Referencesand Bibliography

7.

Marios Papadopoulos:Biographical Profile

247

8.

Marios Papadopoulos:Discography

249

M8

LIST OF TABLES

TableI

ModusOpcrandi

52

TableII

56

TableIII

Outcrmodc- Inncrmodc
Drager'sconceptof 'tonalbody'

TableIV

Curvatures

187

72

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
t

Figure 11-1

Movements of the pianist's locomotor system

94

Figure III- I

Speed of the pianist's rising wrist

108

Figure 111-2

Spee(' of the pianist's rising wrist

108

Figure 111-3

Speed of attack and speed of rebound

118

Figure VII- 1

Graphic representation of Chopin's Etude Op 25 No I1

209

Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I am immensely grateful to my supervisor Prof. Malcolm Troup whose great wealth of


knowledge and experience, both as a concert pianist and an academic, were of invaluable
assistanceto me in formulating my ideas. I would also like to thank my family, my wife and
two children, for without their patience and support this work could not have been
completed.

I grant powers of discretion to the University Librarian to allow this thesis to be


in
copied

whole or in part without further referenceto me.This permissioncoversonly singlecopies


madefor study purposes,subjectto normal conditionsof acknowledgement.

Page

ABSTRACT
'Motion in Music' is a study of movement and time through musical interpretation. It
looks at ways in which motion, both physical and conceptual,is featured in the musical
it
As
in
it
is,
therefore,written with the performanceof music mind.
such,
performanceand
provides us with a fresh approach to music-making. The study is based on a series of
definitions and a distillation of personalexperiencesrather than a summationof experimental
observations. In view of the author's musical background, the piano is featured most
prominently in this study.
In Chapter I, we examine the background on the subject and, so as to determine to what
extent such motion is virtual and to what extent real, we look at it in its aesthetical,
psychologicaland philosophicalcontents.
The act of music-making is then analysedin four stages:from the preparatory,to the moment
contact is made with the instrument and to the passagethrough time from one note to the
onsetof the next. The conceptof the 'sphere',as representingthe musical tone, is introduced
in order to trace the courseof this sonorousbody through tonal space.
In the ensuingchapters,we examinethe forces which initiate sound - the mechanismsof the
instrument and the mechanicsof the body - and seehow the tonal body reactswhen theseare
Such
an investigation permits us, however loosely, to relate musical phenomenato
applied.
the laws of motion and to show how the sonorousbody, once set in motion, undergoes
'mass
its
'speed
direction
to
of
to
speed,shapeand
of
music',
changes
as
changes
we
refer
'direction
music' and
of music'.
As the perceptionof movementin music involves directly or indirectly the participation of all
its
in
line
in
both
the
the
our sensory system,
and
musical
creative processof expressing
apprehensionin the first place, we examine its effect on our tactile, auditory and visual
channelsof communication.
In order to enhanceour understandingof musicalgrowth and musical progressionfurther, we
impart to it a visual perspective based, amongst others, on melodic contour and bodily
movementas well as on the gesturesof the conductor or those commonly used in the world
of pedagogy. Thus, in Chapter V, a series of free hand-producedgraphic representations
emergewhich representsuchmusical activity.
By way of conclusion, we seek out various degreesof motion and their relationships. We
identify theseas being of paramountimportancein producing aestheticallypleasing musical
texturesand proposefurther study asto the precisenatureof suchrelationships.

Page 10

PREFACE

This is a study of movement and time through musical interpretation; a concept that
defined.
be
is
have
long
been
but
to
performing musicians
awareof,
which still waiting
In a good musician there is an instinctive senseof the part movement and time play in
is,
implied:
that
the
to
the
the
phrase content,
of
piece,
relation
structure
elements
with all
rhythmic patterns, harmonic basis and tension, architectural structure, dramatic and
it
is
balance.
The
the
tools
time
of communication;
one of
emotional
senseof movementand
hasboth a theoreticalapplicationand a spontaneousapplication.

There are problems,springingessentiallyfrom the fluid medium;music when realizedis


But
in
for
Therefore
time.
the
are
unnatural.
ephemeralexisting
stereotypedrules
moment
some logical basis appears to exist. Experienceshows that the more convincing
performancesdo exhibit logical patterns,howevergeneral.Thesemay be the result of
instinct,but exhibita surprisinguniformity.
The purpose of this study is to searchout this logical basis. At the conclusion, the reader
should have a higher awarenessof the tools at the performer's disposal. Indeed, the study
explores one aspect of the search for the definition and application of what is generally
termedmusicality.

Page11

The study is built around the definition and the interpretation of the following concepts:

a) speedof movement
b) forcesthat set soundin motion
c) massof sound
d) vehicle in motion
e) direction of movement
The researchthat has taken place and the in-depth readingof relevantliterature which it has
entailed, grew out of my own experiencesin the field of music-making - as concert pianist,
has
improving
for
daily
in
My
teacher.
the
my performances
conductor and
practice
search
been an inexhaustible source of enlightenment to me as to how music is performed and
perceived.These "experiments" have been conductedboth during practice sessionsas well
asduring my experienceon the concertplatform.
The ideasput forward in this study representmany yearsof constantenquiry on the part of a
performing musician for a logical basis upon which to construct a performance practice.
They conform to a pattern which hasenabledme to understandand communicatemusic at a
variety of levels. Thus it is an enquiry which, to all intents and purposes,is written with the
performanceof music in mind. In my search,I questionedmany colleaguesabout their own
experiences,and was thus able to confirm that my findings were sharedby many.

Page12

In the ensuing pagesof this study, I have cited a number of distinguishedauthorities who
have enabled me at times to substantiatepoints of view which,, by their nature, can only
remain speculative. MOTION IN MUSIC comprises,above all, a aeries of definitions of
concepts and a distillation of personal experiencesforming the basis for an interpretative
approach,rather than a summation of experimentalobservations.As Eduard Hanslick says:
"What makes a piece of music a work of art and raises it above the level of physical
experimentis somethingspontaneous,spiritual, andthereforeincalculable" i.
MOTION IN MUSIC. setsout to explore the natureof movementin music when performed:
the physical movement which is perceived objectively as well as that which is perceived
subjectively.The main thrust of this study hasbeento define, identify and trace movementin
all its musical guises.

1.

F- Hanslick- OnthemuskaflybeauaW(1981 :t 1- 4 2L)

Page13

CHAPTERI

CHAPTER I

MOTION IN MUSIC

How the lines, some robust and some delicate,pursue one another!
How they ascendfrom a small curve to great heights and then sink
back again, bow they expandand contract and forever astonish the
There
ingenious
tension
their
and
repose!
of
altemation
eye with
before our eyes the image becomes ever grander and more
sublime ..Does this mental impression not come close to that of
music? I
(EduardHanslick)
1.1INTRODUCTION:

As music is the art of expressionin sound,that is, vibrations,this essayexaminesthe


be
in
into
how
they
may or may not
ways
which such vibrations are set
motion, and
manipulated.
Much has been written about the mannerin which a note is producedon various instruments
its
its
in
in
The
the
and resulting quality of sound.
natureof sound
scientific context, terms of
speed,direction, loudness,quality and pitch, has been the study of many a scientist. The
conceptof 'motion' as a perceptin music has also beenthe subject of enquiry in the fields of
musicology,philosophy andpsychology.However,the role that motion plays both
1.

In the book On the MusicaffyBeaut&d, Hanslickis describingthe arabesque,


a branchof ornamentationin the visual arts,in order

to affirm his view that music is tonally moving forms (Jqii:

f:. 24)

Page14

theoretically as well as practically in the interpretation and performance of a work of music,

needsto be explored.
This study looks at what happensor what can happen to one sound in its ensuing path
in
by
determined
in
is
The
the
towardsthe next.
artist's skill
art of expression sound primarily
manipulating sound and its behaviour in terms of its dynamic quality, pitch, timbre and,
doing
In
in
its
it
is
linked
to
the
the next soundor position a seriesof sounds.
essentially, way
infinite
in
he
directions,
densities
variety.
so, may createpatternsof
andvolumes an
Thesemanipulationsare expressedin the medium of time since all music is a successionof
behaviour
in
The
the
time.
of manipulated
soundsperceived as movement
correlation of
IN
MOTION
be
for
this
to
the
the
time
study,
purposesof
shall
sound
entitled
medium of

music.
By its nature, music is experiencedas a sonic phenomenon.As such, it is perceivedthrough
directly
is
human
Musical
that
or
though,
our auditory senses.
a
experience
perception
indirectly involves the participation of all our sensorysystem.For many, it is above all, a
spiritual experience.'Motion in Music' is a conceptthat has a variety of implications: there
are musical and scientific implications as well as philosophical and psychological
implications. As a consequence,this study encompasses
areasof musical cognition that are
both subjectiveand non-quantitative.
Above all, the concept of motion in music provides us with a new approach to musicmaking. It deals with the movementof the humanbody, the movementin the mechanicsof
the musical instrument and the movementof the musical line. These three areasof motion
are intrinsically interrelated and the understandingof this interrelationship - which up till
now has remained largely intuitive - is what constitutes the "artistry" of a performance.
Motion and sound are treated in this study as intrinsically inseparable.Now whilst the
movementsof the human body and the mechanicsof the musical instrument can clearly be
defined, the movementof the musical line can only be conceptualized.
Page15

The meaning of the word 'motion' is defined in the dictionary as the act, state or manner of
changing place i. In music it can be applied to a change in the state of auditory experience
in
in
Whilst
time.
the
tactile
an
objjcct
which occurs
sound of
without visual or
contact
motion can make us aware of its spatial orientation, musical sounds, in the physical sense,
cannot be referred to as corporeal bodies in motion nor can they occupy space as such. Yet,
in common with physical motion, changes to states of auditory experience, such as variations
in pitch and rhythm, are experienced over a period in time.

There is broad consensusin the field of musical study which adopts the view that hearing

musicis hearingmotion.For instance,we refer to the movementapparentin melodyas the


rise andfall of the melodicline. In thephysicalsense,motionis experienced
whenan object
is perceivedto move through space;in music, we perceivean impressionof motion when a
seriesof tonal progressionsoccur.
If motion implies the displacementof a body in space,in music, that body must be attributed
to the musical tone. But as such, it is neither tangible nor corporeal. The tonal body may
have bodily characteristicssuch as weight, colour and volume attributed to it but only in the
senseof a phenomenalobject.

Onecan thereforesurmisethat corporealbodiescommandbodily motion whereasmusical


soundsexhibit psychic or 'virtual' motion. For this reasonmusical motion is a unique
It is the motion of tonal entitiesin tonal space- the auditoryspacewhich, in
phenomenon.
Rdv6sz's
words,"becomesalivethroughsound"2.

1.

2.

ChambersConciseDictionary (1991)

G6zaWvisz-CyibtescinenH6mum?(Iqll)-

ciltd

;h

Page16

Z%Acke( ka'"t

(Iq 15C
)
"?
1 (4.

The conceptof tonal motion may well have its roots basedon the dynamic qualities to which
individual tones share in relation to each other: the constantpolarization of tones and the
extent to which theseevoke kinaestheticdegreesof tensionand relaxation.Ernst Kurth refers
to the tension and forward motion inherent in a structure whose pervasivetension, he says,
"is contained in the characterof linear polyphony and whose innermost nature is illustrated
by the constantenergy of its kinetic tension" i.
Moreover, the role that movement plays in the performanceof music is also an important
factor in determining.how we perceive musical motion. Sound stimuli in general invoke
kinetic impulses in our bodies. It is indeed possible to convey the impression of musical
movement through such bodily actions and in particular those which propagate sound.
Stravinsky has said that "seeing the gesturesand motions of the different parts of the body
that producemusic is necessaryandessentialto graspingit in all its fullness" 2.
There has recently been an empirical study by Jane Davidson entitled 'Perception of
ExpressiveMovement in Music Performance"(1991), which examinesthe way musicians
move their bodies in performance.The study deals primarily with the visual perception of
music performancethrough identifiable expressivemotions on the part of the performer. The
latter specifically identifies expressivelocationsin the music while Davidsonsearchesfor

1.

2.

Emst Kurth - GrundlagendeslinearenKontrapunits(1931)


Stravinsfy, an Autobiography(1936)

- cliC4

- cRed

;,
^

l2vi 14 ctie
(jois-C:

ltv

Page17

fl.

(JR91,
340)

e5, T4)

specific movementswhich deal with the expressivecontent at particular junctures. A large


number of techniqueswere usedto collect a wide range of information. In her investigations
there appearsto be some evidencethat certain movementshave a relationship with musical
figures and hencemusical structure.
Davidson'sresults suggestthat the performer, in this casea pianist, hasexpressiveintentions
which are literally embodied in a series of specific performance movements.These are
intrinsic to what the pianist's image of the piece is and they form the basisfor a vocabulary of
movementswhich is essentialto the expressiveness
of the performance.
Whilst a study of this natureelucidatesthe degreeto which movementis formative as well as
functional in music performance,it neverthelessdoesnot correlatemovementwith the sound
itself. In my opinion, the quality of the musical sound and the physical movement which
producesit, are inseparable,that is to say, the movementas applied to the instrument should
produce a quality of sound which will reflect the emotional content of the music, as
perceivedby the interpreterandperceivedby the listener.
However,there are a numberof relevantpoints emergingfrom Davidson'sstudy:
1) the pianist hasexpressiveintentionswhich are literally embodiedin a number of particular
movementsonly part of which relateto the actualphysical manipulationof the piano key
2) theseare congruentto what the pianist'smentalimageof the pieceis
3) there may well be one movementsourcefor all the expressivemovements,
body
with one
areabeing more appropriatethan anotherat certaintimes
4) certain movementshave a recognizablerelationshipwith
musical figures (hand lifts tend
to occur at rests and held notes) which suggeststhat some specific movementsmay be the
best,or the only possible,movementsto realizethe expressive
contentof a particular locus
Page18

5) the pianist becomes aware that his body is a powerful communicative medium for
expressiveintention
6) the pianist thinks of the musical languageand meaning in terms of physical movements
and sensations.
In the experiments which took place the pianist was asked to identify certain musical
junctures in a piece of music which appearedto him to be of a particularly expressivenature.
Thesejunctures were then used as focal points in order to monitor the various movements
which the pianist made.
As apart from bodily movementsthat are apparent to the human eye or, in the case of
Davidson's study, to the scientific apparatuswhich she used for her experiments,one may
claim that there arc movementsof the body constantly in action which cannot at times be
perceivedby the eye of the observer,howevervigilant, and which the musician usesin order
to expressthe musical contentof a piece of music. This is exemplified by the fact that, when
askedto mark specific locations of particularly expressivenature in a work by Chopin, the
pianist in Davidson's experiment responded by pointing out that the whole piece is
expressiveand that he ought to encircle the wholepiece.
Expression,after all, is realized not in the movementper se that the pianist makes,but in the
quality of the sound which it calls into being. Some of this is evident to the eye whereas
some is the product of minute impulses of the pianist's body, particularly at the fingertips,
which remain imperceptible.
There is no doubt, if we are to acceptDavidson'sfindings, that bodily movement plays a

intent
predominantcommunicativerole in expressing
musical
at the sametime asit provides
thephysicalagency.Her premisethatthepianistthinksof the musicallanguageandmeaning
in terms of physical sensation,is particularly enlighteningandpertinent to this study.
Page19

Davidson's results also confirm quite unequivocally that certain motions of the body
represent the emotional reactions of the human psyche: the sound-world to which the
musician is exposedat the time music is realized,evokesemotional reactionswhich in turn
invoke bodily actions in a continuous threeway circuit. In this way they exemplify what
Descartes,first to detect and analyse this holistic process,calls the 'passionsof the soul'
which stimulate the action of the body: "In addition to the fact that thesevarious movements
of the brain make our soul havevarious sensations,they can also, apartfrom [the soul], make
the spirits take their course toward certain musclesrather than others, and so [make them]
move our members"t..
Whilst it would be true to say that bodily movementsform a powerful communicative
medium for expressiveintention, this study will concentrateon those specific movements
which are at the sametime in direct contact with the instrument thus producing sound.This
study, therefore, incorporates a language which defines movement as an expression of
musical structure and not movement as an emotive responseto musical structure. Even
though such actions generatea seriesof involuntary reflex actions throughout the rest of the
body - an accentdelivered by the handfor instancemay go on to producea simultaneousnod
of the head by sympatheticreaction- theseare peripheral actions which are activated by the
bodily impulsesfirst encounteredat the point of contact.

1.

Ren6Descartes 77jePassionsof the Soul (1191 * el. 1r. )


-

Page20

In the following pages an approach will be adopted which relates music to its quintessential
being i. e., to its sound-world. In the words of Hanslick: "the primary object of aesthetical
investigation is the beautiful object not the feelings of the subject" (ioid. ). Our attention must
therefore focus on the sound, or the 'tonal motion' apparent in music which impels a
in
the body and not the bodily reactions to multifarious emotional stimuli,
movement
however important
Accordingly,

these may be in signalling

and corporealizing

musical

intent.

those movements which cultivate the feeling of motion in music - the

"beautiful in music" in Hanslick's opinion - are what need to be examined.

For this reason,one must identify somebasicmotions which the hand makesin the courseof
I
producing a sound on an instrument such as the pianoforte. Even though every pianist uses
movements which are specifically suited to his individual temperament and physical
constitution, there are basic motions of the hand which are widely acceptedas formulating
the basic ingredientsfor a fundamentalpiano technique.
Thesemotions have beenidentified by the pianist and pedagogueGyorgy Sandor i. They are
altogetherfive: free fall (a term first coined by the Germanpiano teacher,Ludwig Deppe);
five-fingers, scales and arpeggios; rotation; staccato; and thrust. These basic technical
patterns will serve as fundamental motions of the hand which directly affect the sound
quality and on which the abstractconceptof 'motion in music', complementedby the various
graphic illustrations and images which they induce in the performer's mind, will be
formulated.

1.

Gyorgy Sandor On PianoPlaying(1981)


-

Page21

In postulating a notion of this kind, one is immediately confronted with the inevitable
question: is it the movement of the hand which contributes to the perceived pattern of
musical motion or is it the latter which inducesa movementin the hand comparableto the
both
flow?
be
The
that
the
operate
expressive nature of
melodic
answer may well
reciprocally.
While what is being proposedmay seemat this stageto be casting our net rather widely, this
into
justified
"movement",
be
by
fact
that
the
the
our
as written
can
concept of musical
language,lies in an integratedsynthesisof variouselements:the motion of the hand; the play
of soundswhich emergesover time in terms of variations in pitch, volume and timbre; and
the symbolic-linear patterns as depicted in our Western notated scores.All of these will
thereforeneedto be looked at in the courseof this dissertation.
Sandor believes in a one-to-onecorrespondencebetweenthesepatternsof musical notation
and the basic formula or formulas to be applied: "any sequenceof notes,phrasing indication,
or touch forms (legato, staccato,portato, and tenuto) can and must be matchedwith its own
technical equivalent", in other words that the pattern of the melodic line as conveyed in
in
is
invariably
by
in
the
notation or conceived
mind
matched complementarymovements the
handsof the performer.
Indeed, a physical movement which is aligned to the 'movement' of the musical line can
usually be anticipated:as the melodic line risesin pitch, it may be complementedby a rise in
the performer's hand; as the music 'grows', the thrust of the arm will induce a sound with
increased volume and tonal weight in accordanceto what the music dictates, thereby
conforming tonal volume with physical impetus as applied to the instrument; as the music
intensifies, the musician may experienceincreasedtension as more pressurecomes to be
applied to the instrument, therebycorrelating the intensity of the musical texture to a tactile
sensation.

Page22

Furthermore, the speed with which the hand moves, or the bow of a stringed instrument
moves,will indicate a generalspeed(whethertempo relaied or otherwise)at which the music
flows, thereby relating the speedof bodily action to thellow of the musical line. In ali these
cases,which may range from the simplistic to the metaphorical,the movementsof the hands
are indicative of musical patternsand musical intent and are intuitively formed and applied
with suchcriteria in mind.
Tracing motion as such - the speed,massand direction of bodies which are being displaced
in spaceand time - is a processwhich records bodily movement and kinaesthetic feelings
aroused in the mind of the perceiver in context with musical requirements.As such, it
involves the active participation of various sensoryfaculties all working interactively and in
complementwith eachother.
There is much evidence to suggestthat certain musical patterns or structures are a direct
result of spatial patterns of movement which the musician exercises in performing on
specific musical instruments. This means that the movement perceived in the flow of a
passagein music may also be comparableto the movementessentialin the execution of such
passage.

John Baily, in his essayon 'Music Structureand HumanMovement!(1985), reportson


in Afghanistanon the way Afghaninstruments
empiricalevidencefrom researchundertaken
are played,which relatesbodily movementsin the performanceof music with structural
musical patterns which accommodatesuch movements.Baily cites the work of von
Hornbostel(1928),Kubik (1979),Blacking(1955,1961,1973)andSloboda(1982)amongst
others,to promotethe view that musicalcognitionis as much a visual appreciationof the
rolehumanmovementplaysin formulatingsuchpatternsasit is anauditoryexperience:

Page23

"The auditory perception of music is only one aspectof musical cognition; of equal interest
involves
importance
is
the
the
activity of music making
and
cognition of performance...
Human
instrument
in
to
the
active surface of a musical
patternedmovement relationship
...
is
Music
is
the sonic
the
through
movement
process
which musical patterns are produced:
be
is
there
to
the
that
represented
may
musical patterns
a need study
product of action...
way
cognitivcly by the performer aspatternsof movementrather than aspatternsof sound" i.
Ethnomusicologists have ascertained the important role body movements play in the
Indeed
dance.
African
how
linked
to
these
movementsare
performanceof
music and
closely
in some African languagesthere is no distinction betweenthe words "music" and "dance".
Kubik (1979) suggeststhat African music is not soundalone as it involves a strong input of
dancelike movements in performance. There are, according to Kubik, distinguishing
characteristicsof motional and sonic patterns:
"The difference between rhythm pattern and movement pattem is that the former term
implies somethingwhich soundswhilst the latter also includesmusical phenomenawhich are
completely without sound...behind the so-called rhythm patternsof African music there are
movementpatternswhich haveboth a sonic anda nonsonicdimension".
Thesepantomime elementsbehind the sonic patterns,however, are what determinethe sonic
pattem:
"The nature of the patterns of movementhas a direct influence on the audible 'music'...The
change in the motional pictures brings about a change, even if only slight, in the exact
spacing' of the notes to be struck. This leads to delays, anticipation, slight fluctuations in
tempo, and a senseot lack of dfive. The changing of the motional picture also destroysthe
original accentuationand the changein the mode of striking the individual notes also exerts
an influence on their soundspectrum"(cited in Baily).
1.

(IAI:
J. Baily "Music Structureand HumanMovement" MusicalS"ctur-e
Cognition
and
-

Page24

C 4- 2 17)

Blacking (1955) draws attention to the similar if unavowedimportance of movementsin the


performanceof Westernmusic:
"A pianist who plays the Etudes of Chopin or many pieces by Liszt cannot help being
how
the music
the
consciousof
sheerphysical pleasureof numerouspassages,and noticing
Western
find
We
classical
the
of
examples
numerous
grows out of
physical movement...
for
instrument
influenced
by
is
form
the
the
properties of
music, where the musical
much
it
in
(cited
Baily).
which was written"
Sloboda(1982) adoptsthe view that the developmentof performanceskill on an instrument
is a masterywhich allows the musician to reproduceimmediately musical patternsthat he or
she either hears or experiencesas auditory images (cited in Baily). John Baily sums up as
follows:

"The issue is complex and one needsto take into accountmany factors, such as the transfer
of musical skill from one instrument to another and different levels of performance
encounteredin the acquisition of an instrumentalskill. But it is clear that what is remarkable
about musical performanceis the integration of auditory and spatiornotorrepresentationsof
music structure; the same pattern can be attendedto by the performer both as a pattern of
movementand as a pattern of sound.Auditory, kinaesthetic,and visual information may all
be involved in the planning and feedback control of the pattern. Instead of viewing the
spatiornotorcomponentin musical cognition as a lower-level processthrough which auditory
imagesare translatedinto sound patternscalled music, it may be better to treat auditory and
spatiornotormodesof musical cognition asof potentially equal importance".

Page25

All such evidence suggests that musical patterns, whether melodic or rhythmic, insofar as
they can be described in terms of musical motion, are by the same token closely linked with
the patterns of movement in performance. Whether these patterns are formulated with the
thought of movements essential in their performance already in mind or whether they
represent musical structures which demand designatory motor actions analogous to their
structure is perhaps irrelevant. For both possibilities, in Baily's words, "assume the presence
of human factors that interact".

Furthermore,the modem pianoforte, the instrumentfeaturedmost prominently in this study,


has been shown to be sensitive to the most subtle of touchesexerted upon it by the human
body, respondingwith a distinct quality of soundfor every degreeof pressure.If, as Sandor
suggests,this approach is suggestedby the music itself, it would be helpful to identify
concurrently a pattern of physical motion and musical progression in order to formulate
patternsof musical activity through such interplay. Indeed, it would be highly desirable to
correlatethe two consciouslyas they are by natureintrinsically interconnected:the quality of
the soundbeing determinedby the movementof the playing mechanismwhose motion is in
turn suggestedby the musical text.

* ** ** **

Page26

It is common practice amongst many performing musicians to describe verbally and


symbolically various musical experiences which denote the qualitative as well as the
quantitativenature of the musical sound.Metaphorswhich describethe basic approachto the
note: feeling the note, pulling it, suspendingit, striking it from various directions (from
underneath,from above); adjectives which expressmetaphorically the quality of the note:
heavy, dark, light; indications of the basic direction and position of notes: to the heights, to
the depths, to the right, to the left and so on, feature widely in the world of instrumental
pedagogyandperformancepractice.
It would be naive to regard such representationalnotions as merely fanciful or gaudy. In the
words of SuzanneLanger: "it is impossibleto talk about art without adopting to some extent
the languageof the artists Their vocabulary is metaphoricalbecauseit has to be plastic and
...
powerful to let them speaktheir seriousand often difficult thoughts..The critic who despises
their poetic speechis all too likely to be superficial in his examinationof it, and to impute to
them ideasthey do not hold ratherthan to discoverwhat they really think and know" i.
Metaphorical phraseology and imagery enable the musician to construct a model for the
sound image that he or she perceives, in terms beyond the auditory experience. These
metaphorsregard and treat soundalmost as an object capableof retaining its identity despite
a variety of manipulations and which manifestsitself outside the common run of auditory
experience.Hans Heinz Drager in his Conceptof 'Tonal Body" 2, considerstone as "both an
object and a process,not only becausethe perceivedprocesstracesback to an object (which
is also the casein seeing),but also becausein hearing,it is the processtransmitted from the
[originating] object, which we perceiveasan object..."

1.

SuzanneK. Langer FeelingandFojm (1953)


-

2.

from Archiv JUrMusif wkqen.whalt Vol. M No. I (19521ep61-

Page27

17 )

Drdger's concept of the "Tonal Body", which possessesproperties such as volume, density
and weight, will be considered in detail when we come to talk about these qualities in
relation with the dynamic process of motion in music. Suffice it to say that the concept of
"tonal body" is of structural significance in the process of music-making and musical
understanding.

There are two clearly identifiable areasof sensoryperception which manifest themselvesin
The
has
is
been
far:
that
to
that
one
what
which movesand
proposedso
which sensed move.
pertains to a mode of visual characterizationwhilst the other relates to a mode of tactile
sensation.Together with the auditory manifestationof musical sound,they form the basisof
communication: auditory, visual and tactile. The performing musician hears sound, "feels"
soundand "sees"sound.
CharlesSeeger(1971) 1proposesan accretionalaspectof the processby which "Speechand
music, as species of auditory communication are linked inescapably with visual
communicationon the one hand and with tactile communication on the other". Seegerlists
these three "media, channels,or avenuesof communication: tactile, auditory, visual", near
the top of his conspectusof communicatoryconsortium.He regardsthe relationship of these
various systems of tactile and visual thinking as prime subjects for musicological
investigation.He believesthat music and dancefunction as communicationand, as do all the
other meansof communication, "function in the samegeneral (outward) spacetime".In his
essayon a "Unitary Field Theory" (1970) 2 he finds a counterpart of the sound space of
music, in the spacewhich the dancer'sbody occupies:

CharlesSeeger-"Music asConceptandasPercept" in- Studiesin Musicology ( 19 7 9:


2.

e'

1%)

Charles Seeger "Toward Unitary Field Theory for Musicology", Los Angeles (1970) in: Studies in Musicology
a
-

Page28

"The dancer'sown spaceis always his, however he may move in generalspacctimc.He uses
another of our three media, tactility. The prime sensationof the dancer is the touch of the
durations
in
he
the
the
of the
speed
and
relative
ground upon which and
air
which
moves,
movementshe makes.In many respects,the rhythmic density of dancecan be identical with
that of music. The movementof danceis, however,mostly with the outer musculature,not an
inner, as with music. Spatially, however, that is, in terms of mass,the semiotic medium of
dance is quite, though not, of course, totally, different from that of music". However, "a
it,
it
instrument
is
dances
the
as may a
upon - even with
musical
an artifact;
musician
dancer..." Moreover, Seeger considers instrumental music "a real composite of all three
media".
Jean d'Udine in L' art et le geste takes a similar view when he relates music and the
performanceof it with dance:"All the expressivegesticulationsof the conductor are really a
dance all music is dancing All melody is a seriesof attitudes Every feeling contributes,in
...
...
...
effect, certain special gestureswhich reveal to us, bit by bit, the essentialcharacteristicof
Life: movement" i.
In consideringwhat Seegersays,it is important not to forget the sourceof all music-making
which is the direct contact of the human body with the body of the musical instrument. The
perceptig a tactile one. In the experienceof piano playing, the sourceof music-making can
be traced back to the moment at which the fingertip makes contact with the key. In this
sense,the nucleus of all musical sound in piano-playing is concentratedon the minute area
which the fingertip controls. The simile, as proposed by Seeger,would then be that in
pianoforteplaying, the fingers of the pianist "danceupon the keys".

1.

Cited in PhRosophyin a New Key by SusanneLonger(1942 1 fl.

Page29

%%G)

If musical sound - what JacquesHandschindescribesas "the essentiallymusical being, that


is, musical tone" i- is to acquire "bodily characteristics",as Hans Heinz DrUger2 suggests
and as this study proposes,it must be conceivedat the time bodily contact is made with the
sound-producing mechanism. Furthermore, if the "tonal body" is to acquire the various
characteristicsthat are attributable to it: volume, density, weight, shape,it must conform to a
structurethat is manageablethroughouta seriesof voluntary bodily actions.
In this respect,musical tone is representedin this study as a "spherical mass".Its satisfactory
inception at the point of contact with the instrument has more often that not been described
as "rounded" tone and it is not for nothing that it has evolved over the years to be portrayed
as such in classical Western notation. As a 'sphere',it attains various 'bodily characteristics'
as the 'art of touch' is applied to it. DrNgertreadsa similar path when he representsthe Sonal
Characterof the musical tone in the image of the sphere:"If we conceive the piano tone in
the image of a sphere,tones of both high and low frequenciesmust be regardedas spheres.
Then the high frequency tones might appear pointed becauseof their smallness,but not
becausethey havechangedtheir form".
One cannot talk about motion without examining the scientific criteria that define motion. If
we agree to speak of musical sound as possessing"tonal body", we cannot then deny it
bodily characteristics.As such, it is governedby the laws of motion. As various forces act
upon it, it is susceptible to a number of changeswhich determine its shape, speed and
direction. At its conception, the "tonal body" is subjectedto the force that the human body
applies to it. As a consequence,its overall shape,weight, density and volume change.The
"body" is subsequentlyprojected in various directions at different speeds.It is this "voyage"
of transformation,from the momentthe "tonal body" is conceivedto the moment it ceasesto
exist, which needsto be traced.

JacquesHandschin "Ile characterof Tone" (Der Toncharakter;Zarich, 1948)


2.

? j; L3

HansHeinz DrIger "Ibe conceptof Tonal Body' fi-ornArchiv MrMusAwissenschaft,Vol. IX, No. 1 (1952,
*-

Page30

fe.st--W

There are likewise visual surrogates inherent in the conventional Occidental notation. These
low
Cartesian
high
identification
linear
the
so-called
and
of
co-ordinates
represent
a
points in pitch with high and low points on the manuscript score, and identification of time
elapsed from the onset of one musical sound to the onset of another with references from left
to right on the page. Thus the page represents a partial visual parameter on a twodimensional plane though failing to portray what happens between the notes.

The following description of the process by which musical sound is initiated is all too
familiar: a note of music emergeswhen an instrumentalist,say a violinist, embarks on the
performanceof a work by drawing the bow over the string. As soundemergesit may grow in
t
volume to the degreein which speedand pressureincrease.Vibrato is also applied some
stageafter the note is heard,first slowly and then gradually faster. Vibrato may then ceaseas
and when anotherfinger preparesto play the next note in the series.When the bow changes
direction, the continuousflow of the soundmay momentarily cease.
What has just been describedis what may happen,or indeed happensfrequently, when a
single note of music is played. The elementsat play (the speedand pressureof the bow, the
precisetime at which vibrato is applied, its variable speedand so on) cannot be traced in the
conventional score of our Westernmusical culture. Yet they constitute the wherewithal for
imparting meaning and expressivenessto the musical line. Should one, therefore, seek a
notationalsystemother than our own symbolic notation of distinct noteheadsin order to trace
the courseof the musical line?
Charles Seeger,in the 1950s,pioneeredthe developmentof the
melograph as a scientific
instrumentwhich recordedaccuratelythe pitch and loudnessof a melody in relation to time
in a continuous graphic representationwhich could not.otherwise be
shown in conventional
notation. The Seeger melograph model C went further to incorporate the function of the
sonagraphwhich in addition to pitch and loudness,explored the spectrumof the examined
material.

Page31

There are advantages in seeking a notational graph because, as we have seen, there are large
areas of musical function which cannot be depicted in conventional notation. Pitch, for
instance, is only roughly indicated in the score: a note can vary in pitch depending on the
particular degree of the scale it represents. For example, such a note can have a different
frequency rate when played on the pianoforte which is tuned on the well-tempered scale than
when played on the violin. Similarly, the same note in the score can vary in pitch according
to the way an instrument is tuned. Furthermore, the slight wavering of pitch that results from
the use of vibrato cannot be represented by our conventional Occidental notation.

Likewise, the dynamic markings which are encountered in the score are not indicative of any
specific dynamic levels of loudness. They refer the performer to vague indications which

needto be almost always interpretedin relative terms.


The conventionalnotational format is also a poor indicator of tempo. Minute deviations from
strict metronomic time have proved to be the underlying factor in determining the expressive

natureof a musicalperformancei.
A notationalgraphor a melogramcanshowchangesin time to within a tenthof a secondand
to the pitch of a soundto within one tenth of a tone (20 cents).It can thus serveas an
accurateindicator of "what happensbetweennotes".As Seegersays:

1.

Neil Todd - "A Model of ExpressiveTiming in Tonal Music* Muqc PerceptionVol 3, No 1 (1985)"Expressiveness
impartedto
a performancelies in the departurefrom metricalrigidity andconstantintensity".

Page32

"Each of the many music traditions in the world probably has its own distinctive ways of
connecting or putting in what should come between the notes. onventional notation can
give no more than a generaldirection as to what theseare...In the graph they are all there for
anyoneto seein clear detail. If it causesus sometrouble to find out just what the notational
equivalentsare, we should be glad that the performer did not rendernotes.Rather,we should
be glad that insteadof renderingnoteshe renderedmusic, and that we may set ourselveswith
greaterassuranceto the task of finding out what he did sing or play, without preconceptions
that he meantto, or should,havesungnotes" i.
The graphing apparatus which brings to our existing notational techniques the needed
complementof showing "what happensbetweenthe notes" is, for all intents and purposes,
much more than what Seegermodestlyclaims it to be -a strictly musicological tool. Indeed,
it is from a scientific perspectivethe closest we come to charting the flight course of our
Itsonorousbody" as it describesits motion from one notationally "fixed" state to another
(granting that any such fixed stateis at the sametime a highly fictitious state for anything of
which the quintessenceis motion and flux).
The performing musician may benefit from close scrutiny of the graphical "traces" of his
performancesobtained through such means so that he can draw valuable information on
which to base an imagery that serves to portray as much as possible the sensory and
perceptualcharacterof his creativemusic-makingasa whole.

1.

CharlesSeeger
-"Prescriptive andDescriptiveMusic Writing" Musical Quanerly,XUV (1958)

Page33

However, as a purely musicological scientific tool, the melograph cannot and does not tell
the whole story. For instance, it cannot portray the various chang--s in the speed of the bow
or the celerity of the pianist's hands which are so intrinsic to the perception of the innermost
subtle speed variations in the flow of the musical line. As Seeger points out, technological
devices report only upon the physical stimulus to the outer ear. The conception of a writing
system in which the full sensory and perceptual reaction of a person is comprehensively
represented visually is clearly an impossibility: "automatic music writing by such aids as
those referred to must no more be taken for what we think
conventional notation"

(i C-1.)

we hear than most

Moreover, this treatiseexemplifies the study of music-making as a creative process, which


is by nature ephemeral, and not music as a product of this process.In this process we
intuitively record the experiencesto our sensoryand perceptual faculties which formulate
various impressionsin our minds, and portray thesein free hand-producedrepresentational
graphsbasedpartly upon the notation, partly on what we feel, 'see'and hear as well as on
how the body's playing mechanismmoves in performance.Such graphic representationsare
commonly usedin pedagogyenabling the studentto trace the musical line and correlate this
to the motions of his playing mechanism.

For instance,in dealingwith thebasicdirectionof themelodicflow we maychooseto record


in the processof
a patternwhich represents
the salienceof notesin a melodyasexperienced
creativemusic-making.We would thus be formulatinga patterncloseto that of melodic
contourwhich is in itself, accordingto a theoryput forwardby Edworthyfollowing a series
of experiments
carriedout in 1985,a meaningfulpsychologicalentityin musicperceptiont.

1.

Melodic contouris. by Dowling'sdefinition (1978),the


representation
of the sequenceof upsanddownsin a melody independentof
thepreciseinterval sizes.

Page34

Indeed there is ample evidenceto suggestthat melodic contour, as a psychological entity in


musical perception,is a more useful representationof the melodic line than a representation
of a precise sequenceof intervals (Edworthy 1985). Otto Abraham (1923), in a series of
investigationsto determine whether people tend to sing more in equal temperamentor just
intonation, reported in the PsychologischcForschungen(Berlin, 1923), that the singers'
intonation wavered between the two modesand that the discrepanciesalways appearedat a
point where a rise or fall of the melody occurred. In most cases the direction of the
discrepancy followed the upward or downward direction of the melody (cited in
Zuckerkandl,Soundand Symbol, Princeton: 19%).
This shows clearly, as do Edworthy's results, that generalized interval information or
contour, while strikingly different from preciseinterval information, may be a more useful
representationof melodic perception as well as melodic execution in musical performance.
In this respect,the very essenceof tonal motion has,in Zuckerkandl'swords "its origin not in
differencesof pitch but in differencesof dynamicquality" (ibid.).
If we were to consider melody as flowing along a sinuous course in an almost unbroken
stream as Seeger suggests,then we should be compelled to trace its course if only to
determineits integral characteristics.The performing musician is not oblivious to this. After
all, he usesbodily movement to expressmusical content (Davidson 1991). However it may
be representedor constructed,the graph will contain important data enabling the musician to
captureon paper the very "motion" of the melodic line which gives it its power to affect us.
At the very least it will represent,as Seegerpoints out, the almost infinite variety of interplay
betweenand within beats, which "defines more closely the fault so often found with the
unskilled performer: that he renderedthe notescorrectly but left out what should have come
betweenthem..."

Motion in music, as a concept of musical growth and progression,can only be understood


when all its constituent elements: metaphoric, manual and acoustic, are clearly defined.
Furthermore, motion, as a concept applied to music, must adhere
or at best appear to be
Page35

analogousto the principles and laws which govem physical motion. In this respect, the
speed,shapeand direction of that which movesmust also be defined.
Whilst music has traditionally and unquestioningly been located in the realm of auditory
experience, we may well be surprised at the decisive part such visual corollaries and
analogiesplay in gaining us accessto and profit from its store of riches - the samesurpriseas
that occasionedby Baudrillad when he challengedthe long-acceptedprecedenceof speech
and "writing".
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION:

'Motion in Music', as applied in terms of an interpretive enquiry, attempts to show how


motion features in the creative processof expressingthe musical line just as it does in its
apprehensionin the first place. This creative process is constantly being fed through a
synthesisof the tactile, auditory and visual channelsof communication. It accountsfor the
way the hand moves while playing a musical instrument,the way the melodic line moves in
terms of its undulationsand what the performer feels tactilely when contact is made with the
musical instrument.Thesethree-way experiencesgive rise to a mental imagery which has an
audio-visual-tactileimpact on our sensoryperception.
A fruitful line of enquiry may be to perceiveof musical sound as a conceptof "tonal body",
possessedof bodily attributes.As such, it would be governedby the laws of motion through
which its various functions vary according to its shape,speedand direction. The patterns
which then emergewould be seento owe as much to our senseof touch as pianists, as they
would to our auditory and visual sense.Sound, we would then argue, as the source of all
music-making, is inextricably linked to what we feel and what we see, so that what we see
and what we feel is ultimately what we hear.In this respect,the ultimate musical experience
may well lie in the handsof the performer.

Page36

1.2 AESTHETICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL CONSIDERATIONS:

The conceptof 'motion in music' and visual representationof the musical line, which implies
that music is not merely a sonic phenomenonbut that it has spatial as well as visual
associations,has aesthetical,psychological and philosophical implications. These faculties,
eachin their own discipline, have contributed copiously to the discussionsand argumentsof
moving elementsin musical structures.
Eduard Hanslick, back in 1891, attested to a lack of serious inquiry with regard to the
concept of motion in music which he regarded as fundamental and most fruitful to an
understandingof the nature and effects of music (ibid.). He regardedactive imagination as
the real organ of the beautiful in art. Music representedto him a range of ideas which,
corresponding to the organ which receives them, relate to audible changes in strength,
motion and proportion. Included are ideas of increasing and diminishing, acceleration and
deceleration,simple progressionsandclever interweavings.
Hanslick searchesfor the aestheticalsignificanceof music and finds it in a concept which he
calls 'tonally moving forms': "in music the conceptof 'form' is materializedin a specifically
musical way. The forms which construct themselvesare not empty but filled... music is
actually a picture, but one whose subject we cannot grasp in words and subsume under
(MI,
el- 30)concepts"
The musician's employment of analogies, metaphors and visual representationsof his
sensoryperceptions,is no more than a synaestheticrealization of the beauty that lies in the
dynamic qualities of its structure.In this respectthey furnish the criteria for an aesthetical
enquiry into what Hanslick terms 'The Beautiful in Music'. They are conceived of as
portraying the autonomousbeauty of tone-forms in music. Analogies such as those used by
Hanslick to expressthe aestheticappealof music and to
its
convey attribut- of motion never
Page37

detractfrom the object in view. As Hanslick says:"If some sensitivemusic lover objects that
our art is degradedby analogies....we reply that it is not much to the point whether the
it".
is
better
do
degrade
by
becoming
We
thing
analogy preciseor not.
acquaintedwith
not
a
In the following extract from his treatise, Hanslick contemplates an analogy which is
particularly pertinent to what is being proposedin this study:
"In pitch, intensity, tempo and the rhythm of tones,the ear offers itself a configuration whose
impressionhas that analogy with specific visual perception which different sensemodes can
attain amongthemselves.Just as physiologically there is a substituteof one sensefor another
up to a certain limit, so also aestheticallythere is in vogue a well-grounded analogy between
motion in spaceand motion in time, betweenthe colour, quality and size of an object, and the
pitch, timbre and intensity of a tone. Thus one can in fact portray an object musically [or
music as an object is what he might better havesaid]".

The dynamicqualitiesof tonesas forceswhich perpetuatesoundwhenmusic is in motion,


has been explored in the field of music psychology and cognitive psychology, and in
particular by the Gestaltpsychologists.

The theorist Ernst Kurth wrote a seriesof music-theoreticalstudiesin which he blends


harmonicandmelodicanalyseswith psychologicalinterpretation.He speaksaboutindividual
melodictonescontainingenergyderivedfrom a pervasivedynamiccurrent(Bcwqgungszug)
and proposesthe idea that melody - and music generally- is sonically manifestpsychic
motion: "The actualsustainingcontentof the [melodic] line is the dynamiccurrentsthat
manifestthemselvesperceptibly in the individual tones" i.

ErnstKurth GrundlagendeslinearenKontrapunits (Foundations linear


of
counterpoint,1931)

Page38

q
kta
I'Q61

The totality of what Kurth calls the 'dynamic current', brings his thoughts in line with Gestalt
psychology based on the theory of holistic perception' i, For Kurti, a melodic line is "kinetic
(in
be
"that
individual
tones
energy" which can
where
characterized as
relationship of
succession) they form a whole rather than a sum, the continuum of the line that arises from
the melodic energy flowing over the individual tones". Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka and
Wolfgang Kbhler base their theories on similar ideas of dynamically organized wholes. Max
Wertheimer contends that "moving is something different from being successively in
successive places" 2. Kbhler speaks of the dynamic knowledge of bodies and introduces the
concept of "tonal body" 3 whilst for Koffka, a "trace field" is anticipated when hearing a
melody which is produced by the residual force of a tone reaching forward 4.

Even before the Gestalt theory was establishedby Max Wertheimer'sstudies in 1911, both
Ernst Mach s and Christian von EhrenfelS6 referred to the super-summativeproperties in
melodies.Mach regardedaudible andvisible Gcstaltcnasclosely related.

1.

It is interestingto notethat Gestalltheoriesarealmostinvariablyillustratedby visualratherthanauditoryexamplesin psychology


textbooks.SeeWalter Ehrenstein- ProblemederganzheApsychologischen
Wahmehmungslehre
(1947)
tect
c;

2.

MaxWertheirner - ExperimentefleStudien(1911)

3.

WolfgangK6hlcr

4.

Kurt Koffka

5.

EmstMach - Beitago zurAnalyw derEmpfmdungen(1886)

Gestalten
Die
(1924)
physLwhen
-

clif-4

- Principlesof GestaltPychology(1935 :4

$0 -5 1)

Christianvon Ehrenfels OberGestaliquaUtSten


(1890)
-

Page39

cts-6 I es. 113)

Henri Bergson regarded real motion as the transfer of a state rather than of a thing. For
Bergson true time was a duration: "a melody to which we listen with our eyes closed and
thinking of nothing else, is very close to coinciding with this time which is the very fluidity
of our inner life; but it still has too many qualities, too much definition, and we should first
have to obliterate the differences between the tones, then the distinctive characteristics of
tone itself, retain of it only the continuation of that which precedes in that which follows, the
uninterrupted transition, multiplicity without divisibility, and succession without separation,
in order at last to find fundamental time. Such is duration immediately perceived, without
which we should have.no idea of time" i.

SusanneLanger puts forward the theory of "virtual motion", an image or an illusion, for all
forms in art: "What we call 'motion' in art is not necessarilychangeof place, but is change
madeperceivable,i. e. imaginable,in any way whatever.Anything that symbolizeschangeso
we seem to behold it is what artists, with more intuition than convention, call a 'dynamic'
element. It may be a 'dynamic accent' in music, physically nothing but loudness..." 2. For
Langer,musical motion is a "semblance"3: motionsthat are only seeminglythere.
The problem of musical hearing has also beenthe subject of an enquiry by Helmut Reinold
which would seem to go far to justify Hanslick's views of a previous century 4. Audial.
perceptionhe argues,is primarily a sequencethat takesplace in time and therefore can only
be experiencedas movementthat requiresnot only time but space:

1.

Enrie Bergson DurJ, et.-Umultan6ldf


(1922)
-

2.

SusanneLanger FeelingandFonn (1953 tfT


-

A termusedby CarlJung 4.

Helmut Reinold

.i

C6)

4t)

tej

Musical
Problem
Hearing"ArchivlUrMusikwissonschatVoLX1, No. 2(1954- ffthe
of
-"On

Page40

167- 1"7)

"Besides primary temporality, primary spatiality and primary motility must be attributed to
is
be
This
to
audial perception.
characterization may
extended music-,music sounding motion
in temporal space. The, tension between the equipollent and complementary elements of time,
Reinold
is
importance
for
the
the
music
of
space
understanding
motion, and
of
greatest
......
cites the work of the physician V. von Weizsdcker whose work on sensory physiology
suggests that perception is an "unlimited co-operation in the nervous system of all parts
during every activity ;a principle of synaesthesiainvolving all sensory fields" i.
...

Victor Zuckerkandl has theorisedextensivelyon the role that motion plays in the perception
These
both
from
from
of music,
a psychological as well as
a philosophical point of view 2.
are the main points raisedin his treatise:

Thephilosophicalconceptof realitydrawsa parallelbetweenwhathecallsthe "inner world"


and the "externalworld" - what our sensesperceivein physical,tangibleand measurable
on the
quantitieson onehandwith what seemsimmaterialnonphysicalandnonmeasurable,
other.
He defines the outer world as a visible-tangible world, a corporealworld. The inner world as
includes
feelings
But
the
in
thoughts
nonphysical, nonbodily,
nature
and
pertain.
which
purely dynamic, the nonphysicaland the nonmeasurable.

V. vonWeizswicker- "EinleitungzurPhysiologie
VOI-M
Physiologie,
derSinne"- Handbuch
dernonnalen
undpaLhologischen
2.

Victor Zuckerkandl-Sound and Symbol.Music and theExternalWorld(19U). For an extendedessayon Soundand Symbol
pleaseseeAppendix 3

Page41

In Zuckerkandl's assessment,the inner and outer worlds meet or rather "penetrate each
in
is
different:
The
the phys.cal world, or outer world,
mode of such an encounter
other".
inner
in
barrier;
the
distance,
from
world,
the
separating
reinforcing
without, at a
objectsare
tonespenetrateand communicatein a way that makesthe listener participate in their actions.
Colour, for instance, is something that is without, tonc as something that comes Arom
without
Zuckerkandlinvestigatesthe very essenceof music. He definesthe various qualities apparent
in musical sound and distinguishesbetween what he calls "musical tone" and "acoustical
tone". Acoustical tone is a phenomenonof the externalworld. it can be describedin terms of
frequency, intensity, envelope and amplitude which go to make up the physical process:a
changein the physical processmeansa changein the tone heard.
He defines musical tone as belonging to an inner world. It possessesdynamic quality that
permits tones to becomethe conveyorsof meaning.It is the dynamic quality of the tone that
makesmusic out of acousticalphenomena.Dynamic quality is the properly musical quality
oftones.

The encounterwith the tonal world includesthe threefundamentalexperiencesof motion,


timeandspace.
On writing about'motion, he saysthatthedynamicquality within a musicaltone,is the very
essenceof musical motion. It reflects the stateof an object, not the object itself: the relations
betweentensions,not betweenpositions;the tendencies,not the magnitudes.
Musical contexts are kinetic contexts.The melody we sing or hear is not simply tone, or
tonesof a predeterminedpitch; it is motionsrepresentedin tones.

Page42

He
ideal
or abstract.
He dismissestheorieswhich refer equivocally to the motion of music as
investigations
Wertheimer's
and concludes that music and motion are
experimental
cites
is,
finally,
that
a musical experience.
of
motion
every experience
synonymous;
Zuckerkandl dismisses the theory that change of pitch constitutes the basis for musical
the
is
of
his
In
none
possesses
and
an acoustical phenomenon
assertion, pitch
motion.
The
of
association
tones
that
contexts.
of
musical
makes
elements
characteristics
acoustical
To
itself
in
differences
does
tones
fall
spatiality.
grant
the rise and
not
of pitch
of toneswith
is
in
fall
tones
the
merely a verbal and
terms
talk about
of
of spatial motion
rise and
described
be
only
emotional subterfuge; a characteristic of aural perception which can
tonal
The
from
by
of
the
the
experience
other senses.
realms of
metaphorically parameters
dynamic
in
differences
in
differences
but
has
its
quality.
of
of pitch
origin not
motion
In accordwith Kurth's theory, he considersthe dynamic quality of a tone as a statementof its
incompleteness,its will to completion.It is inherentin any musical context, in an interval, in
in
its
in
from
basic
tone
the
to
ensuingpath toward
a step
one note another,
propertiesof one
the next. To hear a tone as dynamic quality, as a direction, meanshearing at the sametime
beyondit and going toward the expectednext tone.Listening to music, we are not first in one
from
tone
in
forth.
between
We
the
the notes, on
tone, then the next, and so
way
are always

to tonei.

1.

In this respect,it would be difficult to determinethe preciseonsettime of a particulartone in music becauseit is sometimesonly
'apparently'there and will oftenemerge' in time ratherthan 'appear'sta precisemomentin time. A note of music is often fully realizedin
termsof its tonal qualitiesafter it isheard'. But eventhen,the tone is constantlyin motion. For this reason,studiessuchasthoseby Sloboda
(1983),Clarke (1989),Shaffer(1984) andTodd (1985),which look for specificvariationsin the onsetand offset times of eachnote,might
proveto be methodologicallyincongruous.

Page43

In Zuckerkandl's assessment,the usual concept of melodic motion as motion from tone to


tone and of the individual step from tone to tone as the bridghig of the distance in pitch
between two tones, does not prevail. Dynamic qualities are not stationary, they are
completely of the nature of a step, of a transition: they are dynamic not static. As such, the
processof motion can be representedon two levels: on a "lower", where there is nothing but
the pillars, tones of definite pitch; on a "higher" level, where there is nothing but the
transition:

between
I

tone tone

The motionwe hearis not "tone- tone"of the lower level; it is the "between".Stasisof the
tones and motion of the melody, gaps here and uninterruptednessthere, discontinuity and
continuity do not enter into oppositionbecausethey concernphenomenaon different levels.
There are, as one might expect,conflicting views as to what constitutesmotion in music. For
instance,Bergson'sconceptof ]a dur6epure, hasbeencriticised by Langer, CharlesKoechlin
i and Gabriel Marcel 2, even though they both remain in basic sympathy with his thesis.
What is unequivocally clear in what has beencited so far, is that the idea of musical motion
is not only a recurrentphilosophical one (e.g. Hanslick, Bergson,Husserletc.) but equally an
all-pervasive psychological percept, whether it is referred to as a moving 'tonal body' in
K6hler's concept,a psychodynamicforce or processin Kurth's, an illusion basedon the 'selfdeception theory' (bewusste Selbsuguschung,Konrad Lange) or a 'semblance'of 'virtual
motion' by Langer. It is therefore, in the forces that stimulate and simulate motion that we
needto pursueour line of enquiry.

1.

CharlesKoechlin "Le tempset la musique" La RevueMuskal, VII (1926)


-

2.

GabrielMarcel

"Be+ism
-

andMusic" - Li RevueMuskak, Vol VI (1925)

Page44

Kurth refers to the animatedforce of the melodic line as the energyin the "psychodynamic
senseof the music" (Bruckner, 1925): "This phenomenonof peoasive tension contained in
the character of linear polyphony lies even in the distinctiveness of the melodic lines
themselves,whose innermost nature is illustrated by the constant energy of their kinetic
tension". Harmonic texturesand chords are also "imbued with dynamic tensions".According
to Kurth, even harmonic consonance- the vertical relaxation - "doesnot signify full musical
relaxation, becausethe permeation of the harmony with unreleasedtensions arising from
melodic-kinetic energiescomesinto consideration"(Grundlagen,1917).
As Zuckerkandl says: "Every psychologicalinvestigationinto how we listen to music centres
aroundthe interval...The musical interval is alivc and, like the tone,derivesits life from tonal
forces, not from tonal positions. Only becauseit is alive by virtue of forces active in and
through it can one interval be linked to another..." i.
The psychodynamic forces that perpetuatemotion as dynamic currents (Kurth), or the
dynamic knowledge of "tonal bodies" (Uhler), are directly perceived by the performing
musician as movementsof the body through which these residual forces reach forward to
establish a trace-field (Koffka), which may be regarded, as Mach proposes,as a closely
related audible and visible Gcstalt. The experience is a fusion of physical as well as
psychological motion. It synthesizesthe outer experienceswith what Hegel describes'the
motions of the inmost self" 2. It accountsfor the dynamic effects of the audible as well as the
visionary experience.Visually, the eye is 'persuaded'to trace the lines the mind conceives,
giving us the sensationof movement3.

1.

Victor Zuckerkandl Man LheMusician(1973- e5- 1%04)


-

2.

Hegel - Vorlesungenfiber die AesLhetik(1931) -

3.

Basedon the theoryput forwardby Ileodor Lipps (Aesthetic,1903)


-

CItjJ

IA

Page45

(191; Ct fl.

1142)

The concept of the 'spherical tonal body' that is being proposedin this study, reflects the
The
'medium'
in
being
and
motion.
mobility of a
perpetual
constant
which we register as
shape and plasticity of the 'spherical tonal body' allows it to be constantly elusive and
mercurial. Its fluidity generatesa continuum in which there exists what Bergson calls
"multiplicity without divisibility" and "successionwithout separation". The performing
in
body'
'spherical
tonal
tactile,
the
musician perceives a
audible and visible sensationof
is,
in
but
Real
dynamic
the
the
the
motion
motion not as
actual object
as
object.
propertiesof
this sense,what Bergsoncalls the "transfer of a staterather than of a thing". The 'spherical
tonal body' exemplifies the psychodynamicforce that perpetuatesmotion. It representswhat
Wertheimercalls the "purely dynamic living interval".
CONCLUSION:

It is clear through the large literature of psychological,philosophical and aestheticalenquiry


in this field that 'motion' is a conceptwithout which it is next to impossibleto make senseof
the musical experienceand that thereare other sensoryfields besidesthe auditory, which are
directly involved in the perceptionof musicalmotility i.
The psychological aspectsof musical perceptionas well as the philosophical and aesthetical
considerationsof what is being proposedin this study needto be conciliated: the motion of
the music as perceived by a performing musician and which correlates the quality of the
emerging sound to a visual format, as well as the characteristics of a 'tonal body' as
propoundedin this treatise, are of course illusory. There is nothing tangible or corporeal
about them. Yet they do exist as reflected imagesjust as real images exist in a dream and
have been as useful in philosophical and aesthetictheories as they have in the intuitive
practice of performers.They arevirtual, non-actualsemblances.They are conceivednot only
to portray the autonomousbeautyof tone-forms but to exemplify the psychodynamic force
which motivatesthem and within which so much of this beautylies.
1.

In otherart formstoo, movementandlines areintimatelyrelatedin conceptionaslines


andgrowth, (Langer,1953).

Page46

1.3THE CONCEPTS:

'Motion in Music' is a concept that treats music as a passagein time, through movement,
growth and progression. Tobias Matthay, insisted upon the doctrine of progression and
movement, as the basis of all shapein performance.Indeed, this was his most important
teachingprinciple. In his book, Musical Interpretation,he draws a parallel betweenthe art of
music and the art of painting, which, he says,"have a strong parallelism in the basisof both,
inasmuchas both dependupon Progressionor Movement".He goeson to say:
"In painting or drawing the movement is upon the canvas,and this in a double sense;for
there is an actual movementof the painter's brush or pencil in the act of making the picture;
and secondly,an actual movementagain, in viewing the picture - an actual movementof our

eyeballsin following its lines,or at leasta suggestion


of suchmovement.
"In Music, the distinction is that the movementis upon a time-surface,as it were - insteadof
upon a canvas...We also find that our musical ideasof "Time" and "Progression"are closely
correlated;since to enableus to determinethe precise"time-spot" of any note, we must think
of music itself - in its aspectof progressionor movement...It is of no use trying to think
Music unlessyou think of progression,that is, Movementtowardssomethingor other.
"In fact, this forms the best definition of all form or shapeor structurein music, be it phrase,
section, sentenceor a complete piece. This idea of movement is the vitalising spark which
turns mere notes into living music, this sense of purpose - this sense of progressing
somewhere-This idea of motion in music, continuous movement, we must make clear to
anyoneand everyone..."
When a performing musician uses sound, he or she produces a variety of patterns which
appearaschangingthe courseaswell asthe speedanddensity of the sound.

Page47

In order to understandthe behaviour of manipulatedsound, it is important to identify and


define the various elementsthat appearin motion when music is rettlized.
The following needto be defined:
1) What moves?
2) Where and how far doesit move?
3) How fast doesit move?
4) How doesit move?
5) What setsit in motion?
Movement in musical performanceoccurs at various levels: that which is visible by the eye
is
is
by
The
first
is
discernible,
that
the
the
second
and
ear.
which
audible
objectively
conceptuallydiscernible. The first pertains to an outer mode, real and tangible; the second,
pertainsto an inner mode,notional and conceptual:

The performingmusicianactivatesthe musclesof his body to delivering a stroke to the


musical instrument: the sound-producing mechanism of the instrument is physically
motivatedto producing a seriesof vibrations that translateto musical sound.

Sound,or musicalsound,is thenconceptualized


by the listeneras beingmotivatedtowards
achievingprogressthrough notional movement.
This study sets out to define the various stageswhere movement,perceptible in one way or
another,takesplace.

Page48

A simple processduring which various stagesof musical encountertake place, is therefore


body
from
the
that
the
that
of the performing
moment
proposed -a process
commences
instrument,
impact
the
to
right
to
the
momentof
with
musicianprepares play a note of music,
through to the next moment when impact is made with the ensuing note and the preceding
one is released.The procedureis asfollows:
MOD US OPERANDI. When a musical instrument is played, each individual note that is heard has been produced
by applying a variety of stimuli or forces to the sound-producing mechanism of the
instrumentin varying degreesof speedof motion. The mechanismof a musical instrument is
suchthat it respondssensitively to whateverforce is appliedto it.
When music is realized,the forces that initiate and manipulatesoundare in motion at various
stages:at a preparatorystageprior to the realizationof sound;at the moment of impact when,
at the sametime, it is subject to an opposingforce; and in order to motivate the sound that
hasbeenproducedtowards the next momentof impact. The various stagesof this procedure
or modusoperandi,realizedas it is in time, can be broken down asfollows:

Stage I

This preparatory stage accumulatesenergy and preparesto releaseit on impact. There are
two sourcesfrom which energy is gathered:musclesand the force of gravity. The medium
through which energy N transferred to the sound-producingmechanismis the locomotor
system.The stimulus that is required to producea soundis delivered through human agency
to the sound-producing mechanism. The speed, weight and direction of the moving
locomotor systemwill determinethe quality and quantity of the ensuingsound when impact
is made.

Page49

Stage Il

At stage two, impact is made. An instrument reacts sensitively to a variety of impulses


delivered by the human body. The various qualities apparentin a note of music are subjectto
the manner in which this force is applied. In musical terms, one usesvarious metaphorsto
dark
heavy
light;
long
define
deep
these
or
or
short,
expressand
qualities:
or
or shallow;
light, and so on. Furthermore,referencesare madeto the mannerwith which a note is struck:
"from above","from underneath","head-on".
All such metaphorsare common-placein most fields of music-making and all serve a useful
purpose:to define in words the various qualities of soundperceivedas forming the context of

a work of music.
In real terms, we can only quantify the frequencyof application measuredin time (rhythm),
and the dynamic and pitch levels at which a note of music is being played. In musical terms,
we not only express the weight, mass,density and direction of a sound in metaphorical
phraseology,but we 'sense'thesequalities andmotions through vivid characterizations.
Therefore,a medium that fulfils the requirementsof an object in motion, whose weight and
mass as well as speed and direction can vary, is proposed in this study: metaphorically
speaking one could imagine sound as a spherical mass in motion, whose weight, density,
speedand direction are susceptibleto changeas various forces are applied to it. This has the
advantageof enabling us to establishmotion at a notional and conceptuallevel of musical
perceptionand cognition.
As impact is made, a massof sound is formed. This massacts as an opposing force to the
force of impact i. This opposingforce setsthe 'vehicle' in motion which reactsand behaves
accordingly.Its speedof motion, densityand shapeare determined.
1.

This phenomenonis dealtwith in moredetail at pg. 128

Page50

The quality and quantity of the soundis determinedby the speed,weight and direction of the
force that has been applied to the sound-producingmechanism.-The dynamic level of the
soundis thus determined,as is the colour (timbre) anddirection of the musical line.
Stage III

As the massof soundis manipulatedin time, its body is subjectedto various transformations:
its speed of motion, density, dynamic level and direction are all subjected to change
dependingon the samecharacteristicsof the note or notesthat follow i.
Stage IV

tt is stage,the wholeprocessis repeatedasat stageI, with all theelementsimplied: speed


of motion, weight, direction, massof sound,dynamiclevel as well aspitch level and timbre.
As the whole procedure is experiencedin time, the speed and precise moment at which
various interactions take place, such as: holding notes, releasing notes, applying vibrato,
applying the pedal of a keyboardinstrument,haveto be defined.

1.

In this respecldirectionis alsointerrelatedandappropriateto


melodiccontour.

Page51

TABLE I

MODUS OPERANDI

STAGE I

STAGEII

PREPARATION

IMPACT

cause effect

FORCES:

s/w/d
locomotor system

STAGEIII

STAGEIV

IMPACF/RELEASE

MOTION

cause effect

I
cause effect

FORCM

FORCES/

FORCES/

OPPOSINGFORCES:

OPPOSINGFORCES:

OPPOSINGFORCES:

s/w/d

s/w/d

s/w/d

massof sound
(vehicle):

motionin time

massof sound
(vehicle)

sound-producing
mechanism

1) speedof music
2 Tdir'ectOio`nmoUf'miCusic
3

s= speed
w weight
d direction

Page52

In the following chapters,eachstageof the Modus Opcrandishall be dealt with separately:


a)

STAGE I- Preparation:

Defines the forces that set soundin motion as they prepareto


initiate sound
STAGE 11- Impact:

Defines the massin motion asimpact with the sound-producinginstrument


is made
STAGE III - Direction:
Defines the direction of the moving vehicle in motion as one note of
music leadsto another
STAGE IV - Imnact/Release:
impact is madewith the following note of music in a series,the precedingone is
releasedat the relevant momentin time.
Defining the forces that set sound in motion makesit necessaryboth to accountfor certain musical
phenomenaand to connect them loosely to other natural phenomenaand to the laws of Newtonian

physics.
In general,the principles involved are universally applied to any instrument.Nonetheless,in view of
the author's musical formation, the pianoforte has been chosen as the instrument to figure most
prominently in the researchthat follows.

Page53

The forces which set sound in motion in the preparatorystage,prior to delivering a note of music,
may be d;,,; ded thusly:

a)

the locomotor systemof the performing musician

b)

the mechanicsof the sound-producinginstrument.

While the two forces are interactively related, each is examined separately;the locomotor system
comprisesthe use of the finger, the wrist, the arm and other constituentswhile the sound-producing
mechanismcomprisesthe componentsof the lever-mechanismof the modem pianoforte. Both are
I
consideredasforcesthat propagatesound.
The question as to how comparable the pianoforte is to any stringed or wind instrument in
manipulatingsound will inevitably arise. For instance,is a crescendopossible on a single note on
the piano asit is on either of the latter?
For this reason,I feel it is important that the mechanicsof the pianoforte which initiate soundshould
be looked at in some detail, so as to make clear the full extent to which the quality as well as the
quantity of the soundmay be transformed.

In addition,temporalpatternswhichconstantlymanifestthemselves
at all stagesof musicalmotion,
will fonn the subjectof a separatechapter,entitled: "Speedof Music".
The following are three notional concepts,pertaining to an inner
mode of musical apprehension,
which arisethrough an awarenessof musicalintent andmusical movement:
1.

SPEED OF MUSIC (s/m)

2.

MASS OF MUSIC (m/m)

3.

DIRECTION OF MUSIC (d/m)

Page54

Theseare notional conceptsand, as such, subjectively perceived.They constitute an awarenessof


'OfAnner
insight.
The
domain
that
the
musical structure
consciousnessand musical
remains within
sourcefrom which these conceptsare derived is closely associatedwith the principles of motion,
wherebyan object in motion is susceptibleto a changeof speed,direction and shape,commensurate
with the forces acting upon it.
In the outer mode, the original speedof eachapplication is steppedup which results in difference in
dynamic levels just as the frequency of repeatedapplications results in changesof tempo. In the
inner mode, 'speedof music' is a term that appliesto the psychologicalgrouping of impulseswhich a.
musician makes to form such aggregatesas the meter of a musical phrase or what Matthay calls
"bar-rhythm". It representsany changeto the minute divisions and sub-divisions of the main beats
is
it
(s/m)
from
to
the
or units, which alter
speed
at which music progresses
one note another and
relatedto the speedat which the handmovesto deliver a stroke.
The term Mass is here loosely associatedwith weight as applied and weight as perceived,resulting
in an increasein dynamics. Mass of Music, a notional concept,refers to notes and musical textures
which sound,and are therefore perceivedas, heavier than others: it takes in not only differencesin
dynamics but also the leaning towards a particular note which produces time-inflections (agogic
accents).The mass of sound which is experiencedwhen contact is made with the key-bed of the
instrumentis closely associatedwith a tactile sensationwhich relatesto the overall tone quality of
the sound produced. The term Mass incorporatestonal phenomenasuch as volume, weight and
densityof sound.
Direction implies a change to the direction of the musical line. In outer mode, it refers to the
variation in individual pitch; in inner mode, it refers to the notional concept of the wave pattern
which constitutes, amongst other things, melodic contour as well as the direction in which the
locomotor systemmovesin executinga musicalphrase.

Page55

The following table summarizesthe various activities which take place in outer mode and inner
mode:
TART. F. H

OutcrModc
SPEEDOF CONTACT

differencein dynamics

FREQUENCY OF CONTACT

changeof tempo

WEIGHT OF CONTACT

differencein dynamics

DIRECTION OF CONTACT

variation in pitch

InncrModc
SPEEDOF MUSIC:

the numberof impulsesthat the mind discernsaswell as


the speedat which the handor any constituentpart of it
moves;theseare dependenton:

a) speedof application
b) durationof contact
to theopposingforce
c) resistance
MASS OF MUSIC:

the quality of the musicaltone that is perceived


assoundingheavieror lighter as a direct causeof
variationsin dynamicsand duration, prematureor
delayed,of contact.Both weight of the arm when it drops
to the keys as well asthe tactile sensationwhich is
experiencedwhen contactis madeare significant in
determiningthe massof sound.

DIRECTION OF MUSIC:

the direction of the musical line which the mind


perceivesas a direct result of variations in
pitch, dynamicsandduration of contact as well as
direction of the hand

Page56

1.4 VISUAL REPRESENTATION AS A MEANS TO ACgUIRING A DIFFERENT


PERSPECTIVETO MUSICAL EXPERIENCE:
Even though music is a sonic phenomenon,perceivedin terms of the quality and the quantity
of the sound that a musical instrument produces,it is common practice, particularly in the
world of pedagogy, to express the musical experience through a language of musical
"shapes"and "symbols". These are presentedvisually as gestures- hand-produced- which
indicate quite unequivocally the manner in which a musical line unfolds. They assist the
performer in realizing the importance 'movement' plays in the process of musical
performance.Such symbolism may take into account the direction of the musical line in
terms of its pitch orientation, the speedat which the musical phraseunfolds, the tone-quality
of the musical soundand the way the instrumentalist'shandmovesaroundthe keyboard.
There are, of course, no preconceived referencesto a symbolic language of this kind.
However,every performer who draws upon such visual representationsof musical structure
will instinctively conceive patterns which are recognizably familiar. In this respect, there
seemsto be a logical basison which certainpatterns,howeverindividual, are formulated.
Cheironomy

Visualrepresentation
of the musicalline is not unknownto musicalperformance.The idea
that musiccan be depictedin graphictermsis ancient.Cheironomy,the doctrineof hand
signs,is the ancientform of conductingwherebythe cantorindicatedmelodic curvesand
by meansof spatialsigns.Indeed,in medievaltimes,melodicpatternsweretaught
ornaments
with the help of visual handsigns(Guidonianhand).The Egyptianhieroglyphfor music
to havebeena representation
appears
of thehand.

Page57

Some of these hand movements were eventually transcribed into neurnatic notation and
formed the basisfor stylized graphs:their sourcecan be traced toPthe outlines of the various
handmovements.
In Byzantine musical notation neurnesimitate the movementsof the melody producedby the
humanvoice and consequentlythe movementsof the hand of the conductingprecentor.Egon
Wellesz, in his study of Byzantine music and hymnography, explains the practice of
cheironomy in the early days of Byzantine chant which, he says, dates back to the 7th
centuryA. D. and was brought to a high degreeof perfection in the Byzantinechurch:
"[The precentor] directed the singerswith the movementsof his right hand and with certain
gestures:raising, lowering, extending,contracting,or putting togetherhis fingers, and instead
of the musical signs he formed the various melodic groupsand the inflections of the voice in
the air. And everyonewatchedthe leaderof the choir attentively and followed, as one might
say, the structure of the composition" i. Similarly, in the Gregorian plainchant tradition,
neurneswere featuredextensivelyandcameinto existenceon a cheironomicbasis.
To this day, conducting remains the one music-making medium that usesvisual patterns in
order to indicate time as well as musical expression:the conductor, by the use of a visual

design, can indicate the volume of sound required, manner of approachingvarious notes,

direction of musical line, momentsof increasedor decreasedintensity. I have always been

fascinatedby the spatial design that conductors of distinction "carve" in the air denoting
various directions and intensities of the musical line. I have often found these patterns to
enhancemy musical understandingof the music, rather than hinder it 2.

I.

2.1

EgonWellesz-A History of ByzantineMusk andhymnography(1945 : C1.134)


amreferringhereto the expressivepatternof thehandsof a gifted conductor,andnot to a conductingtechniquethat is a sterile
andrigid indicationof everymain beatin a musicalphrase.

Page58

The conductor illustrates by his motions in the air, much more than time and dynamics: he
can indicate the basic approachto the note, the speedat which any note is played and the
overall direction of the musical line - all the constituentswhich are inherent in producing
expressionof musical intent and overall quality, the very elementswhich are defined in this
study as 'speed of music' (s/m), 'mass of music' (m/m), and 'direction of music' (d/m),
his
The
inner
through
to
use of
conductor,
pertaining an
mode of perceptionand execution.
contrastingmotions ca oles from the orchestral players a variety of colour and expression.
His gesturesform a language of musical intent which, in d'Udine's description of music,
I'serveasprototypesof musical function" (ibid.).
I
Instrumentalists are equally capable of tracing the direction of the musical line visually in
motions which result from performing on a particular instrument and which are themselves
suggestive of the overall character as well as the overall design of the musical line. The
performer can trace the movement of the musical line in his mind in an imaginary format,
thus enabling him to make whatever changes are necessary to constitute a well-balanced and
a well-proportioned musical texture.

The essenceof music as representedby visual patterns,has been touched upon by Douglas

R. Hofstadteri, in his book Metamagia Themas:Questingfor the Essenceof Mind and


Pattcm:
"I have been fascinatedfor many years by the idea of trying to capture the essenceof the
musicalexperiencein visual form. I have my own ideasas to how this can be done; in fact, I
spentseveralyears working out a form of visual music. It is perhapsthe most original and
creativething I haveever done. However,by no meansdo I feel that there is a unique or best
way to carry out this task of 'translation',and indeedI have often wonderedhow others might
attemptto do it. "

1.

Author of the PulitzerPrizewinning G6del,Escher,Bach

Page59

Hofstadter,in his book, cites the work of William Huff, a professorof architecturaldesign at
the State University of New York at Buffalo. Huff writes:

"Though I am spectacularly ignorant of music.... I have students 'read' their designs as_I
supposea musician might scan a work: the themes,the events,the intervals, the number of
steps from one event to another, the rhythms, the repetitions... These are principally
temporal, not spatial, compositions (though all predominantly temporal compositions have,
of necessity,an element of the spatial and vice versa - e.g., the single-frame picture is the
basicelementof the moving picture)."
I
Having established the notion that musical sound is based on the experiences of motion, time
and space, and that the principal faculties for perceiving its effects lie with the sense of touch
as well as with the ear, it is possible at this stage to suggest that another component may be
added to enrich our musical awareness:the visual representation of musical tones.

As Victor Zuckerkandl points out: "As shapedand organizedtime, as a time image, a tonal
work standsbefore the auditor's perception,offers itself to his view. If it has nothing spatial
about it, nothing material in the usual sense,nothing objective, nothing for the eye, this does
not prove that it is not an image, but only that viewing, beholding, is not the sole privilege of
the eye the world of spatial imagesis a world of symbols.Symbols are for the eye, the eye
....
of the body or of the mind; we look at symbols, the eye looks at them. Even on to the
'nonrepresentational'symbols of modem science,our whole symbol world is profoundly
rootedin the visible, is bom of space,is createdby the eye, under the guidanceof the eye, for
the eye" (ibid.).
The processof sound production in the human body is visually accessible.Visual behaviour
as expressedin spacecomplementssoundimagesas expressedin time. As has already been
noted, Stravinsky, in his autobiography,expresseshis disapproval of people shutting their
eyeswhen listening to music:

Page60

"I have always aborninatedlistening to music with closed eyes, without the eye taking an
active part. Seeing the gestures and motions of the different pa- L of the body that produce

music is necessaryand essentialto graspingit in all its fullness".


Zuckerkandlconsidersthe eye as an auxiliary organ which enhancesmusical perception: "It
is certainly a valuable idea, pedagogically, to call upon the eyes as an auxiliary organ in
order to concentrateupon the kinetic characterof music...It cannot be denied that the eye is
the organ of our most intimate and strongestconnectionwith space Can the eye perhaps
....
heartoo?" (ibid.).
In consequenceto what has beensuggestedit seemsclear that one can enter a world in which
visual images,at once recognizableand familiar, representsuggestivelyand metaphorically
musicalphenomena.
A language of musical "shapes" and "symbols" is required which would reproduce as
faithfully as possible the pattern that sound, musical sound, suggeststo the ear and to the
hand as much as to the eye. To objectify metaphoricallyall that musical tones contain in the
way of motion, time and -spaceinvolves the production of consciously conceived and
subjectively contrived graphic equivalents.These form the basis for charting free handproduced graphical representations which constitute a highly individual, yet highly
informative view of musical activity.
In proposing such a metaphorictranslation of one medium into another,one brings to light,
to use Zuckerkandl'swords: "a previously concealedmeaning in that to which it relates": a
new dimensionthat enrichesour musicalperception.
If, as performing musicians,we confer upon our musical awareness
a visual surrogate,we
then not only hear the dynamic quality of musical tones, we not only senseand feel these
through our body, but we "see" theseas tonesin motion, we "see" their speedof motion and
we "see"their massin motion.
Page61

1.5TONALBODY:
When we speak about motion we must first of all determine and identify that which moves.
Besides the movement of the human body which impels the mechanics of the pianoforte into
being
from
flow
the
there
are
sounds
which
of movement
action,
exists, as a percept, a
in
'body'
in
is
by
In
the
there
this
motion which
a
music
performer.
respect,
produced
density
etc.,
mass,
perceptually possessescertain physical characteristics such as weight,
analogous in the physical realm.

As a concept,which we have already explored to some extent on p. 30, the 'tonal body' is
neither tangible nor corporeal. Yet its integral characteristicsare perceived not only audibly
but also tactilely: the performing musicianfeels a certain weight in his arm as he plays a note
of music and accordingly hears the resulting tone as possessingtonal characteristicswhich
relate to that weight. An increasingly heavier application will result in a sound whose tonal
body will increasein weight and which will be perceived as sounding 'heavier'. At first
glance,this might appearto be the result of pure transference:ann-weight to 'weighty' tone however,acquaintancewith Gestaltpsychologyteachesus otherwise.
In this context, I propose to representthe 'tonal body' as a spherical mass whose physical
attributes relate to those perceived by the ear as well as by the touch. The tonal body will
therefore be subject to various transformationslike any other moving object whose speed,
shapeanddirection is susceptibleto changeasvarious forces are applied to it.
By its means,we can now determinethreedistinct areasof musical activity:

Page62

a)

tonal characteristics

b)

tonal motion

C)

the behaviourof musical soundwhenvarious degreesof pressureare


appliedto the instrument.

There are also practical considerations which stem from a variety of experiences in
its
A
the
natural
sphere, with all
performance practice.
moldable object such as
characteristics,can 'appear' in performance to represent the tonal characteristics of the
hand;
being
thus when
the
to
the
the
time
motility of
musical soundwhile at
same
analogous
the movement of the musical line awakensa bodily response,the tip of the finger, which
it
if
in
directions
direct
key,
the
were
almost as
makes
contact with
constantly moves all
its
its
Furthermore,
the
the
all
and
arm
elasticity of
resting on a spherical surface own.
instance,
For
free-floating
detachedness
to
the
when
constituentparts relate
of sphericity.
pressureis increasedon the surface of the key, this results perceptually in a change to the
shapeof the sphere.

As a performingmusicianI haveoftenexperienced
the 'presence'
of an imaginaryspherical
objectwhich lies betweenthe tip of my finger and the key of the instrumentwhich I am
playing.I This feelingof restingmy finger on a sphericalobjectenablesme to movearound
thekey in all directions.It enablesme not only to 'feel' eachnoteas I play, but to 'feel' the
that existsascontactis madewith the key whenvariousdegreesof
resilienceandresistance
pressureareapplied.The plasticityandsuppleness
of the tissuesthatsurroundthis areaat the
tip of the finger as well as the abundance
of nerve-endings
which are concentratedin this
minuteareaenablemeto ascribethesemi-sphericity
of thefinger-tipitself to theplane
It has beensuggestedthat tonesare perceivedas Wies of sound'by thosewho perceivethem as entitiesthrough absolutepitch
association.Alan Costall, in his article on the "Relativity of AbsolutePitch" (cited in Musical Structureand Cognition) concludesthat the
1.

'current conceptionof absolutepitch assumesthat somepeoplecanirrunediatelyidentify tonesasentitiesin their own righL"

Page63

illusion
key
to
the
thus
an
i.
such
give rise
surfaceof
and
Tactility
has
intent
in
The role that tactility plays
communicating musical content as well as musical

beendealt with by Seeger:


"While auditory and visual systemsof communicationhave beenextensively and elaborately
little
been
have
thought of as
in
studied terms of speech,tactile systemsof communication
is
Tactile
its
Even
tactile.
communication produced
such.
principal categoriesare not named
by bodily movement,which is perceived,primarily, astouching.
"...Speechand music, as speciesof auditory communication, are linked inescapably with
The
hand
the
other.
and with tactile communication on
visual communication on the one
facial expression,the body stance,the gestures,and the affective statesand motor behaviours,
both
in
in
the
these,
the
speechand music, are
of
sounds
as well as
making of
manifest
invariable concomitants of both speech-making and music-making. Sometimes they
The
does
in
the
than
speakeror
their
auditory.
communicate
own ways as much as or more
musician who is near - within touching distance - of another speaker or musician"
if
by
fact
the
that
more so the two actually touch.
communicatesalso
of
nearnessand all

1.

Ilere are, besides,further practicalconsiderations:I hope the readerwill permit me, for a moment,to indulge in the world of

metaphors,after all. as Unger says,it is through suchplastic and powerful languagethat artistsoften expresstheir difficult thoughts: a
beautifulsoundis a soundwhich is'alive. It is alive becauseit pulsates- just as any living organismdoesthroughregularpulsationsof the
heart Ile performingmusicianfeelstheseregularpulsationstactilely on the undersideof his fingertip. If a note is playedby a strokewhich
is void of any flexibility, the note will sound'dead'.As Heinrich Neuhaussays,"good tone is dependenton the elasticity and the flexibility
not only of the fingertip but of the whole locomotor system"(seepage89). The imaginaryexistenceof a malleablespherebetweenthe
fingertipandthe key makesthe productionof goodtoneeasier:asthe finger restson sucha surface,it can'feel! its elasticpropertiesandthus
give the illusion that the musicaltone is 'alive'. Further-ore, as the sphereattainsa variety of physical propertiesby different modesof
contact,speedsof finger attackand pressureappliedto it, it will changein shapeand in characterand correspondaccordinglyto the shape
andcharacterof the musicalline.

Page64

One has seenthis - and, perhaps,felt it oneself - in the kind of vocal quartet singing in the
United Statescalled 'closeharmony' or 'barbershopquartet'singing, in which the shouldersof
the singers are pressed as closely as possible against each other, so that the tensions,
tonicities, and detensionsof each tonal, rhythmic, and formative progressionare felt as if it
were, by precise'tuning' of touch as well as by pitch, loudness,and phrasal agogic. Often as
inwardly"
hearing,
if
feeling,
the
as
eyes
are
closed, as one were seeing and
as well
not,
(ibid.).

Zuckerkandl,in his book Man the Musician, refers to the sensitivity of the human skin which
detectssensationsof sound.In this respecthe likens the senseof touch to that of hearing:
"The humanskin may be regardedas the prototype of a senseorgan combining the functions
of barred window and open door, which separatesthe organismfrom its environment and at
the sametime exposesit. The sheddingof all natural protective covering of the skin, which
distinguishesman from animal at least as basically as man'serect posture,may well mark the
turning point in evolutionary history where self-preservationas the highest goal of a living
being was subordinatedto self-assertionin the encounterwith the world, to knowledge of
self and world asthe highestgoal of a spiritual being.
"The ear has much more in common with the skin than with the eye: this is why, in deaf
persons,the ear'sfunction as organ of 'musical'sensationis taken over by the skin, not by the
eye. No graphic representationof soundsin the form of lines and curves on the oscilloscope
screencan serve as substitute for sensationsof sound. In contrast, when an area of skin
sensitiveto subtle vibrations is exposedto sound waves, it has sensationswhich, however
shadowy,correspondto sensationsof sound".

Page65

It is possible,therefore,to infer that musical soundcan also be conceivedat the point where
by
it
is
directly
key
is
that
manipulated
the
constantly
controlled
and
and
contact madewith
the finger-tip. In this respect, musical sound originates at thl. juncture and is intuitively
'body'
body.
This
tactilely
symbolizes none
as a spherical
portrayed,visualized and sensed
We
inherent
in
tone.
the
the
musical
psychodynamicenergy
other than the embodimentof
detail.
its
in
therefore
more
properties
examine
must
Certaincharacteristicsof the tonal body are tacitly acceptedthrough a systemof association
has
(1963)
Chailley
long
J.
this
has
been
that
based
shown
convention.
on
notational
which
ideas
with musical
apparentlynatural symbolism was originally an associationof external
identifying
long
through
through
with the
our
phenomenawhich arose
and constantpraxis (without
for
in
it
impossible
to
repudiating all our
us
associations such a way as
make
instincts) to abandona convention which we take in good faith to be musical expression
itself (cited in Nattiez, 1990) 1.
In this respectwe may say that we have been conditioned, by convention, to associate,for
instance, low sounds as being heavy, deep and dark, and high sounds as being light,
luminous and clear 2.JacquesHandschininvestigatescomparableconditions with regard to
the characteristicsof musical sound in his book The Characterof Tone (Der Toncharaktcr,
*
ZUrich, 1948). He refers to the propertiesof musical tone aspertaining predominantly to the
form:
hearing.
These
touch
to
than
to
the
of
rather
sense
senseof
sensoryqualifications refer
round-pointedor compressed;to surfaceproperties:hard-soft, smooth-rough;to temperature
sense:warm-cold; to internal structure: full-hollow, dense-loose;or to weight: heavy-light.
(cited in Drager, 1952).

1.

J.-J. Nattiez- Music andDi.wourse:Towarda Semk)logyofMusk (Princeton-1990 %eI-IZ

2.

Ile Greeksusedthe expressionleavy' for a low toneand'pointed'or 'sharp'for a high tone.

Page66

Z-)

Handschinconsiderswhether the integral propertiesof musical tone can be separatedin the


same way as an object can be separatedfrom its fundamental properties - whether tone,
which he saysis not just anotherobject, should even be regardedas an attribute of an object.
He concludesthat a tone is "neither tangible nor visible but fundamentally a process"(cited
in Dr5ger, 1952).

DrAger, on the other hand, maintains that tone is both an object and a process: "...not only
becausethe perceivedprocesstracesback to an object (which is also the casein seeing),but
also becausein hearing, it is the processtransmittedfrom the [originating] object, that we
perceiveas an object (which is not the casein seeing).Accordingly, a tone is a hypostatically
perceivedprocess."
Dr5ger attemptsto show that the material characteristicsof tone, which he says "offer the
bestjustification for Uhler's concept of 'tonal body', have particular structural significance
in music. His enquiry revolves around three such tonal characteristics:volume, density and
weight.

Volume
DrAgercites the annotationon a sketchof Beethoven'sPastoralSymphonyin which the
composernotesthat "thebiggerthestreamthelowerthetone"in orderto correlatefrequency
with volume.DrAgerdefinesvolumeasa tonalpropertywhich is determinedandconditioned
by the frequencyof the tone.Thus a low-frequencytone will be perceivedas possessing
a
larger volume than a high-frequencytone, the natural ponderousness
lowto
peculiar
frequencytonesbeingpartly dueto the long inceptionperiodof their vibrations:"dueto the
amountof material involved, and also becauseof the greater latency period of their
development
in theear" i.

1.

Drgerrefersthereaderto A. WeUek's
work en this subject,"Der Raumin der Musik", Archiv Mr die gesamtePsychologie,1934.

Page67

"The corporealimpressionof a greateror lesserinertia can also be attainedby interpretative


means.Thus, for example,in the answeringstring-qdartetstyle the inceptive vibration period
is shortenedas much as possible in the attack on low tones. Conversely,on the p.'ano, with
its less differentiated inceptive reaction to high and low frequency, the latency period is
simulatedby meansof agogics".
A tone hasalso what Drager calls a loudnessvolumc which is not frequency-relatedso that a
tone of identical frequency will be perceived as attaining greater tonal volume with
increasingloudness.He relatesthis phenomenonwith the experiencethat approachingsound
waves becomelouder whilst receding ones softer: "To the human perceiver, coming nearer
generally meansbecoming larger (for physical objects) or becoming louder (for sound). In
the caseof tone,the two impressionsfuse,sincetone is both an object and a process".
Density

The density of a tone is frequency-related,loudness-related and timbre-related. E.M. v.


Hornbostel (1926) and G. Albersheim (1939) both agree that a low-frequency tone is less
densethan a high-frequency tone (cited in DrUger).This relatestone-density to the vibration
rate so that a high-frequency tone with an increasingnumber of vibrating particles would
seemto be more compact, concentratedand therefore dense.DrUgerdistinguishes between
these tonal attributes which constitute the physical density of tone and what he calls the
auditory density of tones which he says remains approximately constant throughout the
musically relevantrangesof frequency.
Furthermore,DrUgermaintainsthat the density of a tone is also determinedby
amplitude. Its
density is therefore increased by means of dynamic intensification. This
would be its
JoudbCSS-d6nsity.
Thirdly, the tonal density is according to DrUger and Albersheim also
timbre-related.A clarinet tone, writes DrUger,"has less timbre-density than an equally loud
oboetone".

Page68

Weight
"A low-frequency tonc is heavy; a high-frequency tone light". Most musicians and
DrUger
DrUger.
It
in
this
constitutes
what
observationof
psychologistsare sympathy with
calls the frequency-weight of tones.Its loudness-weight is perceivedthrough an increaseof
its volume and similarly an "enrichmentof the gamut of overtones"will causean increaseto
the tonal weight. This timbre-weight is therefore, according to Drdger, dependent on the
timbre-density.
There are many instanceswhere compensatoryfactors emergein order to equalize different
quantities of volume, density and weight of tones so that, for instance,the equalization of
weight is possible in tones of different frequency by means of increasing the volume.
Similarly, by meansof greater loudnessa clarinet tone can attain equal density to an oboe
tone (Dr5ger 1952).

DrAger'sconcept of 'tonal body' is musically convincing if terminologically confusing. The


notion that tone is "both an object and a process"is one to which I fully subscribeand one
which substantiatesthe view proposedin this study of music being the result of such a 'tonal
body'being set in motion.
Whilst DrAger's concept enabled him to consider the structural significance of tone in
musical composition,the sameconceptcan be made to apply to its structural significance in
musical performance. One of the most important aspects of tonal perception to the
performing musician is the senseof touch, so that, in addition to what Drager proposes,we
can contemplatetouch-relatedtonal characteristicssuch as touch-weight, touch-density and
touch-volume.These would be dependentand related to the amount of weight, density and
volume one sensesin touching the keys of the instrument.

Page69

A heavier approachwould naturally result in a tone sounding louder and heavier but the
auditory experienceis not always so straightforwardly aligned to the tactile experience.For
instance,a low-frequency tene played lightly could feel 'lighter' than a high-frequency tone
played 'heavily'.
Similarly, a tone would becomedenserwhen increasingpressureis applied to the key. This
is analogousto what DrUgerdescribesas a tone's timbre-density. There is, Drager writes, a
special "play with density" when string players play in lower positions instead of crossing
the strings in passingto the higher frequencytones.Becauseof the radically changedrelation
of thicknessand length, the string assumesa more compactform and the tone a new timbre
character,a greatertimbre-dcnsity". Whilst this is true, one must also allow for the fact that
the player would feel tactilely the increasednatural resilience of the string as he moves
higher up the fingerboard. Therefore, 'density' is not confined solely to the auditory
experience.As each sound acquires different tonal characteristicsrelating to the type of
contactwhich the human body haswith the instrument,be it stringed or keyboard, the tactile
experienceperforms an important anddeterminingrole in identifying the tonal image.
Furthermore, the time-factor is important in determining various 'quantities' of tonal
character.DrNger refers to the interpretative factor that relates the latency period of tones
through agogicsto the long inception period of vibrations of low frequencytones.As a result
of this procedurethe tone whose value is increasedacquiresa higher tonal volume and can
be perceivedassounding'heavier'.

Page70

To sum up, there seemsto be a combination of determining factors which affect the tonal
characterof a musical sound. These include volume, density and weight, as proposed by
DrUger,Albersheim, Handschinand Hornbostelas well as the tactile and time factors. These
encompassthe natural tendenciesof tones (i. e. those of different frequencies) as well as
thosewhich are under the direct control of the performer (i. e. the time and tactile factors).
The significance of this line of enquiry lies in the possibility of calibrating the various
'quantities'both in composition (as DrAgerproposes)and in performance.This meansthat an
awarenessof 'tonal bodies' will begin to play a conscious role in the structuring of a
compositionjust as it will in the subsequentact of interpretationso as to ensurein both wellbalancedand homogeneousmusical textures.

Page71

TABLE III

DRAGER'S CONCEPT OF TONAL BODY

1.

2.

FREQUENCY FACTOR:

TIME FACTOR:

low tone

high volume

high tone

low volume

short spacing

low volume

large spacing

highvolume

INTERPETATIVE FACTOR:

AB

latencyperiodanalogous
to long inception

4.

11)

LOUDNESS-VOLUME:

periodof vibrationsof low-frequencytones,i.e.,


noteB arriveslate:noteA hashighervolume
increasingloudness

** ** ** *****

Page72

increasingvolume

DENSrFY

1.

FREQUENCY FACTOR:

a)
b)

2.

physical:

density
variable

auditory:

constantdensity
increasingdensity

LOUDNESS FACTOR:

increasingloudness

TIMBRE FACTOR:

Example:clarinet tone haslesstimbre-density than an


equally loud oboetone.

WEIGHT
FREQUENCY FACTOR:

low-frequencytone

heavy

high-frequencytone

light

increasingweight

2.

LOUDNESSFACTOR:

increasingloudness

3.

TIMBRE FACTOR:

AlthoughDrgerdoesnot definethis clearly,it is


thattheclarinetandoboeexample
possibleto assume
givenby him to elucidatetimbre-densitywould
indicate
to
timbre-weight.Therefore,
similarlyapply
loud
be
lighter
than
tone
oboe
anequally
clarinet
would
tone.
Page73

Whilst

the various compartmentalizations applied by DrNger and others are most

III
Table
is
informative,
times,
that
they
tend
to
as
at
produce a picture
enlightening and
might suggest, somewhat tortuous and confusing. DrAger's analy-Is of the various conditions
loudness
instance,
For
border
to
tones
times
the
to
tautology.
of a
seems
at
on
which pertain
tone will determine its volume, density and weight. An intensified tone will increase all these
accordingly. A tone that emerges from playing a stringed instrument in one position will
acquire density while at the same time increasing in weight. Dependent on the frequency of
the tone produced, it will also possess tonal characteristics which are frequency- related. If
this tone is compared to one which is lower in pitch, the increase in weight which is densityrelated would be contradicted by the decreasein weight which is frequency- related.

The contradictoryfactors increasewhen one proceedsfurther to introduceelementsof timing


and tactility. For this reason,it would be desirableto seekout a primary, dominant and allprevailing condition capableof identifying the tonal characteristicsof that particular tone. In
this respect,only the individual's awareness,drawn from s wealth of musical experiences,
canbe summonedto gaugethe overall effect to his sensoryperception.

Nevertheless,
whilst maintainingthe individual characteristics
of tones,it is possibleand
indeeddesirableto simplify theseandintroduceoneumbrellaterm that looselyencompasses
all the criteria involved.For this reasonI havechosento apply the term 'mass'to denote,
moreor lessin general,the volume,weightanddensityof musicaltone.Wherepertinent,I
shallstill refer to the individualqualitiesof tonesasdefinedby DrUger.An increaseto the
'mass',therefore,would imply an increaseof either tonal weight, tonal volume or tonal
density,anincreaseof a combinationof theseor anoverallincreaseof all three.
From an interpretativepoint of view, the performer must be awareof the malleablecharacter
of tonesand how thesebehaveas a result of his contact with the instrument. Therefore, we
must now consider how the characterof a tone is affected by the forces that act upon it.
Firstly, we must identify and define theseforces.

Page74

CHAPTER 11

CHAPTER H

FORCES THAT SET SOUND IN MOTION

PART I: MECHANISMS

As eachclassof instrumentscorrespondsto a distinctive stimulus for propagatingsound,this


the extent
and assesses
chapterlooks at the mechanismthat the modem pianoforte possesses,
to which this mechanismrespondsto various manipulations.

2.1 THE PIANO:

On most instruments,the player controls the mannerin which sound vibrates by interfering
its
with
pattern of vibration. In this way, the player can produce a variety of tone colours,
known as timbre. On the piano, there has beena great deal of controversy as to whether the
pianist can influence the timbre and overall quality of the sound produced by the way in
he
which or shestrikes the key.

Musiciansclaim, on empiric grounds,that control of quality lies in the handsof skilled


players.TobiasMatthay(1924) suggeststhat a variety of "touch" will inducea variety of
tone colours."The more graduallya key-speedis attainedthe more beautiful is the tone
character- thefuller, more'sympathetic'
singingandcarryingin its quality.The moresudden
thekeydepression
theharsheris theresultingtonequality" i.

1.

SeeAppendix I

Page75

Matthay supported his views by subscribing to the theories of Hermann Helmholtz i.


Helmholtz, in his The sensationsof tone, as a physiological basisfor the theory of music,
by
"in
the
tone-excitation
that
the
me..-s of the
effect
of
maintains
pianoforte playing
hammerdependson the length of time the latter remainslying on the string. For if the soft
elastic surface of the hammer is brought against the string without audible blow, then the
inercases
back,
itself
before
hammer
has
the
time
to
and
springs
propagate
movement
graduallyandconstantlyduring the time of contact".
Indeed, many notable figures in pianoforte playing subscribeto Matthay's theory: Joseph
Lhevine 2 refers to the "Forte-Piano"which he says"could do far more than play loud or soft.
It permits the production of different classesof sound quality within its range. These are
controlledby touch".
Heinrich Neuhaus3 identifies the elementsin what he calls "the locomotor system" which
induce a variety of tone colours: F force, m mass, v velocity and h height. He upholds the
view that "every experiencedpianist knows that to get a tender, warm, penetratingtone you
have to pressthe keys very intensively, deeply, keeping the fingers as close to the keys as
possible,with "h" at a minimum".
Scientists,on the other hand, maintain that the only variable responseto the style of striking
the piano key is the intensity of the soundproduced.

1.

HermannHelmholtz- 77jesensationsof tone,ass physiologicalbasisfor the theoly ofMuSk (1863)

2.

JosephIlievine -Bask prjncojesin pignoforteplaying (1924 : e%. 1)

3.

Heiarkh Neuhaus 77jojrt ofpianoplaying (1973 :f - I IL)

Page76

William Newman(1984) 1points out that "the thesishasbeenestablishedbeyond reasonable


key
few
diehards
the
that
the
cannot affect the
of
striking
style
notwithstanding,
challenge,a
timbre that results
Otto Ortmann (1925) 2 summarizeshis researchinto the "the physical basis of piano touch
is
"what
do,
by
the
that
tone"
piano, to produce
we actually
when playing
concluding
and
soundsof various pitch, intensity andduration.Nothing more".
Furthermore, Hart, F.uller and Lusby (1934), 3 in their study of piano touch and tone,
by
the
a pianist with
produced
carefully recorded and compared
wave patterns of sounds
those produced by mechanical means. The results showed that the wave traces were
indistinguishablewhetherproducedmechanicallyor by a pianist.
Nevertheless,scientistsagreethat certain criteria may influence the quality of a single tone
on the piano. C.A. Taylor (1965) 4 saysthat "a considerationof the mechanicsof the hammer
mechanismof the piano suggeststhat it is unlikely that the pianist can have any control over
the hammerother than the velocity with which it strikes the string. Working from this basic
fact it was at one time claimed that it could only result in the pianist being able to control the
intensity of sound produced, and that no control of quality was possible". The claim by
in
however,
investigation
did
in
further
fact
that
musicians
occur, prompted
control of quality
in
have
have
ignored
been
the earlier
that
essential
elements
elements
emerged:
which
discussions,and which seem to reconcile the views of the physicists and the musicians.
Someof theseessentialelementsare:

1.

WMiamNewman- 77jepianba'sproblems(1984'. ej-

2.

Otto Ortmann

3.

Hart,FuRerandLusby

4.

C.A. Taylor - 71jephysicsofinusical sounds(1965)

- The physical b8sis ofpJano touch and tone (1925)

-"A precisionstudyof pianotouchandtone", 77jefoumaloftbe AcousticalSocietyofAmerka. (1934)

Page77

1) that although the velocity of the hammer is the only variable under control, the

in
intensity
influence
in
fact
does
have
tone
than
the
the
an
on
other
aspects
of
velocity
general, the higher the velocity the greater the predominanceof higher harmonics (Hart,
Fuller and Lusby). Thus, the pianist controls both loudnessand timbre at the sametime.
2) that the use of the sustainingpedal, which raisesthe dampersfrom all the strings,
can have a considerableeffect on the overall quality by determining the amount of overlap
betweennotes.It also permits a certain amountof sympatheticvibration which influences the
shapeof the original vibration. The new overtoneconstellationis heardas a new timbre.
3) that the use of the left pedal, which allows only two strings to be struck, producesa
weakerovertonetexture,resulting in a different timbre.
4) that the noise element resulting from the impact of the finger on the key, of the
hammeron the string and of the return of the reboundinghammer,all form a significant part
of the piano tone.
Duration of impact

Furthermore,
considerations
suchas the lengthof time during which the hammerremainsin
contactwith the string,is of utmostimportance.Ortmanndescribesthe effectthis hason the
vibratingbody:"the hammerremainsin actualcontactwith the stringfor a certaintime. The
durationof contactbetweenhammerandstringdecreases
A
as we increasehammer-speed.
very short contacttime permitsa string to vibrate in small as well as larger segments;a
longercontacttime destroysthesesmallervibrations.Hence,with a very shortdurationof
strokewe shoaldexpecta tone riLh in high upperpartials,and with a longer durationof
strokea tonewith fewerupperpartials.
In this respect,Ortmann'sobservations
are compatiblewith thoseof Matthayand both are
basedon thetheoriesof HermannHelmholtz.
Page78

Resonator

Another factor to consider in the production of tone colour on the piano, is the resonating
effect the body of an instrument has on sound. Ortmann maintains that: "the duration of a
tone dependsupon the speedwith which the energy of these vibrations is absorbedby the
resonator.That often misusedexpression,"singing" tone, when applied to the piano, is due to
the above-mentionedphenomenon.That is, the tone-quality of an instrument is largely
dependentupon the resonancerelationshipbetweengeneratorand resonator".

Multiple tones
When two tones are heard simultaneouslyor in close succession,the two resulting overtone
serieswill influence each other. Levarie and Levy (1980) 1 point out that "resonancewill
amplify some overtones,interference will cancel others. Whatever the subtle interplay, a
change of timbre is the result. The pianist's control over loudness indirectly affects the
resultanttimbre. By striking one of the keys harder,the pianist brings to life this tone'shigher
partials.The infinite possibilities in which the player can grade the dynamic relationship of
two tonesare reflected in an infinite variety of timbre shadings.The "singing legato" melody
is the result of a good performer's carefully holding over one tone to the next while
sensitivelydiversifying the successivedynamic levels. The timbre potentialsof two tones are
steeplyincreasedwhen threeand more tonesare in play".

"Timbre" is thereforeundeniablypresentwhen two or more tones are producedeither


successivelyor simultaneously.

1.

lAvarie andLevy - Tone:it Studyin Muskol Acoustics 2nd edition(1980)


-

Page79

Personal Experience

Over many years I have found that an increase of pressure on the key after the note has been
imperceptible
in
its
induces
gight
to the ear.
change
sound quality, almost
a
played
At the moment that pressure is increased, the sound becomes minutely richer in quality. In

observingthe mechanicsof this action, it is found that the two componentsaffected when
pressureis applied on the key are the hammerand the damper.
The hammer moves closer to the string by no more than two or three millimetres. The
damper, likewise, moves away from the string by approximately the same distance. In
explaining this phenomenon,I could only speculatethat the damper, while moving away
from the string, increasesthe resonatingpropertiesof the instrumentin someway or another,
thusproducingan intensified soundcolour.
Conversely,if pressureis reducedso that the key movesslightly away from the key-bed, the
mtensityo the soundis lessened.
Whatever the precise action of the mechanismor the scientific explanation, the result is
barely audible, but if one listens extremely attentively, one can discern a slight alteration to
the quality of the sound. The technique which is applied to the key when producing this
is
effect not difficult to master: the key has to be struck precisely (as to produce a good
resonatingsound) but it must not reach the bottom level of the key-bed. It can therefore
continueits way to its final resting position by an extendedpressureof the finger to the key,
thus resultingin a changeof soundintensity.

I am surethat manyartistsapply similar techniqueswith equallyefficaciousresults.Closer


scrutiny of the generatingand resonatingpropertiesof the instrument, as it is affected by a
changeof pressureapplied to the key, might well produce resultscapableof challenging the
age-oldnotion that oncea key hasbeendepressed,the soundescapesany further control.
Page80

Aesthetic Considerations

My theorieson this scorecome in direct contradictionwith much that hasbeenwritten on the


subject,including the principles put forward by Tobias Matthay (Seeappendix 1). Some may
argue,however, that the change in colour, if any, which is induced as a result of fingerpressureto the key, is so imperceptibleas to render the theory void of real substance.It may
well be that other considerations,psychologicalas much as physical, shedmore light on the
belief held by many artists that soundinducement,real or illusory, is indeed possible on the
piano.
Beyond a level in which constantphysical laws prevail, there exists an illusory level which
nonethelesshas the power to prompt our complicity. Levarie and Levy explain: "time and
again,the suggestivecharacterof acousticalimpressionsassertsitself. We hear, not so much
is,
but what we want to hear.The suggestionof timbre as a product of changesin
there
what
dynamicsand in articulation (legato-staccato)has well demonstratedits irresistibility by the
belief amongpianists,which is still lingering on, that they are able to produce it physically
an obvious impossibility. In suggestiveor, as we should rather say, evocative power, the
piano is foremost among music instruments. It has been jokingly called an 'illusion
machine"'.
Louis Kentner i makesa similar assertion:"no doubt the singing tone on the piano is partly
illusion;
but to do everything in his power to createsuch an illusion is surely one of the
an
foremosttasksof the greatillusionist that the greatpianist hasto be".

Louis Kentner- "PUNO" in: YehudiMenuhin


mumcguide(1976 -* ell

Page81

SI)

Tactile Sensations

One important aspect,which is still to be consideredadequately -s the physical sensationof


key,
descent
heavy
instrument.
In
the
this
the
onto
respect, physical sensationof a
playing an
'feels'heavy,even if the resulting soundquality is accountedfor not in terms of weight but in
termsof hammer-speedalone. Equally, the physical sensationof an increasedpressureto the
key would be perceivedby our sensorsasan increasein the soundintensity.
CONCLUSION:

My own conclusions,basedpartly on scientific theoriesand partly on empirical knowledge


is
in
is
in
the
this
the
that
piano,
soundquality, as expressed
chapter,
medium of
as outlined
in
illusory
tonal
to
the
to
manner
gradings,
or otherwise, according
susceptible a variety of
force
is
a
applied to the sound-producingmechanism.
which
As Ortmannpoints out: "every pianistic effect existing for audition, including the most subtle
shadesof emotion, can fully be explained in terms of the physical attributes. And when
thesefail to explain all the effects, this doesnot establishthe presenceand operation of other
mysterious,super-psychologicalstimuli; it means,merely, that piano playing as an art is not
entirely auditory in character,but appealsalso to other sensedepartments.Chief among these
kinaesthetic
the
and the visual senses,which, in the music appreciationof today, are of
are
decided
importance".
very

For the purposes of this study, Ortmann's assertion, which in one way or another is
compatible with as well as complementaryto our other premises, shall suffice. In this
is
the
piano
capableof all the nuancesthat other instrumentsare heir to.
respect,

Page82

PART II: THE HUMAN APPARATUS

When a musical instrument is played, each individual note which is heard has been produced
by applying a variety of stimuli or forces to the sound-producing mechanism of the
instrument. How this force is applied and what its mode of action and movement are will be
discussedherewith.

Musical experienceswhich result from a variety of stimuli exertedby the human body on the
sound-producingmechanismmay be expressedagainsta backgroundof natural phenomena.
The following is a list of definitions and axioms:
FORCE:

A force is a pushor a pull. It causesthreethings:


a) a changeto the shapeof the object on which it is exerted
b) a changeto the speedat which an object moves
c) a changeto the direction in which an object moves.

WEIGHT:

The force that gravity exertson an object. The greaterthis force, the
greaterthe weight.

MASS:

The amountof matterwhich a body containsirrespectiveof its volume


orshape.

PRESSURE:

The amountof force that is concentratedon a specific area.

DENSITY:

The massof an object calculatedon a unit volume.

ELASTICITY:

The property of matterthat extendsand retractsto its original


size after a force hasbeenexertedon it.

Page83

SPEED:

Speed is defined as the rate at w4ich distance is covered. It is calculated


in respect to distance travelled in time.

VELOCITY:

Velocity is the speedand direction of an object in motion.

ACCELERATION: Accelerationis an increaseof velocity in time.


MOMENTUM:

Momentumis the product of massx velocity

IMPULSE:

Impulse is a changeof momentum

Laws of Motion
When a force is appliedto an object, it will causea changein its velocity. When there
is no force, the object remainsstill or movesat a constantspeedi.
2)

The amount of acceleration 7a

body is

-,J.
a(irece,

force
to
the
amount of
related

applied to it 2.

3)

Themomentumprior to animpactequalsthemomentumafteranimpact,or actionand


reactionforcesareequalandOpposite
3.

1.

Newton'sfirst law of motion


Newton'ssecondlaw of motion

3.

Newton'sthird law nf motion

Page 84

2.2 LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM:

The locomotor systemis the human apparatuswhich permits a seriesof actions being carried
by
instrument
through
the
means of which
sound-producingmechanismof a musical
out
soundis initiated.
In piano playing, the physical componentsmost evidently in play when the locomotor system
is activated are: the upper arm, forearm, hand, wrist, fingers, as well as all their respective
joints and feet. In somecasesthe whole body is activated.The playing mechanism,therefore,
comprisesthe individual componentsjust as it doesthe totality of the humanbody.
The samecomponentsare in use, in a greater or lesserdegree,when other instruments are
is
locomotor
Therefore,
the
the
the
system
most of
way
principles concernedwith
played.
activatedwhen playing the piano might equally apply to playing other instrumentsaswell.
The human mechanismdraws energy from two sources:the muscles of the body and the
force of gravity. In the case of the piano, this energy is transferredfrom the body to the
instrumentat the point at which the fingertip meetsthe key.

SoundProduction
When a body is in motion, it possessesthree fundamental properties: mass, speed and

direction.The subtletiesof soundproductionarisefrom the interplayof thesefundamental


agcnts.

Page 85

1) Direction:

The hand basically moves in four directions: up and down, to the right and left, to the side
anddeepinto the keybed i.
A combination of these basic movements,involving the various componentsof the human
apparatus(finger, wrist, forearm, etc), producesan infinite variety of motions: both physical
and'musical'.

2) Mass:
As the gravitational forces act upon the massof an object, massturns into weight. As weight

incrcascs,
soundincreascs.
Tobias Matthay differentiates betweena movementwhich draws energy from gravitational
pull and a movementthat draws energyfrom muscularcontraction: the former, according to
him, induces a more 'sympathetic'sound, whereasthe latter produces a more 'aggressive'
sound.
Similarly, it has been suggestedthat the magnitude of the force of impact, called weight,
to the quality of the sound.
producesa changein the volume and as a consequence,
These notions, however, have been discounted on the grounds that weight increasesthe
speedat which the hammer hits the string and that it is speed alone that determines the
volume of the sound.Gy.,)rgy Sandoi makesthis point clear:
Onemay liken the motionsof the handto the threebasic
movementsof the aircraft which takeplaceaboutthreeaxesat right angie
to eachotherandcalledthelongitudinal,lateraland venicalornormal axis.Furthermore,the hand
may movedeepinto the keybed.

Page86

"The notion that the full weight of the arm produces more sound than a lighter weight is
erroneous: the fact is that the activation of a longer lever generates more speed than a shorter
one and therefore we add the upper arm to the forearm. The activation of the whole arm
increase
to
the speed of the fingertips in a whiplike action. We should not equate grcat
serves
tonal volume with a larger weight but rather with the speed that a longer lever can
generate" i.

Nevertheless,the more componentsthat are involved in striking the key, the heavier the blow
appears:an isolatedfinger movementproducesa lighter touch; as the leverageis extendedby
the useof other componentssuchasthe wrist, forearm and upper arm, the weight increases.
3) Spccd.Speeddirectly affects the dynamic level of the sound that is produced.As we have seen,it
bearssignificance to the quality of the sound as and when the duration of contact between
hammerand string increasesand decreases:the duration of contact decreasesas hammerspeedincreasesand vice versa2.

Matthaydistinguishes
betweena slow anda fast speedof approachto the key. He maintains
that "the more gradually this key-speedis attainedthe more beautiful is the tone characterthe more suddenthe key depressionthe harsheris the resulting tone quality" 3.
1.

Gyorgy Sandor-On PianoPlaying(1981, te. 28)

2.

For furtherexplanationto this phenomenon,I referthe readerto PartI of this chapter:'Mechanisms'


SeeAppendix I

Page 87

It has also been suggestedby Matthay (and many pianists subscribe to this) that a flat
does
'warmer'
key,
finger
last
than
an
the
the
sound
producesa
on
phalanx of
position of the
Finger-Attitude'
Thrusting
(Bent)
Matthay
and
the
two
these
positions
calls
upright position.
the'Clinging (Flat) Finger-Attitude'. Louis Kentner suggeststhat flat-finger technique,which
This
finger-touch.
is
'cantabile'
than
touch,
a
more properly an arm-touch
producesa more
in
is
the
hammer-speed
thus
that
producing
employed
greater
more weight suggests
desirable'cantabile'effect i.
Contrary to this is the principle, put forward by Otto Ortmann, that curved-finger touches
louder
hammer-speed
finger
flat
tones2.
therefore
touches
than
and
greater
produce
Kentner'ssuggestionthat flat-finger techniqueinvolves the use of the arm would suggestthat
the resulting soundis dynamically more intenseeven when applied to cantabileplaying. This
is the result of an extendedleverageinducing greaterhammer-speed.Ortmann on the other
hand, suggeststhat flat-finger techniqueproducesa slower hammer-speedand therefore a
lessdynamically intensesoundquality.

Whilst thereis a clear discrepancyhere,this would indicatethat for Kentnera flat-finger


techniqueproduces a richer and more sonorouscantabile sound, whereas for Ortmann, it
producesa softer,lighter cantabilesound.

1.

Lmis Kentner- "PLALNO"


in YehudiMenuhinMusic Guide ( 19j 6)
Otto Ortmann- 7he PhysicalBasisofPiano Touchand Tone (II 15)

Page 88

Elasticity

The notion prevails amongstmany pianists that a 'flatter' finger, in which the fleshy pad on
the undersideof the fingertips touchesthe key, is more resilient and therefore more able to
'feel' the vibrations that sound generates.This leads to the assumption that a flat-finger
techniqueproducesa more 'cantabile'soundbecauseit is related to the cushionedproperties
fingertip
key.
the
the
the
at
point
of
contact
of
with
In piano playing tenns, elasticity is analogousto flexibility. For this reason,according to
Heinrich Neuhaus,good 'tone' is dependenton the elasticity and the flexibility not only of the
fingertip but of the whole locomotor system:la souplesseavant tout i.
JosephLhevinne statesthe importance of maintaining a flexible wrist: "If the cushions of
flesh on the ends of the fingers are the pneumatic tires in piano playing, the wrist is the
spring or the shock absorber.For this reason it is next to impossible to produce a good
singing tone with a stiff wrist. The wrist must always be flexible. The more spring the less
bump; and it is bumpsthat makefor bad tone on the piano" 2.
Completefreedom and relaxation of arm and wrist is, accordingto Neuhaus,the sine qua non

of a goodtone.

1.

A phraseattributedto ChopinandLiszt

2.

Jose
f 11eyinne- BasicPrinciples
in Pianofbf
le Raying(1924 *. ej. 1q)

Page89

Basic Technical Patterns

Sandor has identified and defined five basic technical patt--ns which he applies to
He
the
that
these
contends
the
are
required.
as
and
when
piano,
performing a work on
the
five
to
indicates
as
technical
select
these
patterns
which of
musical text clearly

appropriatetechnicalsolution i.
into
bringing
by
five
technical
basis,
patterns
As a
these
patterns serve a useful purpose
identify
is
these
it
Though
to
in
the
useful
certainly
score.
conformity with musical patterns
basictechnicalpatterns,it is their combinationwhich one encountersin practice:
A

free fall

five-fingers, scalesand arpeggios

rotation

staccato

thrust

In essence,
theycanbedefinedasfollows:
Frcc Fall:

The basicconceptof a free fall is that the force of gravity is allowed to pull the weight of the
locomotor systemto the keys, with as little interferenceas possiblefrom the musclesof the
body. It is donein threestagesin a successiveseriesof motions: lift, drop and landing.

1.

GyorgySandor-On PianoPlaying(1981 -. ft.

'65- 137)

Page 90

Heinrich Neuhaus describes this effect as "pure weight" falling on to the keys. This
technique, he says, is applied "by raising the hand above the keyboard and dropping on to the
key with the "pure weight" of the hand without any pressure, but also without any holding
back, come corpo morto caddc (as a dead body falls) as Dante puts it" i.

Fivc-fingm,

scalcs, and arpcggios:

The useof the five fingers in playing scalesand arpeggiosinvolves the intricate participation
of all the different components of the human playing mechanism. Independenceof the
fingers is achievedby interdependenceWith other components.The main sourceof energy is
the musclesaided by the force of gravity. The basic conceptis that the finger falls vertically
on the key while supportedby the other parts of the locomotor system.The vertical direction
finger
key
is
in
line with the vertical direction of the key during descent.
the
to
the
of
As a pattern, five finger techniqueis employedwhen a sequentialseriesof rising or falling
motives are encounteredin the score.This pattern implies the use of a separatefinger attack
when notes are separatedand the increasedinvolvement of other components,such as the
whole arm and wrist, when notesare groupedtogether.
The motions of the fingers are describedwithin the threedimensions:vertical, horizontal and
depth(depth refers to the plane from the back of the key to its edge).The fingers reach their
optimal functioning by adjustingtheir positionsalong thesethreelines.
In slow passages,the fingers are placed in their positions and then activated, whereas in
fasterpassages,
they are 'thrown' toward their desiredposition.

lieinrichNei! haus-ne, 4jlofpianon, lying(1973-.

fl.

100)

Page 91

Rotation:

The principle of rotary movementis that it allows thd hand to move on its longitud.tial axis
is
This
is
forearm.
fingers
by
The
technique
the
activated
are notionally active.
which
is
in
is
down
It
that
technique
widely
a
sequence.
employedwhen passagesmove up and or
in
used the executionof trills:

Chopin - Etude Op 10 No 5

A patternthat could be executedusing rotational movement

Staccato:
The staccatotechniqueinvolves the use of the strongestmuscleswhich transmit their energy
throughthe entire arm, the wrist or the finger. We can thus have: arm staccato,wrist staccato
finger
staccato.
and
The duration of contact on the surfaceof the key is a mere fraction of a second.The playing
equipmentreboundson impact. Motions that use the various combinations of upper arm,
forearm,wrist and finger generatedifferent tone qualifies and quantitiesaccording to the way
the equipment is used. The four componentsinvolved can vary their speed, height and
position, and can vary the prominencegiven to any one of them or to any combination of
thesecomponents.

Page 92

Thrust. -

Whereasin the free fall, musclesdo not participateduring the downward motion of the arm
(its fall and accelerationbeing causedexclusively by the force of gravity), thrust is executed
direction
The
is
by
Neither
force
the
of gravity nor weight employed.
purely active muscles.
of the pushis vertical:
high wrist

low wrist

The patternsdiscussedinvolve useof the two sourcesfrom which a pianist draws energy: the
force of gravity and the muscles,either independentlyor in combination.
Heinrich Neuhausmakesextensiveuse of certain symbols to indicate a variety of touch that
he
be
(mass),
These
(velocity),
h
(height)
F
(force),
to
the
symbols,
can applied
piano:
m
v
i.
"I
have
borrowed
for
from
help
They
says,
understanding
physics and mechanics.
are a great
and using the physical possibilities of the piano, consideredas a mechanism....by gradually
increasingthe force of the action -F and the height at which the hand is raised -h we come
to the upper limit of volume (Aff), after which we get not tone but noise, since the
mechanical(lever) arrangementof the piano doesnot allow excessivespeed(y) coupled with
an excessivemass(m). The energy of the blow which the key receivesis determined by the
force -F- which we apply to the hand and the height
before
is
hand
the
to
raised
-h- which
being lowered on to the key. The speedof the hand at the moment when it strikes (v) varies
dependingon the value of F and h. It is precisely this figure (y) and the mass(m) of the body
(finger, hand,arm etc.) striking the key that determinesthe energywhich actson the key".

Ile practicalmeaningof thesevalueswassothoroughlymasteredby his pupils,that he had merelyto


makebrief observations
suchas:too much v or too little h or not enoughFand his pupils would respondaccordingly.

Page93

The basic movements of the pianist's locomotor system, which will be featured to a greater

extentin this study, are the following:


Figure Il - 1:

up/down

a combinationof the two

to the side

rotary

Page 94

2.3 STAGE I OF MODUS OPERANDI (Preparation):

The forces that set sound in motion, as defined in this chapter, prepare for action before
is
begins
is
For
this
stage
which
at
preparatory
realized.
many musicians, music
sound
brea
intake
Ah
beat:
the
the
of a singer or a wind
to
of
preparatory
commonly referred as
T.
for
Edward
hands
the
action.
ready
player, the upbeatof a conductor, the mobilization of
Cone i implies as much by suggestingthat "perhapssome of the silence immediately before
itself'.
but
frame,
is
the
work
of
and after a composition actually a part, not of the
discharges
draws
two
There are two stagesto this preparation:stage one
energy and stage
this energy. As sound is realized at any time during stage two of this process, we will
in
its
impact
Operandi
11
Modus
the proceedingchapter.
the
at stage of
examine
Suffice it to say, that the preparatory beat is, by all accounts,one of the most important
integral stages to music-making. For instance, every reliable authority on conducting
importance
beat:
the
the
of
preparatory
confirms

Awarenessbetweenperforming musicians:
Daniel Barenboim,writing on "conducting" 2, statesthat the conductor'supbeat has a direct
influence on the first note, whether it should sound hard or soft; on the way it is sustained;

it
to
what
extent
shouldvibrate.
and

1.

EdwardT. Cone MusicalForm andMusical Perfonnance(1968 ff


17- 11)
.

2.

DanielBarenboirn Life in Music (1991 :fT2


-A

4)

Page 95

Likewise, Furtwdnglersaysthat "The power to affect a note - and this cannot be emphasized
According
itself
beat
in
to
the
beat,
of
in
lies
nature
the
the
the
not
too often preparationof
..
the beatandits preparation,so will be the soundthat is created..." i.
Andr6 Previn once observed that once the preliminary beat has been set in motion, the
"in
downbeat
in
delivering
time"
Any
delay
the
impact
has
been
predetermined.
moment of
would causean undesirablemusical effect.
The mobilization of forcesduring the preparatorystagecreatesa certain "aura" that by nature
forms an important constituentelementto the composition2.

)
'10
1-

1.

(19
91 :f
Frtwngleron Music - EksiVsandAddrews editedandtranslatedby RonaldTaylor

2.

RecentlyI hadto choosea takefrom a recordingsessionto beginBeethoveWs


PianoSonataOp 110.1found one in which the first

chordseemedto me to havethe right approachandattackresultingin a soundthat emergedslowly out of nowhere.I was surprisedwhen I
heardthe first edit of my work. that the first chord did not seemto me to be as well judged as I rememberedit. It somehowstartedrather
suddenlyanddid not comeinto focusslowly. This wasof concernto me,so I wentbackto the original sessiontakesto listen to it again.To
my amazementI realizedthat just a fraction of a secondbeforeI struckthe chord, there was a slight stool noise which the engineervery
studiouslyeditedout. He did not interferein any way with the actualsound,but editedout the 'aura". WhenI mentionedthis, he agreedwith
me andrestoredthe original "noisy" take,but with the intensitycreatedby the upbeat,fully revived.

Page96

CHAPTER III

CHAPTER IH

MUSIC IN MOTION
(STAGE Il - IMPACT)
SPEED OF MUSIC* - PART I
3.1 INNER METRE:

The forces that set sound in motion, as defined in the preceding chapter, now proceed to
in
described
be
in
terms
The
of
themselves
will
experiences
sound.
resulting
musical
realize
in
laws
bodies
motion.
which govern all
physicalphenomenaand

inner
Operandi
Modus
to
the
The phenomena
this
the
to be encountered
pertain
at
stageof
be
in
this
the
they
only
explored and
mind
and
can
of
operation:
are perceived
mode
explainedin metaphoricalterms.Mass,speedanddirectionof the bodyin motion,which we
direction
in
inner
the
of
music
and
call:
mass
speed
of
mode,
shall
of
music,
encounter
we
music.Eventhoughoneinfluencestheother,eachwill bedealtwith separately.

I saidto
* Severalyearsago,a studentwasplaying in classso feverishlythat the paceof the music washecticto the point of breathlessness.
the student:
Tleaseslow down'
'You mean,' he said, makea ritenuto?,
Vo: I replied
I see,'he said, you meanplay at a slowertempo'
T4o,'l repliedagain,'whatI am askingyou to do is slow downthe speed of the music; think of crochetimpulsesinsteadof serniquaverones
andexercisefewerandthusslowerphysicalmovementsin which a greaternumberof noteswill be delivered'.
WhatI wasreaUysayingto the studentwas:slow down the'speedof music';not the tempo,but the pacein which the music 'proceedie.

Page97

Methodsof production which alter the natureof soundquantitatively as well as qualitatively,


produce contrasting patterns. Patternsof similar characteralso emerge.The periodicity of
theserelated patternsestablishesa rhythmic pattern that adds an-+herdimension to musical
perception.This concept,which we call 'Speedof Music', will be examinedin detail in this
chapter.
Velocity and Speed
In musical terms, the word 'speed'can be defined as the measurabledistance between the
moment at which sound startsand ceasesin relation to other soundsor in relation to a basic
pulse or beat. In this respect, it is closely associatedwith duration and particularly with
duration of contactwith the key.
The velocity of sound,i.e. vibrations, is identical for all wavelengthsand doesnot dependon
how loud or how high a note is made to sound. But velocity of sound does depend on the
densityof the soundmedium.

Music is a succession
of soundsperceivedin time. It can thereforevary its speedaccording
to the musicaltext. It can slow down; it can accelerate.What we perceiveas a changein
motion is nothing more than a mere changeof an auditory condition governedby the
applicationof a seriesof forcesby theplayer.To applyNewton'sfirst law of motion (a force
needsto be appliedfor a changein velocity):in music,a seriesof interventionsinterferewith
thenaturalcourseof thevibratingsoundandestablishvaryingdegreesof motion i. Theseare
of analysis,definitionandsysternatisation.
susceptible

A string will follow its naturalcoursewhenleft free to


vibrate.Once ftu*thercontactis madewith the string, as when the bow is
appliedon a stringedinstrumentfor instance,it interfereswith its naturalcoursetherebygiving the impressionthat the player 'manipulates
musicalsoundand setsit in motion'.

Page98

It is important, therefore,to distinguish betweenthe speedof sound,the tcmpo, of a piece of


in
first
degrees
by
the
a player,
of motion are applied
music and
speedwith which various
producing -3note and then in manipulating it once in motion.

There exist in music architectonic levels i comprising the various subdivisions of regular
metrical stimuli, which form a very important temporal hierarchy. Such rhythmic patternsare
divisible, in the mathematicalsense,by their unit values.
Thus, in the following example,a regular successionof soundsare heard which on one level
(call it higher level A) are structuredby periodicity: while on another two levels (call them
lower levels B and Q they exist as a series of metrical impulses which are perceived as
in
subdivisions our minds and by our physical sensesand responses.

1.

(1160)
Architectoniclevelsaredifferentlevelsof musicalactivity
-as definedby Cooper& Meyer

Page99

Example III - 1:
Articulatednoteson a higher architectoniclevel A:

Bt

Metrical impulseson lower architectoniclevels 13andC

At the lower level, we encounteran aspectof pre-rhythmic perception which is difficult to


define. Its spatiotemporalpattern is of utmost importance to the musician, as it forms a
For
interactions
between
determines
timing
notes
i.
the relative
and
metrical underlay which
be
level
lower
this
shall
this
the
architectonic
the purposesof
study,
metrical orientation on
defined as Inner Mare 2, of which we always remain to some degreesubliminally aware. It
"unconcious
described
he
have
been
Leibniz
to
this
that
as
music
referring
when
was
must
keep
Even
like
Messiaen,
to
rhythm and metre strictly
who prefers
a composer
counting".
basic
devices
birdsong
this
to
pulse as
audible
so as make
and other
apart,neverthelessuses
be
lost
"measuring"
on us -a
rhythmic permutationswhich might otherwise
a meansof
(=niinting)
he
to
3.
which
refers
asmonnayant
process

1.

While attendingclasseswith the late NathanMilstein severalyearsago,I wasable to observehow he would control the pacewith

which musicallinesunfoldedasplayedby a student,by strummingalongon his violin in metricalimpulsesbasedon the subdivisionsof the
Insin beats.

2.

InnerMetre becomesInner Rhythmaswe shall seelater on.

3.

MalcolmTroup: "OrchestralMusic of the 1950sand 1960s"in: MessiaenCompanionpg. 413

Page100

As a given unit is compoundedinto larger metric ones,our physical sensorsperceive this in


Conversely,
down
as a given
process.
an abstract and subjective manner as a slowing
durational value is divided into ever smaller units it is perceivedas a speedingup process.In
this example,the responseof our physical sensesto the compoundedrhythmic pattern would
thus be one in which the music would be perceived as moving at a faster pace at 113and
faster still at 1C. Conversely,the fewer impulses one discerns, the slower the speedof the
music.
In the following examplefrom the Piano Concertono 2 in Bb major by Brahms, the listener
is
divided
down
the
the
unit value pervading pulse process as
perceives a slowing
is
introduced:
finally
first
by
by
theme
the
then
two
main
one unit as
six,
and
progressively
ExampleIII - 2:

FA

r-%

T-

In order to elucidatethis phenomenonfurther, we can look at the behaviour of a mechanical


J=
60, the pendulumshould cover a given distancein one second.If set
metronome.If set at
J= 120,
the pendulum should cover the samedistancein half a second.In order to do this,
at
the pendulumhasto travel at a fasterpace.

Page101

The humanmind respondsto the incoming data from thesechangesin temporal organization,
in
Thus
the
memory
store
a compoundedmetrical pattern, our sensory
of experience.
against
perceptiondiscernsa larger numberof completedoscillations in any one given time i.
In the hierarchical sense,there are various architectonic levels at which rhythmic patterns
begin to emergeand co-exist, some of which are absolutein definition, and some of which
are subjectively chosen.Numerousarchitectoniclevels could therefore be created basedon
the various rhythmic patternsthat arepreeminentin the periodic structureof:
a) melody
b) harmony
c) pedal
d) vibrato

e) metre
A series of notes played on, say, a stringed instrument, will produce temporal patterns of
infinite variety, on various architectonic levels. On one level, there exists a pattern
determinedby the notational durations of the notes, which are absolute. On another level,
there exists a speedof motion determinedby the frequency of pulsations, as for example
when vibrato is applied.
On yet anotherlevel, there exists a metrical pattern which is divisible by the unit value, and
in which the speedof music is identical or proportionately slower or faster than that at a
different architectonic level, depending on the pulsating stimuli the mind chooses to
The
slower the impulse, the slower the speedof music; the faster the impulse, the
perceive.
fasterthe speedof music.

1.

Cooper& Meyermaintainthat "our judgements


of speedarenot absolute.They dependupon what takesplacein a given segmento!

chronologicaltime andon how a segmentis filled sothepsychologicaltempoof a musicalpassagedependsupon the numberof identifiable
...
eventsor changeswhich takeplacein a given segmentof time* -7heRhythmkSUvctw-eofMusic (1960: e5-CC)

Page102

3.2 MOTOR MECHANISMS AND SPEED:

In performance, musical patterns are produced by bodily movement. Therefore, musical


motion, as it varies, can be representedvisually within a defined spatial framework. For
in
in
level,
through
the
the
change
speedof music,
one sensesa change
example,on a visual
the speedof the bow.
Bow Speed as Inner Metre
In this example,two notesof equal length are played on a string instrument using a different
speedof bow:
Example III - 3:

a)
time:

(kit

0111
distancecoveredby the bow

3j

b)
time:

wit
ja

0111
distancecoveredby the bow

l3age103

Once activatedand left free to vibrate, a string has its own natural mode of vibrations. The
bow initiates and maintains this vibration but constantly interferes with it. The bow seizes
depends
in
on the speedwith which
the
and releases string cycles whose rate of recurrence
the bow is drawn i.
If the bow is drawn faster, the number of times in which the bow 'bites' on the string is
is
Whether
if
is
bow
drawn
the
than
the
applied
varied makes no
weight
slower.
greater
difference to the pulsating string which obeys strictly the application of the bow and its speed

of motion.
In both cases,the frequencyof the cycle, that is the pulsating rate of the string, is too swift to
be obviously discernible. Therefore, a slower musical motion is perceived psychologically,
bow.
by
the
the
through
the
of
ear, only
visual movement
when not
The difference in pace can therefore only become apparent in relative terms, once an
be
has
been
focal
to
can
related.
any
movement
establishedasa
point which
equilibrium
In this context, musical perception dependson the function of our sensory systems, both
A
faster
bow speedthat emits a higher rate of pulsations and therefore a
and
visual.
auditory
faster inner rhythm, would be perceivedas possessinga faster 'speedof music' than a slower
bow
that emits fewer ratesof pulsations. of
speed
Variations in Constant Elements

Whena force is appliedto a movingelementit will causea changein its velocity. Thus, in
III
4,
bow
is
drawngraduallyslowerwhile in motion:
the
example 1.

Whenthe bow is placedon the string and drawnto one side,the staticfrictional force is quite substantialand the string can move a

considerabledistancelaterally before the elasticity of the string overcomesthe frictional force and the string slips along the bow.
Immediatelythe dynamicfrictional force is muchlower andalthoughthe bow continuesto move in its original direction the string can slide
over it; the stringmovesrapidly acrossto the other sideof its undisplacedline positionuntil the elasticforcesbring it to rest; it once again
Isticks'to the bow andthe cycle repeats.(source-New GroveDictionary of Music and Musicians(1980); article on "Sound", 6: Quality).
Ile recurrenceof this cycle dependson the speedwith which the bow is drawn.

Page104

VARIATIONS IN CONSTANT ELEMENTS


ExamDle III - 4:

A
LEVEL 1:

______

LEVEL 2:

_______

__________

II

____________

S/M

fl4124

LEVEL 3:

S/M
(rateof slowingdown)

SPEEDOF BOW
(slowsdown)

LEVEL 4:

distance traversed by the bow


op

time

Example III - 5:

LEVEL 1:

LEVEL
S/M
LEVEL 3:.

III)

S/M
3
LEVEL 4:

on

6F
SPEED BOW (constant)::

distancetraversedby the bow

The progressive rate of slowing down (1,1,2,3,5)


Fibonacci Series
Page: 105
C3-

is part of the

The speed of the music slows down as the inner metre gradually decelerates. This causes the
third note of example III -4 at level 1 to arrive slightly late. The overall musical result is one
in which a slight ritenuto is experienced at the end of the passage,causing a minute temporal
from
deviations
Minute
to
the
temporal
adjustment
pattern.
exact metronomic subdivisions of
the beat occur frequently in music.

Level 3, could represent the pulsating rate of the vibratoi, which is audible and can be
adjustedproportionately.

3.3 OUTER FLOW:


Bow Speed
There are two areas of particular interest in the various levels of activity as outlined in
exampleIII - 4:
1)
2)

the inner metre asrepresentedat levels 2 and 3, and


the generalspeedbetweenpoints A and B which is representedby the speed
of the bow. In this instance,the speedof the bow slows down.

In exampleIII - 5, the innermetreslowsdownat the samerateasin exampleIII - 4, but the


speedof the bow remainsconstantlythe same.In this instance,the distancetraversedin time
is the samewhereasthe distancetraversedby the bow is extendedandrepresentsa general
outerflow andspeedof music.
Whereasthe distancesin time betweenthe variousimpulsesthat are heardare identical in
both cases,there are qualitative differencesbetweenexamples111-4and 111-5.The
differencesbetweenthespeedsof thebow,producea distinctivelydifferentmusicaleffect.

Page106

Speed of the Pianist's Playing Mechanism

The speedof the bow as outlined above functions as a medium which indicates a general
speedof motion between two points: A and B. It is analogousto the amount of air with
which a wind player excites the wind column of his instrumentand also to the speedat which
the handof the pianist drops on to the key.
It is possible, indeed desirableat times, to control the speedwith which part of the playing
mechanismmoves betweentwo points of referencein the music in order to produce certain
musical results.Thus, one could identify two different hand positions and examine the speed
at which the hand movesfrom one to the other. This will dependon the distancebetweenone
position and the other. In figure III- I and 111-2the pianist's wrist moves from a lower wrist
position A to a higher wrist position B in five secondsin one continuousflow. In figure 111-2
the wrist moveshigher and, therefore,faster. As the time taken to complete the movementis
the samein both cases,this meansthat in figure 111-1 the wrist moves slower than it does in
figure 111-2:

Page107

Figure 111-1:

Figure 111-2:

Page108

The speed at which the wrist moves is analogous to the speed at which the bow moves as
exemplified earlier. In both cases, it represents the speed of the moving sound-producing
mechanism which suggests, in turn, a speed of musical motion. As the speed of the physical
agency conditions the quality of the musical sound, it must also, by implication, constitute an
important part of musical perception (see pg. 17). As has already been noted, Stravinsky
regarded the gestures and motions of the different parts of the body which produce music as
itnecessary and essential to grasping it in all its fullness". Therefore, instead of viewing the
spatiornotor component in musical cognition as a lower-level process, as Baily says (pg. 25),
"it may be better to treat auditory and spatiomotor modes of musical cognition as of
potentially equal importance" (ibid. ).

'Speedof Music' therefore,representstwo areasof activity:


1)

the areaof activity asrepresentedin examples111-4and 111-5at levels 2 and 3,

2)

the areaof activity at level 4 in both the aboveexamplesaswell as the speedof the
locomotor systemin action asin figures 111-1 and 111-2.
-

Levels 2 and 3 in examples111-4and 111-5indicate an area of metrical activity which the


performing musician defines and monitors by an act of subliminal perception - we might
liken it to his 'biological clocle. It is termed,for the purposesof this study, inner metre.
Level 4 and figures 111-1 and 111-2indicate a general flow whose speed is manifestly
apparentat a more general level of sensoryperception.The various levels are interrelated
and interdependent.

Page109

3.4 INNER METRE BECOMES INNER RHYTHM:

In a musical phrase,there are notes which acceptstronger impulses than others. There are
also various notes which are grouped together and which form a single rhythmic cell
comprising smaller subdivisions.Thus, rhythmical patters'emergei.
A
In performance,it is possibleto group togethernotesby various means:a string player would
by
do
likewise
in
bow;
the
two
using one movementof
pianist would
play
or more notes one
the arm to deliver a seriesof notes.
Nicolaus Hamoncourt, in the book Der musikalischeDialog 2, explains the significance of
grouping notes together and the metrical and periodic structure which occurs as a result of
slurring notestogether:

1.

According to Cooper& Meyer (1960), rhythm may be defined asthe way in which one or more unaccentedbeatsare groupedin

relationto an accentedone.Ile five rhythmic groupingsmay be differentiatedby termstraditionally associatedwith prosody:


a. iamb
b. anspest

%j

c. trochee

d. dactyl

e. amphibrach VV
On the otherhand,metreis the measurement
of thenumberof pulsesbetweenmoreor lessregularrecurringaccents.Rhythmis independent
of metrein two separatesenses:
a) it can exist without therebeing a regularmetre,asit doesin the caseof Gregorianchantor recitativomcco.
b) any rhythmic groupingcan occur in any type of metricorganization.For instance,an iambic groupingcan occur in duple or triple
metre.
On the questionof rhythm, there is an interestingtheory that relatesthe word (from Gk. puOu6;) etymologically to the word N(O which
means10 flow'. The history of the word showsalsothat it wasclosein meaningto aXAga ('shape'.'form', 'figure'- Leemans,1948).Source:
The New GroveDictionary ofMusk andMusicians(1980);Liddel andScottGreek-FaglishLexicon (Oxford, 1977).
2.

NicolausHarnoncourt DermusikalischeDialog Tlie musicaldialogue:translatedby Mary O'Neill,


-

Page110

(1414'

fl-

102)

"In the 18th century, articulation on an instrument was basically the responsibility of the
interpreter.The composerhad to mark only thosepassagesin which he expresslydesired an
it
Mozart,
from
At
deviated
from
time
the
tradition,
the
of
executionwhich
establishednorm.
was not necessaryto write a slur over a dissonanceand its resolution, becausethe unity of
thesetwo notes was taken for granted; they had to be slurred. If this slurring, which was
obligatory at that time, is performed today, the effect is a clear rhythmic and harmonic
changein the customary sound pattern. We have grown accustomedto the error of omitting
the slurs oncetaken for granted".
"...in this movement,[the final from the "Haffner Symphony"], Mozart wrote only very few
determining
for
it
is
long
"as
thus
typically
today
stretches,
slurs, and when
played
written",
the characterof the movement,the impressionof a hailstorm of eighth notes arises.But as a
in
the
to
matter of course,musiciansof
period articulatedaccording recognizablepatterns the
music,e.g. violas and bassesin measures9ff.

elt .-.

.01111;

or all strings, measures20 ff.


'A
.wIi

i
er

I 1 111r
0

-0 0

andall similar figures in accordance


with the sameprinciples.But if we treat the slurs, as
was customary at the time, not as bow strokes,but rather as emphasissigns, a pronounced
rhythmical order emerges:
in the first passage:
in the secondpassage:

I-M
1
r
j
00000
em0) orsM'o
ff

I
ulf f-trt
age

"This movement thereby acquires a completely different rhythmical structure than when all
of the eight notes are played with a regular spiccato. If Mozart actually expected such an
his
did),
he
from
his
interpreters
firmly
(and
I
then
that
organized articulation
am
convinced
is
is
distorted
by
interpretation
true to
that
the
work
an una&culatcd manner of playing, so
the notes can never be true to the work".

Periodic structure determines the manner with which a phrase of music is articulated and
defined. In this respect,there are various 'speedsof music' that emergefrom close adherence
to the periodic structure of a musical phrase: a slur, by which two or more notes are
incorporated into one metric unit, slows down the s/m, as compared with notes that are
articulated separately,which increasethe s/m. This is complementedby a bodily movement
(which, as we have said, representsouter flow) moving at a slower pace. The following
example shows uniformity at different levels of musical activity. Therefore, it correlates
inner rhythm with outer flow-.
ExampleIII -6
Written score:

Inner rhythm:

Level1

Level2

Bodily movement:

slow

fast

fast

SPEEDOF MUSIC:

slow

fast

fast

Page112

Level3

At level 1 we encountera familiar musical figure in which the first two notes are slurred. It
bow
instrument
first
be
to
the
two
using one
noteson a stringed
would common practice play
or applying one movement of the arm when slurring on the keyboard. Thereafter, separate
bows and separatehand movementswould apply respectively.
At level 2, it is presumedthat the bow is drawn faster when playing the 3rd and 4th notes in
the series. As a consequence,fewer pulsations are perceived between the lst and the 3rd
between
3rd
4th.
between
Likewise,
than
the
the
the
pace
notes
arm moves at a slower
and
the lst and the 3rd notesthan it doeswhen playing the 3rd and4th.
As a consequence,all levels converge to signify a s/m which attendsto the meter of this
musical statement,to the inner rhythm which one perceivesas well as the to speedat which
the body moves.In this respect,the musical text provides the criteria on which an execution
is based: the music slows down, then quickens; therefore, a bodily movement which
complementsthis is applied.
3.5 APPLICATION:

Frequently in music, there are instanceswhere a work marked Aflegro in 4/4 time, switches
the main pulse from four in a bar to two in a bar i. This occurs when a brisk four in a bar
movement of a work, introduces a more lyrical and contrasting second subject in two in a
bar. An exampleof this, is to be found in the first movementof Beethoven'sviolin concerto,
at the junction where four in a bar switchesinto two in a bar, at the introduction of a more
lyrical, contrastingsecondsubject:

I.

Similar to theana breve'principal in which noteshapesdiminishedin


relativevaluein ratio 2: 1.

Page113

ExampleIII - 7:
Beethoven

4-0- it

rr

09

1'
0

10

The 'Speedof Music' slows down as the secondsubjectmaterial is introduced.It is advisable,


indeeddesirable,for the conductor to switch from beatingin four to beating in two in a bar,
for the more lyrical secondsubject.There is an interesting "junction" here in the secondbar
of the aboveexample,wherethe conversionfrom four into two takesplace:
A faster s/m implies a speedof motion in the handsof the conductorwhich almost invariably
resultsin an accent,however small, on impact. Conversely,a slower s/m implies a speedof

motionwhichavoidsanattackon thefirst noteof impact,makingit soundmorelyrical i.


The conductor's speedof movement is therefore important here in determining the overall
quality of the first note of the secondsubject: the inner rhythm that the musicians perceive
during the first bar of the aboveexampleis the serniquaversub-division of the main beat:
t--! r-

Soo

400"ooffoToron

while the conductorconductsfour in a bar.

1.

This phenomenonis explainedin moredetail in a later


chapter.

Page114

into
3
bar
the
At the onsetof the secondsubjectat
of the aboveexample, conductor switches
two in a bar, while the inner rhythm that is perceivedcould comprise a series of quaver,
bar
in
four
beating
Therefore,
is
a
impulses,
whichever applicable.
crochet or even minim
indicatesa motion that is swift, whereastwo in a bar, slows that motion down 1.
danger
is
in
bar,
the
of
four
beat
there
always
If the conductor were to continue to
a
is
too
that
swift
first
indicating the onsetof the
the
movement
a
subject,
with
second
note of
This
lyrical
first
theme.
induce
the
note of a
an attack on
and which would consequently
be
clearly
musically unacceptable.
would
In order to avoid this, so that the quality of the first note of this theme is lyrical, the
down
to
have
'speed
to
prior
the
the
slow
of
music',
as
conductor, as well
movement of

activatingbar3.
One way of achieving this would have the conductor switching into two, half way through
bar 2. The 'speed of music' is slowed down and the attack on the first note of bar 3 is
deliveredwithout an accentthus producing a soundby the wind players of the orchestrathat
has a lyrical and "singing" quality. At the same time, a series of serniquaver impulses
by
bodily
2.
be
'heard'
Here
bar
to
the
throughout
motion, represented the
again,
continues
in
is
in
harmony
the music.
the
temporal
suggested
gesture,
with
pattern
conductor's

1.

Eventhoughthis may appearto contradictthe notationalprincipleof '&Ilabreve'which hasbeeninterpretedby someto meanaway

of doublingthe speedby beatingthe brevesratherthanthe sernibreves,I associateswitchingfrom four into two with the commonly applied
compositionaltechnique(as shown in example111-2,pg. 101) with which the pace of the music appearsto slow down as the metrical
impulsesprogressivelyincreasein value.Besides,the conductor'smovements,which areslowerwhenbeatingin two, would substantiatethis
point of view further.

Page115

PART 11

3.6 SPEED AND DURATION OF CONTACT:

The hand, upon striking the key, returns to a resting position. The speedat which the finger
descendsonto the key as well is the time it takesbetweenthe momentof impact and the time
of rest are significant in determiningthe speedof music.
Newton's third law of motion statesthat when a force is applied to another body, an equal
(one
in
force
is
impact.
With
tone
this
the
could
musical
mind,
encounteredon
and opposite
reintroducehere the concept of the 'sphericalmass'representingthe musical tone) will react
its
'speed
it
in
is
intensity
As
force
(see
128).
to
the
the
of music'
set
motion,
pg.
of
according
(s/m), its 'massof music' (m/m) and its 'direction of music' (d/m), are susceptibleto change.
Speedof music should vary in relation to the speedof attack. As the speedof attack in outer
modeincreases,so the speedof the musicaltone in inner mode increasesaccordingly.

Rapid Attack:
In applying A (Free Fall) from Sandor'sfive basicmodesof contact(seepg. 90), the hand, in
a reflex action, reboundsswiftly. As a consequenceof this reaction, and in the absenceof
any pressureapplied to the key - implied by implementing mode A- the speedof music is
proportionateto how quickly the hand reboundsin that the mind discernsa larger number of
impulsesi. The metrical impulsesdiscernibleareproportionatelygreaterthan the given value

1.

On the piano, the higher the speedof the harniiier,the greaterthe predominanceof higher harmonics.The duration of contact
betweenhammerand string is shortenedso that the string vibratesin small segments,
producinga tone rich in higher partials (basedon the
theoriesof HermannHelmholtz as outlined in ChapterII- "Mechanisms").Ilis phenomenonmay also contribute to our perceptionof a
highernumberof impulses.

Page116

of the note thus increasing spccd of the music - if the given value is a crochet, a series of

shorter durations are perceived as metrical divisions, (semi-quavers,demi-semi-quaversor


shorterstill), dependingon the tempoof the piece being interpreted.i.
This phenomenon, which occurs when 'Free Fall' is applied, can be made clearer if we were

to compareit with throwing a ball: the faster the throw, the faster it will bounce;conversely,
the slower the throw, the slower the rebound.
There is a conducting technique which is often applied to cadential musical junctures
whereby the conductor's beat fractionally anticipates the main downbeat, usually on a
subdivision of the main beat. Hence it is called a 'syncopatedbeat'. As this is usually
delivered by a techniquesimilar to the pianist's 'Free Fall', the hand of the conductor will
bounceback accordingto the speedof the throw. The faster the hand is allowed to drop, the
fasterit will bounceand vicc vema.The conductorwill thereforeapply a 'syncopated'beat on
a subdivision of the main beat so that on the first or second'bounce'the main beat on which
the orchestral players must play is established.The speed of the downfall would thus
condition the precisemomentat which the reboundwill occur.
In piano playing, unlike conducting, we do not usually pay too much attention to the
preparatory'beat like conductorsdo. For instance,in applying the 'Free Fall' on the opening
chord in Beethoven'sSonataOp 13, we must decide on the speedof the upbeat which will
establisha metrical pattern and which will conform to the tcmpo of the opening Gravc. The
speedof the 'throw' will establish a metrical impulse 'on the rebound' comparable to the
speedat which a ball will bounce.It would be desirablein this caseto apply a slower rather
than a faster'Free Fall'in order to establisha metrical patternbasedon the quaver.

1.

The durationof contact,to be discussedin

moredetail later.will likewise havean influential effect on our perceptionof the speed

of music.

Page117

Slow attack

As the key is approachedslowly in this mode, the hand will rcl-ound at a slower rate i. The
hammermaintains a longer contact with the string, therefore the pulsating rate which the
mind discernsin this mode is a slow one.
A graphic illustration of either modeof contactcould thus be as follows:
Figure 111-3:

dircction

(outer mode)

spheiical mass

STAGE II

STAGEI

(inner mode)

attack

rcbound

sphedcalmass

direction

SPEEDOF MOTION
Duration

The three modesof contact with the key which have so far beenimplementedconcernedthe
use of A (Free Fall), D (staccato)and E (Thrust). With the exception of D (staccato), the
handi maintains contact with the key for as long as the durational value determines.
Naturally it is possible to apply D (staccato)as a staccatofeature to a Free Fall, though E
(Thrust) implies a longer contactwith the key.

Ile handhereimpliesthe wholeof thehumanapparatus,


with all its components,which is usedto makecontactwith the
instrument.

Page118

The three areasto which duration applies when sound is initiated on the piano are:

length of time during which the handmaintainscontactwith the


key,

2)

length of time during which the hammerremainsin contact with the


string,
length of time during which soundis kept in vibration.

1)

Length of time during which the hand maintains contact with the key - Tactility:

The handremainsin contactwith the key for as long as it is required -a minimal duration in
the caseof staccato.
When the hand remains on the key, its duration of contact is contingent to the mode of
falls
The
is
hand
hand
here
When
the
the
elasticity
of
on
attack.
of particular significance i.
to the key with no increasingpressure,as it would do under A (Free Fall), the hand reacts
impact:
the faster the attack - the faster the rebound; conversely, the
a
action
reflex
on
with
slowerthe attack - the slower the rebound.

Elasticityof applicationis discussedin Chapter11,Part1:"Mechanisms".Furthermore,Otto Ortmann


statesthat "the laws of
elasticityteachus that the displacementof an elasticbody is directly proportionalto the force,within the limits of elasticity".

Page119

The duration of this reflex action determines the rate of pulsations which the mind perceives

faster
key:
faster
speed
thus
during contact time with the
render a
action/fasterreaction will
Tlough
not
the
opposite.
render
reaction'
will
slower
action/slower
a
whereas
of music,
is
this
a tactile sensationi.
so,
exclusively
2)

Length of timc in which the hammcr rcmains in contact with the sbing:

It has been shown that the duration during which the hammer remains in contact with the
influences
the
lever
limited
degree
the
that
to
the
allow,
though
would
mechanism
string,
The
in
Variations
time
are generally modest 3.
contact
mode of vibration of the string 2.
decreases
decreases
increases
the
and, conversely,
contact point
as the speedof
contacttime
however
longer
increases.
As
hammer
the
the
string,
contact with
maintains a
as the speed
infinitesimal, the note, in musical terms,acquiresa more "sostenuto"quality to it.
From this, we deducethat a shortercontacttime, as a result of a quicker approachto the key,
increasesthe rhythmic impulsesthat the mind discernsand, as a result, the speedof music is
increased;conversely, a longer contact time as a result of a slower approach to the key
in
results a slower speedof music.

I.

2.1
3.

Underthesecircumstances,
innermodeandoutermodeconverge- if everthey wereapart.
referthe readerto Chapter11,Part1:"Mechanisms".
But asOtto Ortmannpointsout: 'variations in time rangeapproximatelybetweenthe limits of 001 and 005 of a second,for the
.
.
middleandlower regions;but this is ampletime to producetonaldifferenceswhenwe considerthat fraction in relation to the rate
in C.A. Taylor's studyon "7he PhysicsofMiusicalSoundr in which he cites
of vibrationof the string". Ibis view is substantiated
the work of Kauffman(1895),who he sayshas"shownthatthe time of contactis relatively long comparedwith the period of
vibrationof the string".

Page120

LcngLh of timc in which sound is kept in vibration

3)

The length of time in which the string is allowed to vibrate is subjectto:


is
key;
in
hand
length
the
when contact
contact with
remains
of time that the
a) the

back
falls
damper
the
to
the
to
the
time
on
the
at
string
ceases
at
which
vibrate
withdrawn,
string
b) the length of time that the pedal is kept depressedwhen the hand is no longer in
freely
key;
by
to
the
the
the
the
the
strings vibrate
pedals,
piano allows
use of
contactwith
key
is
The
the
the
plucks
player
a
string
same
applies
when
contact
with
withdrawn.
when
instrument.
his
string of

Thereexistsa discernibledifferenceto the musicalquality of the tone thus conditionedby


the prolongation of contact with the key (or the plucked string in the case of a stringed
instrument)regardlessof the time that the vibration is allowed to continue.
We shall define this difference as a) the actual duration of the musical tone and b) the
duration
of the musicaltone.
apparcnt
The actualduration of the musical tone exists when contact is maintainedwith the key for as
long as is deemednecessary.In this case,constantweight pressureis maintained throughout
key
the
with
contact
i. For instance,a crochet will realize its full value and potential when
contactas well as weight pressureis maintainedconstantly throughout its whole notational
value.

1.

Weightcanincreaseaspressureis increasinglyapplied,but this producesa different


effect which will be dealt with later.

Page121

The apparent duration of the musical tone exists when the string is allowed to vibrate freely

for the notationalvalue of a note,evenwhen the handhasceasedcontactwith the key i.


In this respect,the actual value of the note is contingenton the actual length of time that the
hand remains in contact with the key. This can be quantified: if in a piece of music the
written value of a given note is a minim, and the hand remainedin contact with the key for
precisely half a second,the actual value of the note will be a quaver when the metronome
marking indicates

60. The apparentvalue of the note, real as it may be, will be a full

minim.
Duration of contact in this instance, signifies to the mind the rhythmic impulse that is
discernible: shorter contact will effect a slower speedof music; a more prolonged contact
faster
effect
a
speedof music.
will

It is a generallyacceptedphenomenonamongstprofessionalpianiststhat
apparentdurationis not a "sustained,,duration.In this
respect,a noteof music which is requiredby the musicaltext to be played"tenuto", is only realizedwhenfall contactwith the key
is maintainedthroughoutits wholenotationalvalue.T'hispoint was
madeclearto me in my earlieryearsof training, during my few
encounterswith pianist Vladimir Ashkenazy.

Page122

CHAPTER IV

CHAPTERIV

MUSIC IN MOTION
4.1 MASS OF MUSIC:
For the purposesof tracing the direction, speedand mass of sound in musical terms, it has
been suggestedthat sound, or musical tone, is represented as a 'tonal body' which
itself
image
lends
the
well
certain physical characteristics;
of a sphere
perceptuallypossesses
asthe "object" to representsoundasa manageableentity.
There are somepianists, myself included, who sometimespractise away from the keyboard:
flat
a
surfaceor on a dummy keyboard.Even though no soundis heard as a consequence
on
of such practice, pianists attest to the fact that they are able to detect the quality of the
imagined sound by touch alone. This correlates the auditory experience with a tactile
We
sensation. can therefore separatethe two and examine what it is that one feels and sees
keys
the
striking
asapartfrom what one hears.
when
In my own experience,a 'sphericalmass'represents,firstly, the free-floating area between
the finger-tip and the key - enabling me to move my arm and wrist around freely - and
secondly,the plasticity and supplenessof the tissuesthat surround this areawhich enable me
to exert various degreesof pressureon the key. Furthermore,as a concept and a percept, the
sphererepresentsthe inherent psychodynamicenergy in musical tones which perpetuates
motion or simply, to useMler's words: "the dynamicknowledgeof 'tonal bodies"'.

Page123

is
'sphere'
does
each note
or
this
Immediately the question arises:
represent a series of notes

its
'sphere',
by
own?
all
a
separate
represented
At first glance,it would appearthat a separateentity for every musical tone would serve to
define the purpose of such a concept. There are, however, problems: Zuckerkandl, in
by
be
dynamic
that
these
tones,
represented scientific
can
says
qualities of
consideringthe
instrumentswhich, however, do not show the dynamic currents which propel tones to their
is
flight
the
This
tone
destinations.
that
the
musical
course
of
may suggest
predestined
its
is
that
transferred
transfigured
tone
so
and
constantly
which
course of a single
it
tell
is
No
destination
'in
can
graph
conceived
as
scientifically
sight',
were.
predetermined
C
The
C
G
G
is
being
transferred
though,
that
sees
musician
played.
comes
until
after
us
through tonal spaceto reachG- spacewhich, accordingto R6v6sz,"becomesalive through
by
is
Symbob.
Tonal
the
in
(cited
Zuckerkandl
Sound
apparent
space
made
and
sound"
forward momentumwhich musical tonescarry and which perpetuatesmotion i.
Musiciansoften refer to the 'quantity' that exists betweentwo adjacentnotes.This meansthat
they are able to 'feel' a certain quantity of unspecifiedsubstancebetweentwo notes of music.
This enablesthem to trace the flight-path of the musical tone which is heard both in stasis
andin transit. This is why when the secondnote is played there is a feeling of simultaneity as
if both notes are played together.Indeed,it is common practice to play a series of adjacent
location.
before
in
in
determine
together
their
them
to
exact
succession order
playing
notes

1.

On tonal space,HelmutReinoldmakesthe following comment:"music is soundingmotion in temporalspace.'Ibe tensionbetween

theequipollentandcomplementaryelementsof time, motion,andspaceis of the greatestimportancefor the understandingof music" (cited


in S. I.Anger'sReflectionson Ar% ICICO- fl. 2-#1)-

Page124

To be aware of the 'quantity' of a note is very important becausethe player can then
condition his approachto meet the requirementsof the note to be played. We could thus
deducethe following very important principle in music-making:
A

>B

I mustbe awareof what I want to achieveat B, so that I may condition A. I must be awareof
I
B
A
I
that
to
achieve
at
already
at
so
may condition B.
what want
In view of what has beendiscussedso far, it seemsto me that one has to identify a 'vehicle'
'tonal
body'
in
its
the
conveys
various transmigrations through tonal space and
which
accountsfor the sensationsmusiciansexperiencein predetermingits course.
In my view, basedon intuition and personalexperience,the illusory spherical mass which
musiciansmay experience in playing a keyboard instrument can also be conceived as a
faris
in
This
tones
tonal
entity
representing
of
as
a
series
musical
space.
not
pluralistic
fetcheda concept as it seems:for practical purposes,pianists are often advised to hold an
appleso that they may determinethe preciseposition of the fingers to the keys i.
One of the most important attributesof the sphereis its resilience to pressureapplied by the
hand. A body in motion is susceptibleto a change in its shapedue to the various forces
actingupon it. Theseinclude the gravitational force as well as the force of impact. As a result
forces
these
acting upon the tonal body, its density, weight and volume change. This
of
is
change loosely referred to for the purposesof this study as 'Mass of Music' (m/m). In
it
denotes
terms,
the feeling of 'heavy' or 'light' to describethe properties of various
musical
musicaltextures(seepg. 74).

Daniel Barenboim,in discussingtechnicalaspectsof piano-playingin his book A Life in Music,


suggeststhis practiceby which
pianistscandeterminethe correctpositionof the hand.

Page125

Changesto the massof music can be madeapparentby examining in detail the execution of
the two-note slur:

Example IV - 1:

The two-note slur would normally be executedin one bow on a stringed instrument,-in one
breathby a wind instrumentand a vocalist and in one continuousmovementof the pianist's
hand.It Wouldalmost invariably causea delay to the onset of the secondnote which is also
in
softer
relation to the first i.
played

1.

Ile two-noteslur is consideredftulher in the proceedingchapter.

Page126

There are certain conditions under which changes to the m/m can be made apparent:

1.

Li, crprcfativc Factor - Agogics:

We perceive a changeto the weight of the musical tone when the duration of the attack is
is
This
analogousto the long inceptive period of low-frequency vibrations whose
prolonged.
latencyperiod is simulatedby meansof agogicson the piano (DrUger,seep. 68).
Thus a seriesof noteswhose duration, both actual and apparent,is long in relation to others
be
heavier.
Any one note whose duration is longer than the
short
are
will
perceived
as
which
precedingnote would be perceivedlikewise. Conversely,a shorter duration in relation to a
longer one would be perceivedas a lighter note: heavier mass of music - lighter mass of
musicrespectivelyi.
In a musical context, a slur on two noteswhere the secondnote is momentarily delayed for
instance,would indicate that the first note would feel "heavier" than the "second"note.
2.

Louducss Volumc:

The difference in weight betweentwo notes becomeseven more apparentwhen there is a


difference in dynamics betweentwo notes.This is what DrUgercalls the loudness volume
(seepg. 68) of musical tones.The combination of a) duration of note value or duration of
b)
and
changes in the dynamics will determine m/m. The following illustrates
contact
graphicallythe changein the weight of two notes:

1.

Ile distancebetweentwo notesplaysa predominantrole in determiningthe


weightof the note.Ilis will be dealt with later.

Page127

0
I

Fp
heavier

lighter

Rcsistancc - Dcnsity. *
It has beenshown (Newton) that when a force is applied to an object, the object reactswith
illusory
key-mechanism
the
force.
This
the
or
the
object,
causes
opposite
and
equal
an
density
force
the
is
the
'spring
bacV.
When
the
of
to
there
to
opposing
resistance
sphere,
intensify
key
the
increasing
thus
In
increases.
to
the
terms,
would
pressure
an
musical
object

musicaltonei.
Sandorexplainsthis phenomenonin pianistic terms: "When we play loud and fast, we throw
it
is
keybed
bottom
keys;
fingers
the
to
the
the
madeof elastic material, responds
since
the
of
feel
down
When
come
we
quite a strong recoil.
we
with vigour,
with considerablerebound.
"
in
lifting
be
the
This counteractionto our action can of considerableadvantage
equipment...

Ile theoryprevailsamongstmany pianiststhat increasingpressureon the key of the instrumentis a hindranceand is to be avoided
but
dynamic
intensity
The
increasing
induces
the
the
to
the
theory
rather
that
of
sound,
or
quality
maintains
no
change
costs.
pressure
all
at
1.

increasestensionin the musclesof the player causingan undesirablephysicalcondition. 'Mis may be so, but there is anotherschool of
thought,to which I subscribe,that treatsthe increasein pressureon the key asa tactile sensationof the increasein the tensionof the music.
Ilis pressureshouldnaurally be applieddiscretelyandwithoutunduestressto the muscles.

Page128

Every mode of contact meets with some resistance. However, in calibrating the amount of
Thrust,
(E):
Sandor's
find
is
that
mode of contact
time in which resistance maintained, we

its
density
increasing
force,
tone's
longer
the
and, consequently,
thereby
resisting
sustainsa
'intensity' i.
Shouldthe first note of the two-note slur be dynamically intensified as a result of this mode
the
is
DrUger
This
by
be
determined
its
density
call
would
what
amplitude.
would
of contact,
loudness-density.
tone's
musical
However, an increasein intensity in musical terms or an increase to the density of the
fact,
In
intensification.
dynamic
there
does
are many
tone
mean
not
necessarily
musical
instancesin pianissimo where the tension of the music is highly charged.A musical texture
feels
instrumentalist
there
loud.
In
intensity
the
terms
of
what
sounding
without
can maintain
in
Thus,
to
by
is
density-related
touch
addition
alone.
experiencewhich perceived
exists a
loudncss-rclatcd
is
frcquency-rclated,
density
tone
and timbrc-rclatcd,
the
of a musical
which
is
have
one
which touch-rclatcd.
we can
A mode of contact, therefore,which increasesthe tone's density as a result of forces acting
increases
key
the
the
of
m/m.
surface
upon

1.1

mustmakeclearthe distinctionbetweenthe word 'intensity'meaninga dynamicamplificationand 'intensity' meaningan overall

increasein thetensionof tj kemusicor any object in question.Whilst onedoesnot necessarilyprecludeine other,the later definition usually
applies.For the purposesof this study,I will refer to tensionsin the music,for examplethe tensionswithin a chord, as possessing'musical
intensity'.Whenmusicalintensityis encounteredtheperformerreactsaccordinglyby being stimulatedemotionallyaswen asphysicany.'Me
key
in resistingthe opposingforce(the force which attemptsto pushthe sphereback to its original shape)stimulates
to
the
applied
pressure
physicalaswell asemotionalintensity.The termsto be usedthroughoutthis treatisewould thuebe: %nusicalintensity'meaningtensionin the
music;'emotionalandphysicalintensity'meaninga reactionto themusicalintensitywhich stimulatesthe performeesemotionaland physical
anddynamicintensitymeaninganoveralldynamicamplificationi.e.,a crescendo.For a moreelaboratediscussionon this subjectI
responses
referthe readerto page165.

Page129

4.

Arm Wcight.-

If the mode of contact employs the use of various componentsof the locomotor system
When
86-88).
(see
it
(i.
the
pages
whole arm) would carry more weight
simultaneously e.
first
for
drop
it
is
the
to
the
two-note
the
on
arm
slur
on
piano
common
practice
playing a
for
by
Sandor
"...
the
the
tied
together
a slur, we use an
and
on
second.
says:
notes
rise
note
low
hand.
beginning,
At
the
the
wrist,
arm and
we always use a relatively
upwardmotion of
hand,and arm position, and at the end of a group, the wrist, hand, and arm position is higher;
this is a firm rule with no exceptions".
Sandordoesnot confine this mode of contactto the two-note slur but extendsit to a seriesof
noteswhich are groupedtogetherby a slur. This constitutesone of the five technical patterns
in
identifies
he
legato
(B),
five
fingers,
he
mode:
and
arpeggios
scales
and
which calls
which
it at the beginningof the phrasethe wrist is low and at the end of the phrase,it is higher No
...
...
how
is
in
the
there
there
many
group,
notes
always an upward motionat the end of
are
matter
the group".
Thereareseveralimplications which arisefrom applying this mode of contact:
1)

asthe arm drops on the keys on the first of a two-note slur, it feels heavier than when it

riseson thesecond
2)

as a result, the first note is dynamically more intensethan the second:as the arm rises,

the finger maintainslesscontactwith the key and actsin opposition to the force of gravity, so
that by the time the second (or the last in a series) note is reached,minimum contact is
maintained.By its very nature,therefore,the rising motion of the hand results in a difference
in dynamicsbetweenthe first andthe last notesin a group.

In explainingthis modeof contactfurther,Sandorintroducesthefollowing example:


Page130

Example IV - 2:

Beethoven

.LL:

""". ""f

The arrows indicating a rise and fall of the arm are insertedby Sandor.Here, he indicates a
technicalsolution (or motion pattern as he calls it) suggestedby the written text. This way,
he attempts"to 'translate'visual patternsto motion patterns"
All things considered,we may deducethe following with regard to the execution of the two-

noteslur:
a)

the scoreindicatesa patternof motion to be applied- in this casethe legato slur

b)

duration of first note value is increased(analogousto Drager'sinceptive

period)
C)

duration of contacttime with the key is likewise increased(actualduration, seepages


118-122)as a result of the motion carried out by the locomotor system

d)

asa resultof theforceappliedandresistance


to theopposingforce,thefirst musical
tone acquiresdensertonal characteristicsthan the second;this is touch-related

e)

the force appliedincreasesthe amplitudeof the first musical tone: its


loudness-volume.

In view of the above considerations,we can say that m/m is increasedat the point when
is
contact madewith the first of two, or more,notesin a group which is slurred.
Page131

Finally, there are practical considerations in contemplating the presence of a 'sphere' when

executingthe slur: besidesits representationof musical tone in which all the characteristics
I

outlined abovecan be implied by association,the 'sphere'acts as a tool that enablesthe hand


to move smoothly from the first moment of impact to the last. If one imagines the finger
its
is
determined
by the revolving sphere to
then
such
a
spherical
surface,
course
on
resting
is
hand
This
As
the
the
produces one
attached.
a
result,
as
sphere
rises
revolves.
which"It
flow
of movement which can result in a musically satisfying interrelationship
uninterrupted
between the two notes.

4.2 SPEEDOF MUSIC IN RELATION TO MASS OF MUSIC:

There are two aspectsof motion which relate s/m to m/m: speed of arm movement and
both
inner
(see
flow
of
contact;
act
as
chapterIII).
outer
and
rhythm
weight
The arm movement which is applied in executing the slur as outlined above moves at a
is
speed
which indicative of a speedin the flow of the music, termed for the purposes
certain
of this study, speedof music. It would be possibleto play a two-note slur on the piano using
different speedsof contact with the key, by varying the swiftness of finger attack and by
alternatingthe speedwith which the wrist rises,but without changing the basic tempo of the
music (seepg. 106). Likewise, two notescan be grouped together on a stringed instrument
different
speedsof bow without affecting a changein tempo (seepg. 103). Similarly, a
using
indicate
can
conductor
a given tempo with larger or smaller gestures.These speeds of
movementare, for me, not only indicative of the quality of the tone which the conductor
from
his
orchestralplayersor the quality of tone that the instrumentalistproducesas
requires
a resultof suchaction, but also significant in relaying the pacein which music flows 1.

I.

I cannotstressthis point enough:thesemovements,their speedanddirection,


arenot 'choreographed'movements.As they directly

affectthequalityof the musicaltonethey mustform an integralandimportantpart of the musicalexperience.

Page132

In order to determine the speed of action one has to define the parameters within which
movement can take place. For instance, the pianist must determine the extent to which the
in
height
Thus,
hand
to
tempo
the
rise
certain
executing a slur.
wrist will
at a given
will rise a
and thus determine the speed of such action. Changes to the boundaries will affect the speed
of motion and consequently the quality of the musical tone. Hence the importance attached to
S/M.

It has been said already that an increasing pressure to the key intensifies the musical tone.

This is comparableto applying continuousand increasingbow pressureto the string of a


stringedinstrument.
In analogousterms, the resilienceof the spherewould allow considerablepressureto be
appliedto it as a result of which its density and shapewill change.As pressureon an object
in motion is increased,we may expect,as a result of increasedresistanceto the force applied
aswell as friction, a slowing down of the object or the processin motion. In musical terms,
we can demonstratethis phenomenonby looking at what happenswhen increasingpressure
is appliedto the bow: the soundis intensifiedand the speedin which the bow is drawn freely
slowsdown i.
As a result of the slowing-down process,the s/m, in terms of discernible pulsating beats
down
(seechapterIII). One can thereforesurmisethat at a musical juncture where a
slows
slur occurs,s/m is decreasedas a result of an increasein m/m and vice versa. Conversely,
s/m increaseswhenm/m decreases.

It would certainly be possible to draw the bow faster


when pressure is increased in order to maintain unanimity in the speed of the
movement, but this would act against the natural tendency of the body in motion which would slow down when pressure is applied, and it
would require another force, a pull in this case,to counteract the pressureapplied.
1.

Page133

in generalterms, the speedof the action is indicative of the amount of musical intensity
inherent in the music. The slur, for instance, may be encounteredat moments of such
increasedmusical intensity that the arm, while still rising up..,.rds, moves very little. This
may imply that the pressureapplied is such that it would allow very little movement (see
footnote1, pg. 181).
We can now considerthe changesto the shapeof the sphereresulting from different modes
of contact.Thesedifferent shapescorrespondto the changesexperiencedtactilely at the tip
of the finger by the instrumentalistasa resultof different modesof contactapplied.A variety
of shapeswill thereforeconform to a variety of tonal shades.
Thesecan be consideredon two fronts: duration of impact and the shape of the player's
fingertip.

4.3 DURATION

OF IMPACT

AND SENSATION ON THE UNDERSIDE OF THE

FINGERTIP:

The spherewill remain condensedfor as long as pressureis maintained.When pressureis


withdrawn, the spherewill retract. The greaterthe force applied the greater the opposing
force. The more force required to counteractthe opposing force the greater the musical
intensity.In the absenceof any pressurecontinuing to be exertedon the key, the finger will
lie freely at the top of the sphere.Impact may vary in length whereascontact may still be
maintainedfor as long as the finger continuesto hold the key. The duration of impact is
thereforean important factor in determiningthe quality of the musical tone (seepages 118122,actuallapparent
duration).

Page 134

When applying Sandor'smode of contact(D): staccato,contactwith the key is at a minimum.


In his own words: "Since we are playing staccato,we spendas little time as possible on the
surfaceof the keys; when landing on the keys, the time spent on the surface will be a mere
fraction of a second.The moment the fingers touch the keys, we immediately lift the entire
equipment...The hand and fingers must bounceback immediately as if dribbling a ball, or as
if the keys were sizzling hot! "
Contacttime with the key is increasedif a larger areaof the finger comesinto contact with it
and vice versa. The 'cantabile' touch, attained by gradually depressingthe key and making
finger
flatter
finger,
last
the
theory:
to
this
the
the
contactwith a
position of
attests
phalanxof
remainsin contactwith the key for a longer period in order to cover a larger area. As this
mode of contact is largely implemented when playing legato, it would seem that a more
curved finger position covering a smaller area can be applied for playing staccato or for
producinga more articulatedsound.
In taking into account the sensationon the undersideof the fingertip and the duration of
impact,we can proceedto show what perceptualeffect thesehaveon the shapeof the sphere:

a)

b)0
%%00

a) representsa shorter duration of impact applicablewhen playing staccatoand b) represents


a longer duration applicablewhen playing legato.

Page135

It would therefore seem that the pattern which sevesto portray graphically a prolonged
duration of contact/impact, an increasedm/m and a slow s/m, is a curve. Cotiversely, a
shorter duration of contact/impact, a lighter m/m and a faster s/m can be represented
schematicallyas a shortercurve or a wedge.
The following musical example, in which the various means of cenveying perceptual
knowledge of tone-production converge, exhibits a surprising uniformity. The slurs and
staccato indications are Haydn's. In following Sandor's example, we can draw a table
the patternsof motion to be implementedassuggestedby the text:
showing
0
ExampleIV - 3:
Haydn

Mode of contact

SIM

SSSSSSSfS

(fast/slow)
m/M

hhhhhhhIh

(light/heavy)
shapeof the sphere

(! )

000(!

(! )

(! )

It is interestingto note that the shapethe spheretakesresemblesclosely the shapesof the


composer'sarticulation signs,i.e. the curve and the wedge.Suchconformity may not be as
coincidentalasit seems,after all.
Page136

The Curve has Further Implications

The curve, as a pattern denoting longer duration of contact/impact,slower m/m and so forth,
hasfurther implications.

Musicians often use metaphorical phraseology to express in words an image of musical


activity. Musicians, for example,refer to a mode of contact by which, they say, the note is
approachedfrom 'underneath'.The conductor demonstratesthis with his baton by using a
patternwhich 'carves'the note into position:

..........
In playingthepianotheperformerfeelsasthoughhe 'encirclesandthenpicksup the sphere'.
If thevoicewereto approacha note'from underneath',
therewould be a slight slackeningof
the pitch downwardsbeforethe note is stabilisedin termsof its pitch: a techniquethat is
appliedto be]cantosinging.
The curve,as a patternof musicalactivity, servesto portraythis perceptualexperience:its
droopingline is representativeof the mode of contactwhich approachesthe
note from
by tracingthe line of the curve,the sensationof 'encircling'and 'picking up' the
underneath:
note is experienced.Furthermore,the curve serves to portray graphically the slight
slackeningin pitch experienced
whena vocalistsingsbe]canto.

Page137

Finally, as the hand moves closer to the spherebefore contact is made,physical intensity is
increased.It is almost as if the two bodies, fingertip and tonal 'sphere' which it is on the
in
field
induce
in
doing
that
of
setting
motion,
attract
other
each
and,
so,
a magnetic
verge
stimulatescontact. In applying a slow approach,the sphereis set in motion slowly. It is as
though it is given an initial pushbefore it beginsto accelerate.
In making and maintaining full contact with the spherethe element of tactility establishes
itself as the leading constituentwhich propagatesand manipulatessound.Thus, we can now
in
lies
important
the
the
that
source of music-making ultimately
establish one
principle:
fingertip of the hand. The nucleus of all musical sound and the nerve centre where all
musical activity takesplaceis concentratedon the minute areawhich the fingertip controls.
Music is realized when contact betweenthe tip of the finger and the small imaginary sphere
is established.This point of contactis then communicatedto all other areas.This establishes
further the notion that the hand in motion, its changeof speed,its changein weight and its
direction, acts as the main catalyst that establishesthe speed,massand direction of musical
sound.A line that tracesthe properties and the course of the moving elements - that is the
handand the sphere-can now be established.

Page138

CH"TER

V,

CHAPTER V
(STAGE III)

MUSIC IN MOTION

DIRECTION OF MOVEMENT

In contemplatingmusical motion further, one may impart to it a visual perspectivewhich


57).
(see
pg.
may enhanceone'sunderstandingof musical growth and musical progression
Besidesour tactile and auditory experienceand perceptionof the massand motion of what
its
in
'tonal
body',
thereby
course and
conceive our minds a
we call
we can visualize
variety of patternswhich we can representschematically.
Thesepatternscan only be subjective,basedon experienceand intuition, and are therefore
in
however,
do,
They
non-discursivelyexhibited.
serve a useful purpose portraying and
recording our perception of an abstractconceptof musical motion in a linear image and,
thereby, giving substanceand credenceto its existence.As SuzanneLanger puts it: "All
motion in art is growth - not growth of somethingpictured, like a tree, but of lines and
spaces"t.

The patternswhich emergereflect the movementsexperiencedby the musicianboth in


performanceand in the preparationof a performance;they are imagesrepresentingthe
illusion of musical growth as well as imagesof the artist's physical movementsin
performance.In this respect,they portray a languageof symbolsand shapeswhich is
musicallyorientedanda designwhichexpresses
musicalstructureandmusicalintent.

1.

SuzanneLanger- FeeEngandFojm (1953'. fl-

64)

Page139

R. Franas (1958) has said that "every melody enclosesa kinetic schemeinvolving certain
musico-rhythmicresources... that can be projectedas space,figured as a contour of bodily
movementor bodily reposeappropriatefor characterizingan attitude, a state,or a feeling"
(cited in Nattiez, 1987). Nattiez himself adds: "In melody, in effect, organization of
duration (length of the notes, silences) can be interpretea. in the senseof a motor or
driving force: tonal amplitude suggestsamplitude of movement... the direction of the
from
high to low or vice versa,(ibid. ).
suggests
a
melody
movement
Once a massof sound has been initiated, a musician may visualize its direction towards
the next point of impact, that is the next note of music. What needsto be defined in this
Chapteris, therefore,its behaviourand overall direction.
In order to determinethe direction of the musical sound,we needto consider the position
of the next note that is to be played: its exactlocation in terms of distanceand pitch.
5.1 DISTANCE:

Distance is defined in temporal terms I. As a work of music is played or listened to, a


tempo is establishedwhich denotesthe number of impulses at any given time. Speed is
dependenton distancetraversedin time. In musical terms,tempo, that is speedin music, is
indicatedwhen time, a quantitativemeasure,is calculatedagainsta seriesof impulses that,
in musical terms, represent distance. When the metronome marking indicates crochet
60,
it
equals
meansthat musical soundtravels from one point of referenceto another, i.e.,
from one crochet to another,in one second.The position of one crochet in relation to the
next is therefore the distancefrom one note to the other. This is calculatedand measured
in time.
A similaranalogyis madein the articlefrom 77jeNew GroveDictionaryforMusic
andMuskjans(1980): "Metre is the means
by which rhythm can be perceivedand described.It is thereforeanalogousto the
measurementof distance;this analogy becomes
1.

especiallyclearif one comparesmeasurement


by quarter-incheswith so-calledcommontime, in which thereare four crochetsin a bar
andeachcrochetis given onebeat" (SeeApendix 4 for an Mustration).

Page140

Thus, in musical terms, we can hear distance.If, as often happensin music, a series of
notes is delayed, i. e. when a ritenuto takes place, then the distancesbetween the notes
graduallyincrease.
Distance,asexpressedmerely in temporalterms,can be indicated along a horizontal axis:
ExampleV- 1:

distancesin thno

Pitch

The frequencyof vibration is the single factor that conditions pitch. As the frequency of
increases,
vibration
a higher-pitched sound is heard; conversely, as the frequency of
vibration decreases,a lower-pitched sound is heard. The relationship between one pitch
andanotheris measuredin musical termsand is expressedas an interval in music i.
In notational terms, the difference in pitch is indicated by positioning a note whose
frequencyof vibration is high, at a higher level on the stave than a note whose frequency
of vibration is low. Thus, in music, a seriesof relatively high and low tones with a rise and
fall in the musical line betweenthem is an acceptedperceptualphenomenon:

Precisemeasurementof suchdifferenceis expressible


acousticallyby statementof the vibration numbers,but we need only
concernourselveswith pitch differentiationbetweennotesfound in the variousmajor andminor keysof our diatonic system.

Page141

ExampleV-2:
variations in pitch

ITTI

distance
intime

The frequencyof vibration which ddermines pitch is quantifiable by the human ear - what
the philosopherLeibniz referred to as "unconsciouscounting". If one were to measurethe
difference betweenpitches as they appear on paper, we see that a series of differently
located
tones
are
at various distancesapart:
pitched
ExampleV-3:

We can now establish the distance between a series of notes in temporal terms on a
straighthorizontal line (line A), and the distancebetweena seriesof notesin terms of their

differencein pitch,(line B):


ExampleV-4:

B:

distancem tenm ofpjtcb vanation

A:

distancein te=

Page142

ofnumber ofpulsation.

If a seriesof noteswere to be played in strict metronomic time (with no consideration to


the 'intensity' of eachnote at this stage),this would hardly representa "musical" rendering
of the musical line. In other words, to hear a difference in pitch alone against a
metronomicallyequalpulse as in line A, is not deemedto be musically satisfactory.
If on the other hand, distance were accounted for in terms of pitch variation as it would be
in line B, there would be a series of impulses that deviate from strict metronomic time
according to the degree of the musical interval i. The extent of each interval would then be
fully realized in temporal terms. Therefore, the distance between two notes must be
considered in melodic terms. More time is required between the onset of one note and the
onset of another note if the interval between the two is a larger one than if it were a smaller
one 2.

Naturally, there are many other factors which determine the exact distance between any
two notes.Theseare beyond the presentscopeand confines of this study. But one could
few
in
a
mention
reference to what is being discussedhere. Primarily, one needs to
considerthe effect of a changeof equilibrium in the relationship betweenany two points
of referencewhich causesa changeto the musical intensity.

Ile ideaof relating pitch to time is not new andruns from Obrechtto Stockhausen.
'Me latter has shownthat duration, pitch
andtimbreareall reducibleto a singlecommonfactor - the acousticalimpulse. Me numberof impulsesin any soundwin determineits
1.

duration;their frequencywill determineits pitch; and their rhythmicorganizationwill determineits timbre (source:Grove Dictionary
Vol 18).

2.

Deviationfrom strict metronomictime


accordingto thedegreeof the interval is minuteandat times almostimperceptible.

Page143

5.2 MUSICAL INTENSITY:

When a moving object reachesa stateof constantmotion, it establishesan equilibnum. In


music, this equilibrium could apply when a constant beat is maintained throughout a
certain period and when the melodic line is monotonousand the intensity of each note is
the same:
ExampleV-5:

II

In exampleV-5, no force is appliedother than the one that is requiredto maintain a


constantmotion.Any deviationfrom this constantstatewould unbalancethe equilibrium
causinga stateof instability.This would representwhat Seegercalls "the salientdeviation
from themeanof variance"(ibid). As theelementsaredisturbed,theequilibriumis setoffbalance.This,in musicalterms,causesan increaseor decrease
in the tensionof the music.
In the examplegiven above,the stateof equilibriumwill be disturbedevenwhen pitch
But aus
this monotonous
changes.
statein which time impulses,pitch anddynamicsarefor
is
hardly
in music,it meansthat musicis constantlyin a
the
same
everencountered
ever
stateof unrest:onenoteleadsto anotherasit pulls andpushesin variousdirections.
Stability can be reachedthrough the use of a single predominatingharmony throughout a
musicalstatement:

Page144

ExampleV-6:

Beethoven

21

4/

5?
.

In the aboveexample,from the openingof Beethoven's'Eroica' symphony,there are three


bars in which the tonality of Eb major is being established,through the use of the tonic
harmony.This representsa state of equilibrium in harmonic terms. In melodic terms, the
from
Eb.
Thus,
line
the
the
away
central
a movement
swinging around
sameapplieswith
equilibrium only takesplace in bar 4 by the harmonic dissonanceand melodic movement
towardsthe C#. In this respect,tensionis heightenedat this point. It is heightenedfurther
in bar 8 of this example,when the Ab emerges.The notesC# and Ab representthe lowest
highest
points of referencerespectively,throughoutthis openingstatement.
and
From this point of view, it is possibleto regardthe areaof relative stability which is being
in
established the first threebarsof this opening,as follows:
ExampleV-7:

f
tD0

Page145

Stable conditions prevail throughout the function of the tonic harmony, establishing a
periphery in which regular activity, such as the fanfare motif, takes place. A movement
downwardsto the C# as well as a movementupwardsto the Ab, forces thesetwo notes out
of the periphery of the equilibrium, thus creating unstable conditions which, in turn,
increasethe tension of the music. As if to guaranteethat their effect is felt to the full,
Beethovenmarksthem both sf.
The degree of tension, which is determined by the distance between two notes, is
dependenton many factors. Apart from the pure variation in pitch, distance is dependent

on:
1) whetherthe interval is, in context, a concordantor discordantone. For example, a
major 7th, even though it is a degree smaller than an octave, would take more time to
realizedue to the intensity that the discordantleap creates
2) how any one melodic interval will behave according to the intensity of the
harmonicmovement
3) whetherthe interval is rising or falling in relation to melodic movement: a rising
interv wi sometimesrequiremore time to realize than a falling one
4) the ability of tcmpo rubato to balancea protracted section of the musical line,
interval
is a larger or smallerone
the
of
whether
regardless
5) whetheran int(-rval is encounteredon a strongor weak beatof the bar.
The line on which we therefore needto concentratein order to identify movement is the
oneat the top - that which would signify pitch and time:

Page146

ExampleV-8:

In example V-8, the musical line is representedas a zigzag between various pitches at
variousdistances.However,such a line would come in direct contradiction with much that
has beensuggestedin this study about sphericalmassesand statesof perpetual motion so
that it would be more appropriateto replacethe zigzagwith a curve.
Victor Zuckerkandl makes the following observations:i "the motion I hear in the scale
does not simply disappear;it reachesa goal. Our ear leaves us in no doubt that the last
tone is not simply a last tone but is a goal tone the motion follows the general schema:
...
advancetoward ... attainmentof a goal.
"If 'away from', 'reversal', 'back to' are to be made apparent in our representation, the tones
must not appear arranged side by side along a straight line. Rather, we must dispose them
in a curve... Motion in the dynamic field of tones is essentially motion in terms of this
curve" 2.

Victor Zuckerkandl- SoLwdandSymbol(19161 3- if)


2.

In relativity theory,the behaviourof movingobjectsis represented


bylines (calledworld-lines)in the space-timecontinuum.on

the sameprinciple as a four-dimensionalgraph. If an object moveswith uniform speedin a straightline (as in Newton's first law of
motion),thenits world-line is straight.If it movesunderthe influenceof gravity,then its world-line is curved.

Page147

5.3 CURVATURE:

A curve would thus indicate that there is a starting point at the beginning of the line and
that thereis purposefuldirection towards a point of arrival at the end of the line. Thus, the
line in exampleV-8 could now be representedasfollows:
ExampleV-9:

--r

Density of the Curve i


ExampleV- 10:

be

The aboveexampleneedsto be examinedandconsideredin detail: the curve betweena


indicates
b
a smallstep,sayan intervalof a third; thecurvebetweenb to c indicatesa
and
largerstep,say an interval of a sixth. The time neededto completethe curve betweena
andb wouldthusbesmallerthanthetime neededto completethecurvebetweenb andc.

I.

In Greekarchitecture,a convexcurvature
wascaUedentasis,which means,intensity.

Page148

If, for whatevermusical reasonthe note at point c needsto be intensified further, then the
further:
be
b
between
time requiredto completethe curve
and c would extended

ExampleV- 11:

K..
abc
Even thoughin exampleV- II the distancemeasurablefrom the variation-in-pitch position
is the same as that in example V-10, more time will be taken to complete the curve
betweenpoints b and c, as the Mass of Music (m/m) increasesand the Speed of Music
(s1m)decreases
when the density of the line increasestowardsthe intensified point c. i
5.4 DYNAMIC LEVELS:

It has been suggested,and substantiatedby this study, that an increasein the dynamic
level of a note is associatedwith an increasein the speedof the mode of contact which in
turn increasesthe speed at which the hammer falls on the string. Similarly, such an
increaseon a stringedinstrumentdependson the speedat which the bow is drawn just as,
instrument
it dependson the speedof the air-supply into the tube.
on a wind

In this respect,asalreadyindicatedin the previousChapter,moremasshasto be concentratedin a larger areaso that more time
is takenfor themassto traversethe two pointsbetweenb andc.

Page149

There is a distinction to be drawn here betweenan increasein physical instensity which


implies a resistanceto the opposingforces (seepg. 128) and the increasein loudnessof a
musical tone asa result of increasingspeedof contact.
An increasein physical intensity would imply, as shown earlier, a slowing down of the
s/m. We can imagine the bow beendrawn increasingly slower or the air-supply conveyed
to the wind instrumentgradually decreasing.
If the speedof the moving mass is increased,the distancebetween the two points must

alsoincrease:
Example V- 12:

abc
an increasein the s/m takesplace betweenpoints b and c.

The main differencebetweenexampleV- 11 and exampleV- 12 is the differencein the


distancewe "hear" and the distancewe "see".Whereasthe distancewe hear between
pointsb andc is the time takento completethe curveb to c in time,the distancewe seein
exampleV- 12,is the lengthof the curvebetweenpointsb andc, which is longer.As the
speedat which movementtakesplaceis fasterin exampleV- 12,the curvebetweenpoints
b and c in both examplesis completedin the samelength of time. Example V- 12
incorporates
a crescendo.

Page150

There is a distinction to be drawn here betweenan increasein physical instensity which


implies a resistanceto the opposingforces (seepg. 128) and the increasein loudnessof a
musical tone as a result of increasingspeedof contact.
An increase in physical intensity would imply, as shown
earlier, a slowing down of tht
imagine
We
the bow been drawn increasingly slower or the air-suppiy
can
s/m.
conveyed

to the wind instrumentgradually decreasing.


If the speedof the moving mass is increased,the distance between the two points must

alsoincrease:
ExampleV- 12:

abc
an increasein the s/m takesplace betweenpoints b and c.

The main differencebetweenexampleV-11 and exampleV-12 is the differencein the


distancewe "hear" and the distancewe "see".Whereasthe distancewe hear between
pointsb andc is the time takento completethe curveb to c in time,the distancewe seein
exampleV-12, is the lengthof the curvebetweenpointsb andc, which is longer.As the
speedat which movementtakesplaceis fasterin exampleV-12, the curvebetweenpoints
b and c in both examplesis completedin the samelength of time. Example V- 12
incorporates
a crescendo.

Page150

drawn
bow
being
as
slower
V11,
the
progressively
In example
we could envisage
faster
12,
Vin
is
with no excess
progressively
increasedpressure applied and, example
for
is
intensity
In
executing
terms,
required
physical
more
relative
applied.
pressure
is
induce
both
Whilst
the
V-12.
V-11
result
musical
crescendo,
a
than
may
example
distinctively different. An effective crescendoshould, in most cases,be associatedwith an
increasein emotional and physical intensity (analogousto the bow's increasingpressureon
is
highly
it
impressionistic
in
effective
music
the string) though, when administered some
in
Franc6s
by
(an
Ch1o6
Daphnis
in
instance,
Ravel's
cited
for
given
example
et
as,
Nattiez, ibid.), where the composerevokes feelings of spaceby using crescendosand a
in
rise pitch i.

* ** ** ** ***

* ** * ***

A crescendothat stemsfrom an increaseto the speedof contactis much more difficult to control, as the overall length of the
curvatureis longer znd the distancelarger.To maintainfull contactwith a longercurve is more difficult than to maintaincontactwith &
1.

shortercurve. An increasein intensity as such implies a shortercurve and therefore enablesthe performer to maintain sight and
contiguitywith the moving elements.This areaof discussionwill be exploredfurtherat a later stage.

Page151

5.5 WAVE PATTERNS:


It is clear that we must now establishvarious notional wave patterns so as to reflect.the
ideaswhich havebeenproposedin the foregoing.
Firstly, we needto delineatethe various patternswhich emergewhen notesare approached
individually.

Before going any further, let us establish a basic linear pattern in a free hand-produced
Chopin's
Op
10
No 3:
the
reflects
melodic
contour
of
which
etude
graph
ExampleV- 13:

ExampleV- 13a:

We can now introduce and itemize simple patternswhich depict the basic movement in a
seriesof notes.Thesefall into three categories:a) articulative, b) passiveand c) transient
notional wave patterns:

Page152

a) Articulative
This pattern representsa series of contacts in which the "sphere" is left free to bounce after
impact.
impact,
The
wave
pattern
rises
after
reaches a climax and thereafter recedes.
each

The cycle continueswith similar applicationsto eachindividual note of a series:


ExampleV- 14:

On the piano this is obtainedwheneverthe human locomotor system,or any component


thereof, falls freely onto the key. In this respect,each note is separatelyapproachedand
the articulationof the musicaltext clearly defined.
The wave, as it recedes,cannot indicate the force required to set the next note in motion.
We thereforehaveto introduceanotherline which would indicate a further impact:
ExampleV- 15:

Let the vertical line shown here representthe finger failing onto the key. In this respect,
the two linesjoin at a precisepoint in placeandtime.

Page 153

b) Passivc
from
is
"sphere"
in
the
approached
slowly
this patternrepresentsa seriesof contacts which
different directions as outlined in the previous chapter. In the example that follows, the
from
from
aboveconsecutively:
underneathand
sphere is approached

of

of

ExampleV- 16:

0
0

0
0

As the note is approachedon the descendingdirection of the line, it is pulled downwards


As
it
is
line
direction
is
it
the
the
pulled upwards.
of
approachedon
ascending
and as
"singing
in
the
to
over
the
often
refer
a
chapter,
singer
would
previous
mentioned
already
increasingly
first
"moving
The
the
the
sharpen
would
approach
or
underneath
note".
note"
The
flatten
to
the
the
apply
same
would
slightly.
slightly
and
note
second
approach
note
is
instrument
is
On
intontation
the
the
sameexperience
of essence.
piano,
where
any other
is
dynamics
in
tactilely
of
and time.
and
expressed
variations
sensed
The finger is brought into contactwith the key at any point during the rise or the fall of the
line indicatedin exampleV- 16. In this respect,the "sphere" is madeto revolve from side
to side.The bounceis at a minimum and the musical result would be that of a legato. This
approachcould be appropriatelyapplied to the beginning of the first fugue in Beethoven's
Op
110:
sonata
piano

Page154

ExampleV: 17:

o)
ClIe movementdownwardsandupwardswould alsoimply a movementof the wrist in the samedirection).

following
the
to
passagein Beethoven'sSonataOp 13,last movement:
or,

ExampleV- 18:

Page155

c) Transicnt
This pattern representsan extended mode of contact in which several notes are heard
is
long
is
It
the
and
slur
associated
i
one
unbroken
movement.
closely
with
within
identified
by
"five-fingers,
(B)
the
as
mode
of
contact,
scalesand arpeggios"
conditioned
by Gyorgy Sandor.This is probably the only pattern indicated extensivelyin general terms
by the composer:
ExampleV- 19:

Schumann- piano concertoin A minor

The curves, or slurs as they are referred to in musical terms, are those of the composer.
The noteswhich are slurred are to be groupedtogether.If played by a stringed instrument,
they would have to be played in one continuous bow. On the piano, the same effect is
achievedwhen the three slurred notesin bar 2 are incorporatedin an upward movement of
the arm and wrist. The fingers lie low and the main thrust comesfrom the use of the arm
and wrist. As the hand begins to move, it rises. As it rises, less contact is made with the
key at the highest point that the hand has reached.This in turn would reduce the weight
that is applied to the key, and therefore,a natural diminucndo occurs at the closing of the
slur.

1.

Iliough the two-noteslur can bestbe illustrated


with a passivenotionalwavepattern.Tlis will be discussedlater on.

Page156

Example V-20:

This pattern often emergeswhen, as Sandorpoints out, the performer executesscalesand


in
five
fingers
the
the
succession.
the
performer employs useof
arpeggiosand when
The motion that the hand follows is one in which the "sphere" is made to roll from the
bottom to the top. Eachfinger is then applied at the point the rolling "sphere"has reached.
The technique of producing a series of notes with one movement is ideal in many
infusion
the
it
to
carry
of
energy
one
circumstancesas conservesenergy: one movement,
bounces
lake
into
line
further
forward
like
thrown
successively
a
which
pebble
a
musical
impulses
it
induces
is
impact
its
The
that
a series of
surface.
such
momentum at
over
is
faster
from
In
technique
this
almost
passages,
a single source of energy.
which stem
invariably preferred by performers,as it producesgreat speedwith little effort. It is often
"throwing"
to
the
technique.
as
referred
This phenomenonis experiencedas a result of the keybed's ability to rebound (see pg.
128).Sandorexplains: "When we play loud and fast, we throw the fingers to the bottom of
the keys... the elastic hand and arm receiveconsiderablehelp from the keybed itself.. the
is
downward
be
the
throw;
to
action
may reduced a purely
upward motion
staccato
active
automaticallytakencare of by this [counteractive]upward motion(ibid. ).

Page157

Similarly, if the line is to be maintained for as long as possible, or for as long as the
musical text specifies, it is important that it discharges its energy slowly, evenly and
continuously no matter whether it concerns wind-player, singer, string player or pianist,
who must avoid accents and "bumps" which would cause the wave pattern to drop
vertically.

The Two-note Slur Considered Further

The two-note slur is best representedby what we call a passivenotional wave pattern (see
154).
This.
pg.
slur, which groupstwo notestogether,diffuses energy on the secondnote of
the slur, while intensifying the first. As the energy is increased, the note is pulled
downwards,hencethe line that is directed below the "sphere". As it then moves towards
the secondnote, it slowly dischargesthe concentrationof energy. As it does so, the line
gainsheight and risesabovethe secondnote:
ExampleV-21:

pattema)

Page158

The two-note slur can thereforebestbe illustrated by a passivenotional wave pattern.


There are various important phenomena taking place in a two-note slur:

firstly, the massof music (m/m) and speedof music (s/m) condition the extent to which a
slur can be made to sound expressive.As already mentioned in the previous chapter, the
m1mdependson the weight of contact(and as a result the weight of the resulting sound) in
relation to the weight of the release.As the direction of the line as well as the direction of
the locomotor systemmovesover the "sphere",the weight is decreased.
The two-note slur is usually associatedwith points in the music of increased musical
intensity: i
ExampleV-22:

Beethoven- piano sonatain D minor

The musicalintensityis heightenedwhena stablestateof the musicalflow is disturbed.


The amountwould dependon the amountof instability being caused.There are several
ways of instigatingsuch a changeto the equilibrium. A two-note slur would almost
invariablycausea delay to the onsetof the secondnote which in itself would createa
senseof instability. But it is, as we notedpreviously,the approachto the secondnote
which conditionsthe place and time of the secondnote. In other words the line, its
directionandspeed,determinesthe "quantity"andconsequently
the quality of the second
note.

The "pleading"slur as it is often called.

Page159

A changetherefore,to the exact placing of the various,impulsesthat condition the speedof


(s/m)
determine
the exact distancebetweenthe onset of note one and that of
and
music
note two, is essential.There are severalways that one can distribute the various impulses
in order to implement a variation in time andplace.One suchway would be to increasethe
speedof music (s/m). S/rn can accelerateas it movestowards the secondnote. This means
that the impulsesthat the mind discernsat the hearingof the first note, are longer in length
andbecomesuccessivelyshorteras the secondnote is approachedi.
In pianistic terms, the hand follows a downward movementon impact while it rises from
the wrist to meet the secondnote 2. The procedurewhich conditions a well-executed slur
also implies a diminucndo towards the secondnote as well as a shorteningof the second
note. The secondnote is further delayed.The processrendersa variation to the s/m, m/m
andd/m. Thesevariationscan be representedasfollows:

1.

The idea of delaying the initial tempo before gradually increasingit betweentwo
points of reference,has far-reaching
implications.Thereexistsan interpretativeview, to which I subscribe,thatto
renderaneffectiveaccelerando,the tempofirst of an slows
downwith a ritenutobeforeaccelerationtakesplace.
2.

nere is generalconsensusamongstmanyperformers to this


as
modeof contact.

Page160

Example V-23:

notation:
duration:

lonLer

direction of hand:

shorter
T

dynamics:

d/m:

\0

0
I..,

S/M:

fast

slow

M/M:

heavy

light

Page161

5.6 COMPOSITE PATTERNS:

A transient notional wave pattern ensures continuity of line. It is possible, indeed


mandatatory at times, that during the course of this curve, notes may require clearer
definition. In this case,the articulative and transientpatternscan be appliedsimultaneously:i
ExampleV-24:

A transientpattern may often be broken to allow a changein direction of the musical line or

to emphasize
a point of increasedintensityor a point of arrival. A verticalplacingcan now
tl-

has
been
hitherto
horizontally
line:
conferred
on
what
a
musical
moving
be

The sameChopin etude as before illustrates further the various points mentioned above. In
particularthe notesD#, E to F#:

Example V-25:

1.

Ile individual's attentionto such detail would testify to his sense


of style and musical purpose.Some performers would, for
instance,articulateeverynoteevenwhenlegatois the
end in view. Otherskeepthe overall activity of the fingersat a minimum. 77hemusical
resultsare interestinglysimilar, howeverdivergentthe quality and musical"colour" of the textwres.But such disparity will always be the
hallmarkof any artist'sindividuality.

Page162

There are severalways of approachingthesethree notes;all succeedin renderingthe melody


in a cantabilemanner.Two of theseproducedifferent though musically acceptableresults:
ExampleV-26:

a)

b)

Patterna) keepsnotesd# and e natural under continuousstressand releasesthe tension while


by
followed
f#.
A
transient
the
a passive
notional wave pattern emerges,
approaching note

one.
Patternb) treatsthe notesd# and e as a slur. A passivenotional wave pattern emerges.The f#
is placedwith relatively more weight as it is pulled downwards.This puts more emphasison
the note M. If this is what is desired in terms of the overall phrasing of the melody, then
patternb) is clearly to be implemented.
There will be performers who will aim towards an arrival point on the note f# on a stronger
footing than the presentwave pattern and its associatedmanner of contact would allow. A
compositepattern in which a vertical line is simultaneouslyapplied to the pattern would
placemore emphasison the arrival point on the note f#.

Page163

Example V-27:

pattemd)

5.7 FOLLOW-THROUGH:
in
last
like
is
the
There are momentsin music whereby a note released,much
note of a series
demanding
bar,
beat
some
is
of
but
thus
the
an
emphasis
of
strong
on
a
placed
slur,
which
a
kind to indicate its arrival point:
ExampleV-28:
Beethoven

Pattem:

arrival point

The technique which needs to be employed here is referred to as the follow-through


technique.This is a techniqueakin to the stroke of a tennis player, by which the ball is struck
In
is
ball
follows
this
the
the
through
the
arm
of
made.
while
player
even after contact with
respect,contact with the ball is increased.So a follow-through stroke increasescontact time
with the ball.
Page164

is
the
with
locomotor
made
follow
system, once contact
through of the
In musical terms, the
duration
the
increasing
note.
the
key,
of
thus
duration
the
increases
key,
the
of contact with

This in turn increasesm/m.


down
is
the
As a consequenceof this mode of contact, the thrust of the upbeat releasedon
it
to
on
beat, whilst rendering the downbeat as a point of arrival, with emphasisgiven
duration.
its
longer
of
account
5.8 MOMENTS OF INTENSITY CONSIDEREDFURTHER:
What must be becoming increasingly clear, when considering the various wave patterns
line
importance
the
is
investigation,
the
in
of
have
the
of
our
course
emerged
which
connectingone note of music to the other.
is
in
This
been
tension.
line
has
hitherto
the
The overall rise of the
releaseof
associatedwith
discussed
and
the
has
been
mass
speed,
that
concerning
previously
accord with much
direction of the various phenomenawhich constitute a performance. In particular, our
that
it
has
been
defined
the
view
promotes
the
previously,
considerationof
massof music, as
heavierm/rn causesthe line to drop while a lighter m/m allows the line to rise. This, again, is
in accordancewith physical laws with which many of the musical phenomenaintroduced in
this study conform: a lighter object would rise more readily than would a heavierone.
As a young student of Ilona Kabos in the late 60s, I would often hear her speak of
in
it,
"backbone".
Intensity
lacked
"intensity"
musical
and, as she put
performanceswhich
performance is a physical and emotional reaction to states of tension within a musical
diastole,
structurecreatedas a result of the constantpolarization of opposites:systole and
consonanceand dissonance. In reacting to such musical stimuli, the performer will
sometimesbe compelled to exert a certain amount of pressureon the instrument he plays.
This is certainly true in the caseof a string player who, accordingly, would increasepressure
on the bow. In piano playing, increasingpressureto the keys would not necessarilyresult in
Page165

dynamic changes;it would, nevertheless,result in an emotional and physical heightening of


it
In
The
terms,
tension.
more pressureapplied, the more resistanceencountered. analogous
like
bends,
be
bending
the more resistance,the more
the
one
a
object:
more
resilient
would
tension created.An elastic object capableof returning to its original shapeafter being bent
force,
increasing
force
is
it.
The
the more
the
more
react
as pressure exertedupon
with
will
the tension (for more on this phenomenonI refer the reader to pg. 128). However, the
resilienceof objects which possesselastic properties has certain limits. If bent or stretched
too far, such objects lose their resilience and would not be capable of returning to their
original shape.
All this may be applied to the musical tone as we have beendescribing it. Our hypothetical
sphere which lies at the undertip of the finger, has elastic properties and is, therefore,
resilient (this reflects the elastic propertiesof the flesh - the 'cushion'as it is often referred to
by pianists - on the underside of the fingertip). One may compare this sensation to
manipulating a small ball: the more pressureapplied to the ball, the more it will want to
bounceback. Its density changesas a result of a changeto its shapeand, consequently,its
resistanceincreases.This, in turn, increasestension.In musical terms, to play, as my teacher
used to say, with 'intensity' would mean to react to musical stimuli both emotionally and
physically by increasingpressureasappliedto the instrumenti.

1.

It hasbeensaidthatHerbertvon Karajanexperiencedso

muchtensionduring the courseof conductinga highly emotivepassageof

musicthatthe sheerstrengthwith which he held his batoncausedtheobjectto break!

Page166

In graphic terms,this musical activity which is often highly charged,could be conceivedas a


low-lying horizontal line. The reasonfor this can be traced to the shapeof the sphere: as
hand
increasingly
is
rises
the
and
the
the
rebound
resists
sphere
condenses;
applied
pressure
to
is
increasingly
line
little.
As
show
the
upwards
and
rises
retracts
withdrawn,
pressure
very
feels
the
it
does,
As
in
though
as
one
the moment music where a resolution approachesi.
in
With
decreases.
density
'breath'
begins
this
mind, one
the
the
to
of
object
again as
music
A
breathing
line,
there
higher
exists.
the more
the rise of the
space
could surmise that the
in
twothe
the
of
the
execution
considered
earlier
various phenomena
closerexaminationof
158).
126
further
(I
to
the
and
refer
reader pages
noteslur would substantiatethis view
Analogiescan be found in other fields of music-making.For example,one often talks about
increasing
by
Such
is
'intense'
in
pressureto the
vibrato executed
an
vibrato string playing 2.
finger-boardand/or by increasingthe speedof the vibrato. In either case,'molecular activity',
to usea metaphoricalphrasewhich I think describesthe sensationfelicitously, is heightened:
when pressureis increased,the fingertip feels denser(a sensationsimilar to that experienced
inner
increased
impression
thus
the
to
the
activity.
giving
applying
of
pressure
sphere)
when
When vibrato either slows down and/or is relaxed,the musical line is allowed to breath and
3.
drawn
is
upwards

1.

Indeed,it is the pull and push,the rise and the fall which ultimately maintainmusic in motion. One often refers to the degreeto

whicha musicalphraseis allowedto breathe.Indeed,the ability to identify areasof increasedactivity againstareasof repose,and implement
skilfully the rise andfall of a notional wavepattern,will alwaysproveto be thehallmarkof a true artist.
2.

Onemay associatethis with DrAger's"play with density" in which a tone'slimbre-density' is increasedwhen string playersplay in

higherpositions(seepg. 70).
3.

It is alsopossibleto begin a note on the violin without vibrato this alsoheightensthe tension.As vibrato is slowly and skilfully
-

applied,the oscillatiou.;producedappearto allow the musicalline to rise.

Page167

this
line
from
follow
thought
of
important
further
of
a
on
There are
considerationswhich
a
force
directed
implies
upon
As
towardsan
as
weight
measured
object
a
pressure
nature.
follow
it
of
1991),
Concise
Dictionary
that
(Chambers
reduction
a
gradual
would
unit
been
has
to
instrument
a
such
to
the
reduced
applied
stage
weight
where
pressurewill reacha
degreethat continuous contact with the key is no longer possible. As a result, the actual
duration and the apparentduration may ceaseto coincide (see pg. 121). It is at this stageof
impact
between
instrument
each
that one may experience spaciousness
contact with the
breathe
in
is
illusion
to
that
the
the
i.
to
space
which
allowed
music
giving rise
In practical terms, we may employ a mode of contact when playing in order to increaseor
Beethoven's
from
following
In
feeling
between
the
example
notes.
of space
reduce the
SonataOp 27 No 1, we may attackeachchord lightly and with minimum weight maintaining
little contacttime with the keys:
ExampleV-29:
Beethoven

1.

It is interestingto notethat the ancientGreeksusedthe word apai6 (areo,-a, -os - also in commonuse in neo-Ilellenic language)

to expressthe oppositeof dense.Tle English word "area", given to meanan open empty space,is, accordingto the ChambersConcise
Dictionary,derivedfrom the Latin (I 6th century).Nevertheless,
the word'scloseproximity to the Greekword meaningthin, sparse,spaced
out, spreadout and so on, may give rise to speculationthat the two wordshavea commonderivativeand sharethe conceptof open space:
area= openspace,cEpai6= spacedout. One could then speakabouta tonal body occupyingmore spaceas its densitydecreases.(sources:
Liddell andScott(1977),ChambersConciseDictionary,1991).

Page168

Such a mode of execution would allow each chord time to breathe in the musical space
heavier
key
increases,
As
time
the
chord
sounding
we experienceeach
with
created. contact
by
is
less
breathe.
Furthermore,
to
struck
chord
a mode of contact whereby each
room
with
impression
the
the
that the musical sound travels
of
motion
gives
added
wrist
an upward
increases,
Again,
become
time
the
to
contact
sound
seems
as
more concentratedupwards.
firmly
rooted to the ground.
more
Indeed,there are instancesin music where this mode of contact is askedfor by the composer
in order to suggestopen spacewhere musical textures can be projected. In the following
example from Rachmaninov'sPrelude Op 32 No 12, the composer explicitly marks the
chords in the left hand to be played staccatoin what is otherwise a rich sustaining musical

statement:
ExampleV-30:

Rachmaninov

-- ------------

4a

--

Page169

Such a mode of contact produces a rich and sonorous sound. This is an example where

despite
is
low,
intensity
is
high
intensity,
described
an
as
earlier,
whereasphysical
musical
increasedemotional intensity experiencedby the performer.
As far as the graphic meanswith which one may representsuch activity, the more flowing
the musical line the more horizontal the line to representit whereasa wavering line may, at
times, representmoments of repose.Often in achieving a long musical line, the performer
tends to surge forward. In fact, there are many instanceswhere, in order to achieve this
effect, we gain speed,if only slightly:
ExampleV-3 1:

Beethoven

The above extract from the last movement of Beethoven'sSonata Op 2 No 2 achievesthe


senseof constantforward momentum when the musician acceleratesslightly through it. If
played metronomically, a passageof this kind may well feel rather stagnantand, ultimately,
shapeless.
There are, how-Wer,many instancesin music where an emphasisand vertical placing of the
musical line is called upon. It is sometimeswithin the performer's prerogative to decide
where such placings should apply. In the following extract from the third movement of
Beethoven'sSonataOp 2 No 2, one contemplatestwo distinctly different ways of interpreting
the musicalline:

Page170

ExampleV-32:
Beethoven

One can either treat the secondbeat as part of the first beat,in other words, tie it together,or
beat
first
it
it
it
in
To
the
tie
together
to
with
place separately such a way as give prominence.
would mean to establish a metric pattern of a minim followed by a crochet, whereasas to
treat it separatelywould establisha metric pattern of three distinct crochet beats.To discuss
the musical and structural criteria for imposing one or other method of execution is beyond
the confines of this study but, suffice it to say, prominence given to the second beat as a
separateentity is, within the parametersof this movement,more expedient.Be that as it may,
it is more important for us hereto establishthe courseof the musical line and to seehow this
affectsour awarenessof its direction and its duration. To treat and place the secondbeat as a
separatemusical entity would seemto delay the onsetof the chord in the left hand.

Page171

There is empirical evidence,presentedby Eric Clarke (1985), which supportsour theory that
the onset of the secondchord would be slightly delayed if emphasised:"The stronger the
in
deviation
by
the
the
the
of
amount
positive
position
occupied
a note,
greater
metrical
interval]:
IHI
[inter
conversely, the weaker the note's metrical position, the
onset
note's
greaterthe amount of negativedeviation in its IHI". Discrepanciesfound betweentemporal
Clarke,
in
indicated
by
to
the
those
the
performance
and
score
are,
according
properties
related to the structural properties of the music and the organising processes of the
performer:
"...the relative duration of a note is a property that emergesfrom the interaction of a number
of featuresthat include its symbolic representation,its metrical position and position within a
group,and iLsmelodic and harmonicsignificance".
5.9 THE INTENSIFICATION OF THE CURVATURE:

A convex curve, by nature, indicates a low starting point which grows towards a higher
middle point before recedingback to the lower point at the end of the curve or vice versa.As
alreadyindicated,the return to the lower point at the end of the curve suggeststhat there is a
purposefuldirection to the line that reachesa goal at the point of return.
The rise of the line to a higher position in the middle of the curve, suggeststhat this is the
point of maximum tension.In an arpeggiochord, such as the one indicated below in example
V-33, the point of least resistancewould be found in the two extremenotes which sharethe
tonic, andthe point of heightenedintensity in the middle two:

Page172

ExampleV-33:
a)
Ap
fiN

The line at a) illustrates a curve that is conditioned by the rise of the musical line. The
bottom curve b) indicates the musical intensity which is created in the middle of the
arpeggio.
In the following example from Mozart's Piano Concerto K456, the serniquaverpassageis
musically more expressive when the "middle" notes of the passage are given more
prominence,more weight:
ExampleV-34:

Page173

To render this passagein a way that would give prominenceto the beginning of each group
feature
four,
treat
the
and would
a
melodic
scale
as
not
or zveneight serniquavers,would
of
in
To
be
the
the
of
rise
aware
this
shapeless.
and
passagesound rather superficial
make
intensity,
be
this
heightened
indicates
to
line
execute
would
musical
of
points
which
sloping
in
passage a melodiousand expressivemanneri.
Chords

A similar treatmentto our playing of the arpeggioin exampleV-33, and which pays attention
to the various intensifications of the notes, should be applied when the four notes of the
in
i.
a
chord.
e.
sound
simultaneously,
arpeggio
0
It is clear that in polyphony or homophony, melodic considerationsthat have so far been
implementedon a horizontal axis have to be placed on a vertical one. The same criteria
which condition the emergenceof an arpeggioas an organic entity with a starting point, an
intensification at mid-point and a return, govern equally any texture which sounds the
i.
variousnotessimultaneously, e. on a vertical plane.

T'his curvaturerelatesto various natural phenomenawith which one is familiar in everydaylife: a person for instance,would
encounterincreasingresistanceashe attemptsto dig deeperinto the soil. The resistanceis least when the object with which he is digging
1.

skimsthe surfaceof the soil.

Page174

it.
With
t is in
directed
have
towards
In this respect,the middle of the chord will
more power
(m/m)
increased"mass
slower
q
and
music
of
the
an
possess
of
a
chord
will
centre
mind,
In
with
(s/m).
slower
terms,
move
will
point
a
central
such
metaphorical
of
music
speed
increasedweight and density, while any satellitescontrolled from the centre will move with a
faster and lighter momentum.The middle of a chord is the heart of the chord - the point of
in
intensity
to
the
is
heightened
It
area,
outer
as opposed
musical
an areaof
most resistance.
bears
This
inner
intense
from
branch
less
but
out
have
core.
an
out
which
weight
notes
which
is
highly
that
the notion
chargedmusical activity slow-moving and vice versa.
inner
direct
it
is
desirable
instance,
the
for
is
by
to
When a chord played
an orchestra,
texturesplayed by the instrumentsor sectionswhich hold the centre ground 1, to play with
This
lighter
faster
way,
the
momentum.
and
outer voices move with
sustainingpower while
the textureswill not soundthick or overbearing,but will have "body", power and clarity.
On the piano, the sameprinciples apply: the middle of the chord should be sustainedas the
inner
the
the
or
core 2.
central
of
activity
area
chord rotate around
outernotesof
Voicing of a Chord
In piano playing, the voicing of a chord is usually associatedwith making the top line of a
texture sound more prominent 3. In this sense,the bottom note, Le. the bassnote, is related
directly to the top note.The middle of the chord still representsan areaof heightened

1.

nese areoften the clarinets,violas,hornsandtrombones.

2.

T'his,in pianoterms,might only translatein termsof an increaseanddecreasein the dynamiclevels.-

3.

In the strictestsense,voicing would alsoincorporatethe mannerin which the middle of a chord is madeto soundmore intense,as

describedearlier. Voicing as suchwould take into accountareasof leastresistanceagainstareasof increasedresistance.Voicing on the


piano,though,is usuaUyassociatedwith an increasein the dynamicintensityof the top line.

Page175

its
intensity
in
instance,
but,
the
this
peak at the top note of the
curve
reaches
musical

chord: i
The same principles hold true in the execution of a dyad: to make the top note of a two-note
chord sound more prominent would mean increasing the volume from the bottom note to the
top. Indeed, this is a practice that is common-place amongst many performers when playing
an octave: to lead with the top note.

Textures, then, which sound several notes simultaneously must conform to the same
principles that govem a series of notes on a horizontal plane. The curve is turned around
from its horizontal axis to its vertical axis:

ExampleV-35:

In this way, the curve continuesto conform with the ideas which have been proposedin this
study and which apply to all moving elementsinherent in a piece of music, namely, those

dealingwith distances,
intensities,speedsof music,massof music,directionsetc.

1.

Ile arpeggioservesto chanelthe momentumto the top of the brokenchord. Whenthe four notesare played simultaneously,the
four notesare voiced in sucha way asto indicatethe goal-directionsuggestedby the
arpeggio.In this case,the top note shouldcarry more
weightsoasstandout.

Page176

Distension

This is a common phenomenal occurrence in music. It conveys the increasing dynamic

instability of a note or series of notes as a result of an increasein dynamic, emotional and


intensity.
physical
The soundsuddenlyerupts from a previous dynamic level. The higher the concentrationof
into
high-powered
is
increasingly
As
the
the
an
more
release. more matter
condensed
energy,
object, it causesthe object to be increasingly distended.The larger the distension, the more
powerful the eruption. The soundthat behavesin this manneris comparableto the behaviour
of a balloon which is being inflated: the larger the balloon becomesas a result of more air
being pumpedinto it, the more powerful will be the explosion when it bursts. The more the
is
increased
energy
or the more crescendoone applies to a sound,even if only in the mind's
ear,the more powerful will be the discharge.
The following examplefrom Stravrisky'sConcertofor piano and wind, last movement,
indicatesa distension:

ExampleV-36:

Page177

Here, the piano is required to intensify the chord sharply so that the dischargeis as powerful
disposal
his
is
In
this
to
the
at
every
method
respect, performer called upon use
as possible.
to produce the desired effect: by applying increasing pressureto the keys; by delaying the
secondchord and making it as abrupt and as short as possible; by making the secondchord
louder than the first and by applying the right pedal at some stagebetweenthe onset of the
first chord and the onset of the second,so that the impression given, illusory or not, is that
the first chord hasundergonea suddencrcsoendo.
5.10 THE REPEATED UPBEAT:

ExampleV-37:

In the aboveexample,the upbeatC is prolongedby being repeatedtwice. It is a common


interpretativepracticeto treatthe protractedupbeatin sucha way as to avoid a monotonous
repetitionof the samenote.In this way,the two Cs would haveto be gradedso that eachis
positionedon a higherplanegiving the impressionthat the musicalline rises,eventhough
thetwo Csremainon thesamelevelin termsof their actualpitch: i

1.

This may be achievedby increasingthe dynamicgradientthroughoutthe


repeatedupbeatbut not necessargyso.

Page178

rl

pitch variation:none

CC
In the following example from John Field's Nocturne in F major the upbeat is a three-note

one:
ExampleV-38:

The following curve indicatesthe rise in termsof pitch from the C to the top A:
ExampleV-39:

CA

Page179

incorporate
formulate
now
may
begin
in order to
to
a patternof various musical activities, we
in
it
in
Cs
both
line
into one
the rising
and the rise pitch as might appear the gesturesof a
this
throughout
in
rises
the
gradually
which
the motion of
pianisfs wrist
conductor or,
'transference'
three
illusory
the
indicates
illustration
Such
the
of
graphic
prolongedupbeat.i
Cs through tonal spaceto the top A 2.
Example V-40:

A transientnotional wave pattern has thereforebeenestablishedin which the three Cs move


instance,
in
But,
is
This
this
in
what
satisfactory.
musically
one
movement.
one
curve
along
doesa rising curvatureexactly portray?It could indicate one or more of the following:

1) a variationin pitch
2) an outright crescendo

from onenoteto theother,i.e.


3) a gradualincreasebetweenthevariousdistances
rubatoor iftenuto
4) an increasein tension,through any combinationof these
5) direction in which the locomotor systemmoves
Indeed,this representsone of many suchgesturesoften encounteredin the world of pedagogyby which the teacherassiststhe
studentin playing con cspressione.
2.

'Me virtual transferenceof one note throughtonal spaceto anothercould be likened to the portamentotechniqueused by string

playersto slidefrom onenoteto the other.In metaphoricterms,the note feelsasthough it 'glides'towardsthe next one -a techniquewhich
is,unfortunatelyin my opinion.rarely in voguethesedaysbut onewhichhasservedmusic so well for so manyyearsin the past.

Page180

For one, it representsa variation in pitch: the interval of a major 6th. It could also imply a
it
is
(though,
it
be
quite possible to render the opening of this
out,
must
pointed
crescendo
Nocturne with no apparent crescendo).A gradual increase between the various distances
from one note to the other creating a rubato or fitenuto. Any combination of these would
increasemusical intensity and, subsequently,heightenemotional and/or physical intensity in
the performance.
As alreadyindicatedpreviously in this Chapter(paragraphunder sub-heading'Transient') the
manner of executing a transient notional wave pattern, and in particular this opening
"repeated-noteupbeat",would be to imagine the "sphere"turning from the bottom to the top.
Eachfinger is then applied at the point the rolling "sphere"has reachedat the time contact is
to be made. In this sense,a rising wrist would lend itself ideally to producing the desired
effect i. The rising curvaturetherefore,may also representschematicallythe direction of the
locomotor system2.
It is thereforepossiblethat, apartfrom an indication of the variation in pitch and direction of
the locomotor system, any one of the other three options (or a combination of the three),
available to the performer for producing an "increase" of one kind or another, can be
implemented according to the expressive manner with which the performer chooses to
interpretthe openingof this work.

1.

Thereare someteacherswho ask their studentsto raisetheir wrist while they apply physical pressureto opposethe rise. As the

studentencountersresistance,he will feel the sort of physical intensitywhich he shouldexperiencewheneverhe raiseshis wrists. Whilst
therearetimeswhensuchactionshouldbe void of physicaltension,in manycases,particularlyat momentsof heightenedmusical intensity,
physicalintensityshouldbe experienced.
2.

It is commonperformancepracticeby many pianists,whenfacedwith


sucha passage,to changeringerson eachof the repeated
notes.11is producesthe desired'rounded'effectwhich movesin line with the revolving "sphere".

Page181

in the following example,taken from Chopin'sNocturne in E minor, the resulting increaseis


achievede,,,li though thereis no variation to the pitch of the note:

9:

:F

The samecriteria as before, which condition the rise of the curvature,apply to this example,
eventhough it would be hard to imagine sucha rise here without a correspondingincreasein
the emotional,physical and dynamic intensity.

Page182

5.11 THE AMALGAMATION

OF THE VARIOUS CONFIGURATIONS:

It is clear from what has been said earlier, with regard to the examplesgiven above, that
there are various musical phenomenarepresentedby a variety of patterns: each indicating
be
line.
An
direction
the
the
made to
now
attempt will
of
musical
overall
schematically
identify and then amalgamatethesevarious configurations. Chopin's Nocturne in E minor
derived:
from
to
the
the
are
configurations
various
work
which
will continue serveas
ExampleV-42:

Eachunit representsa quaverimpulse.


On level 1, we have a line that representsthe variation in pitch: i

1.

Ile resultof this processof accumulationcanbe seenon page187.Table 4.

Page183

On level 2, the moments of greater musical intensity, complemented by emotional and


intensity,
6
lesser
These
located
2
to
are
physical
represented.
a
extent and point
are
at point
to a larger extent:

12345678

On level 3, dynamic levels are being represented:

Here,theline continuesto rise right throughto point 6 andfalls throughpoints7 and8. This
to point 6 anda diminuendothereafter.
represents
a crescendo

Page184

On level 4, we have a line indicating moments of greater musical intensity in which the notes

in
this
from
to
the
from
which
manner
according
above i,
underneathor
are approached
A
is
deemed
interpreted
is
being
musically most satisfying. composite
and
musical phrase
pattem emerges:

12345678
Accordingly, there are variations to the speedof music (s/m) and mass of music (m/m) at
variouspoints:
betweenpoints 2 and 3, there is an increaseto the m/m as well as decreaseto the s/m. This
leads to a heightening of the tension. Points 3,4,5 decreasem/m while increasing s/m
betweenpoints 3 and 4. This rendersa releaseof tension while a slight accelerandotakes
is
increase
between
3
4.
This
to
the
pace a result of a rubato which
slight
points and
place
balancestime taken with time given. S/rn is then decreasedbetween points 4 and 5 and
decreasedeven further betweenpoints 5 and 6, where m/m is also increased.This rendersa
further intensification at the arrival point 6. Thereafter, an increaseto the s/m as well as a
decreaseto the m/rn gradually takesplace.
Distancesbetwecn the various notes are kept here at uniform length. The shaded-in and
intensity,
line
indicates
increases
to
the
also
musical, emotional and physical
which
wider
is
in
decrease
in
the
the
s/m as more matter concentrated a line separatingpoints at
reflects
equaldistances.
1.

Accordingly,the handmakescontactwith the "sphere"througha variety of approachesas describedand identified in a previous

section.

Page185

The four levels which have beenidentified are illustrated clearly on Table 4 overleaf. These
line
direction
basic
levels
different
the
to
the
the
of
musical
of activity which relate
represent
in the excerpt in question.

The performing musician ought to be in a position to identify each pattern separately.As


important
itself
indicative
is
in
level
indicates
different
of
of activity which
a
eachpattern
it
is
impossible
dispose
to
taking
of these patterns on a
musically,
place
processes
hierarchicalbasis.Nevertheless,all four patternsare interrelatedand interdependent.
The performing musician can identify one level in order to clarify, for instance,the contour
At
hands.
in
in
basic
line
its
the
terms
the
the
of
motions
melodic
of
variations pitch and
of
the performance stage, though, the musician will ultimately be aware of one line which
Such
levels
forms
the
an
of activities.
others and
a pattern reflecting all
unites all
amalgamationis required in order to producea schemacapableof adumbratingthe activities
and individual properties of each separatepattern. This would then form the one master
intensity
in
in
directions
dynamics,
taking
of
plan
of
and
pitch,
moments
variations
curvature
approach,as well as momentsat which crucial changestake place to the mass and speedof
music.

Page186

TABLE4

LEVELI

(Pitch pattem)

LEVELH

12345678

(Pointsof intensity)

LEVELIH

(dynamicspattern)

LEVEL IV
OOF

0
0
(Pattemof approach)
Page187

The following patternis indicative of the various propertiesat every level and representsthe
musical line asmotion, progressionandgrowth:

This pattern takes into account the shapeof the line in terms of its pitch variation with the
It
further
intensity
dynamics
increase.
Points
the
rising.
rises
as
curvature
of
are darker which
indicate a slowing down of the s/m and an increaseto the m/m. As notes are approached
from different directionsthis causesthe notesto move up or down.
Furthermore,the shapeof the abovecurvatureillustrates also, quite unequivocally, the basic
direction in which the handmoveswhen playing this passage:the wrist drops at point 2, then
risesthroughpoints 3,4, and 5, then drops again at the arrival point 6. Thereafter,it rises as it
would in a two-note slur.
With whicheverinstrumentthe abovemelody is played, the performer and the listener can be
madeawareof this basic essentialpattern. An instrumentlike the violin, for instance,would
makeevery nuanceindicated in the pattern clearly audible, becauseit would manipulate the
soundaccordingly:

Page188

it would crescendothrough to the top of the line; it would intensify the sound by increased
distances
increase
it
5-6:
the
1-2
bow
the
various
at
to
the
would
and
at
points
pressure
be
down
is
The
intensification
the
can
also
s/m
of
slowing
encountered.
points at which such
is
bow
through
down
by
the
a
the
the
moving
speed
at
which
player
slowing
conveyed
2
6
be
The
his
to
sound
made
to
the
can
and
at
points
notes
rate
of
vibrato.
pulsating
change
fractionally flat as they are pulled downwards.This, again, is indicated in the pattern. As
intensity is releasedthe notesrise and aredischarged.
Other instrumentsplaying the samemusical phrasecould equally convey the same pattern,
On
the piano,
in
be
the
to
though
they
sameway.
a position manipulatesound
might not
even
for instance,the impressionof a crescendois achievedby careful dynamic gradation of each
intensity
heightened
Moments
are created
towards
the
top
the
musical
of
of
curvature.
note
through awarenessof distances,that is to say, through timing and rubato, as well as through
The
in
intensity
to
the
the
overall pattern would
of
playing.
act
physical
experienced
changes
be as discernible

if played on a violin or any other instrument which controls the sound-

initiated.
once
envelope
The harpsichord,for instance,can neither crescendonor alter the dynamics of the sound. It
can still clearly convey the pattern though, through its one meansof expression,timing: the
location of the various points at various distancesapart,hencethe importanceof rubato in the
Baroqueharpsichordrepertoirei.

1.

The inability of an instrumentto manipulatethe soundto the degreeprescribedby the patterndoesnot in any way eradicatethe

pattern.On thecontrary,the pattern,as a visual modelof the organicgrowthof the musicalline, servesto enhancethe performer'scapacity
to portrayit asveraciouslyashis instrumentmay allow.

Page189

CONCLUSION:
The organiL ,-,rowth of a melodic line implies motion, progression and therefore direction.
The direction of the melodic line in this respect incorporates far more than that of pitch
variation alone. It takes on board criteria which condition the dynamic qualities of the
As
line,
tones.
a
a curvature, emerges it forms a path through which these are made
various
apparent. The curvature indicates moments of increasing or decreasing musical, emotional
intensity
in which the spccd of music and the mass of music (the perceived
physical
and
line
indicated.
Furthermore,
this
the
through
of
of
various notes) are clearly
process,
weight
music "comes alive". It breathes and it rests; it intensifies and it grows; it accelerates and it
it
down;
becomes heavy and it becomes light. The line emerges as a musical shape; a
slows
shape that Heinrich Neuhaus calls '7ntonation of the music" i. The pattern which has been
traced in the preceding pages is an attempt to reflect this shape.

Somesuchpattern is being realized to a greateror lesserextent whenever,and by whatever,


instrument it is played. Instruments like the piano or the harpsichord would emphasize
certain perspectivesof the pattern whereasother instruments,like a stringed instrument or
the voice, would indicate others. A two-dimensional design, though, can still portray the
depth of an object which is being depicted.Likewise, an instrument which is limited in its
for
subsequentchangesto eachsoundthat it produces,can still suggestthe various
capacity
nuancesassetforth in the overall curvatureof this pattern.
Awarenessof the various phenomenawhich determinethe safe arrival of the musical line at
its destinationassistthe discerning performer in producing a curvature true to the principal
qualitiesinherent in the music. The performer is thus able to form a pattern according to the
demandsof the musical text on the one hand, and accordingto the way he or she choosesto
interpret these demandson the other. The line is then drawn in the confidence that it
representsa cohesiveview of, and by the sametoken a musical insight into, the work to be
interpreted.

HeinrichNeuhaus 7heAii ofMano Playing (Iqj 3)


-

Page190

CHAPTER VI

CHAPTER VI""
MASS IN MOTION
(STAGE IV - IMPACURELEASE - and beyond)
At the time that contactis madewith the next note in a series,the precedingnote is released:
the natureof this releasewill form the focus of investigationin this chapter.
The speedwith which a note is released,as well as the time of releasein relation to the note
further
determines
follows,
the quantitative and
producesa variety of motion which
which
qualitativedifferencesof the musicaltexturesi.
6.1 RELEASE:

Instantaneous
is
Instantaneous
releaseoccurswhena note releasedat the precisetime at which the ensuing
is
note played.This involvesan intricateprocessfoundedon goodmuscleco-ordinationand
musclereflexesso that control over the rise and fall of the fingerswith regardthe keys is
at all times.
exercised
The speed at which the damper of the piano returns to dampen the strings is directly
controlled by the speedat which the key is released:the sound ceasesinstantaneouslywhen
the key anddamperare returnedswiftly asa result of rapid finger action.

It is within this complcxprocessthat an endlessvarietyof colour canbe achievedon the piano


Chapter
11
to
the
refer
reader
-I
"Mechanisms".

Page191

in
lies
key
the
the
in
delivering
difficulty
of
The
release
and
well-controlled
a well-timed
inability of the finger to remain still while othersare being motivated to play. In other words,
key
finger
holding
"pull"
the
it
the
finger
is
lifted
to
tends
and mobilized to strike,
when a
its
destination.
finger
however
the
to
This
reaching
minimal, prior
causesa release,
upwards.
This, in turn, breaks the link between one note and the other and results in unevenness of

is
finger
is
independence
That
movement so soughtafter i.
of
why
sound.
Rctarded
A retarded releaseoccurs when the finger releasesthe key slowly, thereby causing the
damperto fall back gradually. As a result, the soundtoo disappearsgradually. In a retarded
legato
lie
basic
technique.
the
a
constitute
principles which
release
In instantaneousrelease,the note is fully in focus when one finger depressesone key
is
In
finger
the
ensuing note
releasesanother2. a retardedrelease
simultaneouslyas another
is
being
The
is
being
therefore
the
played
note
released.
preceding one
realized while
broughtinto focus slowly and gradually.
It is for this reasonthat experimentswhich look for specific variations in the onset and offset
times of eachnote (Sloboda,Clarke et al), particularly when theseare played in legato mode,
fully
has
been
'emerge'
be
inept.
fully
A
the
to
previous one
only when
may prove
note may
flux.
But
in
it
is
then
state
of
motion and
released. even
constantly a
1.

Ile strainsuchindependence
of finger-actionexertson the musclesof the body, asprofessedby the old schoolof piano-playing,

hasbeenrecognizedby many as being impracticalandeven physicallydangerous.Whetherit is finger-actior alone which propagatesthe


soundor whetherit is action invo!,fing the useof other partsof the locomotorsystem,the principal of evenes in execution,and therefore
evenessin sound,remainsthe same:the actionwhich preparesany part of the locomotorsystemto strike the key mustnot disturb any other
partof the systemholding the key fmnly in position.
In an instantaneous
release,impactandreleaseoccuralmostsimultaneously.Me tactile sensationof impact/releaseis suchthat, on
impact,the fingermakescontactwith the "sphere"right at the centre.In a retardedimpact/release
the "sphere"is susceptibleto more varied

2.

For fitrther infonnationon the varietyof applicableapproaches,


I refer the readerto page137.
approaches.

Page192

As with an instantaneousrelease,the speedat which the finger releasesthe key is analogous


to the speedat which the finger movesto initiate the ensuingnote.
In the performance of certain works for orchestra where intense legato is required, a
techniquewherebynotesare held by certain playersof a violin sectionwell after others have
The
legato.
intensify
in
is
the
line
to
to
the
exercised order
next note of a melodic
moved
before
is
in
divided
the
to
to
to
note
on
move
such a way as allow certain players
section
in
is
When
is
the
tastefully,
one
this
technique
result
musical
others.
applied skilfully and
it
is
immense
intensity
is
"pull"
that
the
slowly
the
through
as
note creates
achieved
which
and painstakinglyreleasedi.
On the piano a similar technique is practised: one finger moves to another note while the
This
is
held
before
being
practice requires skilful
previous one
released.
momentarily
in
is
it
does
to
timed
the
co-exist
relation to
manipulation and
release
not occur arbitrarily:
the SPCCd
Of MUSiC2.

6.2 PEDAL LEGATO:

The pedal (that is, the Tight pedal of the piano), when depressed,induces vibrations of the
harmonic series.This enrichesthe sound quality and serves as a device by which a wide
rangeof colours can be attained.The implementationof the right pedal has been compared
with the vibrato produced by instruments other than the piano. Just as a violinist, for
example,would use a choice of vibrato to alter the quality of the note, so would a pianist
avail himself of the pedal.

1.1

referthe readerto the recordingof PuccinrsToscaby the ViennaPhilharmonicOrchestra,conductedby Herbertvon Karajan.on

Decca,catalogueno: 5BB 123-4,in particular,the tenoraria:"ReconditaArmonia".


In the early stagesof training to attaincontrolover this type of belated
release.the playerdelaysthe releaseof a note by one beat.
Onceco-ordinationis attained,the processcandevelopto a morecomplexlevel accordingto the textualand
emotionaldemandsof the score.

2.

Page193

A string player applies vibrato at various stagesduring the course of a single note thus
its
by
'colours'
likewise,
The
the
timbre.
adopting the use
note
quality
and
pianist,
changing
of the pedal at a given moment during the courseof a note or chord. The timing as well as
the deftnesswith which the pedal is implementedwill determinethe qualitative nature of the
musical line.
The pedal has been applied erroneously many a time in order to assist the player in
it
is
Whereas
textures.
times,
this
the
at
sustaining
pedal can serve a useful purpose
use of
it,
"glue"
Schnabel
device
Arthur
to
put
neverthelessunwarrantedas a mere
with which, as
notes together.In this respect,sustainingpower lies in the hands,rather than the feet of the
performer.
In order to maintain unity of executionand co-ordinatedmotion, the right pedal is lowered
and releasedat various sub-divisions of the main beat, and not indiscriminately. Similarly,
the speedat which the pedal is insertedand releasedrelates to the speedthe finger attacks
and releasesthe key. In this context, a slow releaseall aroundwould render a finger lcgato as
well asa pedallegato.

In this respect,the string player's use of a vibrato in which the left hand begins to oscillate
slowly after a note has beenheardcan be imitated on the piano by depressingthe right pedal

slowlyandgraduallyafterthefingerhasmadecontactwith thekey.
6.3MOVINGELEMENTSPRIORTO IMPACT:
It is commonperformance
practiceto motivateall the elementswhich enterinto the playing
of a noteor groupof noteswell beforethe noteis actuallyheard.In ensembleplaying, for
instance,the instrumentwhich joins th-- ensemblewhen others are already playing begins to
'move' in time with the other instrumentsbeforejoining in the general flow of the musical

performance.
Page194

This means that when there is a rapid flow of, say, serniquavers being played by the other
instruments, the newcomer begins to "feel" the pulsating serniquaver movement before
in
in
he
joins
his
that
the
when
moment of
entry arrives,
unobtrusively and time 1.
playing, so
Failure to move, prior to impact, in time with other moving elements is likely to cause a late
"bumpy"
entry.
and

Likewise, the player in the ensemblewho ceasesto play will leave off at a pacewhich relates
to that of the ongoing moving elements.Impact and release,therefore, are aligned to the
speedof music (s/m).
The locomotor systemof the pianist is similarly motivated at all times during the processof
delivery, impact and release,in the same way that instrumentswithin an ensemble 'move'
during momentsof activity and repose.As a finger preparesto strike and releasea given key,
it movesin relation to the speedin which the precedingnote was delivered.
In string playing, the left hand frequently beginsto vibrate before the bow comesinto contact
with the string. In this way, the note is prepared and motivated prior to it being heard.
Metaphoricallyspeaking,the note is brought to life and begins to pulsatebefore it is heard. It
thereforeexists and is perceivedas an entity at the time that it beginsto move (seepg. 95).

Ilis could be likened to the experienceof someonewishingto leap to a


on
moving bus from a stationaryposition; he would do so
with lessrisk of an injury if he beginsto move first at the samespeedalongsideit.
1.

Page195

The experience of the string player in setting a note in motion prior to impact is paralleled by

the pianist when he refers his mind to the intangible, abstract,yet conceptually real realm of
the "sphere",is proposedin this study,which prior to impact beginsto revolve.
This experienceestablishesfurther the idea that musical performanceis the quintessenceof
intricate
initiates
the
that
the
processof movementand
performing musicianwho
motion and
In
times
maintain absolutecontactwith all moving elements. this respect,
growth must at all
in
is
to
the
performing musician ultimately aspires
a onenessof purposeand execution what
this muchcovetedstateof completeharmonybetweeninner and outer world.
6.4 PHANTOM NOTES:

Frequently,physical contact with the key is interrupted,even when two or more notes seem
to bejoined together.This experienceis brought abouteither by the fact that two notes are so
far apartthat to physically join them would be impossibleor that the performer decides,for
whatevermusical reasonor musical effect, to detach one note from the other, or that the
composerexplicitly requeststhat notesshould be played in semi-staccatoor portamento, or
that the composercreatessilent pausesthrough restsin betweennotes.
Whatever the reason for leaving the key, contact between any two notes may still be
maintainedthrough a musical relationship.The bond that connectstwo points of referenceis
still achievedeven when physical contact ceasesto exist. In this respect,the preceding note
'lies' as a 'phantom note' whose particular quality is perceived even when tactile contact is
withdrawn.

Page196

When the composer specifically requests that two notes are detached through a rest, a silent
is
in
"phantom"
In
the
to
this
occur
sound
experience
which
ceases exist.
respect,
pause may
particularly significant as it implies that there is always a connection between any two points
of musical reference even when sound is inaudible. A silent pause, in this case, forms part of
the musical structure and is perceived as an integral and organic occurrence of the music
itself.

6.5 POLYPHONIC TEXTURES:

The "phantom note" phenomenonis particularly applicable when polyphonic textures are
following
In
the
example,played by the clarinet, the melodic line is distributed
encountered.
in sucha way asto form a single and a two-part musicalline at the sametime:
Example VI- I a;

Mozart

ExampleVl- I b;
ILE

Page197

----

Example VI- la indicates a single melodic line as it is written in the score. Example VI-lb
Kurth
This
line
this
calls a
the
two-part
constituteswhat
end of
phrase.
melodic
at
suggestsa
linear-polyphonicstructurein which apparentvoicescome into play i.
The player who interpretsthe abovephrasealong the lines indicated by VI- Ib has, therefore,
leaving
C.
D
The
Eb,
the
while
clarinet player,
to maintain constantcontact with
and
notes
the note Eb to play the next note F, must maintain contact with the Eb, even though physical
C.
Consequently,
in
D
is
Eb
then
to
the
the
to
the
to
and
contact not possible, order relate
by
in
is
Contact
C,
become
"phantom
Eb,
D,
this
a
respect, maintained
notes".
and
notes
"phantom
is
the
the
that
notes" when
of
within
quantity
preserved
physical awareness
is
longer
no
contact
possible.
physical
In musical terms, the main body of the musical line lies in the notes Eb, D and C, whilst the
othernotes,F and D, areperipheral.
The pianist who plays similar passages(of which there are plenty) would treat it the same
lost,
fingers
key
be
D
the
the
the
physical
contact
which
play
notes
might
whilst
with
way:
C
F
Eb
have
beenplayed,return to a position of close proximity which enables
after
and
and
them to maintain contactand relatethe D to the previousEb, and the C to the preceding D.

1.

In Kurth's definition an apparentvoiceis an overridingmelodiccontinuity composedof registrallyhighlighted,non-adjacenttones

by virtue of their long-rangestepwiserelationships.As opposedto this, an actual voiceis the literal, note-to-notemelodic
that areassociated
development(seepg. 197).Kurth maintainsthat Bach,for instance,brings apparentvoicesinto play in order to achieveintensification by
meansof a transition from parallel motion to a staggeredapex with an actual voice (cited in Ernst Kurth -Selected Writings by LA.
Rothfarb,1991. e- S1)
for a more scientifically-basedexegesisof this phenomenonI refer the readerto a study by West, Howell and Cross,entitled "Modelling
perceivedMusicalStructure".in: Musical Strucnireand Cognition(I9 04S ft-41)-

Page198

6.6 FINGER PEDALLING:


It is possible,indeeddesirableat times,to physically hold the notesEb, D and C:
ExampleVI-2;
1-
-,

The finger that plays the Eb is releasedonly when the D is played; and the D is releasedonly
is
C
the
played.
when
This techniqueof holding down notes on the piano frequently occurs and producesa pedallike effect. Whereasthe right pedal would releasethe damperssetting all the strings of the
instrumentinto sympatheticvibration, holding certain notes will only releasethose dampers
to which these notes are connected.The overall line is therefore more concentrated and
focused.At times the pedal can be usedin conjunction with sustainingcertain notes in order
to enrich and'colour'the soundwhilst still maintainingit focusedand well-centered.
By thus renderinga melodic line in sucha way as to unravel it into segmentswhich suggesta
is
texture,
the
conceptual
pattern
wave
curtailed:
polyphonic

ExampleVI-3:

nominalwa e pattem:

Page199

A similar techniquecan be employed in orchestral playing when a single melodic line is


divided into two (or sometimesmore parts), by having certain instrumentsor sectionsof the
orchestraplay only the apparentvoice whilst othersplay the actual.

ExampleVI-4a;
Torelli

The aboveis played in unisonby the first and secondviolins of the orchestra:
ExampleVI-4b;
Torelli

I,

An orchestraltechniqueis here employedwhereby the secondviolins play the top line and

thefirst violinsplay thebottomline.


Such a division of the violin section is hardly discernible to the ear, whereas the musical

is
result mostsatisfactoryasit focusesthesoundon themainbodyof themelodicline i.

Ilis effectcanbe heardon a recordingof this work, Torelli's concertofor two


trumpetsand stringsin D

1004,by theCity of Oxford Orchestra,conductedby the author.

Page200

major, catalogueno PCD

As the notes which constitute a musical pattern become more triadically gapped and
mechanically repetitive they lose their "melodic" character. An Alberti bass, for instance,
into
(harmony)
have
turning
the
the
sole merit of
vertical
comprisesa seriesof notes which
the horizontal (pseudo-melodicline) - representingwhat Kurth calls "rhythmically enlivened
arpeggiationsof chord progressions"- neverthelessa substantial merit in non-sustaining
instrumentssuchas the harpsichord:
ExampleVI-5;

The melodic character of this device must still be addressed,but the main body of the
melodic line is situatedin the pedal notes C and B. Thesenotes can be held for longer than
their given value, particularly the C in the third group of four semiquaversmoving to the B,
aswell as the E in the sameplacemoving to the D.

A distinctionmusthoweverbe madebetweensuch,harmonicpatternswherethe pedalmay


beappliedandmelodicpatternswhich,howeverarpeggiated
theymayappear,aredeemedto
be melodicandnot harmonicin characterandconsequently
cautiously
shouldbe approached
with regardto pedalling.
Indeed,the useof thepedal,basedon the ideathat noteswhich belongto the sameharmony
readily acceptit, has the effect of reducingthe melodiccharacterof a musicaltheme.In
Beethoven,
wheremanyof themainthemesarebasedon the arpeggio,the linearcharacterof
themelodicflow i --oftenabitedby excessive
useof thepedal.

Page201

A harmonic texture like the one indicated in example VI-5 simply strums the ubiquitous
triadic chords in an ostinato movement of serniquavers.On the other hand, a genuinely
developing
individual
focuses
texture
the
of
a
note
attention on each
arpeggiatedmelodic
line.

Heinrich Neuhausmakesthis point unequivocallyclear:


"In Beethoventhe subject is frequently constructedon the notes of a triad which sometimes
gives learnersthe wrong idea that since 'there are no wrong notes' the subject can be played
Melody
imagine
'it
One
because
mistaken.
anything more
on one pedal
soundsgood'.
cannot
(which is individual) is turned into harmony (which is general).Insteadof a subject you get a
sort of backgroundon which a themeno longer appears.The theme has been swallowed up.
It was drowned in the harmony. Strangeas it may see,.I still have to make remarks of this
naturein class.Frequently, also, I have to indicate that passagesmadeup of arpeggioswhich
aboundin Beethovenlose their energy if they are played on full, too thick pedal, their shape
is blurred, the 'meander'is effaced" i.

This chapter completes our examinationof the process by which any worthwhile
is realizedthrougha seriesof actionswhosemotionsemulatethe motionsto be
performance
foundin the musicitself. Thesemotionswhich take placeboth physically,psychicallyand
aesthetically
needto be consideredin relationto eachotherif the interpretationof musicis to
attainits full cohesivestature.

1.

HeinrichNeuhaus 77jeAn ofbano Playing(ICI?S - f-

163>

Page202

CH"TER

VII

CHAPTER V111
CONCLUSION
By way of conclusion, we may sparea moment to contemplatethe far-reaching implications
locate
interpretation.
By
to
key
'motion'
to musical
seeking
as a
which arise from applying
been
increasingly
to
have
in
able
the
the experience of
performing musician, we
motion
in
forces
"the
it
has
Ernst
Toch
music":
shaping
called
equate with what
"Stagnation is the worst enemy of form; and since form and inspiration are so intimately
interrelated,we may well say that stagnationis the Worstenemy of inspiration. If inspiration
dies, form is doomed to die with it. What keeps them alive, is essentially movcmcnt.
Movementis far more thanjust a sign of life; indeed,it is, 'thc vcry mcnec of flfc'i.
The fundamentalforces, which generatethis movementwhich music celebrates,derive their
Kurth
defines
Ernst
from
these as
the
energy
primordial properties of opposing elements.

follows:
forces
influence
"Harmonicdissonance
in
that stimulate
the
continued
of
unabsorbed
consists
further activity, particularlyas a vertical equilibrium.What is characterized
as resolutionin
the chordalsenseis the rclcascof forcesdirectedat the specificbasicforms (the consonant
triads). Further, harmonic consonance,the permeationof the harmony with unreleased
(ibid.).
tensionsarisingfrom melodic-kineticenergies,
comesinto consideration"
The performing musician must identify the kinetic properties inherent in the music and seek
out physical modesof contact, as defined in this study, which embody and complement them.
It would be incongruous,for instance,to render an increasein s/m/ or m/m when the music
clearly opposesit.
1.

FrnstToch - TheShapingForcesin Music (1948 -f

- 11

Page203

horse,
the
horse:
will
the
liken
One may
this to the experienceof riding a
rider, whilst guiding
follow its course otherwise he is likely to lose balance and fall. Analogously, the musician,
be
he
it
that
follow
with
takes
one
at
may
the
so
the
course
must
performance,
guiding
while
it. To alter the course of the music by imposing a line contradictory to its natural flow would
be highly prejudicial.

in
hear
To
tones
As Zuckerkandl says: "I experience[the tone's] motion as my own motion.
in
in
).
To
(ibid.
performance
realize motions
motion is to -move together with them"
be
in
to renderperformancesof artistic value.
then,
the
would
music
conformity with motions
This, ultimately, must be the artist'stask.
This is echoedby SuzanneLanger when she considersthat motion in all art is an illusion, a
by
life
is
fulfilment
the
growth
symbolized
senseof
of which
semblance,the most primitive
it
illusion,
"To
by
She
the
set
off
essential
produceand sustain
and manifested motion.
adds:
it
its
form
to
the
from
where
point
the
clearly
surrounding world of actuality, and articulate
is
).
feeling
living,
forms
task'*(ibid.
the
artist's
and
of
coincidesunmistakingly with

Whilst our own investigationshave been confined mostly to defining the existenceand
operativemodeof motion in musicalperfonnance,structuralanalysisof a work of music,as
by
in
from
intuition,
the
that
to
take
applied
motions
apart
precedence order ensure
must
in themusic.
to movements
performeralign themselves
In seekingmusical performancesof artistic merit, in which all contributory elementsmove in
harmony, one must determine, in relative terms, the degree of motion to be applied. Whilst
this must form the basis for a separateand in-depth investigation, the following may be
interestingto consider:

Page204

7.1 RELATIONSHIPS:

A performing musician is required to establisha tempo at which the performance of a work


takes place. This is an arbitrary decision in which the tempo chosen by the interpreter
accountsfor the 'time' or the speedof the performance.But the very essenceof 'Motion in
Music', as documented in this study, implies a constant variation to the elements that
constitute a work of music. Movement, progressionand growth, the essential ingredients in
the formation of a musical line, appearwhen the threevariables(pitch, dynamics and time) are
constantly changing,or 'on the move'. In this respect,the tempo chosenby the performer or
the tempoasindicatedby the composersignifies the mcan speedat which the music proceeds.
Establishingsuch a tempo means,in musical terms,establishingan equilibrium through which
any variation to the basic pulse can be, theoretically, calculated.In this sense,tempo rubato,
what Seegercalls the "salient deviation from the mean of variance" (ibid. ), indicates a return
to stablerhythmic conditions after slight metronomicdeviations i. Similarly, an increaseto the
dynamic levels is balancedby a decreasejust as a rise to the pitch level of a melodic line is
balancedby a fall 2.
In terms of its relationship to a state of equilibrium, a deviation away from it can be
quantified. The question is: by how much? For example, when a crescendooccurs, by how
much should the dynamic level increase?When the weight of a note is increasedthrough an
increaseto the massof music, the questionthat has to be askedis: how heavy should the
note
become?By how much should, for instance, the speed of music decreaseat a
particular
moment?All thesequestionsdealing with quantitiesneedto be addressed.

1.

In this respect,symmetryandbalance
areachievedthrougha processof assymetryand imbalance.

2.

Ina work Ofmusicthe tonic key functions just


as
suchan equilibrium.Any movementawayfrom this equilibrium would be relatedto
the tonic key.

Page205

To this effect, representationsof changesto the equilibrium on a visible scale,as indicated by


the various graphic illustrations in the preceding pages,can serve as areas of reference by
meansof which relationshipscan be formulated.
It is clear that a departureaway from a stateof equilibrium has to be related to the state itself.
It is not desirableto increasethe intensity or the dynamic quality of a note further than this
been
has
he
fff
introduce
For
to
when
chord
suddenly a
relationship would allow.
a player
confined to playing pp, p, mp, mf, and f throughout most of a work would be nonsensical
in
'Surprise'
Symphony
his
Haydn
he
has
like
i.
of
unless course
a mischievousmotive
The air-flow which is disturbed by the wing of an airplane provides a good analogy. The
curved shapeof the wing is such that it allows the air to flow smoothly over it, but without
breaking the continuousflow of air. As the massof air is disturbed around the wing when it
flows over it, it createsan areaof increasedintensity, or an area of low prcssurc in technical
terms, that causesthe wing to rise. As the angle at which the wing meets the air-flow is
increasedthe pressureis increased.If the angle is increasedbeyond a certain point the airflow would no longer flow smoothly over the wing, causingthe airplaneto stall.
The same could apply to a note of music: it can be intensified to the degree that its
relationship to the notes surrounding it would allow. Any increase over and above its
maximum resilience in relationship to those would cause a break in that relationship. This
would causethe musical line to soundfragmentedanddisorderly 2.

1.

In this sense,dynamicmarkingsarerelative.A ffcannot be quantifiedasa


precisemeasurein termsof dynamiclevels.It can only be
quantifiedin relativeterms.
2.

An object which possesses


elasticity will stretchonly to the degreethat its elasticity allows for a return to its original form. Any
stretchingbeyonda certaLt
distort
the original shapeand sizeof the objecL In this respect,a musical line could be likened to a
would
koint
stringthatpossesses
elasticproperties.

Page206

7.2 PROGRESSIVE QUANTITATIVE

TRANSITIONS:
/

dynamics
a)

It is a common performancepractice for changesin a work's dynamics to be implemented


gradually: by grading one point of referenceto anotherin consecutiverising or falling degrees
of increasedor decreaseddynamic levels i. The following example of a diminuendo can best
be achievedif the top line of notesdecreasesin volume asit descendsin a stepwisemanner:
Example Vll- 1:

64ZAFi

By this means,the line achievesa gradualdiminuendoin which the top notes become
progressivelysofter, stepby step:

Herean important gradient is formed in which the rate of decline is proportionateto the time it
takesfor the processto be completed.
The line denoting the patternof dynamic decline is here quantified in relation to other moving
elements,thus giving rise to a uniformity in the rate of decline.

1.

In any case,the fornt of the hair-pin traditionallyindicating


a crescendoor decrescendowould suggestlikewise.

Page207

Heinrich Neuhaus used an exercise for developing keyboard control over a gradual
diminuendo:

Example VII-2,,-

$0

C)

MP

pp

According to him, "the significanceof this exerciselies in the fact that each consecutivenote
is played at the samelevel of volume as that to which the previous note has dwindled at the
time andnot at the level at which it was originally struck" (ibid. ).

pitch
Applying similar logistics,one couldproposea comparabledecreasein pitch level. Thus, to
illustrates
in
line
descending
a
or ascending which
variation pitch, similar to
createa gradually
is
in
dynamic
terms,
to
a
progression
semitonal
pertains
which
a gradualvariation
that
required.
The following illustration, representedhere from Douglas R. Hofstadter'sbook Metamagical
Tbcma.s,illustratesgraphically sucha descendingsernitonal.progression:

Page208

Figure Vll- 1:

_"%
.

T'
.

A graphic representationof the opening bars of the right hand of Etude Op 25, No II by
Fr6d6ric Chopin. Underneathit and aligncd with it is the conventional notation. [Computer
graphics by Donald Byrd and Douglas R. Hofstadtcr. Music notation printed by the SMUT
music-printing system,developedby Donald Byrd at Indiana University.]
Page209

C)tempo
I have for yearsbeenfascinatedto know what it is that makesorchestralplayers respondto the
beat of a conductor and play together,even when there is no evidence of a central point of
departure
to which the beat relates. This phenomenon poses some interesting
or
arrival
definite
beat
having
been
by
the conductor, the musicians play
a
once
established
questions:
impulses
it.
They can continue doing so for as long as the
directly
to
which
relate
consecutive
pulse remainsconstantly the same.When a metronomic deviation is required, the conductor
will haveto direct the playerstowardsa slowing down or a speedingup.
In my experience,I have found that often orchestralplayers respondaccording to the manner
in which the upbeat is administered.The flow, speedand direction of the upbeat determines
the position in time of the downbeat.This is clear enoughif all the beatswere departing from
and arriving to the samepoint of reference.In other words, the position of the downbeatwould
be predeterminedand therefore the return of the conductor's gesture to this point would
indicate the onsetof the downbeat.In this way, the players respondvisually to the position of
the conductor'sbaton:
ExampleVII-3:

centralpoint of reference

Page210

There are times though, when the downbeat might be placed at a different location than the
hitherto central point of reference. The response of the orchestral player to the exact
positioning of the downbeat is in this casejust as precise. The question which arises from such
an observation led me to what I suspect to be the reason for the co-ordinated accuracy in
delivering the downbeat in time: the speed at which the upbeat is moving determines the time
at which the downbeat has to be positioned.

As the speedof the conductor'shand slows down in order to indicate a Mcnuto, there has to be
a reason for predetermining its course other than a return to a centrally targeted point of
reference.The paceat which the speedis slowing down is evidently the causefor determining
the ultimate course and destinationof the downbeat.The rate of deceleration is such that it
slows down the course of the upbeatprogressivelyso that each subsequentimpulse becomes
gradually and progressivelyslower. Thus, a gradientis formed in which the rate of decreasein
time is established,as opposedto the gradient for examplesVII- I and VII-2, in which the rate
of declinein dynamicsis established.
In its most basicformat, the progressiverate of decreasein time can be representedas follows:

Page211

This indicates a slowing-down at a rate which multiplies the time taken from one point to
The flow of the upbeat slows down at a progressive rate which

another by two: 1,2,4,8.

predeterminesthe downbeat. The orchestral player would expect to place the note at point
in
its
indicate
5
having
time.
to
the
position
precise
number without
conductor
This establishesunequivocally another relationship, in which a series of rhythmic impulses
interrelated.
in
the
which constitute slowing-down process music-making,are proportionately
Points 1,2,3,4,

impulses
indicate
in
VII-4,
5
or
a
series
of
crochet
could
and
example

5.
In
1
(s/m)
between
this
two
the
and
crochets at points
equally, represent
speedof music
case,points 2,3, and 4 would be perceivedas serniquaverimpulsesspacedout proportionately
in order to deliver an orderly slowing-down betweenpoints I and 5.
In exampleVII-5, this processis illustrated. What is heardis an octave leap from a bottom F
to a top F. The timing betweenthe two notes is determinedby the s/m which, on a different
level, processesthe connectingimpulsesand governs the precise timing between the onset of
one note and the onsetof the other:
ExampleVII-4:
points of arfival as rhythznic impulses:
1

Ij

rateof decreascin time

0112

Page212

Example VII-5:

sem-kuRverinpubesthatconstituteSpeedof Musk:

rateof decreaseto Lbespeedofmusk that determinesthe distancein time betweenonenote and the other

0112123412345678

b
distancesin time

Page213

At this stage,I would refer the readerto a statementmadein a precedingchapter(page 125) to


the effect that: I must be aware of what I want to achieve at B, so that I can condition A. I
must condition A so that I can achieve what I want at B. This statementholds true and is
substantiatedfurther by the examplejust given.
7.3 THE CONNECTING BOND:

The potency of the connectingline betweentwo consecutivenotes is becoming increasingly


clear: if this bond is broken, the relationship between the two notes is broken. It is this
connectingline through which changestake place which condition the qualitative propertiesof
the ensuingsound.If this areaof musical activity is orderly, the line will remain intact. If not,
the'motion'of the line losesdirection.

It is thecord in which the speedof music(s/m),massof music(m/m) anddirectionof music


(d/m) are braided together. The visual representationof this line through various schemata
enablethe performer to tracethe qualitative and quantitativechangeswhich occur over time.
In conducting terms, the preparatory beat is synecdochicof the connecting line. Wilhelm
FurtwAngler paid particular attention to the preparation of a downbeat. He regarded the
conductor'spreparatorybeat as the determinantof the quality and quantity of the downbeat.In
an excerptfrom one of his essays,he points out the following: i
"It is not the instant of the downbeatitself that producesthe precision with which the orchestra
enters,nor is it the precision of the conductor'sgesture but the way he prepares for it. Its
clarity may affect the subsequentdownbeatsthrough its characterization of the pulse as a
whole but as far as the opening note of the piece is concerned- the note at which the beat is
aimed - this is irrelevant. All those who conduct solely in terms of fixed points, i. e. with a
strong downbeat - and ninety per cent of conductors do - are completely unaware of this.

1.

(I
Furtwingler on Music EssaysandAddresses,
40
q
11 -20)
f?
by
Ronald
Taylor
translated
editedand
-

Page214

"A strong downbeat has considerabledisadvantages.It binds the movement of the piece to
its
flowthe
thereby
the
of
music and reducing
specific points,
natural
restricting
expressiveness.A point remains a point, and an orchestra that is conducted in a series of
points will obviously play accordingly. That is to say, the purely rhythmic substancewill be
conveyedwith the requisite precision, while melodic substance,everything that lies between
the individual beats - which can amount to a very great deal, witness the numerous
is
left
diminuendos
dynamics
to
the
crescendos,
music of many composersand other
central
totally untouched.It is characteristicof such an interpretation- and a commonplacethesedays
itself
does
due
that
the
the
the
tempo
not.
music
while
rhythm
and
attention,
receive
"The power to affect a note - and this cannot be emphasizedtoo often - lies in the preparation
of the beat, not in the beat itself ..According to the nature of the beat and its preparation, so

will bethesoundthatis created- preciselyandabsolutelyso".


Indeed,Furtwangler'sability to producecompelling readingsof great masterpiecesrelied on
his inimitable skill at cultivating the horizontal line which binds two notes together.
Furtwdngler, above all, aimed through his interpretationsat achieving an organic unity from
an awarenessof the connecting bond betweenthe various elementsapparent throughout the
whole courseof a work.

Indeed,it is clearthroughoutthis studythatall elementsapparentwhenmusicis in motion are


interrelatedandform an integralpartof a whole.That organicunity which dispelsany notions
is evidentin thepatterningwhich emergesfrom closescrutinyof the relative
of fragmentation
propertiesof the variousmovingelements.Ultimately,the onenessof the conceptiondepends
entirelyon theserelationships.

Page215

But what exactly is the relationship? In all the above examples, considered individually, the
relationship

between one state of being and another is a step-by-step progressive

transformation of one unit into another. Some of these relationships, formed by progressive
VII(examples
descent
line
depicted
be
to
of gradual
sloping
aligned
a graphically
series, can
1,2, and figure VII-1). This line would indicate a constant change represented as a ratio
between the rate of decline and the time taken.

The musical results emanating from gradations of this sort are pleasing to the ear. The
questionis, are there other, more complex, 'mathematical'relationships which condition what
is termed 'aestheticallybeautiful' in musical performance?In other art forms, such numerical
relationshipsdominatestructure: i
The ancientsgave considerableattention to the study of musical proportions in relation to the
study of mathematicsand geometry.The origin of this tradition is generally associatedwith
Pythagoras (560-490 BQ and his school. The sounding of the octave represented the
beginning and goal of creation. Without any intervention of thought or concept or image, the
recurrence of the initial tone is immediately recognizable. This timeless, instantaneous
recognition is universal amonghumans.
On a scientific level, the frequency of vibrations produced when the tone is raised by an
octave,is double that given by the whole string. The string length has been divided by two,
its
has
by
1/2
has
been
two:
the
created miffor
and
number of vibrations per second
multiplied
opposite,2/1. Thus in this moment an abstract,mathematicalevent is precisely linked with a
physical, sensory perception; our direct, intuitional responseto this phenomenon of sound
coincideswith its concre+e,measureddefinition.

1.

The following is an excerptfrom an extensivearticleonGeometry in Art'. found in Appendix 5.

Page216

It was by means of geometry that the Pythagoreanspoised themselves at this unique


crossroads where heard vibration becomes seen form; and their geometry explores the
relationshipsof musical proportions.
It was the goal of many traditional esoteric teachingsto lead the mind back toward the sense
in
Greek
Oneness
known
A
through
of
a successionof proportional relationships. proportion,
thought as ana1o,,,:,,
y (avaXoyfa), is formed from ratios, and a ratio is a comparison of two
different sizes,quantities,qualities or ideas.
In proportional thought there are no fixed quantities, only fixed relationships. The most
fundamentalproportional relationshipis basedon a unique geometric proportion of two terms
and hasbeengiven the name'Golden Proportion' or 'Divine proportion'. It is designatedby the
21st letter of the Greek alphabet,phi (0), althoughit was known by cultures much older than
the Greek.It is the first issueof Oneness,the only possiblecreativeduality within Unity.
The harmony of the Golden Sectionis evident in much Greek architecture.Artists of all ages
have instinctively usedits pleasingproportions and it appearsin the human body and in many
living things. Leonardoda Vinci madeuse of the Golden Section in St Jerome,an unfinished
canvas,taking specialdelight in what he called 'geometricalcreations'i.

The figuresof both Leonardoda Vinci andAlbrechtDUrer


conformto theancientbiometricsymbolof the body divided in half by the
sexorganandby 0 at the naveLSimilarly, therelationshipsbetweenthe bone-lengthsof the humanfinger,handand arm is
anotherinstanceof
the numerous0 relationshipswhich occur in the humanbody.

Page217

A rectangularframe with sides in the ratio of the golden section or a vertical division in this
ratio are said to have a particular beauty. The Parthenon representsthe proportions of the
Golden Section as calculatedby a mathematicianwho lived in the Middle Ages - Leonardo of
4V.
Pisa, known as 'Fibonacci' (the 'Fibonacci' series are applied to illustrate, example in this
study found on page 105),

He establisheda remarkable connection between a

mathematicalseriesand a pleasing rectangularshapewhose length is in the sameproportion


to its breadthashalf its perimeteris to its longer length: 1.618,i. e. ;A
In musical terms, Erno Lendvai's pioneering analytical work on the structure of Bela Bart6k's
compositions, is most revealing. Lendvai analysed the proportions of Bart6k's musical
structuresas being basedon the golden section. His view was that Bart6k's 'chromaticism' is
distinguished by intervals based on the golden section or, in numerical terms, on the
'Fibonacci' series.This kind of numerological analysishas been carried out by other scholars
too, notably by Van Krevel on the massesof Obrechtand by Marianne Henze on the music of
Ockeghemi.
Proportions and 'harmonic' relationshipsthen, predominatein the world of art as much as in
nature itself. It is quite conceivable,even probable, that they condition much of what can be
termed as aestheticallybeautiful in musical performance.The idea of 'Motion in Music' sets
out to explore movementin which suchrelationshipscan have perceptualmeaning.For it is in
theserelationshipsthat beautyultimately lies.
The discerning performer measuresand weighs his touch constantly in order to
produce
crystalline textures and expressivesinging lines. He does this by carefully listening to and
relating the various soundsso as to produce balancedand proportionately related textures. In
producing such gradual and progressivegradationsof soundthe relationshipsand the resulting
quality in the relationshipsis clear to determine.

1.

Source:Now GroveDictionaty for Music


andMusicians(1980)Vol I -pg. 369

Page218

The overall effect other more esoteric relationships may have in producing aesthetically
in
domain
for
least
the
the
of the mysterious
moment,
pleasingmusical resultsmust remain, at
or in the hands of the musically gifted. It is, perhaps,possible to suggest that the various
based
have
dimensions
intuitively
on geometrical
the.
assesses
relationshipswhich
performer
investigations.
further
form
holds
Whether
the
true
of
this
subject
or not might
proportions.
In the courseof this dissertationwe have more than once cited the namesof Eric Clarke and
JaneDavidson,both previously of City University. The main thrust of their researchesinto the
in
do
had
the
to
study of expressivity performance,whether
psychology of performance
with
in regard to what we normally understandas 'expression'(Clarke) or, in Davidson's case,the
identifi
have
Both
heightened
ed such
moments.
physical movements associatedwith such
'departuresfrom the norm', if I may so call them, with important structural points in the
host
the
Ghyka
that
believe
Lendvai,
if
Now
others
to
of
a
and
musical argument.
we are
Golden Sectioncan be shown to play a determiningrole in the structural landmarks of a work,
(=
dynamic,
'expression'
interpretative
in
immediately
the
that
these
and
conveyed
are
phrasing,rubato, etc), can there be any doubt that the 'motion in music' through which such
expressioncomesinto being, is directly affectedby the sameconsiderations.
At the conclusion of this study, we find ourselvesat a new beginning. An investigation as to
the precise nature of these relationships should be undertaken,irrespective of how such a
processof enquiry might be initiated, and whether or not sciencehas the means to enter the
realm of the audible enoughto uncover conclusiveevidenceas to the numerical relationships
involved.

Page219

Music-making, as a product of material and immaterial forces, of physical phenomena as well


as poetic imagination, remains the proper prerogative of the performing artist who initiates it.
The patterns which the artist discerns are largely intuitive ones and cannot therefore be
reproduced. For this reason, musical performance is often dismissed as an ephemeral
experience. Contrary to this, 'Motion in Music' is founded upon the premise that musical
forms,
images
in
is
being
intellectual
or
performance as much an
grasped
process capable of
as it is a dynamic nonphysical musical experience which ultimately lies in the realms of the
sacred, spiritual and mysterious.

It is my abiding conviction that to deliver an interpretation of artistic worth is by the same


token to comprehend,implement and realize 'Motion in Music'. In conclusion, I can do no
more than echo Ernst Toch's words:
"Give up the stubborn,unfruitful view of the static and adopt the more productive view of the
instantaneousimage of an ever-fluid, ever-changingrelation of a stellar body to the rest of the
universe,the view of the Heracliteanaxiom, 'rl6vTa pd: 'Everything is in flux"'.

** * ** ** ***

Page220

** ***

APPENDICES-

ExcP-Mtfrom Tobias Matthay's book the Act of TOUCH in all its diversity
The pianoforte key, is a machine to facilitate the production of speed in the string., It is a',
compoundlever, akin in principle to the see-saw.It follows that tone production can only be
effectedby giving motion to the string. Energy brought to bear upon the'key"ccasestoIcreate
tone, the moment that the place in, key-descent is reached where.
hammer's motion.
-the
culminates'andcausessoundto begin. The act itself of tone production can hencenever take
longer than it does in the most extreme staccatissimo.The ear appraisesus of this moment
more quickly than any other of our senses:hence,we must listen for the beginning of Sound
if Wewould have accuracyin tone production. The more gradually this key-speedis
attained
I
the,more beautiful is the tone character
-d
'sympathetic'
in
more
singing
an
ca
rrying
-the'fuller,
its quality. The more-suddenthe key depressionthe harsheris- the resulting tone
quality; it
may be more 'brilliant'Ibut it will be less effective in carrying'power It is futile to,-squeeze
...
thekey upon its bed with the object'of inducing tone, since sound,if producedat all, -is'given
off beforc the key reachesits full depression.
" It is almost as'futile to'attempt to obtain g,ood
tone,by kn9cUng the key, since the concussionherecausedat the key surfaceforms wasteof
energy intendedto'create tone, and thus engendersinaccuracyin'the tonal result the actual
-,
tone obtainednot correspondingto the ton'e'intended.
'

Page221

Appendix 3

A SUMMARY
TREATISE

OF THE MAIN POINTS IN Dr...VICTOR-ZUCKERKAND12S


ON'SOUND

and SYMBOURELEVANT

TO THIS STUDY

The philosophical issue which Dr Victor Zuckerkandl addresses in his book Sound and
draws
that
a
Symbol. Music and Extcmal World is based on his concept of reality: a concept
parallel between what he calls the "inner world" and the "external world" - what our senses
hand
seems
what
in
with
one
on
tangible
perceive
physical,
and measurable quantities
immaterial, nonphysical and nonmeasurable, on the other.
He defines the outer world as a-visible-tangible world, ' a corporeal world. The inner world as
nonphysical, nonbodily, in which thoughts and feelings pertain. But nature, includes the
purely dynamic, the nonphysical and the nonmeasurable.

In Zuckerkandl's assessment,the inner and outer worlds meet or rather


each
-"penetrate,
is
different: in the physical world, or outer world,
The
of
such
an
encounter
mode
other".
distance,
from
at
a
without,
objects are
-reinforcing the separatingbarrier; in the inner world,
tonespenetrateand communicatein a way that makes,the listener participate,in their actions.,Colour, for instance, is something that is without,- tone as, something that comes from
without.
Zuckerkandl investigatesthe very essence'ofmusic. He definesthe various qualities apparent
in musical sound and distinguishesbetween what he calls "musical tone" and "acoustical
tone". Acoustical tone is a phenomenonof the externalworld. It can be describedin terms of
frequency, intensity, envelope and amplitude which'go to make up the physical process: a,
changein the physical processmeans'achangein the tone heard.

Appendix 3

He defines musical tone as belonging to Ian inner world. It possessesdynamic quality that
dynamic
is
It
become
the
tones
quality of the tone that
to
the
permits
conveyorsof meaning.
is
Dynamic
the properly musical quality
quality
makesmusic out of acousticalphenomena.
oftones.
The encounter with the tonal world includes the three fundamental experiences of motion,

time and space:


MOTION:
The dynamic quality within a musical tone is the very essenceof musical motion. It reflects
the state of an object, not the object itself- the relations between tensions, not between
'
positions; the tendencies, not the rnagnitudes.

Musical contexts are kinetic contexts. The melody ve sing or hear is not simply tone, or

'
it
is
in
tonesof a predetermined
pitch;
motionsrepresented tones.
He dismissestheorieswhich refer equivocally to the motion of music as ideal or abstract.He
investigations
Wertheimer's
experimental
and concludes that music and motion are
cites
is,
that
synonymous;
every experienceof motion finally, a musicalexperience.

for musical
Zuckerkandldismissesthe theory that changeof pitch constitutesthe,basis-,
motion. In his assertion,pitch is an acousticalphenomenonand possesses
none of the
that makestoneselementsof musicalcontexts.The associationof
acousticalcharacteristics
the rise andfall of ones with differencesof pitch doesnotlin'itself granttonesspatiality.To
talk about the rise and fall of, tones in terms of spatial motion is, merely a verbal and
be
described
emotional subterfuge;a_characteristic,
only
of aural perceptionwhich can
from the realmsof the othersenses.
The experienceof tonal
metaphoricallyby parameters,
motionhasits origin not in-differences
of pitch but in differencesof dynamicquality.
Page225,

Appendix 3

The dynamic quality of a tone is a statementof its incompleteness,its will to completion. It,
is inherent in any musical context, in an interval, in a step from one note to another, in the
basic propertiesof one tone in its ensuingpath toward the next. To hear a tone as dynamic
quality, as a direction, means hearing at'the same time beyond it, and going toward the
expectednext tone. Listening to music, we are not first in one-tone,then in the next, and so
forth. We are always betweenthe notes,on the way from tone to tone.
In Zuckeikandl's assessment,the usual concept of melodic motion as motion from tone to
tone and of the individual step from tone to tone as the bridging Of the'distance in pitch
between two tones, does not prevail. Dynamic qualities are not stationary, they. are.
completely of the nature of a step, of a transition: they are dynamic not static. As such, the
processof motion can be representedon two levels: on a "lower", where there is nothing but
the pillars, tones of definite pitch; on "higher" level,
is
b
there
a
nothing
ut the
where
transition:

between

tone tone
The motionwe hearis not the "tone- tone"of the lower level; it is the "between".Stasisof
thetonesandmotionof the melody,gapshereanduninterruptedness
there,discontinuityand
theyconcernphenomena
continuity'donot enterinto oppositionbecause
on different levels.
TIME:
Zuckerkandl continues: one factor without which -motion' cannot be, is, time;
motion in a
realm from which time is absentis'self-contradictory.The principal manifestation of time in
music is rhythm. The temporal successionof tonesexhibits a definite organization, a definite
order that establishesa patternthat wIecall meter.The processfrom one point of referenceto
another is to and' fro. In this sense,we do not -experienceequal fractions of time, but
Page226

Appendix 3

differently directed and mutually complementary cyclical phases.The entire process of


itaway from-back to" is a constantly repeatedcycle, for the "one" that closes one cycle
simultaneouslybegins another.But since in time there can be no going back,,this processis
visualizedasa wave.
The dynamic quality of the meter is not evident in the dividing points but in what goes on,
between them. The rhythmic quality of a tone does not rest upon its Comparative duration but
upon the fact that in it the wave attains its go-al and beyond, to a new, cycle. It is not the,

length which makesthe beat,but the kinetic impulse.


Strict,time,banishesrhythm. Mechanical accuracydoesnot imply musical meter. If the ,meter
of an automatonis substitutedfor the meter of music: music ceasesto exist. At the same
time, unequallengths of beats'canequally be disturbing if they do not give rise to the raetric
The
commandmentthat is' broken in a performancein, poor time does not referl to
wave.
,
in
length
between
intervals of time but to
equality
symmetry of mutually complementary
wavephases:equality of time provesto be a rhythmic quality, rhythmic balance.
Visible and tangible,things are not time objects; they are in time but time is not directly
What
them.
through
comesto direct perceptionin them,just as temporal extension
perceived
does in tone, is spatial extension:Pey are spaceobjects.,Tones are time become audible
'
become
things
tangible
visible and
arc space
matter,ascorporeal
matter.

Visual art is somethingelsebesidesthe imageof an object:it is alwaysalso a spaceimage,


become
image.
Artists
the
time'shaping
the
shape
materials
while
at
same
space;
result
-space
is a compositionmadeup of a traceof the objectiveand'agreatdealof emptinesswhich has,
now becomespace.

Appendix 3

in
the
in
images
Of
the
works
which
Works of musical -art are time
same sense
be
image
images.
A
time
an
true
must
of
are
space
arts
and
architecture
representational
imagefor the ear, an audible image,an image madeof tones.Tones are time becomeaudible
is
image
in
tones
is
form
always
in
form
time;
of
the
to
composed
tones
of
an
to
stuff
matter;
image
in
but
image
time.
image
time
of
made
time
time
an
an
not
the
a
same
at
from
human
distinguish
images
animal
that
Forming
existence
and thinking are the two gifts
is
images,
spatial
of
The
the
a
world
our
symbols
teeming
of
world
of
world
whole
existence.
images.In music

for
bound
that
to
called
to words or
actions
earlier times, tones were

-of
language
became
from
their
freed
Once
own
they
these
ties,
of
out
a
movement.
regular
lose
do
their
linked
be
they
If
of
any
tonot
tones
or
actions,
words
with
now seek
content.
freedom;on the contrary, they bring a new dimensionto view in them.
is
is
image
that
by
dimension
The new
a phenomenon
world
which music enriches our
becoming,
it
is'time:
flowing,
change,motion.
to
the
acquisition of a new sense;
comparable
With music, time broke into our imageworld; in music our formative powers took possession
image-visualizing
image-creating,
its
Hearing
and
time.
credentials
as
an
receives
of
function.

SPACE:

Musical experiencehas a spatial component; he who hears music is aware of space. The

spatialnatureof musicls magnificentlyrevealed'whenpolyphony presupposesorder

_in
different
does
Simultaneously
tones
sounding
of
not producea mixedtone,,as
space.
auditory
itself
In
two'colours'are
tone
mixed.
a
chord,
colour
each.
reveals
emerges
when
a new
independently.
The chordis the fruit -notof the simultaneous
existenceof tonesbut of their
mutualrelation.Noises,odours,do not relateto oneanother.They areconnectedonly in my
_
' not among themselves.Tones,on the contrary, encounternot 'only the
consciousness,
listenerbut oneanother;in themutualrelationsof whatis encountered,
spacerevealsitself as
order. '
Page228

Appendix 3

The different tones of this interpenetrationare tones in different dynamic states,not tones
merely different in pitch. Tones of different pitch are simply presentsimultaneously,just like
noises. Only through the quality that also distinguishes the musical from the acoustical
phenomenon,do tonesbecomecapableof constituting an order that expressesitself in forms,
in chords- an audibly spatial order.
Place differences in visual space would be matched by differences,in dynamic state in
auditory space:a condition that wants itself perpetuated,that points beyond itself, directed
tension.In this respect,tonal dynamic qualities are audibly spatial states.
The spaceexperienceof the ear in tonesand the normal spaceexperienceof the eye coincide
only in the most general sense: both fulfil the definition of space as the "whence-of.
encounter".The eye disclosesspaceto me in that it excludes me from it.
ear, on the
-The
otherhand,disclosesspaceto me in that it lets me participate in it. Spaceis given to the eye
asthat which is without, the ear knows spaceonly asthat which comes'frornwithout.
The notion put forward by William Jamesthat musical tones are order without is keenly
contestedand repudiated.Zuckerkandl however, draws a distinction between corporeal and
auditory space.,Dynamic quality of tone, he says,is something nonbodily that comes from, '
without, an immaterial natural factor; yet the audible and the visible occupy one space,one
reality.

Page229

II
Appendix3

Eye or handkeepsthe physical thing that I meetaway from me; tone penetratesinto me. The
"inner
schema
world-outer world" reflects our passive encounter with'the outside
current
"outer"
"Inner"
and
world.

I and world, face each other like two mutually exclusive

impassable
is
dividing
line.
if
But
on
either
side
of
an
what we encounter
precincts
I
dynamic
it
happens
in
be
the caseof musical tones - the quality
to
purely
as
nonphysical,
"out there" is replaced by the quality "from- out-there-toward-me-and-through-me"., This
"inner"
causes
and "outer" to penetrateeach other. Music brings to expressionthe
encounter
modeof existenceof the world,that is of the samenature as my "within", my psyche. And as
in
bodies,
our
encounter
we experiencenot only bodies but also ourselvesas the
with
such,
physicalorganof the encounter.

COMMENTS AND FURTHER THOUGHTS:

Zuckerkandl'sthoughts on musical experience'arerelevant to the main thrust of this study,


is
which to distinguish musical experiencesfrom, natural phenomena.,His reference to the,
dynamicqualities of tonesreflects the opinions of many musiciansthat the cohesive element
which,constitutesa musically defined statementis the ability of the musician to relate one
tone to anotherby determining the quality and quantity of the bond between them. This, in
turn, implies that the wave phasesof motions are symmetrical and mutually complementary.
Relations in Time

Zuckerkandldismissesquite unequivocallythe nonspatialityof. music: musical experience


hasa spatialcomponent.In my research, is evidentthat spaceis experiencedonly when
'it
relationsareproperlyco-ordinated.In this respect,the time element,to which ZUckerkandl
in visual arts, is the' foremost
refers'as the phenomenoncomparableto spaceimages,
throughwhichmusicacquiresspatiality.
component

Page230

Appendix 3,-

fruit not of simultaneous'


He quite properly refers to chords, for instance, as
the
-"being
existence of tones but of their mutual relation ....in the mutual relations of what is
encountered, space reveals itself as order". A chord played on the piano is not a simu Itaneous'
sounding of different tones of different volumes and pitch: they are, or have to be, in a state
in which the tones of the chord relate to each other. In such 'a state, the chord "blends" and
sounds as one texture in the same way as two coloUrs blend to form a new colour. The

difference is that in the new colour the componentsthat havecomposedit are imperceptible,
whereasin a chord they are clearly detectable.
Reconciliation of "Inner" and "Outer" World
The schema, "inner world-outer world", which Zuckerkandl preserves throughout his
treatise,is one in which the two elements,though'different in mode, are of the samenature.
In reconciling the two, the two "worlds" encountereachother and interpenetrate.
This interpenetration, the "from- out-there-toward-me-and-through-me", concept, equally
applieswhen other elements,such as the onesproposedhitherto by the writer, are involved.
The performing musician, through a bodily movement,produces an image of sound - an
intricate and complicated processthat involves theactive participation,of all the elements

that have'been hitherto defined: physical andI nonphysical,tangible and nontangible,


corporealand spiritual.
Totality

For this purpose to succeed in, conveying a meaningful musical message,all elements
involved, those,"without" as those "within", must coalescetogether to form a'uniformity of
purpose.Such interpenetrationcan only establish itself on a basis of interdependency.IAll
contributory elementsmust move in harmony.-The result should be a homogeneousflow of
interrelated 'media. "Unity", "totality", "oneness", all characterize
most, pertinently, the
profound and purposeful synthesesinherentin "musical" interpretationsof artistic validity.
Page231

Appendix 4

METRE ANALOGOUS TO DISTANCE

beats
143

etc

etc

,
This illustration hasbeenr-eproducedfrom the article on Mctre'found in'thc Ncw Grovc
Dictionary for Musicand Musicians,(1980)..

Page232

Appendix 5

GEOMETRY IN ART: i
Geometry is the study of spatial order through the measure and relationships of forms.
Geometryand arithmetic, togetherwith astronomy,the scienceof temporal order through the
observationof cyclic movement, constituted the major intellectual disciplines of classical
education. The fourth in this great fourfold, syllabus, the Quadrivium, was, the study, of,
harmony and music. The laws of simple harmonicswere consideredto be universals which
definedthe relationshipand interchangebetweenheavenlybodiesand life on earth.
Geometrydealswith pure form, and philosophical geometry re-enactsthe unfolding of each
form out of a precedingone. It is a way by which the essentialcreative mystery is rendered
visible. Inseparablefrom this processis the concept of Number, and for the Pythagorean,
Number and Form at the ideal level were' one. When Pythagorassaid, 'All is arranged
.
accordingto Number', he was not thinking of numbersin the ordinary, enumerativesense.In
addition to simple quantity, numbers on the ideal level are possessedof quality, so that
'twoness'.'threeness'or 'fourness',for example,are not merely composedof 2,3,,or 4 units'.
but are wholes or unities in themselves,eachhaving relatedpowers.
Number is considered as a formal relationship, and this type of numerical.relationship,is,
called a function. The square root, of 2 is the functional number' of a square.,Pi is the
functional number of -a circle. Philosophical geometry and consequentlysacred art and
architecture-js very much concernedwith these"irrationals'.for the simple reasonthat they
demonstrategraphically a level of experienceWhichis universaland invariable.,

Most of the commentsmadehere with regardsto 'Geometryin Art' have been


quotedfrom SacredGeornetty- Phi7osophyand
Practiceby RobertLawlor. Ilere arealsoreferencesfrom 'Mathematicsin Arf in 7he Mind
ALiveEncyclopsediaof BasicScience.

Page233

5
Appendix

from
leam,
We
in
be
Number
of
seen
another, more physical context.
can

The universality

modem physics that from gravity to electromagnetism,

from light and heat and even to what

we think of as solid matter itself, the entire perceptible universe is composed of vibrations,
perceived by Us as wave phenomena. - Waves are pure temporal pattems, 'that is, dynamic
configurations

composed of amplitude,

interval

and frequency,

defined
be
and,
can
which

understood by us, only through Number. Thus our whole universe is reducible
Every living body, all elemental or inanimate matter vibrates molecularly
every vibrating

to Number.

or atomically,

and

body emits a sound. The study of sound, as the ancients intuited, provides a-,

key to the understanding of the universe.

The ancients gave considerable attention to the study of musical harmony in relation to the
.,,
study of mathematics and geometry. The origin of this tradition is generally associated with
Pythagoras (560-490 BQ and his school. The sounding of the octave represented'for them
the beginning and goal of creation. Without any intervention of thought or concept,

image,

-or
the recurrence of the initial tone is immediately recognizable. This timeless, instantaneous'recognition is universal among humanS.

On a scientific level, the frequency of vibrations produced'when the tone is raised by an octave, is double that given by the whole string. The string length has been divided by two,
and the number of vibrations per second has been multiplied by two:, 1/2 has cTeated'its
miffor opposite, 2/1. Thus in. this moment an abstract, mathematical event is precisely linked',:
'physical,
with a
sensory perception; our,,direct, intuitive response to this phenomenon ofsound coincides with its concrete, measured definition.

Hence we exp. rience ir. this audit(, ry perception'a


simultaneous interwovenness of interior
with exterior, and we can generalize from this response to invoke the possibility of aImerger
of intuitional and material realms,'the' realms of art ,and science, of time'and space. It was by
means of geometry that the Pythagoreans poised themselves at this unique intersection where
heard vibration becomes seen form; and their geometry
explores the relationships'Of 'musical
concordance. Page 234

Goldcn ProDortion:

It was the goal of many traditional esotericteachingsto lead the mind back toward the sense,
of Onenessthrough a successionof proportional relationships.A Proportio n is formed from
ratios, and a ratio is'a comparison,of two different sizes,quantities,qualities or id,eas.'A ratio
constitutesa measureof difference to which at leastone of our sensoryfaculties can respond.
A proportion is more complex, for it is a relationshipof equivalency betweentwo ratios, that
is to say, one elementis to a secondelementas a third element is to a fourth. It representsa
level of intelligence more subtle and profound than the,direct responseto a simple difference
which is the ratio, and it was known in Greek thought as andogy.
In proportional thought
fixed quantities, only, fixed relationships. The are
no
-there
quantitative value may shift but the relational configuration, remains th& same. The most
fundamental proportional relationship is based on a unique geometric proportion of', two
terms and has been given the' name 'Golden Proportion' or 'Divine -proportion. It is,
,
designatedby the 21st letter of
Greek alphabet, phi (0), -although it was knoIwn by
culturesmuch'older than the'Greek.-The Golden Proportion is a constantratio derived from a',
geometric relationship 0

1.6180339 which is"irrational' in numerical terms.,It is first 'and,

foremost a proportion upon which the experienceof knowledge (logos) is founded.


The Golden Proportion can be considered,as supra
It
is
first
transcendent.
the
or
-rational
issue of Oneness,the only possible creative duality within Unity.' It comprises a three-term
continuousproportion, a:b::b:(a+b), so that actually,only two terms, a and b, are found in the'
three term proportion. The fact that it is a three-termproportion constructedfrom two terms
is its first distinguishing -characteristic,'and parallel
first'mYstery
Holy
the,
the
of,
-is-with
Trinity: the Three that are Two. By' means of further, algebraic,formulation, it
be
can
-,
geometrically demonstratedthat a and b are in relationship to'one another as a root is to a
square. This jeduces. the proportional thought to the causal singularity, so -that,. the,
.
mathematicalmetaphorfor the Trinity can be expressedas 'Threethat are Two that are'One.

Page235

Appendix 5

As the ancientssay The Universe is God regarding himself. Creation cannot exist without
perception, and perception is relationship: 'To be is to relate'. The archetypal patterns of
in
laws
be
through
the
of
contained
pure number
proportion
relationship can
contemplated
and geometricform. The Golden Proportion is the transcendent'idea-form' which must exist
a pfioii and eternally before all the progressionswhich evolve in time and space.
There.are grand philosophical, natural and aestheticconsiderationswhich have surrounded,
this proportion ever since humanity first began to reflect upon the geometric forms of its
world. Its presencecan be found in the sacredart of Egypt, India, China, Islam and other,
traditional civilizations. It dominatesGreek art and architecture; it persists concealedin the
monuments of the Gothic Middle Ages and re-emergesopenly to be celebrated in the
Renaissance.

there is an intensification of function or, a particular beauty and

harmonyof form, there the Golden Mean will be found.

Severalauthorsof the 19thand 20th centuryhaveobservedthe sameaestheticprinciple in


certain works of art 7 in sculpture,painting, and architecture- as in anatomy and other forms
and patternsof nature i. A rectangularframe with sidesin the ratio of the golden section or a
division in
vertical
this ratio are said to have a-particular beauty. The Parthenon represents

the proportionsof the GoldenSectionas calculatedby a' mathematicianwho lived in the


Middle Ages - Leonardo-of Pisa, known as 'Fibonacci. He establisheda remarkable
connectionbetweena mathematicalseriesand a pleasingrectangularshapewhoselengthis
in thesameproportionto its breadthashalf its perimeteris to its longerlength: 1.618,Le. 45.

Leonardoda Vinci madeuseof the Golden Sectionin St Jerome,


an unfinishedcanvas,taking specialdelight in what he called
'geometricalcreations'.The figures of both Leonardoda Vinci and Albrecht Ddrer
conform to the ancientbiometric symbol of the body
divided in half by the sexorganand by 0 at the navel.Similarly, the
relationshipsbetweenthe bone-lengthsof the human finger, handand
arm is anotherinstanceof the numerous0 relationshipswhich occur in the humanbody.

Page236

Modem painters, Impressionists and abstract artists, have especially made use of this
based
design
devised
on
French
Corbusier,
Le
philosophy
a
the
architect,
mathematicalratio.
he
Golden
Rectangles,
buildings
which
on a system of
the Golden Section. He designed
human
dimensions
is
the
the
to
of
called le modulor, and showedhow this proportion related
body, much as da Vinci had done earlier. From experiments conductedby the physicist and
Vorschuk
(
frames
Fechner,
Gustav
Theodor
the
appreciationof rectangular
on
psychologist
der Acsthetik, 1876), it may be assertedinductively that a ratio close to the golden section
actually hasa specialaestheticappeal.In musical terms,Erno Lendvai'spioneeringanalytical work, on the structure of Bela Bart6k's
Bartok's
Lendvai
structures'as
is
the
of
proportions
analysed
compositions, most revealing.
being basedon the golden section.His view was that Bartok's 'chromaticism' is distinguished
just
Fibonacci
by intervals basedon the golden section or, in numerical
the
series,
on
-terms,
asare the main divisions of his compositions.
In contemporary architecture, whether functional or decorative, the application of such
hyperbolic
',
the
commonplace.
are
paraboloid
practically
as
complex mathematical curves
Buckminster Fuller, probably the leading exponentof mathematically designedarchitecture,
has revolutionized our concept of building structureswith his now famous geodesic dome,
basedentirely on equilateraltriangles.
There are many more examples'of geometricalrelationshipsin art:'the Baptistery at Pisa is a
-t
brillian example, of Renaissancearchitecture, embodying 'many degrees,of rotational"
I
its
beauty
Cistercian
Order
The
12th
the
visual
symmetry.
achieves
century architectureof
through designswhich conform to the proportional systemof musical harmony. Many of the
abbey churches of this period-were acoustic resonatorstransforming',a human choir into
celestial music. St Bernard of Clairvaux, who inspired this 'architecture,said of, their design,
'theremust be no decoration,only proportion.

Page237

Appendix 6

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRA'OHY


ABRAHAM, 0.

'TonometrischeUntersuchungenan einem deutschen


Volkslied" PsychologischcForschyngcn(Berlin), IV
(1923).

ALBERSHEIM, G.

Zur Psychologicder Ton- und Klangeigenschaftenunter


BeMcksichtigungder Zweikomionerten- Theode'lun,d der
Vokalsystematik(diss.,U-_of Vienna, 1938;Strasbourg,
1939,rev. 2/1975).

BAILY, J.

"Music Structureand Human Movement". In: Musical


Structureand Cognition (London, 1985).

BARENBOIM, D.

A Life in Music (London, 199 1).

BERGSON,H.

Dur6eet simultandit6(Paris, 1922).

BLACKING, J.

"Eight flute tunesfrom Butembo,EastBelgian Congo",


Aftican Music (1955) 1(2).,

BLACKING, J.

"Patternsof Nsengakalimba music", Affican Music


(1961) 2(4).'

BLACKING, J.

How musical Is man?(Seattle, 1973).

CHAILLEY, J.

'V axiomede Stravinsky" Journal depsychologic


:,

normaleetpathologique(1963b).
Page238

Appendix 6

CLARKE, E.

"Structure and Expressionin Rhythmic Performance"In:


Musical Structureand Cognition (London, 1985).

CLARKE, E.

"The Perceptionof ExpressiveTiming in Music"


PsychologicalResearch.51 (1989).

CONE, E.T.

Musical Form and Musical Performance(New York,


1968).

COOPER,G. and MEYER, B.

TheRhythmic StructureofMusic (Chicago, 1960).

COSTALL, A.

"'The Relativity of Absolute Pitch" in: Musical


Structureand Cognition (London, 1985).
1

DAVIDSON, J.W.

Perceptionof ExpressiveMovement in Music


Performance.PhD thesis:City University, Departmentof
Music 0 991).

DAVIDSON, J.W.

','Visual perceptionof performancemanne,r in the


movementsof solo musicians".PsychologyofMusic
(1993) 21: 103-113.

DESCARTES,R.

Passions
de
Eime
(1649),
English
Translation
by
-_Les
StephenVoss (Indianapolis 1989).-

DOW.LING, W.J.,

"Scaleand contour:Two componentsof melody for


melodies"PsychologicalReview 1978,85(4).

Page239

Appendix 6

The Concept of "Tonal Body" from Archiv fUr

DRALGER,H. H.

Musikwissenschaft,. Vol IX, No. 1 (1952). In:


Reflections on Art, ed. by S.K. Langer. (Baltimore, 1960).,

DUDINE, J.

Lart et le geste(Paris, 1910).

EDWORTHY, J.

"Melodic Contour and Musical Structure".In: Musical


Structureand Cognition(London, 1985).

EHRENFELS,C.F. von

"Ober Gestaltqualitaten"Vierte1jahresschfiftMr
14
(1980).
Philosophic
wisscnschaftlichc

EHRENSTEIN, W.

Nobleme d&rganzhcjtspsycho1ogischcn
Wahmchmungslchre(Leipzig, 1947).

ENGLAND, N
FURTWANGLER, W.

PhysicalProcesses(London, 1993).

Notebooks'1924- 1954,English translationby Shaun


Whiteside (London, 1989).

FURTWANGLER, W.

Furtwangler on Music, edited'and translatedby Ronald


Taylor (Aldershot, 1991).

HANDSCHIN, J.,

HANSLICK, E.

-Der

ToncharakterMrich, 1948).

Vom Musikalisch-SchOncn,English Translation from the


8th edition (1891), by Geoffrey Payzant(Indianapolis,
I
1986).

Page240

Appendix 6

HARNONCOURT,N.

TheMusical Dialogue.- Thoughtson Monteverdi, Bach


and Mozart (translatedby Mary O'Neill, Portland 194).

HART, FULLER and LUSBY

"A PrecisionStudy of PianoTouch and Tone"


(Thejournal of the Acoustical Society ofAmcrica, 1934).

HEGEL. G.W.F.

Vorlesungendber die Aesthetik (Leipzig, 1931).

HELMHOLTZ, H.

Die Lebre von den Tonempfindungenals physiologischc


Grundlagefi die Theorieder Musik (Brunswick, 1863;
Eng. trans.by A.J. Ellis, 1875;revised 1954'asOn Me
Sensationsof Tolne,as a Physiological Basis for the
Theory of Music.

HOFMANN, J.

Piano P1q)dng(1920), Dover Edition (1976).,

HOFSTADTER, D.R

Metamagical Themas:'Questingfor the Essenceof Mind


andPattem(New York, 1985).

HOWELL,

P., CROSS, T.

andWEST, R.,

Musical Structureand Cognition (London, 1985).

KENTNER, L.

PIANO (Yehudi Menuhin music guide; v. 3) (London,


1976).

KOECHLIN, C.

"Le tempset la musique"La RevueMusicale, VII, '(1926).

KOFFKA, K. -

Pfinciples of GestaltPsychology(New,Xork, 1935).

Page241

Appendix 6

Die physischenGestaltenin Ruhe und in stationr=

KHLER, W.

Zustand(Erlangen, 1924).
"Patternperceptionand recognition in African music". In

KUBIK, G.

Blacking and J. Kealiinohomoku (Eds), Theperforming


arts (The Hague 1979).
KURTH,'E.

Bruckner (Berlin, 1925).

KURTH, E.

Grundlagendeslinearen Kontrapunkts (Berlin, 1931).

LANGE, K.

Das Wesender Kunst (Berlin, 1901)

LANGER, S.K.

Feeling andForm (New York, 1953).

LANGER, S.K.

'Philosophy in a New Key (Cambridge,Mass., 1942).

LAWLOR, R

PbRosophyand Nactice: SacredGeometry(London


1982).

LEIMER, K. and
GIESEKING, W.

The ShortestWay to Pianistic Perfection (Mainz, 1932).

LEIMER, K. and
GIESEKING,
W.
,

Rhythmik, Dynamik und andereProblemedes,

Klavierspiels(Mainz,,1938).
LEVARIE and LEVY

Tone:a Study in Musical Acoustics 2nd edition (1980).

Page242

Appendix6

LHEVINE, J.

Basic Principles in Pianoforte Playing (Philadelphia,


1924).

LIPPS.T.

Aesthetic (Hamburg, 1903).

MACH, E.

Die AnalYSc der Empfindungen und das VerhViniss des ,


Physischenzum Psychischen(Jena,1900).,

MARCEL, G.

Bergonismand Music from La RevueMusicale, Vol vi


(1925). In: Reflectionson Art, ed. by S.K. Langer.
(Baltimore, 1960).

MATTHAY, T.

'The Act of Touchin all its Diversity (London, 1903).'

MATTHAY, T.

Musical Interpretation(London, 1913).

MATTHAY, T.

TheFirst Principles of Pianoforte Playing (London, 1905).

MEYER, L. B.

Explaining Music: Essaysand Explorations (Chicago


1973).

NATTIEZ, J.
-J.,

Music and Discourse:Toward a Semlology of Music,


translatedby Carolyn Abbate (Princeton 1990).

NEUHAUS, N.

TheArt of PianoPlaying English translation by K. A.,


Leibovitch (Barrie & Jenkins,*London 1973).

NEWMAN, W.S.,

the Pianist Problems(New York', 1974).

Page243

Appendix 6

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ThePhysical basisof Piano Touch and Tone(1925).

PIRIE,'P.

Furtwfinglcr and the Art of Conducting(London, 1980).

REINOLD, H.

On the Problemof Musical Hearing from Archiv Mr


Musikwisscnschaft,Vol XI, No. 2 (1954). In: Reflections,
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(Baltimore,
S.
by
K.
Langer.
Art,
on
ed.

REVESZ,G.

Gibt cs cinen Hdrraum?(The Hague, 1937).

ROTHFARB, L. A.

Ernst Kurth: SelectedWfitings (Cambridge, 1991).

SANDOR, G. "

On Piano Playing (New York, 1981).

SEEGER,C.

"Music as Conceptand asPercept".In: Studiesin


Musicology (Berkeley, 1978).

SEEGER,C

"Prescriptiveand Descriptive Music Writing" Musical


Quarterly,xliv (1958). In: Studiesin Musicology
((Berkeley, 1978).

SEEGER,C

Studiesin Musicology (Berkeley, 1978).

SEEGER,C.

for
Selected
Unitary
Field
Theory
Musicology"
a
-"Toward
Reports,i/3 (1970).'In: Studiesin Musicology ((Berkeley,
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Page244

Appendix 6

SHAFFER, L. H.

"The Communicationof Musical Metre in Piano


Performance"QuarterlyJournal of Experimental
Psycbology,
-36(1984).

SLOBODA, J.A.

"Music Performance".In D. Deutsch(Ed), Tbc


1982).
(London,
of
music
psychology

SLOBODA, J.A.

in
piano
metre
of
musical
communication
Experimental
Journal
Quarterly
of
performance"
Psychology;35 (1983).

STRAVINSKY, I

Stravinsky,an Autobiography (NewlYork, 1936).

TAYLOR, C.A.

TheAysics of Musical Sounds(I 965).


_

TOCH, E.

Tbc SbapingForcesin Music (New York, 1948).

TODD, N.P.

"A model of expressivetiming in tonal music" Music


PerceptionVol 3, No 1 (1985).

von HORNBOSTEL. E.M.

"African Negro Music", Afiica, (1928,1).

HORNBOSTEL.
E.M.
von

Handbuchder
"Psychologie
derGehbrserscheinungen"
normalen undpathologischenPhysiologiie, xi (Berlin,

Tinleitung
Physiologie
der
Sinne"
Handbuch
der
zur
,
normalen undpathologischenPhysiologie, Vol. xi.

Page245

Page246

Appendix 7

MARIOS PAPADOPOULOS

BIOGRAPHICALPROFILE
in
Cyprus
began
The pianistandconductorMariosPapadopoulos
bom
to play the
and
was
late
in
he
He
1967
live
in
London
the
to
pianoat a very early age. came
where studiedwith
IlonaKabos.In 1973he wasselectedasa GreaterLondonArts Association'YoungMusician
1973',an eventwhich wasfollowedby his formal recitaldebutat the QueenElizabethHall,
Europe
London.The success
broadcasts
led
throughout
to
andthe
this
of
concertsand
recital
UnitedKingdom,includingappearances
Albert
Royal
Festival
Hall,
Royal
London's
at

-Hall
and recordingsfor the BBC. Three years later Marios Papadopoulosmade a highly
acclaimedtour of the,USA, making his New York debut at the Lincoln Centreand his
following year he was
orchestraldebut with the Saint-LouisSymphonyOrchestra.
-The
nominatedoneof the'YoungArtistsof 1977'byHigh Fidelity andMusicalAmerica.
He has sinceperformed,broadcast beentelevised
both
the"
as'
world,
widely all over
and
pianist andmorerecentlyasconductor.
In July 1985,Marios Papadopoulos
London's
Players
Mozart
London
at
the
appearedwith
QueenElizabeth_Hallin a seriesIof Ithreeconcerts,playinganddirecting'nineMozart piano
concertos.He hassinceperformedtwicetheentirecycleof the27 Mozartpianoconcertos.

Page247

Aimendix 7

Making his debut at the Barbican in 1985,he was soloist in Tchaikovsky's Piano Concerto
No I with the Royal PhilharmonicOrchestraand he.hasbeenacclaimedfor his recording, as
conductor/soloist,of the Stravinsky Concertowith the Royal PhilharmonicOrchestra.He has
also recorded piano works by Mozart for a Readers'Digest album, works by Mussorgsky,
including the Pictures at an Exhibition, piano works by CesarFranck, the 24 Preludesand
Fuguesby Shostakovich on three CDs and two CDs featuring the 'Nocturne'. He has also
recorded the BeethovenPiano SonatasOp 109,110,111, which marks the beginning of a
major undertaking to record all the 32 piano sonatasfor IMP Classics,over the next two
years.
As conductor, Marios Papadopoulosappearedwith the European Community. Chamber
Orchestraas well as with the London Mozart Players at the Barbican in two concerts in
March 1989.In May 1989he conductedthe PhilharmoniaOrchestraand Chorusat the Royal
Festival Hall. In May 1991, he made a highly successfuldebut as an opera conductor in a
production of Mozart's Magic Flutc at the Gree-kNational Operain Athens,and in September
1991,he conductedtwo performances Verdi's R Trovatorcfor the samecompany.
of

In November 19912,he was


Oxford
City
Guest
Conductor
Chief
the
of
appointed
of
Orchestra.In this capacity,he has
recentlyembarkedon'a major recordingprojectwith the
City of Oxford Orchestra. first of theserecordingshasrecentlybeenreleasedfeaturing
The
ananthologyof Baroquemasterpieces.

Page248

Appendix 8

DISCOGRAPHY
MARIOSPAPADOPOULOS
- pianist/conductor
STRAVINSKY

Concertofor PianoandWind;

JANACEK

Capriccio;

JANACEK

PianoSonata(1905);
Conductor/Pianist,
MariosPapadopoulos
RoyalPhilharmonicOrchestra.
(HyperionCDA66167);

2)

SHOSTAKOVICH

24 Preludes& Fugues(3 CDs/KingdomRecords)


Vol 1: KCLCD2023
Vol 11: KCLCD2024/5

3)

BEETHOVEN

Op
109,110,111.
Piano'S
onatas
PickwickIMP Mastersseries

4)

NOCTURNE

Records
2_CDs/Kingdom
(featuring30 Nocturnesby 20 differentcomposers)
Vol I KCLCD2030
Vol Il KCLCD2032

A practicalsupplement
to someof theexamplesandillustrationsgivenin this thesis
will befoundin theserecordings.
Page249

Appendix 8

5)

CESAR FRANCK

PianoWorks/Meridian
Choral, Preludeand Fugue
Prelude,Aria et'Final
Prelude,Fugueet Variation
PremierGrand Caprice

6)

MUSSORGSKY

'Picturesat an Exhibition'
Gopak
Souvenirdenfance no 2
Intennezzoin modo classico
Une Plaisanterie
Une Larme
.,,
Au Village
(Helicon HLR143).

7)

MOZART

Sonatain A majorK331.
Fantasiein D minorK397,

(Onerecordin an8-recordsetreleased
Digest)
by Reader's
8)

BAROQUEANTHOLOGY CarltonClassicsPCD 1104


City of OxfordOrchestra
Conductor:MariosPapadopoulos

9)

CLASSICFM Nocturne

compilationof "Musicto suit themidnightmood"


Trackno 12:JohnField - Nocturneno 4,in A major
pianist:Marios,Papadopoulos-

Page250