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THE ANGLO-SAXON POEMS


OF

BEOWULF,
THE SCOP OR GLEEMAN^S TALE,
AND

THE FIGHT AT FINNESBURG.

THE ANGLO-SAXON

POEINIS

OF

BEOWUXF,
THE SCOP OR GLEEMAN'S TALE,
AND

THE FIGHT AT FINNESBURG.


WITH

A LITERAL TRANSLATION, NOTES, GLOSSARY,

ETC.

BY

BENJAMIN THORPE,
MEMBER OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AT MUNICH, AND OF
THE SOCIETY OF NETHERLANDISH LITERATURE AT LEYDEN.

OXFORD:
PRINTED BY JAMES WRIGHT, PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY.

SOLD BY JOHN HENRY PARKER,


BROAD STREET, OXFORD

AND

377,

STRAND, LONDON.
M.DCCC.LV.

TO THE HONOURED

MEMORY

OF HIM
TO

WHOM THORKELIN

INSCRIBED

THE FIRST EDITION OP BEOWULF.


THE FRIEND OF RASK,
THE MUNIFICENT FOSTERER OP THE ANCIENT
LORE OF HIS NATIVE NORTH,

JOHN BULOW,
OP SANDERUMGAARD IN THE ISLE OK FYEN,

THIS PRESENT EDITION OF


IS

THE SAME POEM

RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED BY

THE EDITOR.

a3

PREFACE.
Twenty-four

years have passed since, while residing in

Denmark,

entertained the design of one day produ-

I first

cing an edition of Beowulf; and


that design that, immediately

1830,

on

it

was

my

in prosecution of

arrival in

England

in

carefully collated the text of Thorkelin's edition

with the Cottonian manuscript.

Fortunately, no doubt, for

the work, a series of cares, together with other literary

engagements, intervened and arrested

my

progress.

had, in fact, abandoned every thought of ever resuming


the task

it

was therefore with no

hailed the appearance of

text of

and

Beowulf

this

in

833

^.

was a few years

slight pleasure that

Mr. Kemble's
Still

first

edition of the

a translation was wanting,

later supplied

by the same emi-

nent Anglo-Saxon scholar, accompanied by a

new and

revised edition of the text, a copious and valuable glossary,

and notes t>.


"

The Anglo-Saxon Poems

the Battle of Finnesburh


difficult

M.

London, Pickering, 1833.


of Beowulf, etc. Second

I.

The Anglo-Saxon Poems

2.

A Translation

of the Anglo-Saxon

Poem

Esq.

Pickering, 1837.

edition, 1835.

of Beowulf, with a

copious Glossary, Preface, and Philological Notes, by


ble,

more

words and an Historical Preface, by John M. Kemble, Esq.

A. of Trin. Coll. Camb.


''

of Beowulf, the Traveller's Song, and

edited together with a Glossary of the

John M. Kem-

PREFACE.

viii

Copies of Mr. Kemble's editions having for some time


past been of rare occurrence, I resolved on resuming

suspended labour, and, as far as

want

by

felt

first

was

many an Anglo-Saxon

and abroad.

My

student both at

poem

impulse was to print the text of the


literal

page

but,

as

it

translation in

emendations

parallel columns, placing all conjectural

at the

on comparing the text with the

version in this juxta-position, so

mous and

home

plan was then to be adopted.

appears in the manuscript, with a

foot of each

my

able, supplying a

numerous and

puerile did the blunders of the

so enor-

coppst appear,

and, consequently, so great the discrepance between the


text and the translation, that I found myself compelled to

admit into the text the greater number of the conjectural


emendations, consigning to the foot of the page the corre-

In every case which

sponding readings of the manuscript.


I

thought might by others be considered questionable,

have followed the more usual course, of retaining in the


text the reading of the manuscript,

posed correction

With

and placing the pro-

at foot.

respect to this the oldest heroic

Germanic tongue,

my

opinion

is,

that

is

it

poem

in

any

not an original

production of the Anglo-Saxon muse, but a metrical paraphrase of an heroic Saga composed in the south-west of

Sweden c,

in the old

common language

of the North,

and

probably brought to this country during the sway of the


*

For when the poet

the Scylding was widely


in),

(11.

he evidently means that

Skane (Scania), the


those of the

modem

the original Saga

35-38) says that the renown of Beowulf


in the Scanian lands (Scede-landvun

known
it

limits of

had reached him

at his

own home

in

which were then more extended than

province so called.

may one day be

Let ns cherish the hope that

discovered in

some Swedish

library.


PREF/V.CE.

xiii

dently of the version or views of every preceding editor.

In fact, what others had done had pretty well passed from

memory

ray

that I

and

compared

was not

it

my own

Kemble, Leo, and

From

Ettmiiller.

on many points, though

my

until

task

was completed

views with those of Grundtvig,


these scholars I differ

perhaps, from the last men-

least,

whose notes on "The Scop or Gleeman's Tale^'"

tioned,

regard as the best commentary on that ancient and curious

nomenclature of persons and places,


also in the

poem

Tale" has been repeatedly printed

work

of which occur

manuscript

in

Codex Exoniensis.

be found only in the


the present

many

" The Scop or Gleeman's

of Beowulf.

that ample use has been

The fragment on the Fight


printed by Hickes, from

at

to

It will

be seen in

made

of Ettmiil-

well as of Lappenberg's, on the

ler's notes, as

it is

same poem^.

Finnesburg was

first

cover of a manuscript of

the

Homilies in the archiepiscopal library at Lambeth, but

where

it is

not

now

to be found, having probably perished

under the hands of an ignorant workman


volume.

abounds
it

is

of a

The

in errors,

Beowulf

in

The

(11.

2130

earliest notice

'

appears to have formed part

It

2322).

we

who

Sc6pes vldsidh (a

Sangers Weitfahrt.
miiller.

Thesaurus,

the events celebrated in the gleeman's recital

given by Wanley,
^

in rebinding the

in his

but whether of ancient or modern date

impossible to decide.

poem on

by Hickes

text, as given

possess of the

in his

Catalogue

certainly

title

poem
(p.

of

Beowulf

is

218) designates

founded on misconception).

Angelsachsisch und Deutsch, von Ludwig Ett-

Ziirich 1839.

Aus den Berliner Jahrb.

The Scop

or Gleeman's Tale

Saxon version of an Anglian

fiir

wissensch. Kritik.

am

original.

August 1838.

inclined to regard as an Anglo-

PREFACE.

-xiv

it

" Tractatus nobilissimus poetice scriptus."

ously describes

against the petty kings of

(1705)

it

lay neglected

gave some extracts from

5,

or a

errone-

Beowulf

Sweden . From Wanley's time

till

the late Mr. Sharon Turner

it,

History of the Anglo-

in his

Saxons, accompanied by his translation


the year 181

He

as celebrating the exploits of

it

but

hundred and ten years

was not

it

till

after the notice

given by Wanley, that an edition of the entire poem, by


the learned Icelander, G, J. Thorkelin, appeared at Copen-

hagen, exhibiting a text formed according to his ideas of

Anglo-Saxon, and accompanied by his Latin translation,


both the one and the other standing equally

But ThorkeHn did

Oedipus.

not been in vain


for the deed,
far as in

him

his best,

let us, therefore,

and

need of an

in

his labour has

take the good intention

and look on him as a well-wisher


lay, a zealous

promoter

of,

to, and, as

the ancient litera-

ture of the North.

Thorkelin made two translations of Beowulf


with

all his literary

more than

labours of

the

destroyed in the bombardment of Copenhagen in

Some

first,

thirty years,

was

1807.

years after, at the instance and aided by the munifi-

cence of the Danish privy councillor, John Biilow, he under-

took and completed a second "i.

"In

hoc

libro,

qui poeseos Anglo-Saxonicae egregium est exem-

plum, descripta videntur

bella, quae

Scyldingorum stirpe ortus,

sue

'

Beowulfus quidam Danus, ex resia

gessit contra Sueciae regulos.

Periit isto excidio Scyldingidos

mea

versio

cum

toto apparatu

getemum una animus eam iterandi, nisi Heros illuJohaxxes Bclowius, dynasta Sanderumgaardi, exhorta-

et periisset

strissiraus

tus fuisset me, consiliis et sere suo adjutum, opus iterum inchoare. n^

publicam videret lucem."


It

was at the cost of the same nobleman and noble individual that

Grundtvig pubUshed his translation.

The Danish

edition of Rask's

PREFACE.
Of Mr. Kemble's
In the year

XV

editions notice has been already taken.

1826 appeared the "Illustrations of Anglo-

Saxon Poetry," containing copious

extracts

from Beowulf,

with a spirited paraphrase in English blank verse, and a


literal

Latin translation, by the late Rev.

which, although very far from faultless,


rior to either of the

By

Dr. Grundtvig.

This

which, although evincing in

its

is

its

into

Danish

a metrical paraphrase,

author a knowledge both

of the language and subject far from


of

Cony bear e.

infinitely supe-

before-mentioned attempts.

Beowulf has been twice translated


I.

J. J.
is

trivial, is,

on account

occasional tone and the structure of the verse, but

ill

calculated to impart to the reader a just idea of the original.

Taken however

as a whole, I

know

of no better

paraphrastic version of Beowulf than that of Grundtvigo.

Anglo-Saxon Grammar

is also dedicated to John Biilow.


This volume
memory.
" Bjowulfs Drape. Et Gothisk Helte-Digt fra forrige Aar-Tusiiide,
af Angel-Saxisk paa Danske Riim, ved N. F. S. Grundtvig Praest.

I dedicate to his

Kjob. 1820.

For the extraordinary freedom of his version Dr. G.

shields himself under the


lates

"I

an orator,"
will

example of Cicero, whose words he trans-

have translated Demosthenes not as a grammarian but as


etc.

From

the following extracts, however, the reader

probably be inclined to suspect that Hudibras rather than any

classic

composition was uppermost in the Dr.'s mind when writing.

He makes

Hunferth say to Beowulf


*'

Paa Landet var I friske,


Men Vand kan slukke lid,
I svommed som to
Ja snart som dode

On

Fiske,
Sild."

land ye were frisky.

But water can quench fire.


Ye swam like two fishes.
But anon

like

dead herrings.

b2

PREFACE.

xvi

By

2.

This work

Frederik Schaldemose.

and know of

.^een,

its

Mr. Wackerbarth's

have not

existence only from the preface tc

edition

Besides Mr. Kemble's

P.

literal

prose translation, there

one in English verse by Mr. Wackerbarth, which


as a lively and,

i>

regard

with a few exceptions, faithful

repre-

sentative of the original, evincing in

numerous passages

considerable poetic talent on the part of

its

author.

The

mere English reader, who wishes to become acquainted


with Beowulf, cannot use a better medium than Mr.
erbarth's translation

q.

From much

Wack-

contained in the Intro-

duction I totally dissent.

German

translation

With

Ettmiiller.

having referred to

found

it

remains to be noticed, that of

still

this version I
it

am

on one or two

but slightly acquainted,


occcisions only,

Mr. Kemble's.

to coincide with

Mr.

fancy of adopting the alhteration of the original


far

from happy.

containing

much

The work

is

when

Ettmiiller's
I

consider

preceded by an introduction,

just criticisms

add one more specimen of the Hudibrastic

I will

" Grendel blev

om

Naesen bleeg,

Bange som en Hare,"


Grendel about

tfie

o. s. v.

nose grew pale.

Frighten' d as a hare, etc.


p

Beowulf og Sc6pes Wtd-siiS, to Angel-Saxiske Digte, med Over-

ssettelse

mose.
1

og oplysende Anmserkninger, udgivne af Frederik Schalde-

8vo. KjiJb. 1847.

Beowulf, an Epic Poem, translated from the Anglo-Saxon into

English verse by A. Diedrich Wackerbarth A. B. Professor of Anglo-

Saxon

at the

CoUege of our Ladye of Oscott,

etc.

etc.

London,

Pickering, 1849.

Beowulf.

Heldengedicht des achten Jahrhunderts.

Male aus dem Angelsachsischen

in das

zum

ersten

Neuhochdeutsche stabreimend

PREFACE.

xvii

Dr. Leo's work, " Ueber Beowulf," contains a good ana-

poem and much that is interesting though,


much with which I do not agree s.

the

lysis of

at

the same time,

seems worthy of remark that the Swedes, whose

It

appears well founded to regard as national a

probably deriving

its

origin

from

title

poem most

their country,

and

cele-

brating the heroic deeds of a Sweo-Gothic prince, have no

Beowulf

translation of

into their native tongue.

In this edition of Beowulf I have done

away the numerous

clear

errors with

abounds, and to render

my

sistent with perspicuity,

and almost

line

utmost to

version as literal as was con-

Could

with the original.

my

which the manuscript

in every case line for

have revisited the North,

have had access to works on the topography of West


Gothland and Jutland ^ and made inquiries after local
ditions

among

tra-

the peasantry of those parts, I flatter myself

that the result would have been corroborative of the views

here set forth.

Preceding editors have regarded the poem of Beowulf

a myth, and
iibersetzt

its

heroes as beings of a divine order

i.

as.

To

und mit Einleitung und Anmerkungen versehen von LudMit einem Kiirtchen. Zurich 1840.

wig Ettmiiller.
s

Be6wulf, dasz

iilteste

deutsche, in angelsachsischer mundart er-

haltene heldengedicht, nach seinem inhalte,


rischen

und mythologischen beziehungen

und nach seinen histoEin beitrag 2ur

betrachtet.

geschichte alter deutscher geistes zustiinde, von H. Leo. Halle 1839.


t

Such

as

" Odmanns Bohuslan" and " Tidegrens Vestergotlands

Hist, och Besfcrifvelse," etc.

Were there no other record of the existence of our own Richard I.


than the Romaunt bearing his name, and composed within a century
of his death, he would unquestionably have been

Mythists
feats

among

their

shadowy heroes;

for

numbered by the

among the superhuman

performed by that pious crusader, we read, in the above-men-

tioned authority, that having torn out the heart of a lion, he merely

b3

PREFACE.

aviii

my dull

perception these appear as real kings and chieftains

some

of the North,

Hygelac and

of them, as

Offa, entering

within the pale of authentic history, while the names of

may have

others

perished, either because the records in

which they once were chronicled are no longer extant, or


the individuals themselves were not of sufficient importance
to occupy a place in them.

am an

one, I

If this ^-iew

be an erroneous

object rather of condolence than of any less

kind sentiment, Pallas Athene being alone to blame, she

never having vouchsafed to favour

me

as she did of old the

son of Tydeus, when, dispelling the mist before his eyes,


she thus addressed him
'A)^vp

av Toi

S*

at:

6(f)6cikfi<op

0(f>p' ev yivaxTKTjs rffXiP

pressed out the blood, dipt

it

deov

eXov,

rjbe

in salt,

fj

npiv

fTrfjev,

Kai avbpa.

and ate

it

without bread

that

being sick, and longing after pork (which in a land of Moslems and

Jews was not


'
'

to

be had),

******

They took a Sarezjme yonge and

And

soden

fiil

hastely,

With powdyr and with

And
Of

this

fat,

spysory.

with saffron off good colovir."

Apician dish

"the kyng

eet the flesh

and gnew the bones."

Richard afterwards feasts his infidel prisoners on a Saracen's head


each, every head having the
slip

of parchment.

and yet Richard

is

name

Surely aU this

of

its late

is as

owner attached to

mythic as

it is

it

on a

possible to be,

a real, historic, earth-bom, personage.

The mythic mode of

interpretation has been well

and humorously

parodied by the American theologian, Theodore Parker, (Critical and

Miscellaneous Writings,) in the instance of Strauss's celebrated work.

He shows " how

the whole history of the United States might, by

future

myth

lypse,

and in part from fancy."

pronounced a tissue of mythical stories,


borrowed in part from the Old Testament, in part from the Apocadetectors, be

Monthly Mag.

for

May

See the extract in Colburn's

1854.. p. 109.

New

PREFACE.
During the progress of

my task

xix

have but too often had

cause to feel that an interpreter of Beowulf lives in a glass


house, and, consistently with that feeling, have abstained

from casting any harsh censures on what


in the

To

productions of

those, therefore,

my

my

regard as errors

whose superior attainments

Saxon and old Northern


judgment on

predecessors in the same

them

lore entitle

work, I

may

to

in

field.

Anglo-

pronounce a

be allowed to address

fairly

the petition

That mercy

I to others

That mercy show

to

show.

me.
B. T.

INTRODUCTION.

In

the

prefatory portion,

we

Beowulf,

preceding the

presented with

are

the

canto of

first

genealogy of the

Danish king Hrothgar, beginning with Scef (Sceaf), and


terminating with a prince named, like the hero of the

poem, Beowulf.

no doubt,

Now

as

Beowulf the Scylding

this

figures in the genealogies as an ancestor of


is

a vast chasm to be

filled

is,

Beaw who

to be considered identical with the

Woden,

there

up between him and Healfdene,

the father of Hrothgar, the reigning prince at the time of


the poera

although, judging from the text,

that the line from Scef to Hrothgar


out.
(1.

But

112)"

cessarily

it

may be

o?|)3et

him

right to

eft

it

would seem

was unbroken through-

observe, that the words

onwoc heah Healfdene" do not ne-

imply any such uninterrupted

(Scef) " the lofty Healfdene."

but simply that,

line,

in course of time, not immediately, there

sprang from him

To have given

all

the inter-

mediate links of the pedigree would have been tedious and,


therefore, unpoetical,

This preface closes

and the poem of Beowulf

vs-ith

of his being laid in a ship, with his

arms and

and committed to the winds and waves,


that in

which he had,

Danish shore.

is

neither.

the death of Scyld, and an account

in his infancy,

in

treasures,

manner

like to

been sent to the

INTRODUCTION.

ixii

Canto

Healfdene had four sons,

I.

Heorogar,

viz.

H roth-

his brother

Hrothgar succeeds

and Ela.

gar, Halga,

Heo-

This prince causes a splendid royal residence to

rogar a.

be constructed, to which he gives the name of Heorot or

This

Heort.

soon made a scene of slaughter, in conse-

is

quence of the nightly attacks of a fiendish being called


Grendel,

II.

who

one time no

carries off at

thanes, for the purpose of devouring

These dreadful

III.

than thirty

in his retreat.

during a period of

visitations are continued

twelve years.

less

them

Intelligence of this calamity having

reached Beowulf, a nephew of Hygelac, king of the oppoterritory of

site

West Gothland, he

Healfdene and his successors

resolves to

rid

the

take to have been petty kings

reigning in the north of Jutland, where traces of their residence


exist in some local names, as Hirtshals, Hiorring, etc.
kingdom was on the main land is e\ident from 1. 894,
where Hrothgar's people are called Hrethmen, in other words, Jut-

(Heort)

That

still

their

By preceding editors Hrothgar has been considered as the


same individual with Roe, the reputed founder of Roeskilde, which
The following extract
they suppose to be the Heorot of the poem.
landers.

from Petersen's Danmark

Hedenold,

to judge as to the identity of the

two

i.

p. 190, will enable the reader

" Roe (or Hr6ar) was gentle

To him

and meek, and devoted to peaceful occupations.


the founding of Roskilde (Hroiskellda, L
is

said to have

made an expedition

e.

Ogn

transferred that

where he married Ogn,

He

afterwards returned to

kingdom

to his brother Helgi

gave birth to a son named Agnar."

blance between the two that

ascribed

to England,

a daughter of a king of Northumberland.

Denmark, and

is

King Roe

Roe's spring).

am

The only

aware of

points of resem-

are, that

the father of

each was named Halfdan (Healfdene), and the brother, Helgi (Halga),

both names of frequent occurrence among the princes of those times.


It

must

till

of

also

be remarked that Jutland continued under

they were subdued and their territories

Denmark, by Gorm the Old.

states the

(ob. A.

(s J slur)

D. 935.)

most northern was Vendsyssel, which,

gar's kingdom.

its

own

kings,

united to the rest

Of

these petty

imagine, was Hroth-

INTRODUCTION.
Danish land of the monster, and,

from home

design, sails

On

riors b.

bv the

xxii

pursuance of this

in

with a company of fifteen war-

reaching Hrothgar's realm, he

officer stationed at the

challenged

is

extreme point of the land

to give notice of the approach of enemies.

IV. V. VI.

After a parley, Beowulf and his companions are conducted


to

King Hrothgar,

to

whom

he relates the object of his

voyage, and meets with a welcome reception.


gar recapitulates
all sit

tion,

down

all

to feast

Beowulf

VII. Hroth-

that he has suffered from Grendel,

and

VIII. During their pota-

and drink.

taunted by a quarrelsome, envious courtier,

is

named Hunferth, on

the

subject of a

swimming match

between the Gothic warrior and Breca, prince of the


Brondings ^

but

relates the perils

is

effectually

answered by Beowulf, who

he underwent at the bottom of the

his encounters with the nickers.

Wealhtheow, Hrothgar's queen,

his narrative.

sea, in

IX. Beowulf continues


is

troduced presenting the mead-cup to the guests,

then in-

who

at

length with her consort retires to rest, leaving Beowulf and


his

companions

are sleeping,

in the hall.

Immediatelv on entering the


warrior,
b

X. While the other warriors

Beowulf awaits the coming of Grendel.

whom

he devours.

hall,

XI.

Grendel seizes a sleeping

A conflict

then ensues between

Probably from the mouth of the Gotha Elv, (the junction point

of the three Scandinavian kingdoms,) near the spot where Gothenburg

now

stands.

Here begins the great chain of the Kullen, which divides


At 1. 427 we read that Beowulf and his asso-

Sweden from Norway.

under the mountain.


town of Skagen now stands, on the extreme
point of Jutland, or a point between the Baltic and the Cattgat,
where the well-known dangerous sand-bank extends itself, called
Skagens Rif or Skagerak. This sand is mentioned at 11. 590-597.

ciates stationed their vessel

Where

the

little

See Index of Folks and Countries.

INTRODUCTION.

XXIV

him and Beowulf, XII. whose companions come


but find that the monster's carcase

weapons

is

but Beowulf, grasping him, tears his

his shoulder,

to his aid,

proof against their

arm from

and the monster, thus mutilated, escapes

to

XIII. All the people are eager to be-

his fen-habitation.

hold the hand and arm of Grendel

the praises of Beowulf

are sung, while a king's thane tells of the exploits of Sige-

raund Wselsing and his son Fitela^; horse-racing succeeds.

XIV. Hrothgar

visits

Heorot and sees Grendel's hand, and

XV. Heorot

loud in Beowulf's praise.

is

its

former splendour

a great feast

is

is

restored to

held, at

which Beo-

wulf and his companions are munificently rewarded for

XVI.

their services.

gleeman sings the story of the

Frisian king. Fin Folcwaldingf, of Hnsef and Hengest,

Hildeburh and her sons.

XVII. The

Wealhtheow presents the cup

mends her
tion of

sons, Hrethric

Hrothwulf o.

rich dress

and a

to her

consort,

and Hrothmund,

XVIII. Beowulf

collar of gold,

and

lay being finished,

is

and com-

to the protec-

presented with a

which the poet compares

with the celebrated collar of the Brosings, that was carried


off

by Hama, and afterwards came into the possession of

the Gothic king Hermanric

^.

This collar became after-

e The story, as here related, differs


German and Northern versions. For a

discrepances. Will,

in

many

respects from the

specification of the principal

Grimm's Heldensage (pp. 14-17.) may be advan-

tageously consulted.
f

His territory was most probably North Friesland, or that part of

the west coast-land of the modern duchy of Slesvig, which

Husum on

lies

between

the south and Tiindem on the north.

? See Index of Persons.


h Saxo (edit. Miiller, p. 412)

commemorates Hermanric's treasures


" In hujus domus magnificentiam omnem opum suarum apparatuni
congessit."
Among them we are, of course, to suppose was the far-

INTRODUCTION.
wards the property of Hygelac,
fell

it

See vr. 2245, 2265, 2610.

of Hermanric.

The death

whose death

of Hygelac

He

in the year 595.

is

edit.

Willems.

who

recorded by Gregory of Tours,

says (III. 3.)

. .

" His

gestis

nomine Chochilaicho, evectu navali per mare

sue,

in Friesland

The warriors then

Reinaert de Vos also alludes to the treasures

famed Brisinga men.


i

at

hands of the Franks'.

into the

xxv

lived

Dani cum rege

Gallias appetunt.

pagum unum de regno Theuderici devastant atque


oneratisque navibus tam de capti\i3 quam de rehquis spo-

Egressi ad terras,
captivant
liis

Sed rex eorum

ad patriam cupiunt.

reverti

in littus residebat,

donee naves altum mare comprehenderent, ipse deinceps secuturus.

Quod cum Theuderico nunciatum

fuisset,

quod

soil,

regio ejus fuerit

ab extnmeis devastata, Theudebertum, fiUum suum, in iUas partes

cum magno

exercitu ac

magno armorum apparatu

nam

Qui

direxit.

inter-

omnemque

fecto rege, hostes navali proelio superatos opprimit,

rapi-

In accordance with the foregoing, Dr. Leo

terrse restituit."

cites

from the Gesta Regum Francorum, c. xix. the following passage


" In Ulo tempore Dani cum rege suo, nomine ChochUago, cum navale
hoste per altum mare Gallias appetunt^ Theuderico

pagum

Attoarios

et alios devastantes atque captivantes plenas naves de captivis

eorum ad htus maris

haben-

Quod
cum Theuderico nunciatum fuisset, Theudebertum, fiUum suum, cum
magno exercitu in Ulis partibus dirigens, qui consequens eos pugnavit
cum eis csede maxima, atque ipsis prostratis regem eorum interfecit,
mare

tes, alto

prsedam

remarks

intrantes, rex

resedit.

terram suam restituit." On the above Ettmiiller


" This account agrees most accurately with the poem of

tulit et xa
:

Beowulf, which

tells

of Hygelac's

fall

in a hostile expedition against

the Haetwaras and Frisians on the sea-coast.

Chochilaic

is

Prankish form [for Hygelac, as Chilperic for Hulfreich, etc.].


the chroniclers

make him

Dane matters naught

the

That

the Northern pirates

being sometimes called Danes, sometimes Marcomanni, sometimes

Nordmanni,

just as

it

therefore, relates only

might occur to the writer.

what

Swede, Goths (Gautar, A.


its

is

S.

true of Hugleik,

The Heimskringla,
when it makes him a

Geatas) and Swedes being at the time of

composition united as one nation, and makes him

lum, by which

The

is

rest of the story differs toto cos'o

Latin chroniclers called


of Dani,

is

well

fall

in FyrisviJl-

no doubt meant Friesland, the Fres-wael of

all

the

known, and,

from that here given.

Xorthem

pirates

2144.

by the general name

in the present instance, is

1.

That the
most

easily

INTRODUCTION.
betake themselves to
del's raother,

hall

While they are

rest.

Gren-

sleeping,

bent on vengeance for her son, enters the

but the warriors being roused, she hastens away,

taking with her in her flight an old friend and counsellor


of Hrothgar,

named

another place,

XX. who

summoned

thereupon

is

Beowulf,

.-Eschere.

to attend

him the calamity

relates to

who had

slept in

Hrothgar,

had befallen

that

them, and gives a highly poetic description of the place

around Grendel's abode, promising at the same time great


rewards to Beowulf,

if

he

achieve the adventure of

will

seeking and, of course, destroying Grendel and his mother in

XXI. Beowulf undertakes the

their habitation.

adventiire,

and, accompanied by Hrothgar and their followers, sets out

The

on an exploring expedition.
they traverse

is

very picturesque.

description of the tracts

On

their

way they

yEschere's head lying on the bank of the lake.


picture of the terrible lake

then given.

Beowulf prepares

a celebrated sword
ferth.

and

its

find

vivid

monstrous inhabitants

for his descent,

named Hrunting,

lent to

is

armed with

him by Hun-

XXII. XXIII. Having recommended

his followers

to the protection of Hrothgar, he plunges into the water,

which was so deep that a day had passed ere he reached

Here he encounters Grendel's mother.

the bottom.

fully

given in the

accounted

W.

for,

Gothland,

poem

when we
viz.

and so continued

itself.

call to

The

need not be repeated, being so

particulars of their conflict

XXIV. Beowulf

relates his

mind that the provinces adjoining to

Halland and Skane, were in those days Danish,

till

the year 1658,

when they were ceded

to

Sweden

the monkish writers, too, of western Europe were not very knowing
in Scandinavian matters.

The

credit of identifying

Hygelac with

Choclulaigus belongs to Outzen, in his paper " Ueber das Angelsiichsische

Beowulfs Gedicht," in the Kieler Blatter. (i8i6?)

INTRODUCTION.

xxvii

adventure to Hrothgar, and presents to him the

hilt of

the

sword with which he had slain the mother of Grendel, the

venomous

blade of which had been melted by her hot,

Hrunting had

blood.

canto

Beowulf.
other,

him

failed

XXVI. Hrothgar and Beowulf

and Beowulf with

sets sail

and arrives

coast.

Here follows

XXV.

in the contest.

This

by Hrothgar's exhortations to

chiefly occupied

is

take leave of each

XXVII. He

his presents embarks.

at the residence of

Hygelac on the sea-

and obscure notice of Hygd*^,

a short

the daughter of Haereth, and queen of Hygelac, who, after

her consort's death, became the wife of Offa, son of Gar-

XXVIII.

mund, king of Angeln.

reception from Hvgelac, to

Heorot, and

tells

whom

Eeo%\Talf finds a

welcome

he relates his exploits at

how Wealhtheow, Hrothgar's

queen, dis-

tributed bracelets to the warriors present, while Freaware,

her daughter,

The

who was

story of

betrothed to the son of Froda^,

Hygd, the qneen of

Uffi (Offa) of

Angeln (Beow.

3857, sqq.), has by the author of the Lives of the two Offas (both of
whom he supposes to have reigned in England) been, with some
variations, transferred to Cjmethryth, the

whom

queen of Offa of Mercia,

he represents as a Frank, who, for some atrocious crime, being

sent out to sea in an open boat, and being found


Offa, induced

him

to conduct her to his

See Lives of Offa

I.

and

Lappenberg's England,
to

many

i.

II.

ad

p. 237.

of Offa's charters.

calc.

The

by the then youthful

home, and make her


Matt. Paris,

edit.

his wife.

Watts, also

signature of Cynethryth appears

See Kemble's Cod. Diplom.

i. ;

also a coin

of her's in Ingram's Saxon Chronicle, from Ruding.


1

Ingeld, the son of Froda (Fro'Si) appears here as the betrothed of

Hrothgar's daughter, and leader of the Heathobards, though

aeem from what follows

(11.

4056, sqq.) that his

visit

hostile one, as chief of a fleet of vikings or pirates (see

Tale,

11.

91-100).

Ingeld, son of FroSi IV.,

is,

was

in

no incident of

would

Sc6p or Gleeman's

no doubt, the indi-

vidual in question, though, according to the chroniclers, he

Denmark, and

it

originally a

is

king of

his life bears the faintest resemblance

INTRODUCTION.

xxviii

Here

presented the ale-cup.


with,

and the subjugation

war 1

follows an aUusion to a

the Heathobards, and the

of,

of their prince, Withergyld, together with

fall

some obscure

matter uttered by Beowulf relating to the same subject and


to Ingeld
conflict

after

which he resumes

his narrative about his

with Grendel, and ^Eschere, and Grendel's mother,

XXXI. and

rewards bestowed on him by

the further

Hrothgar, a portion of which he presents to Hygelac and

Hygd, and

receives

in

return from Hygelac a precious

An

sword, that had belonged to Hrethel.


to subsequent events, viz. the

(who

is

called the

nephew

fall

of

allusion follows

Hygelac and Heardred

of Hereric), and to the accession

of Beowulf to the throne.

Then

follows an account of a

dragon that infested the neighbourhood of Beowulf's

resi-

dence, brooding over a treasure hidden in a mound, that

had been there deposited by some prince

XXXII. This

entire canto

owners, and the dragon, and

in

by-gone days.

is

devoted to the treasure,

is

very obscure.

its

XXXIII. The

dragon begins to vomit forth glowing embers, and destroys


Beowulf's residence,
against

made

who thereupon

him and destroy him.

to the death of

resolves

to

Further allusion

go out
is

here

Hygelac in Friesland, whence Beowulf,

who had accompanied him, escaped by swimming. On his


return home, Hygd offers him the throne, to the prejudice
of her son Heardred, who, on account of his tender age,

appeared unequal to the task of withstanding the foes of his


country.

But Beowulf nobly

to the Ingeld here

more

commemorated.

rejects the proffered boon,

For these remote times,

I feel

inclined to trust the poet than Saxo Grammaticus.

Here the

state of the ^IS. is

account of the treasure and

its

such as to render an intelligible

ancient owners impossible.

INTRODUCTION.
and

is

satisfied

with being the friend and guardian of

Heardred. This prince,

some

pirates,

xxix

appears, was slain in a battle with

it

who had

overcome the son of

previously

Ohthere, the son of Ongentheow, king of the Swedes''.


After the death of Heardred, Beowulf ascends the vacant

XXXIV. Here

throne.

allusion

made

is

friendship for Eadgils^, the son of Ohthere,

to Beowulf's

whom

it

seems

men and money for the recovery of his kingBeowulf now goes with his followers to reconnoitre

he aided with

dom.

Here the aged king

the dragon's haunt.

sits

and

relates

the sad story of the accidental death of Herebeald, the


eldest of Hrethel's sons,

cyn,
of a

XXXV.

by the hand of

and continues

his brother Hceth-

his narrative with the

war bet^veen the Swedes and Goths,

Hrethel, the Swedes having,

it

account

after the death of

seems, laid siege to Hreos-

na-beorh, the residence apparently of the Gothic kings.


this

war Haethcyn was

the hand of Eofer.

the Hugas, and the

named Daeghrefn.

slain,

and Ongentheow also

Beowulf then recounts

death by his hand of their leader,

then described, in which

XXXVI. when

Beowulf,

named Wiglaf,

of Wiglaf's

sword

by

his battles with

After a short farewell

Beowulf

young

is

he
is

reduced to great

warrior,

resolves to aid him.

aflFords

greeting,

The combat

prepares for a conflict with the dragon.

straits,

fell

In

kinsman

An

of

account

the poet an opportunity of a

n O. N. Angantyr, a king of Sweden, of the race of the

Seilfinys.

In Grimnismal, 54, Odin, among other names, calls himself Scilfingr,


and in the HyndlulioS ii,ii. they are enumerated with the Skioldungs

among

the royal races.

Neither of Ongentheow nor his sons

anything in the chronicles resembling what


o

The

is

Adils of Snorri, and Athislus of Saxo.

and the chroniclers are irreconcilably

C3

is

there

here related-

at variance.

Here, too, the poet

INTRODUCTION.

XXX

digression (not very intelligible) concerning Weohstan, the


father of Wiglaf, and his battles with

succour, those

prince's

The

them.

Eanmund, a son

Wiglaf then summons to follow him, to

Ohthere.

of
his

who had accompanied

warriors

fight continues^ Beowulf's sword,

NsegUng,

snaps asunder, and the dragon clutches the aged warrior


in

XXXVII. Wiglaf

his talons.

having wounded the

monster, Beowulf draws his knife (seax), which he wore

on his coat of mail, and cuts the dragon through the

Beowulf

middle.

is

then sensible that his death

hand, caused by the venom.

mands Wiglaf
that,

to

having looked on

is

at

com-

go and bring the treasure from the cave,

XXXVIII. Wiglaf
sees

Sitting on a stone, he

is

On

described.

he may die the more

it,

visits

tranquilly.

the mound, the treasure he there

he finds

his return

his

master at

the point of death, who, while giving directions for his


funeral and

mound on

Hrones-nses, expires.

men, who had retired to the wood


forth,

and are

bitterly

event on the promontory


of the

king,

(1.

5051),

and

its

XXXIX. The

5185),

reproached by Wiglaf.

sends a messenger to the warriors

the death

(1.

now come
XL. Wiglaf

who were awaiting the


who announces to them
probable consequences,

namely a war with the Franks and

Frisians.

He

repeats

the account of the war with the Swedes and the

Hsethcyn

(U.

4935

sqq.), part

XLI. Ongentheow's
described.

last battle

of

which

is

fall

of

very obscure.

with Hygelac and

fall

are

The messenger concludes by exhorting them

to prepare a funeral pile.

XLII. XLIII. The remainder

devoted to the funeral of Beowulf,

is

Genealogy of the Scyldings

Scef
I

Scyld

Beowulf (Beaw)
Tcetwa
I

Geut
I

Godwulf
I

Finn
I

Frilhuumlf
I

Frealuf
I

Frilhuwald
I

Woden

Healfdene
I

Heorogar

Hrothgar

= Wealhtheow

Heoroweard
Freaware= I ngeld, Freda's

Ela.

to

Woden

--'-- vv^-:*>^Ul
|

Hrethric

Hrothmimd.

From Teetwa

Halga (Helgi)

son.

inclusive, the list is

Chronicle,

a.

855.

>Y**^ tW>^1

from the Saxon

Genealogy of the Gothic Royal Race.


Swerting

Hrethel

Herebeald

Haethcyn

Hygelac = Hygd

a dauichter

= Ecgtheow

^
I

BeowTilf
I

a daughter = Eofer

Heardred

Genealogy of the

Scilfings.

Ongentheow = (See

5852-5857.)

Onela

11.

Ohthere = not named.

Eanmund

Eadgils

Genealogy of the Kings of Angeln and Mercia of the


line of Offa

WODEX
I

WihtlsEg

Wermiind (Garmund)
I

Offa

I. (Uffi)

= Hygd,

relic of Hygelac
or Hugleik.

Dan

Angeltheow (Angengeat.

Jlykillati,

K. of

Flor.

Wigom.)

Denm.
|

Eomer
I

Icel
I

Cnebba
I

Cjmewald

Creoda

(in England)., ob.

A. D. 59^=

Wybba
Eawa,

ob. A. D. 642.

Osmod
I

Eanwulf
Thingferth
Offa II.

a See

= Cynethryth,

ob. A.

D. 796.

Lappenberg, " England under the Anglo-Saxon Kings,"


i.

pp. 227, 291.

ABBREVIATIONS EXPLAINED

OCCURRING

THE NOTES AND GLOSSARY.

Aasen=Aasen, Ordbog over det Norske Folkesprog. Christiania 1850.


A. and E.= Andreas und Elene, herausgegeben von Jacob Grimm.
.^Elfric Horn. = The Homilies of the Anglo-Saxon Church, printed for
the ^Ifric Society.

Caedm. =Caedmon's Paraphrase of Parts

of

the

Holy Scripture.

London 1832.
Cod. Exon.= Codex Exoniensis. London 1842.
Comp. = Composition.
D. G. = Deutsche Grammatik von Jacob Grimm.
D. M. = Deutsche Mythologie von Jacob Grimm. 2nd

= English Historical Society.


Ethelw. = Ethelwerdi Chronicon.
raye = Norske Folkesagn. Christiania

edit.

E. H. S.

= Fight at Finnesburg.
Grafif = Graff, Althochdeutscher

1844.

F. F.

Sprachschatz.

H. =Hickesu Thesaurus Lingg. Septent.


Hallager = Norsk Ordsamling.

K. = Kemble'"s Beowulf, 2nd

Kjob. 1802.

edit.

Mhg.= Middle High German.


North.

My thoL= Northern

Mythology and Superstitions, by Thorpe.

O. Fris.=01dFrisic.

Ohg. = 01d High German.


O. Nor. = Old Norse or Icelandic.
O. Sax.

= Old

Saxon, as in the Heliand by Schmeller.

Munich, 1830.

Rask = Rask's Anglo-Saxon Grammar.


S.

T.

=Sc6p

or Gleeman's Tale.

Vercelli Poetry, edit.

Kemble,

for the

.iElfiric

Society.

CORRIGENDA.
Line 663. insert hyphen between

sse

and manna

989. dele hyphen


1200. for
1

nyS read nyd

203. /or for rather read at

241

1,

/or nyshtan read nyhstan

5318. dele hyphen.

BEOWULF.

BEOWULF.
Ay, we

HwjET we Gar-Dena,
in

gear-dagum,
cyninga,

))e6d-

the great kings',

jjrym gefrunon
hii

^a

renown have heard

how

sejjelingas

fremedou.

ellen

the Gar-Danes',

in days of yore,

of;

those princes

valour display'd.

Oft Scyld Scefing

Oft Scyld Scef's son

sceajjena Jireatum,

from bands of robbers,

monegum

from many

mseg))um,

meodo-setla ofteah

serest

away

inspired earls with fear,

egsode eorl[as]

sy^?an

tribes,

their mead-benches drag'd

wear^

after he first

was

feasceaft funden

found destitute

he

he thence look'd for comfort,

))3es

frofre gebad,

weox under wolcnum,

flourished under

weorJ>myntum

in dignities throve,

o^}>8et
)>ara

Jiaji,

him seghwylc

until

ymb-sittendra

))aet

him everv one

over the whale-road


2o
:

wses god cyning.

Dfem

clouds,

of those sitting around

ofer hron-rade

hyran scolde,

gomban gyldan

tJie

eafera wjes

must obey,
tribute pay

that

To him

a son

Suppl. [as] K.

was a good king


was

BEOWULF.
afterwards

cenned,

aefter

geong

God

|)one

whom God

sende

)>e

he the dire need

ongeat

drugon

hie cer

sent

for comfort to the people

folce to frofre

fyren-Jjearfe

bom,

a young one in his courts,

in geardunij

had

that they ere

aldor-[le]ase,

felt

suffered

while princeless,

30

lange hwile.

for a long while.

Him

To him therefore thehord of life,

J7aes

Lif-frea,

Wuldres Waldend,

Prince of glory,

worold-are forgeaf.

gave worldly honour.

BeowuK

Beowulf was renown'd,

blaed

W3es breme,

the glory widely sprang

wide sprang

Scyldes eaferan

of Scyld's offspring

Scede-landum

in the Scanian lands

swa

in

gode gewyrcean,

fromum
on

40

in his paternal

hine on ylde

that

gewunigen

wil-gesi]jas

j)onne

chief

with bounteous money-gifts,

feoh-giftum,

feeder- [bea]rme,

])set

eft

So shall a warlike
work with good,

sceal [gu^-fru]ma

it

home,

age

in his

again inhabit
his

welcome comrades

and when war comes,

wig cume,

for the people act

leode gel^esten

lof-deedum sceal,

by praiseworthy deeds

in msegjja gehwfere,

in every tribe,

man ge))e6n.
Him ia Scyld gewat
29.

MS.

37.

J>aet,

42. [beajrme.

and

2.

flourish.

Scyld then departed

MS.

This word

is

[feorjme, but to which I object,


sense,

man

50

reading

39. [gu'S-fru] K.

eafera.

very doubtful.
i.

because

it

Mr. Kemble reads

affords

no very apparent

because of the double alliteration, which rarely occurs in

the second line of an alliterative couplet.

own

shall,

is far

from

satisfactory.

I regret to

add that

my

BEOWULF.
at his fated time,

to gesceap-hwile,

much

strenuous, to go

fela-hror feran

the

on Frean wjere.

into the Lord's keeping.

Hi hyae

])u

They him then bore away

aetbceron

to brimes faro))e,

to the sea-shore,

swaese gesi)>as,

his dear companions,

swa he

selfa baed,

as

f)enden

wordum weold

while with words had swav

wine Scyldinga

60

had long possessed

longe ahte.

There

hy^e stod

and

They laid then

J)a

the beloved chief

beaga bryttan,

on bearm

scipes,

maeme be

maeste

was ma^ma

the dispenser of rings,


70

bosom,

in the ship's

the great one

by

the

from far ways,

fraetwa gelseded.

ornaments brought.

hyrde

ceol

ic

cymlicor

gegyrwan

hilde

mast

there were treasures

fela,

of feor-wegum,

Ne

'

the prince's vehicle.

leofne j^eodenj

)>aer

it.

at the hithe stood

and eager to depart,

icy

ut-fus,

sejjelinges faer.

Aledon

the ring-prow'd ship

hringed-stefna
isig

Scyldings' friend

the-

the beloved land's chief

leof land-fruma

paer aet

he had himself enjoin'd

have not heard of a comelier

keel

waepnum,

many

adom'd

with war-weapons

and hea^o-wEedum,

and martial weeds,

billum and byrnum.

with glaves and bymies.

Him on bearme laeg


madma maenigo,

80

On

his

bosom

treasures

lay

many,

]>&

him mid scoldon

which were with him

on

flodes aeht,

into the flood's possession,

feor gewitan.

far depart.
52.

MS.

gescap.

B 2

to

go

BEOWULF.
Nalses hi hine Isessan

They him not with

lacum teodan,

gifts provided,

lordly treasures,

J)e6d-gestreonuin,
{)onne
\>e

dydon,

jja

hine

aet

than they did,

who him

frumsceafte

forS onsendon

90

beginning

at the

sent forth

jenne ofer y^e

alone o'er the wave,

umbor wesende.
pa-gyt hie him asetton

They moreover

segen [gyl]denne

a golden ensign

being a child.

high o'er

heah ofer heafod


leton

less

holm beran,

let the

his

set

head

sea bear him,

geafon on garsecg.

gave him to ocean.

Him wses geomor


mumende mod
men ne cunnon

Their mind was sad,

sefa,

mourning
100

their

mood

men cannot

secgan to so^e,

say for sooth,

sele-rsedende,

counsellors in hall,

haele^ under heofenum,

heroes under heaven,

hwa

who

85.

J)Eem hlseste onfeng.

The

that lading: received.

poet, or his prototype, here assigns to Scyld the legend

that properly belongs to Scef.

The

chronicles are illustrative of the legend.

cum uno dromone

from the
" Ipse Scef

following passages

Ethelw. III. 3

advectus est in insula oceani quae dicitur Scani,

armis circundatus, eratque valde recens puer, et ab incolis iUius terrae


ignotus; attamen ab eis suscipitur

et post in

"

regem eligunt."

W. Malmesb.

p. 173. edit.

dam insulam

Germanise, Scandzam (de qua Jordanes, historiographus

Gothorum,

E. H. S.

Iste (Sceaf), ut ferunt, in quan-

loquitur), appulsus, navi sine remige, puerulus, posito ad

caput frumenti manipulo, dormiens, ideoque Sceaf nuncupatus, ab

hominibus regionis ilhus pro miraculo exceptus, et sedulo nutritus,


adulta setate regnavit in oppido quod tunc Slaswic, nunc vero Haithebi

Simeon of Durham gives similar testimony.


MS. hon, no doubt for )>on.
102. MS. rsedenne. K. no doubt correctly. See hereafter.

appellatur."
88.

BEOWULF.

Da waes on burgum
BeowuK Scyldinga

Then was

leof leod-cyning

beloved sovereign

longe jjrage

for a long time,

fam'd

folcum gefrtege

no

faeder ellor hwearf,

him

onwoc

eft

among

towns

until

nations

had passed away,

{his father

from

the prince

aldor of earde,
oSjjaet

in the

Beowulf, the Scyldings'

from him

his dwelling),

sprang

in turn

forth

heah Healfdene
heold ))enden

gamol and

the lofty

Healfdene

he ruled while he liv'd,

lifde,

old and war-fierce,

giiti-reouw,

the glad Scyldings.

glsede Scyldingas.

Daem feower beam

From him

four children

forS-gerimed

numbered

forth

in

worold wocon,

sprang in the world,

weoroda rseswan

120

heads of hosts,

Heorogar and Hrojjgar

Heorogar and Hrothgar

and Halga

and Halga

til

the

Hyrde

ic J>set

Elan cwen,

good

have heard that Ela's queen,

Hea6o- Scylfinges

the martial Scylfing's

heals-gebedda.

bed-partaker.

pi waes Hr68gare

Then was

119.

^
to

130

MS. wocun.

124. Ela I take to be the

warlike glory,
120. I\IS. rjeswa.

name

of a Scylfing married to a daughter

of Healfdene, being the fourth of his children, three of

named.
125.

MS.

He

Hrothgar

martial prowess given,

here- sped gyfen,

wiges weorSmynd,

Scylfingas.

B3

whom

are

BEOWULF.
|jset

him

his

georne hj
ot5)j8et

wine-magas

him

so that

kinsmen

his dear

wilhngly obey'd,

rdoiij

seo geogojj geweox,

youth grew up,

until the

raago-driht micel.

a great kindred train.

Him on mod

It ran

be-arn

through his mind

that [he] a hall-house

[he] heal-reced

})3et

hatan wolde,

would command,

medo-sern micel,

a great mead-house,

men

men gewyrcean,
)jone yldo-bearn
sefre

and

140

the sons of

men

should ever hear of;

gefrunon
))8er

make,

to

which

and there within

on-innan

eall gedcelan.

all distribute

geongum and ealdum,


swylc him God sealde,

to

buton

except the people's share,

young and

folc- scare

old,

him God had

as to

given,

and feorum gumena.

and

Da

Then I heard that widely


the work was proclaim'd
to many a tribe

wide gefrsegn

ic

weorc gebannan
manigre msegj^e

geond

})isne

150

middangeard,

the lives of

through

men.

this mid-earth,

folc-stede frsetwian.

that a public place

Him on

Him

gedre
J)aet

fyrste

gelomp,

mid yldum,

soon

wearS

that

hit

eal gearo,

Scop him Heort naman,


\>e

his

building.

among men,
it

was aU ready,

of haU-houses greatest.

heal-serna maest.

se

was

in time befel,

it

wordes geweald

wide hsefde.

Gave

it

the

name

of Heort,

he who power of his word


widely had.

136. he not in

MS.

151. middangeard.

So

called

from

its

position between Asgard,

the abode of the gods, and Utgard, the abode of the giants.
Thoi-pe, Northern Mythology, vol.
152.

MS.

frsetwan.

i.

See

BEOWULF.
He

beot ne aleah

beagas

160

He

belied not his promise,

bracelets distributed,

dfelde,

treasure at the feast.

sine set symle.

The

sele hlifade

hall rose
j((^'

heah and hom-geup

heaSo-wylma bad

heat intense awaited

lat5an liges.

of hostile flame.

Ne

Nor was it yet long,


when the warrior promis'd

waes hit lenge |ja-gen,


se secgjiete

jjaet

aefter wael-niSe

70

that after

from deadly enmity

Wcpcnan scolde.

he would cease.

pa

Then

se ellen-gsest

the potent guest

earfo})lice

with

jjrage gejjolode,

for a time endur'd,

J)e

])3et

(he

in ])ystrum bad,

he dogora

it

with oaths to swear,

aj>un4swerian,

se

gehwam

difficulty

who

in darkness dwelt,)

that he each day

dream gehyrde

heard merriment

hliidne in healle.

loud in the

paer wscs hearpan sweg,

There was sound of harp,

swutol sang scopes

loud the gleeman's song

saegde se

\>e

frumsceaft

180

he

cupe

Jjset

from

se ^'Elmihtiga

who

wang,

coiold

men

far back relate,

told that the

wrought

eor))an w[orhte],

wlite beorhtne

said,

hall.

the origin of

fira

feorran reccan,
cwaef)

^^^

high and horn-curv'd

Almighty

the earth,

the plain in beauty bright,'

swa waeter bebugeS

which water embraces

gesette sige-hre|jig

set, in victory exulting,

sunnan and monan,

sun and moon,

leoman to leohte,

190

beams

for light

land-buendum,

to the dwellers

and gefraetwade

and adorn'd
1

60.

MS.

aleh.

on land,

l^rOrc-i
-a-

BEOWULF.
earth's regions

foldan sceatas

leomum and leafum


lif

with boughs and leaves

eac gesceop

life

cynna gehwylcum,

for every kind

{)ara pe

cwice hwyrfaS.

of those that quick

Swa

driht-guman

Thus the

\>a

dreamura lifdon
an ongan

Wses

se

to

and fro.

happily,
till

fyrene frem[m]an,

feond on

go

retainers

lived in delights

_^oo

eadiglice
otSjjset

eke created

that one began

crime to perpetrate,
a fiend in hell.

helle.

grimma

The grim

geest

guest was

Grendel haten,

Grendel hight,

maere mearc-stapa,

the great traverser of the

se

J)e

moras heold,

that held

fen and faesten

the fen

fifel-cynnes eard

210

weardode hwile,

him Scyppend

after the

On

cwealm gewraec

Creator him

Cain's race

that-

death avenged

the eternal Lord,

ece Drihten,

Ne

man

had proscribed.

In Caines cynne

pe he Abel slog.

))aes

the unbless'd

inhabited a while,

forscrifen haefde.

j)one

moors,

and fastness

the Fifel-race's dwelling

wonsselig wer,

si))San

t?ie

for that

he Abel slew.

He

joy'd not in that enmity,

ac he liine feor forwraec,

for

he him

Metod for py mane


man-cynne fram.
panon untydras

the Creator for that crime

gefeah he

ealle

JjEere fseh'Se,

220

Thence monstrous births

onwocon,

eotenas and
210.

all

sprang forth,

and

elves.

no doubt of rabbinical

origin.

eotens,

ylfe,

MS.

far banish'd,

from mankind.

wonsseli.

220-227. This

is

mark,

BEOWULF.
and orkens,

and orcneas,
swvlce gigantas,

so likewise the giants,

who

wis Gode wunnon

|)a

for a

He him

He

\>xs lean forgeald.

God

against

lange {rage

long space
for

war'd

them

that gave

their

reward.

II.

Gewat

neosian,

J)a

syj)(5an niht

230

departed then to

after night

becom,

hean huses,
hii hit

He

visit,

had come,

the lofty house,

how

Hring-Dene,

it

the Ring- Danes,

sefter be6r-))ege.

after their beer potation,

gebun

had occupied.

Fand

haefdon.

]>d

8ej>elinga

swefaa

He then found

Jiaer-inne

gedriht

symble

sefter

therein

of nobles

sleeping after their feast

sorrow they knew not,

serge ne cu6on,

wonsceaft wera,,

240

misery of men,

aughf of unhappiness.

wiht unhjelo.

Grim and

company

Grim and greedy,

greedig

gearo sona waes,

he was soon ready,

reoc and

rugged and

rej)e,

fierce,

and on reste genam

and

\>ntig }>egna

thirty thanes

)>anon eft gewat,

thence again departed,

huj)e

to

hremig,

ham

mid

faran,

Jjaere wael-fylle,

wica neosan.

Da
mid

'^.

^f.

wses on uhtan,
ser-dsege,

Grendles guScraeft

250

in their rest

took

in his

prey exulting,

to his

home

to go,

with the slaughter'd corpses,


his quarters to visit.

Then

morning was,

in the

at early day,

Grendel's war-craft

BEOWULF.

10

men

gumum undyme.

to

pa waes
wop up-ahafen,

Then was after the


a whoop up-rais'd,

micel morgen-sweg.

a great morning sound.

sefter wiste

Maere

260

sejjeling ser-god,

f)olode

5ry5-swy6

jjaes

the thane endur'd sorrow,

when they

laSan

wergan gastes:
laS

))aet

ac
eft

the accursed sprite's

gewin to Strang,

ymb

fyrst,

ane niht

that strife

was too

strong,

loathsome and tedious.

and longsum.

Nses hit lengra

the foe's

traces beheld,

sceawedon

wses

sat,

suffered the strong in hosts,

^?egQ sorge dreah,

last

the noble excellent,

unbhthe

saet,

sySj)an hie

repast

The great prince,

jjeoden,

unbliSe

manifest.

It

270

was no longer

space,

but after one night


he again perpetrated

gefremede

mor6-beala mare,

greater mortal harms,

and no mearn fore

and regretted not for

fsehSe

and fyrene

wses t5

pa
]>e

fsest

on

his

enmity and crime

he was too firm

))am.

wses eaS-fynde

Then was

him elleshwser

who

)ja

sefter

burum

him gebeacnod waes

them.

found

elsewhere

*
280

bed

in

more commodiously would

gerumlicor reste,
*

easily

when

it

was indicated

Said truly,

sweotolan tacne.

by a manifest token.

MS.
MS.

to him.

rseste.

282-289. Very unintelligible; some


284.

gessegd.

rest,

beds along the bowers,

Gesaegde s651ice,

278.

lines manifestly lost.

BEOWULF.

11

heal-|jegnes hete,

the hall-thane's hate

heold hyne sySjjan

held himself afterwards

fyr

and

farther and faster,

faestor,

se Jjgem feonde aetwand.

he who from the fiend escap'd.

Swa

So Grendel

rixode,

and wis

290

rihte

wan,

ana wiS eallum,


ot5})aet

rul'd,

and against right war'd,


alone against

idel st5d

until

all,

empty stood

of houses best.

hiisa selest.

Wses seo hwTl

Great was the while,

micel,

twelf wintra tid

twelve winters' tide

torn geJ)olode

his rage

wine Scyldinga,

the Scyldings' friend,

weana gehwylcne,

^vv.-^jl^"-'

endur'd

every woe,

sidra sorga

300

ample sorrows

forJ)am [sySSan] wearS

for

ylda bearnum

to the children of

undyrne cu6,

openly knovra,

gyddum geomore,
Grendel wan

that Grendel war'd

it

[after]

became

men

sadly in songs,

jjjette

hwile wi6 Hr66gar,

awhile 'gainst Hrothgar,

hete-ni5as waeg,

waged

fyrene and fcehSe,

crime and hostility,

fela missera,

singale ssece

sibbe ne wolde
wits

manna hwone

for

310

hateful enmities,

many

years,

incessant strife

peace would not have

with any

man

maegenes Denig^a,

of the Danes' power,

feorh-bealo feorran

or mortal bale withdraw,

feo J)ingian

with money compromise

298.

MS.

Scyldenda.

301. sy'^an, not in

and the
315.

alliteration.

MS.

fea.

299.

MS.

MS., but necessary

gehwelcne.
to the sense, the

rhythm

BEOWULF.

12
ne

nor there any wight

nccnig wihta

)>ser

wenan

might hope

))orfte

at the murderer's hands.

banan folmum.

to

for

a hghter penalty

beorhtre bote

320

[Atol] seglgeca

The

fell

wretch

was persecuting,

ehtende wseSj

dark death-shade,

deorc deaj)-scua,

the

duguj)e and geogojje,

noble and youthful,

seomode and syrede.

oppress'd and snar'd 7Ae7rt.

Sinnihte beold

In perpetual night he held

raistige

Men

the misty moors.

m5ras.

Men know

ne cunnon

hwyder hel-runan
hwyrftum

Swa

fela

not

whither hell-sorcerers
at times

scri))a8.

fyrena

330

fe5nd man-cjTines,

wander.

Thus many crimes


the foe of

angengea,

the fell solitary,


oft perpetrated,

heardra hynSa.

'

mankind,

gefremede,

atol
oft

'

cruel injuries.

Heorot eardode,

Heorot he occupied,

sinc-fage said

the seat richly variegated,

sweartum nihtum

in the dark nights

no he

not the gift-seat he

J)one gif-stol

might touch,

gretan moste,

ma))$um

for

Metode,

340

treasure,

that

for

the

protection,

ne

his m}Tie Tvisse

J)8et

wses wrset micel.

Wine

Scyldinga,

modes brecSa
316.

MS.

witena.

nor his design knew

was a great marvel

that

The Scylding's

friend,

in spirit broken.

319.

MS. banum.

320. Atol, wanting in MS., supplied from conjecture.


324.
342.

MS. seomade.
MS. wrsec. The

336.

MS.

sel.

allusion is to the gift-seat or throne.

Lord's

BEOWULF.

13

monig-oft gesaet

many

rice to nine,

the powerful one in deliberation,

rsed eahtedon,

counsel they devis'd,

hwset swiS-ferh8uin

what

selest wsere,

it

wi8 faer-gryrum,
to

gefremmanne.

HwQura
aet

550

a time

sat,

for the strong- soul'd

were

best,

against the perilous horrors,


to accomplish.

Sometimes they promis'd,

hie geheton,

at the temples,

hearg-trafum,

wig-weorjjunga

idolatrous honours

wordum

in

))8et

bsedon,

him gast-bona

words prayed,

that

them

the spirit- slayer

geoce gefremede

would

wis j)eod-)jreaum.

against the great aflBictions.

Swylc wses })eaw hyra,


hsej)enra

helle

hvht

aid afford

Such was
360

gemundon

their custom,

the heathens'
hell they

hope

remember'd

in m5d-sefan,

in their

Metod hie ne cu})on,


daeda Demend,

the Creator they

ne hie huru heofena

Helm

knew

not,

Judge of deeds,

the

ne wiston hie Drihten God,

mind,

they

knew not

the

Lord God,

nor, indeed, the heavens' Protector

herian ne cu))on,

knew thev how

Wuldres Waldend.

Glor)-'s Ruler.

Wa bit5

))Eem

\>e

Woe

sceal,

))urh sliSne ni8,

370

shall be to

sawle bescufan

thrust a soul
into the fire's

fr5fre

ne wene

wihte geweortJan.
353.

MS.

him who

embrace

ausrht to betide him.

hrserg trafiim.

MS. wenan.

of comfort let him not expect

356. gast-bona, the devil, the soul-slayer.

373.

shall,

through cruel malice,

in fyres fgejjm

to praise,

374.

MS. gewendan.

BEOWULF.

14

Wei

bi5 )>2em

sefter

Well

mot,

]>e

shall

it

be to him

who may,

after his death-day,

deaS-dsege,

Drihten secean,

seek the Lord,

and to Faeder faeSmum

and

freoSo wilnian.

desire peace.

in his Father's

bosom

III.

Swa tJa mael ceare


maga Healfdenes

380

So then a time of care


Healfdene's son

singala seaS

constantly seeth'd

ne mihte snotor hseleS

the sagacious hero could not

wean onwendan
waes

gewin

the calamity avert

the

t5 swyS,

on

\>a

that had

leode becom,

nyd-wracu

strife

was too strong,

loathsome and tedious,

and longsum,

lat5
])e

J)set

come on the people

force-misery with malice grim,

nij>-grim,

niht-bealwa maest.

of night-evils greatest.

pa fram ham

When

gefraegn 390

Higelaces ]>egn,

from home had heard

Hygelac's thane,

good man among

god mid Geatum,

(n

Grendles dseda

of Grendel's deeds

se wsBS

who

mon-cynnes

of

in

on

in that

and eacen,

him y'6-hdan
godne gegyrwan

day

of this hfe,

|)ysses lifes,
aejjele

mankind was

power strongest

msegenes strengest
])cem dsege

the Goths,)

noble and vigorous,


he bade for

het

400

him

a wave-traverser

good be prepar'd
he

cwe6 he gu6-cyning

said that

ofer swan-rade

over the swan-road

secean wolde,

would seek,

mseme

the

)>e6den,

390

the

renowned

MS.

t>aet.

war-king

prince,

BEOWULF.
a him waes manna
)one

siSfaet

as he

jiearf.

prudent

leof weere

to

him

men

somewhat blam'd,

ythwon logon,
him

had need of men.

That voyage

him

notere ceorlas

eah he

15

though he was dear

410

iwetton hige-rofne,

sceawedon

isel

laefde se

observed the

omen

the good chief had

goda

Geata leoda

of the Goths' people

chosen champions,

ra

of those

he cenoste

findan mihte
fiftena

whom

he the bravest

could find

sum

with some fifteen

420

sund-wudu sohte

the floating

secg wisade

lagu-craeftig

mon

wood

he sought.

warrior pointed out,

a water- crafty

man,

land-gemyrcu.

the land-boundaries.

FjTSt forS-gewat,

flota waes

on j5um,

time passed on,

the floater

was on

bat under beorge

the boat

beornas gearwe

the ready warriors

on

stefn stigon

the waves,

under the mountain

the streams roll'd

430

sund wi6 sande

the sea against the sand

secgas bseron,

the warriors bare,

on bearra nacan,

into the bark's

beorhte fraetwa.

bright arms.

Many

lines

seem here

to

41

bosom,

first

being inverted in the printing.


;.

MS.

gecorene.

be wanting.

413. Thorkelin hige-fome, the order of the


roftie

on the prow stept

stream as wundon

409.

renowned chief,

cerapan gecorene,
\)e

them

they whetted the

to

434. 3IS. frsetwe.

C 3

three letters in

BEOWULF.

16
guS-searo geatolic

^guman

lit-scufon,

sumptuous war-equipment

men

the

weras on wil-si6,

shov'd out,

on the welcome

the people,

voa'-

wudu bundenne

the

Gewat

Departed then o'er the wavy

)ja

ofer wgeg-holm,

winde gefysed,

440

by

bound wood.
the

wind

flota famig-heals,

the floater foamy-neck'd,

fugle gelicost,

to a bird

ymb an

o5))aet

tid

most

of the second

wunden-stefna

the twisted

gewaden

had

))aet )>a

haefde,

liSende

voyagers

saw land,
the ocean-shores shine,

brim-clifu blican,

L**ide

day

prow

sail'd,

so that the

land gesawon,

beorgas steape,

like,

that about an hour

till

dogores

o}>res

450

mountains steep,
spacious sea-nesses.

sffi-nsessas,

Then was

l])a wses sund-lida

lea-lade set ende.

the sea-sailer

end of

at the

rpanon up hrat5e
Wedera leode
on wang stigon

its

watery way.

Thence up quickly
the

Weders' people
on

stept

sse-wudu SEeldon,

tfie

the plain

sea-wood

'-

tied,

syrcan hrysedon,

their maiZ-shirts shook,

gTi(5-gew8edo

their martial

Gode

they

Jjancedon,

)>8es J)e

him

460

had been

When

of wealle geseah

weard Scyldinga,
ItlS.

fami.

453.

MS.
MS.

eoletes. qu. fS-lade

lade.

them the wave-paths


easy.

from

the wall

saw

the Scyldings' warder.

44 1.

461.

weeds

thanked God,

for that to

y})-lada

ea3e wurdon.

pa

sea,

impell'd,

452.
?

MS.

liden.

eoletes is

no A.

S. word.

BEOWULF.
se

who

holm-clifu

Je

17
sea-shores

l/ie

healdan scolde,

had

beran ofer bolcan

borne o'er the

beorhte randas,

bright shields,

fyrd-searo fuslicu,

470

mod-gehygdum,
)>a

men

Gewat him

curiosity brake

what those men were.

as to

t5 waroSe,

wicge ridan,

Went then
on

HroSgares,

\>egn

him

in his mind'sthoughts,

wjeron.

\>a

to the shore,

his horse riding,

Hrothgar's thane,

)>rymmura cwehte

violently quak'd

maegen-wudu mundum,

the mighty

me}jel-wordura frsegn

in formal

Hwaet syndon ge

"

searo-haebbendra,

bymum
\>e )jus

480

ofer

holm as

thus a surgy keel

come

leading,

hither o'er the seas

for this, placed at the extremity,

Ic \>xs ende-sseta

eg-wearde heold,

sea-ward have held,

|)8et

on land Dena
490

mid scip-herge

No

'

''^^

that on the Danes' land

laSra njenig

sce5))an

are ye

over the water-street-

hands,

in his

words he ask'd

of arm-bearing men,

who

brontne ceol

cwomon,

Isedan

What

wood

with bymies protected,

werede,

ofer lagu-strjete

ihider

bulwark

ship's

a war-equipment ready,

hine fyrwyt braec

hwaet

to keep,

no enemies
with a ship-army

ne meahte.

might do

injury.

Not here more openly


to come have attempted

her cuSlicor

cuman ongunnon
478. mel>el-wordum. L

e.

in set terms, siich as were used at the

met>el, or public assembly,

485.
487.

The alliterating
MS. WK9.

line

with this

488.

MS.

C3

is

wanting.

aeg.

489.

MS.

^e.

BEOWULF.

18

lind-haebbende,

shield-bearers,

ne geleafnes-word

nor who the credence word

gu(5-fremmendra

of warriors

gearwe ne wisson,

ready

maga gemetu.

the observances of kinsmen.

Naefre

ic

knew

not,

maran geseah 500 Never have 1 seen


earl on earth

a greater

eorl ofer eorjjan

}>onne

is

eower sum

than

secg on searwum
nis

))aet

seld

guma

that

waepnum geweorSad,
him

nsefne

Ms

Now

eower sceal

frum-cyn witan,

ge fyr heonan,

no man seldom

unless his countenance belie him

aenhc ansyn.

aer

is

honour'd in arms,

his wlite le5ge,

Nu

ic

one of you,

is

a warrior in arms

distinguished aspect.
I

origin

510

must your
know,

ere ye farther hence,

lease sceaweras,

as false spies,

on land Dena

into the Danes' land

farjjur feran.

further proceed.

Nu

Now

ge feor-buend,

ye

far- dwellers,

mere-liSende,

sea-farers,

minne gehyratS

hear

anfealdne ge))oht

simple thought

ofost

haste

is

selest

to gecy'Sanne

ihwanon eower cyme

to
sy 520

my
is

best

make known

whence your coming

is."

IV.

Him

se yldesta

andswarode,
499.
511.

530.

Him

the chiefest

answered.

MS. gemedu.
501. MS. eorla.
MS. leas.
516. MS. mine.
MS. hwanan eowre cyme syndon.

506.

MS.

nsfre.

BEOWULF.

10

werodes wisa

the band's director

word-hord onleac

his

We

"

synt gum-cynnes

word-hoard unlock'd

We

Geata le5de,

of the Goths' nation,

and Higelaces

and Hygelac's

heorS-geneatas

hearth-enjoyers

my

ffxs min feeder

folcum gecyjjed,

530

he abode winters many,

gebad wintra worn,


he on weg hwurfe,

ere he

gamol of geardum

on

his

way

departed,

old from his courts

geman

hine gearwe

to nations,

Ecgtheow hight

Ecg))e6w haten

ser

was

father

known

a noble chieftain,

ord-fruraa,

8ej)ele

are of race

him

well

remembers

witena wel-hwylc,

almost every sage,

wide geond

widely throughout the earth.

We

))urh

eorjjan.

We

holdne hige

hlaford Jjinne,

540

sunu Healfdenes,

Healfdene's son,

cwomon,

secean

through kind feeling

thy lord,

have come to seek,

leod gebyrgean.

thy prince to defend.

Wes

Be thou our kind informant.

us larena god.

\>u

HabbaS we

to JjEem mseran

Deniga

Ne

wesan
J>u

{jser

Jjaes ic

There shaU naught secret

wene

be,

is

550

so])lice

secgan hyrdon
))aet

mid Scyldingum

sceaSa

ic

illustrious

dyrne sum

wast gif hit

swa we

have to the

a great errand.

frean.

sceal

We

lord of the Danes

micel aerende,

nat hwylc,

deogol dsed-hata,
543. gebeorgan?

from what

thou knowest
as

we

ween

if it is

soothly

have heard say


that with the Scyldings
a wi'etch, I

kuow

not who,

a secret deed-hater,
544.

MS.

waes.

BEOWULF.

20
deorcum nihtum

in the

eaweS

displays through terror

J)urh

uncuSne

J)aes

injury and slaughter.

hra-fyl.

HroSgar

xaseg,

560

Hrothgar may,

I for this to

through

))urh inimne sefan,

my

capacious mind,

rsed gelaeran,

counsel teach,

hu he frod and god

how

feond oferswy^ejj,

the foe shall overcome,

he, wise and good,

gyf him edwendan

if

sefre scolde

he ever should

him return

to

bealuwa bisigum

how

bot eft-cuman,

reparation

and

and those care-boilings

|ja

cear-wylmas

colran wurSaJ)

570

o8Se a sy})8an

for these

works of bale

may

follow,

become cooler;
or he ever after will

earfoS-jjrage

a time of tribulation,

]jrea-nyd J?6IaS,

oppression suffer,

))enden

dark nights,

unheard of maUce,

niS,

hynSu and
Ic

egsan

})aer

wunaS,

while shall there continue

high place

on heah-stede

in its

husa

of houses best."

selest.

Weard
|)ser

The warder spake,

majjelode,

on wicge

where on

sset,

ombeht unforht
jEghwaejjres sceal
scearp scyld-wiga

his

horse he

580

"

Of both should

a sharp shield-warrior

know,

gescad witan,

the difference

worda and worca,

of words and works,

se 8e wel Jjence}).

who

Ic

})set

gehyre,

))3et |>is is

hold weorod

sat,

a fearless officer

well thinks.

hear,

that this

is

a friendly band

frean Scyldinga

to the Scyldings' lord

gewitaS forS-beran

depart bearing forth

567. ftlS. bisigu, no doubt for bisigu.

BEOWULF.
weapons and weeds,

waepen annigewEedu,
^Mg^
ic

eow wis^e

swylce

590

magu-Jjegnas

ic

you

I will direct

manner

in like

mine hate,
wifj

21

my

fellow officers will bid,

feonda gehwone

against every foe

your ship,

flotan eowerne,

niw-tyrwydne,

new-tarred,

nacan on sande,

your bark on the sand,

arum healdan,

honourably to hold,

byreS,

o|>Saet eft

until

leofae raannan

600

wudu wunden-heals
to

back

shall bear,

over the water-streams,

ofer lagu-streamas,

the beloved

wood

the

Wed^^iiearce,

to the

god-freoBendra

Weder-march,

of the good-doers
to such as

}aet

Gewiton him

They departed then to go,

feran,

j>a

bad

the vessel

still

abode,

lay heavy in the

sole

sid-fae6med scip,

on ancre

shall be given

he escape from whole."

hal gedigeS.

seomode on

it

that the rush of war

jjoee hilde raes

flota stille

man

twisted neck'd

610

faest.

Eofor-Hc scion

the

wide-bosom'd ship,

at

anchor

boar's likeness sheen

fast.

on-ofer hleor bajron,

over

gehroden golde

adorn'd with gold

fah and fyr-heard,

it

Gu$-m6de grummon
guman onetton,

cheeks they bore,


;

held

life

in ward.

the warlike of

the

men

mood were

fierce

hasten'd,

descended together,

8igon aetsomne,

hy ael-timbred, 620

geatohc and gold-fah,


613.

theii-

variegated and fire-harden'd

ferh wearde heold^

o|jjjaet

mud

MS.

beran.

until they all-built,

elegant and with gold variegated.


617.

MS. mod.

BEOWULF.

22
ongytan mihton
\>xt

might perceive

what was

waes fore-maerost,

fold-buendum,

the grandest,

to earth's inhabitants,

receda under roderum,

of houses under the firmament,

on

in which the powerful king abode

bad

)>sem se rica

se

lix-te

leoma

light shone

its

many

ofer landa fela.

o"er

Him

To them then the beast of war

]ja

hilde deor

hof modigra

the

630

torht getsehte,
}>aet

hie

him

lands.

proud ones' court

clearly show'd,

mihton

to

that they might

gegnum gangan.
GuS-beorna sum

Of

wicg gewende,

turn'd his steed,

word
Msel

towards

me

to feran

" Time

may

Faeder alwalda

mid ar-stafum

'tis

for

me

go

to

Father

the all-ruling

with honour

eowic gehealde,
siSa

go.

then spake these words

sefter cwsej)
is

it

the warriors one

hold you,

640

gesunde

safe in

ic to sse wille,

your fortunes

I will to the

sea return,

wi3 wra^ werod

'gainst a?7y hostile

wearde healdan.

to hold ward,"

band

V.
I

The

Straet wses stan-fah,


stig

wisode

gumum
guts -by

it

to the

setgaedere

me

heard hond-locen

song

men

together;

hard, hand-lock'd
650

searwum,
622.

was stone-varied,

the martial byrnie shone,

scan,

hrin^-iren scTr

street

directed the path

MS. ongyton.

the ring'd iron bright

sang

in their gear,

630.

MS.

of.

-,-<

fc^tu '-f;^ ,,

BEOWULF.

even as to the hall they,

pi hie to sele fur6um.


in

hyra giyre-geatwum

in their terrific arms,

came walking.

gangan cwomon.
Setton sse-mejje

The sea-wear)'

side scyldas,

their

rondas regn-hearde,

their disks intensely hard,

wit5

Bugon pa

byman

set

shields.

against the mansion's wall.

recedes weal.

)>aes

ample

Stoop'd then to a bench.

to bence.

hringdon,

660

their b)Tnies placed in a ring

guS-searo gumena

the war-gear of

garas stodon,

the javehns stood,

men

sse-manna searo,

the seamen's arms.

samod

all

setgsedere,

aesc-holt ufen graeg

wjes se iren

waepnum
pa

})3er

Then

hsele}*

there a haughty chief

the sons of conflict

haelebum frsegn

Hwanon

670

concerning the heroes ask'd

"Whence

ferigeaS ge

bear ye

faette scyldas,

your stout shields,

graege syrcan.

g^ey sarks.

and grim-helraas,

and ^isor-helms,
a

heap of war-shafts

Ic

eom HroSgares

am

ar

and ombiht.

messenger and servant.

here-sceafta heap

Ne

seah

\>\xs

manige men

ic

men
680

pxt ge for wlenco,

Hrothgar's

Never saw

ic elj^eodige

modiglicran.

"Wen'

with weapons furnish'd.

ge\vur))ad.

oret-mecgas
sefter

ash-wood grey above

the iron band was

)jreat

wlonc

together.

the

thus

stranger

many

prouder.
I

ween

that ye for pride,

not for exile,

nalles for wrsec-siSum,

ac for hige-))rymmum,

but for soul-greatness.

HroSgar sohton.

have Hrothgar sought."


681 .

MS. wen.

BEOWULF.

24

Him

Him

ellen-rof

))a

then the valour-fam'd

andswarode,

answer'd,

wlanc Wedera leod

the

word

these

sefter sprsec,

heard under helme

We

beod-geneatas

wille ic

is

690

if

hine swa godne


700

he to us will grant

that

we him

may

greet."

so

good

Wulfgar spake,
he was the Wendels' lord

waes W^endla leod

mind was

his

manegum

known

gecy?5ed,

wig and wisdom

to

many,

his valour

"

wine Deniga,

l^aes

and wisdom

I therefore the

frean Scyldinga,

the Scyldings' lord,


will ask,

beaga bryttan,
})u

bena

the distributor of rings,

eart,

710

})e5den mserne,

vmb

])inne siS

Danes' friend,

frinan wille,

swa

errand,

waes his mod-sefa

Ic

my name

to thy prince

gretan moton.
IjWulfgar majjelode,
Jjset

is

the great lord,

my

serende,

we

helmet

Hygelac's

to Healfdene's son,

jjeodne,

he us geunnan wile

gif

We are

I will relate

aldre ))inum

jjaet

"

Beowulf

suna Healfdenes,

min

after spake,

table enjoyers

mm nama

asecgan

mserum

words

the bold under his

synt Higelaces

Beowulf

Weders' proud lord

and

as thou requestest,
the great lord,

concerning thy voyage, and to

J)e

thee
|>a

andsware

the

aedre gecySan,
J)e

me

se

answer

quickly

goda

that

agifan )jence8.

shall
694.

MS.

make known

me

the good /?rinc*

think// to

sunu.

give.

BEOWULF.
Hwearf
J)ser

\>&

He

hraedlice

IlroSgar

to

sset,

his eorla gedriht.

Eode
J)cet

ha.stily

sat,

old and hairless,

eald and unhar,

mid

then turn'd

where Hrothgar

720

with his assemblage of

earls.

The valour- fani'd chief went

ellen-rof,

he for eaxlum gestod

so that he before the shoulders

stood

Deniga frean

of the Danes' lord

he duguSe

cu})e

Wulfgar spake

Wulfgiir raa})elode
to his wine-drihtne

Her syndon

to his friendly lord

come from

ofer geofenes begang,

Geita leode

730

name Beowulf.
They are petitioners

synt

hie j?e6den min,

wi6

j>e

no

J)u

these sons of conflict

J)Bet

m5ton

wordum

people of the Goths


the chief

Beowulf nemna6.

Hy benan

afar,

over ocean's course,

|)one yldestan

oret-mecgas,

" Hither are borne,

geferede,

cumene

feorran

he knew the usage of a court.

]>ea,w.

wrixlan

that they,

my

with thee

may

in

him wearne geteuh.

lord

words converse

Of thy

glsedman HroSgar hy

of the pleasure,

reciprocal

on wig-getawum

in their

wyrSe

appear worthy,

))incea6,

do not decree them a denial.

pinra gegn-cwida
740

words

Hrothgar they,

war- equipments,

eorla gea^htlan

of the estimation of earls

huru se aldor

at least the chief certainly,

se J)sem
hitler

jjeah,

who

heaSo-rincum

the warriors

has led hither.

wisade.
739.

MS.

cwi^a.

BEOWULF.

26

VI.
HroSgar majjelode,

Hrothgar spake,

helm Scyldinga

the Scyldings'

Ic hine cu^e

" I

cniht wesende

750

ham

Geata

forgeaf

to

whom

at

home gave

Hrethel lord of the Goths

angan dohtor
is

was
Ecgtheow named,

Ecg))e6w haten,

HreJ)el

being a boy

his old father

waes his eald-fseder

Jjsem to

helm

knew him,

his only

his eafora nu,

is

daughter

his offspring

now,

bold, hither come,

heard her cumen,


sohte holdne wine,

sought a kind friend

ponne ssegdon

For that

)jBet

760

S8e.-lij>ende,
))a

the sea-voyagers,

who

^e gif-sceattas

the gift-treasures

Geatum feredon

for the

}>yder to jjance,

thither gratuitously,

|)aet

Goths bore

that he of thirty

he xxx-tiges

manna

msegen-crseft,

on

mund-gripe

his

said

men

the

mighty power,

in his hand-gripe,

the war-fam'd, has.

heaj)0-r6f hsebbe.

Hine halig God,

Him

for ar-stafum,

in his mercies,

us onsende,

770

West-Denum
jjses ic wen haebbe

holy God,

to us hath sent,
,

to the

to

West Danes

therefore have

hope

750. Strictly wesendne, accus. masc. but the omission of the


this case is sanctioned

in

MS. EcgJ^eo.
756. MS. eaforan.
MS. Geata fyredon. The gifts (1. 761) were sent to appease a
with the Wylfings. See 11. 922-949. The whole account of the

752.

762.

feud

by usage.

quarrel

is

very obscure.

BEOWULF.
wis Grendles gryre.
Ic

godan

\>'<em

27

against Grendel's horror.

sceal,

good chief

to the

shall

for his mod-))raece,

for his valorous daring,

madmas beodan.

treasures offer.

Beo

Be thou

speedy,

hat in-gan,

bid tliem

come

seon sibbe-gedriht

see their kindred

samod setgsedere.
780
Gesaga him eac wordum,

assembled together.

))aet

on

))u

ofeste,

hie synt wil-cuman

Say

band

in

word inne ahead

the

Eow

"

het secgan

words announced
bids

me say

victor-lord,

can, 790

that your nobility he knows;

and ge him syndon,

and

efer SEe-wj^lmas

over the sea-biUows

that ye are to him,

heard-hicgende,

boldly striving

hider wil-cuman.

hither,

Nu

Now

ge moton gangan,

eowrum gujj-geatawum,

under here-griman,

welcome guests.

ye

may

go,

in your war-accoutrements,

under ike martial helm,

HroSgar geseon.

Hrothgar to

Ljeta^ hilde-bord

Let your war -boards

her onbidan,

wudu

800

Here the

here await,

the council of words."

ge))inges.

783.

see.

your spears and deadly shafts,

wael-sceaftas,

worda

^^
V<X.W

prince of the East Danes,

aldor East-Dena,
sejjelu

"I*

To you

my

sige-drihten min,

in

words,

welcome guests

to the Danes' people.

he eower

them eke

that they are

Deniga le5dum

\>dt

to

in,

text

is

evidently defective; two lines at least are

wanting.
789.

At

1.

771 they are called

West Danes; elsewhere

and North D.

D 2

Soutli

D.

"VNXi

BEOWULF.

28
Aras

Arose then the mighty

se rica,

J)a,

})egna heap

|)ry'Slic

sume

})aer

a valiant band of thanes

heajjo-reaf heoldon,

held the war-weeds,

swa him

as

hearda behead.

them the bold one bade.

They hasten'd together,

Snvredon aetsomne,
)j[8er]secg wisode,

8io

where

to

the warrior directed,

under Heorotes hrof,

under Heorot's

heard under helme,

the bold

J)set

he on heo^e gestod.

on

that

till

roof,

one under helm,


the dais

he stood.

Beowulf spake,

Beowulf ma^elode,
on him b}Tne scan,

on him

searo-net seowed

his

war-net sewed

by

the smith's devices

smij)es orjjancum

Wes
Ic

})u

eom

Hr65gar

hal.

Higelaces

mjeg and mago-]jegn


hsebbe

ongunnen on

Me

820

meerSa fela

ic

"

Be

am

his

bymie shone,

undertaken in my youth.

jjing,

To me became Grendel's
on

e]jel-tyrf,

my

sea-farers say

rinca

this

gehwylcum

and unnyt,

si5(5an sefen-leoht

^
vmder heofenes hador
beholen weor)je6.
818.

MS.

MS.

stands,

house most excellent,

for every warrior

830

.void

and uselegg,^

after the

evening light

under heaven's serenity


is

conceal'd.

waes.

826. Those that conveyed the presents.

827.

known

haU

that this

sele stande,
selest,

haes.

affair,

native turf,

manifestly

idel

have great deeds many

secgaS s^-lic5end
Jjset jjes

Hygelac's

undyme cuS

receda

thou, Hrothgar, hail

kinsman and fellow -warrior


I

geogojje.

wear6 Grendles

on mmre

some there remain'd,

bidon,

se

chief,

around him many a warrior,

yrnb hine rinc manig,

828.

MS.

See

1.

760.

reced selesta.

'

BEOWULF.
pa me

Then me counsel'd

geljerdon

})aet

my

leode mine,
))a

people,

the most excellent

selestan

snotere ceorlas,

sagacious men^

))e6den HroSgar,

prince Hrothgar^-

sohte

J)aet ic ]>e

mine

that I thee should seek

hie msegenes creeft

for]>ari

cujjon.

841

of

searwum cwom,

fah from feondum,

geband

J)8er ic fife

my

because they of
the

power knew.

when from
where

five I

bound

(the eoten race boil'd with rage)

and on ySum slog

and on

niceras nihtes

nickers by night

nearo-jjearfe

wean ahsodon
forgrand

and

nil

nit5

850

sceal,

Ic

eodor Scyldinga,

thee now,

protector of the Scyldings,

one prayer
ne forwyrne,

that thou deny

me

not,

patron of warriors,

frea-wine folca,

\>xt ic

shall,

will beseech,

860

wigendra hleo,

nil ic ))us

and /now against Grendel

me

;)

them

lord of the bright Danes,

biddan wiUe,

5u

sought their misery

council with the giant.

})e nii-J)a,

paet

alone hold
^.

brego beorht-Dena,

anre bene

suffer' d

Weders' quarrel

against that miserable being,

ana gehegan
wij) jjyrse.

the

fiercely crush' d

wis J)am aglcccan,


Sing

/ aveng'd
(they

gramum

wiS Grendel

the billows slew

pinching want /

dreah

Wedera

came,

their snares I

blood-stain'd from the foes,

ySde eotena cyn,

wrsec

strength

Themselves beheld,

Selfe ofersawon,
|>a ic

29

friend of people,

now

feorran com,

mote ana

am

thus come from far,

that I alone mav.


864.

MS.

freo.

BEOWULF.

30

[mid] minra eorla gedryht,

with the

company

and

and

bold band,

}jes

hearda heap,

Heorot

faelsian.

HEebbe

ic

Heorot

eac geahsod 870

wonhydum,

for his

(so to

my

geolo-rand to gujje
ac ic

to bear a

mid grape

ymb

laS wis

880

a yellow disk, to battle

grapple with the enemy,

and

for life contend,

foe against foe

there shall trust

Dryhtnes dome,

in the Lord's

]>e

hine deaS nimeS.

Wen'
gif
in

ic Jjaet

he

he

wille,

he wealdan mot,

J>era

guS-sele,

890

whom

doom,

death shall take.

ween that he

if

he may

will,

prevail,

in the martial hall,

Geotena leode

Me. Goths' people

etan unforhte,

eat fearlessly,

swa he

oft

dyde

as

he

msegen HreSmanna.

the

No

Thou

Jjii

minne

but with grasp I shall

sceal

feorh sacan,

laSum

sword

Saer gelyfan sceal

se

be,

or ample shield,

fon wis feonde,

and

me may Hygelac

liege lord,

bhthe of mood)

blrSe,

sweord here

sidne scyld,

o})(5e

then will disdain

sie,

mm mon-drihten,
modes

purify.

have also heard

of weapons recks not

))onne forhicge,

swa me Higelac

jjset ic

earls

in his heedlessness,

wa?pna ne recced
ic Jjaet

my

of

that the miserable being,

se seglseca,

))set

this

))earft

hafelan hydan,

oft

has done

Hrethmen's strength.
wilt not

my

need

head to hide

867. mid supplied as necessai-y to the construction.

See 1/720.

872. Rather wonhygdum.


896.

MS.

hafalan.

Thou

wilt not need, etc.,

thou wilt have no occasion to bury me, as

by Grendel.

i.

e.

my body

in the earth, or

will

be devoured

BEOWULF.
ac he

me habban

gif raec detiS niraeS

if

wael,

900

have

me

me

death shall take

bear off

will

angenga

my bloody
on

will resolve to feast

byrgean ])ence6
eteC

will

stain'd with gore,

dreore fahne,

byreS blodig

he

for

wile

31

corse,
it

the lonely tvretch will eat

it

unmumlice

without compunction

mearcaS mor-hopu.

he 7??y moor-mound will mark out.


Thou needest not about the

N5 J)u ymb mines ne jjearft


lices

feorme 6

feeding on

leng sorgian.

mec

Send

hild nime,

if

beadu-scriida betst,
)>8et

910

mine breost wereS,


Hrsedlan

laf,

wyrd swa hio

of,

it is

my

fate

breast,

most excellent

Hrsedla's legacy,

Weland's work
sceal.

me

the best of battle-shrouds,

of vests

Welandes geweorc
gceS a

to Hygelac,

the conflict take

that defends

hraegla selest
|jaet is

carcase

longer care.

Onsend Higelace,
gif

my

goes ever as

it

must.^'

VII.
HroSgar

Hrothgar spake,

ma))elode,

helm Scyldinga
Fore fyhtum

the Scyldings'

]>u,

my

freond rain Beowulf,

and for ar-stafum,

helm

920

friend Beowulf,

and for honour,

usic sohtest.

us hast sought.

Gesloh \>m feeder

Thy

faehtJe

mseste

" For battles thou,

father quell'd in fight

the OTcatest feud

MS. deore.
The mound over the urn or vessel
915. MS. seel.
918. fere.
919. MS. wine, with no alliteration.
898.

904.

containing his bones.

BEOWULF.

32

he was of Heatholaf

weal's he HeaSolafe

hand-bonan

to

the slayer,

mid Wylfingum,
t>a

hine gara cyn,

foi*

here-brogan,

with the Wyltings,

when him

panon he gesohte
Su6-Dena folc

Thence he sought

930

the

South Danes' folk

over the rolling of the waves,

ofer yt5a gewealc,

a messenger to the Scyl dings,

ArScyldingum,

when

furjjum weold

nil'd

I first

folce Deniga,

the Danes' people,

and on geogoSe heold

and in youth held

ginne ricu,

hord-burh

spacious realms,
haele]>a.

pa wses Heregar
min yldra mseg

dead,

dead,

elder brother

the son of

Healfdenes

])a

men.

Then was Heregar


not living,

se wses betera J)onne ic

siSSan

the treasure-city of

my

940

unlifigende,

beam

race,

might not have.

habban ne mihte.

J)a ic

Waras'

the

for martial dread,

Healfdene

he was better than

afterwards that quarrel

fgehSe

/ with

feo Jjingode

926, 927. Between these lines there

money
is

settled

no alhteration.

ventui'e

on an emendation in the dark, tliough

for gara

we should read Wara.

have

little

But who were the Waras

will not

doubt that
?

Possibly

Or
name ? The whole passage about

the people of Warnsland, or Warendsharad, a district of Smaland.


is

Waracyn

Heatholaf

(like Hae'Scyn)

is

a person's

extremely obscure.

Ecgtheow appears

to have fought

on

the side of the Wylfings.


dinga, but Thorkelin has Scyldinga, and no doubt

933. ;MS

the word in his time was perfect

should read Scyldingum

envoy o/the Scyldings.'


935.

937.

MS. Deninga.
MS. gimme rice.

94S. See

1.

315.

for

See

1.

how

though

it

seems certain that we

could Ecgtheow the Goth be an

762 for a similar error.

See Ccedmon,

15. 8.

BEOWULF.
sende

ic

Wylfingum,

ofer wacteres

me

Sorh

I sent to the

old treasures

me t5 secganne,

950

my

on sefan minum,

in

gumena sengum,

to any

hwaet

me Grendel

hafaS

hynSo on Heorote,

mid

me swore oaths.
Sorrow is to me to say,
he to

aSas swor.

is

Wylfings,

over the water's back,

hrycg

madmas

ealde

he

33

what

mind,

man,

for

me

Grendel has

disgrace in Heorot,

with his hostile de\ices,

his hete-])ancum,

what sudden mischiefs perpe-

facr-niSa gefremed.

trated.
Is

mm

flet-werod,

wig-heap, gewanod
hie

wyrd forsweop

on Grendles giyre.

My

court-retainers are,

my

martial band, diminished

them
960

fate

in horror of Grendel.

God eaSe maeg

God

))one dol-sceaSan

the doltish spoiler

daeda getwsefan.

from

Ful

Full oft have promis'd,

oft

gebeotedon,

beore druncne,

easily

may

his deeds sever.

with beer drunken,

ofer ealo-wsege,

over the ale-cup,

oret-mecgas,

sons of conflict,

jwt hie in beor-sele

that they in the beer-hall

bidan woldon

would await

Grendles gu]>e

has swept away

970

Grendel's warfare

mid gryrum ecga

with terrors of edges

])onne waes ]>e6s medo-heal,

then was this mead-hall,

on morgen-tid,

at morning-tide,

driht-sele dreor-fah;

this princely court, stain'd with

)>onne daeg Hxte,

when

eal benc-])elu

all

blode bestymed.

with blood besteam'd.

gore
the

day dawn'd,

the bench-floor

BEOWULF.

34
heall heoru-dreore

ahte

holdra

ic

the hall,

with horrid gore

of {BxtMul followers I own'd the

]>y Ises,

less,

deorre duguSe,
))e ))a

980

whom

deaS fornam.

Site

nu

and

onssel

of dear nobles,

Sit

t5 symlej

then death destroyed.

now

to the feast,

and unbind with mead

meodo,

sige-hreSer secgum,

thj/

valiant breast with

my war-

riors,

swa

J)in

as thy

sefa hwette.

mind may

geador-aetsomne

altogether

on beor-sele

in the beer-hall

bene gerymed
J>8er

a bench clear'd

swi^ferh))e

990

]>e

to sit

tumultuously rejoicing

dealle

the thane observ'd his duty,

))egn nytte beheold,

86

there the strong of soul

went

e5don

sittan

fry^um

excite."

Then was for the sons of the Goths

pa waes Geat-msecgum

on handa

who

bser

in his

hand bare

ornamented

hroden ealo-wege,

the

scencte scir-wered

Aepour'dMe bright, sweetliquor;

scop hwiluin sang

the

hador on Heorote

serene in Heorot

)>aer

waes hseleSa dream,

duguS

unlytel,

ic

Dena and Wedera.

ale- cup,

gleeman sang

at times

there was joy of warriors,

no few nobles,
of

Danes and Weders.

VIII.
HunferS ma))elode,
Ecglafes beam,
]je set

fotum

Ecglafs son,

sset

frean Scyldinga
983.

Hunferth spake,

MS. meoto.

who

at the feet sat

of the Scyldings' lord


984.

MS.

hre^.

BEOWULF.
onband beadu-rune.
Wa?s him Beowulfes

unbound
siS,

35
a hostile speech.

To him was

the

voyage of Beo-

wulf,

raodges mere-faran,

the bold sea-farer,

micel sef))unca;

a great displeasure

for))on

he ne

]>e

uj)e

loio

man

jjst fenig oJ)er

because he grudged
that any other

man

ever more glories

aefre nicercSa ma,

middangeardes

of mid- earth

gehedde under heofenura

held under heaven

j)onne

Eart
se

he sylfa

J)e

than himself
" Art thou the BeowiUf

Beowulf

se

jju

wis Brecan wunne

on sidne

}Tnb sund-flite,
]>XT git for

who with Breca


on the wide

Sce,

in a

wlence

1020

strove

sea,

swimming

strife,

where ye from pride

wada cunnedon.

tempted the fords,

and for dol-gilpe

and

on deop wteter

in the deep water

aldrum ne}>don

Ne

inc senig

ne leof ne

ventured you)' hves

mon,

jjaer

for your sorrowful voyage,

on sund reon,

git eagor- stream, 1030

earmum

foe,

might blame

sorhfulne si8,
git

'

Nor vou any man,


nor friend nor

laS,

belean mihte

))a

for fooUsh vaunt

when on
when ye

the sea ye row'd,


the ocean-stream,

with your arms deck'd,

))ehton,

raseton mere-strEeta,

measur'd the sea-ways,

mundum

with ymir hands vibrated them.

brugdon,

main

glidon ofer garsecg

ghded

geofon yjjum weol,

ocean boil'd with waves,

wintres
git

wylme

on wseteres
IOI3.

MS.

o'er the

with winter's fury


seht

|>on

ma.

ye on the water's domain,


1036.

MS.

wintrys wylm.

BEOWULF.

ce
seofon-niht swuncon.

He

J)e set

for seven nights

oferflat,

mare msegen,

haefde
})a

sunde

1040

bine on morgen-tid,

He

toil'd.

swimming overcame,

thee in

had more strength,

Tie

when him

on Heajjo-raemis

on

holm

(lie

to

at

morning

tide,

Heatho-rsemes
1

up-setbser

sea bore up

}>onon he gesohte

whence he sought

swcesne .^

hh dear country,

leof his leodum,

the beloved of his people,

lond Brondinga,

the Brondings' land,

freo6o-burh faegere,

his fair, peaceful burgh,

J)ser

he

burh and beagas.

Be5t

eal

wiS

1050

a burgh and rings.


All his promise to thee

])e

sunu Beanstanes

Beanstan's son

so^e gelceste.

truly fulfil'd.

Donne wene
wyrsan

where he a people own'd,

folc ahte,

Now

ic to j)e

expect from thee

worse things,

]?inga,

though

})eah )ju heajjo-rsesa

thou in martial

on-

slaughts

gehwiKr dohte.

hast every where excel'd,

grimre gu6e,

in

gif )>u

Grendles dearst

niht-longne fyrst

if

1060

nean bidan.

grim war,
thou to Grendel durst

a night-long space

near abide."

Beowulf majjelode,

Beowulf spake,

beam

Ecgtheow's son

Hwaet

Ecg))e6\ves
))u

worn

fela,

wine min HunferS,

"

Well

my

thou a great

deal,

friend Hunferth,

beore druncen,

drunken with beer,

ymb Brecan

hast about Breca spoken,

1045. This

spreece,

is

dered own.
1055. Hngea.

the rune denoting the word

eiSel

swees

may be

ren-

BEOWULF.
sHe

3segdest from his

soS

hast said of his course.

The sooth

ic talige,

))8et ic

mere-strengo

maran

ahte,

1070

greater possess'd,

earfeSo on y})um,
jjonne eenig ojjer

Wit

))8et

I tell,

that I strength at sea

enduraTice on the waves,

man.

than any other man.

We

gecwcedon,

cniht wesende,

being striplings,

and gebeotedon,

and promised,

wseron begen

(toe

l>a-git

on geogo6-feore,
aldrum neSdon,

and

))?et

we on

that
1080

gejefodon swa.

and that

tve

thus accomplish'd.

had a naked sword,

when on

wit on sund reon,

the ocean out

our lives would venture,

We

Haefdon swurd nacod,


\>a

were both yet

in youthful life,)

wit on garsecg ut

\)Xt

the deep

heard on handa

hard in hand

wit unc wi6 hron-fixas

as

werian ))6hton.

meant

N5

'

agreed,

we

row'd,

we us against the whale-fishes


to defend.

He

not aught from

fl6d-yj)um feor

far

on the flood-waves

fleotan raeahte,

could

hra))or

no

me

he wiht fram

ic

on holme

pa

wit setsomne

on

sse

fif

nihta fjrrst,

o))|)8et

1090

fram him wolde.


wseron

unc flod todraf

me

float,

not in the sea more swiftly

nor would

Then we together
were

in the sea

a five-nights' space,
that

till

the

drove

flood

wado weallende

the boiling fords

wedera cealdost,

the coldest of tempests,

nipende niht,

cloudy night,

and

and

nor))an wind,

heaSo-grim andhwearf

go from him.

asunder

'

'

the north wind,

deadly grim threw up

us

BEOWULF.

3S
hreo wjeron

iioi

yjja,

rough were

the billows,

waes mere-fixa

of the sea-fishes

mod

the rage excited

onhrered

me

J>3er

wiS laSum

lic-syrce

there

my

mm,

me

against the foes

body-sark,

hard, hand-lock'd,

heard hond-locen,
helpe gefremede

afi"orded help

beado-hrsegl broden

my

golde geg}Twed.
to

braided war-rail

on my breast lay

ion breostum Iseg

Me

was

iii<

with gold adom'd.

Me

grunde teah

to the

ground drew

fah feond-scaSa,

a many-colour'd foe,

feste hsefde

fast

grim on grape

a grim one in his grasp

me

hwae))re
|>3et ic

gyfejje

wear6,

had me

yet was

it

granted me,

that I the miserable being

agleecan

orde geraehte,

reach'd with

hilde bille.

with

HeaJ)o-r2es

fornam

mihtig mere-deor
|)urh

mine hand.

',1120

>

^^^

my

my

point,

war-falchion.

deadly blow destrov'd

the

mighty sea-beast

through

my

hand.

IX.

Swa mec gelome

Thus me frequently

Ia8-gete6nan

my hated

Jjreatedon ))earle

threaten'd violently

ic

him

I serv'd

])enode

with

my

swa

as

was

Nses hie Ssere

had

gefean hsefdon,

l^ast

hie

me

))egon,

dear sword,

Not they

fj'lle

man-fordsedlan,

it

1130

them

deoran sweorde,
hit gedefe wajs.

foes

fitting.

of that glut

joy,

the foul destroyers,


in eating

me,

BEOWULF.

39
round

aymbel yn)bsseton

in sitting

sie-grunde neah

near to the sea-ground

ac on mergeune,

but in the morning,

mecum wunde,

with falchions wounded,

the feast
:

be yS-lafe

along the waves' leaving,

uppe-lipgon,

Up?%lay, :^.Ci^,rU

sweojtum aswefede
\>eei

sy3j)an

ymb

put to sleep iirshoals

so that not afterwards

na

brontne ford

140

about the surgy ford

brim-liSende

to ocean sailers

lade ne letton.

have they the way hinder'd.

Leoht eastan com,

Light came from the

beorht beacen Godes,

God's bright beacon,

brimu sweJ>rodon,
jjaet ic

the seas

grew calm,

so that the sea-nesses I

sae-naessas

geseon mihte,

might

see,

windige weallas.

windy

walls.

Wyrd

Fate often saves

oft

nereS

unfsegne eorl,

11

50

jjset ic

me

gesaelde

mid sweorde

an undoom'd man,

when

|)onne his ellen deah.

Hwsejjere

ofsloh

his valour avails.

Yet 'twas

my

that with

my sword

niceras nigene.

nickers nine.

No

ic

-'

east,..

on niht gefrsegn,

lot
I

slew
r

have not heard of by night,

under heofenes hwealf,

under heaven's

heardran feohtan,

a harder fight,

vault,

ne on eg-streamum

nor in the ocean-streams

earmran mannan

hwsejjere ic fara feng,

1 1

60

werig.

pa mec

sse ojjbser,

145.

MS.

life

escap'd,

my journey weary.
Then the sea bore me away,
of

flod aefter faro6e,


1

miserable

yet from the grasp of dangers 1

with

feore gedigde,
sijjes

man more

the flood along the shore,

swaJ>redon.

E 2

159.

MS. mannon.

BEOWULF.

40
on Finna land,

on the Fins' land,

wadu

weallende.

No

wiht fram

ic

the boiling fords.


I

jje

swylcra searu-niSa

secgan hjrde,
billa

have heard sav,

brogan.

Breca

never aught of thee

of such hostile snares

such falchions' terrors.

Breca never

naefre git,

game

yet,

of war,

set heajjo-lace,

at the

ne gehwsejjer incer

nor either of you,

swa

deorlice

so dearly

dsede gefremede

deed perform'd

fagum sweordum.

with hostile swords.

No

ic jjaes

(Of

gylpe,

Su J)inum broSrura
banan wurde,

to

heafod-nasegum
)>3es )>u

this I boast not),

although thou of thy brothers

))eah

wast the murderer,

1 80

kinsmen

thy chief
for

in helle sceedt

which

in hell

thou shalt

werhSo dreogan,

damnation

))eah ]nn wit

although thy wit be good.

Secge

duge.

ic ]je to

soSe,

say to thee in sooth,

son of Ecglaf,

sunu Ecglafes,
^dst nsefre

suffer,

that never Grendel so

Grendel swa fela

many

giyra gefremede,

horrors had perpetrated,

atol aeglzeca,

the fell wretch,

against thy prince,

ealdre j^inum,

hynSo on Heorote,
gif

j)in

sefa

swa

hige weere,

if

thy

in

Heorot,

spirit

mind

were,

so war-fierce,

swa searo-grim,

thy

]>n self talast.

as thou thyself supposest.

Ac he
)jaet

harm

1190

But he has found,

hafaS onfunden,

he

j)a

fcehSe ne

that he the hostility needs not,

))earf,

the fell sword- strength

atole ecg-]jrsece
1 1

65. See Index of Folks

1 1

66.

MS. wudu

and Countries.

weallendu.

i^TS-

MS. dsd.

BEOWULF.
of your people,

eower leode,

greatly care for,

svviSe onsittan,

sige-Scyldinga

nymeS

of the victor-Scyldings

200

nj'd-bade,

he takes a forced pledge,

nsenegum araS

on none has mercy,

leode Deniga

of the Danes' people

ac he lust-wigeS,

_^

swefeS ond scendeS,

slays

Gar-Denum
him Geata sceal

to

ac

eafo(5

and

toil

now

GceS

eft se ]>e

ojjres

and valour,
unexpectedly,

Shall go afterwards he who may,

mot

elate to the

sitJSan morgen-leoht,

ofer ylda

expects

2io*Hattle, offer.

medo modig,

to

and shends you,

strife

but a Goth shall him

ellen,

gebeodan.

pleasure;

from the Gar- Danes

ungeara mi
gu)>e

but he wars

nor

ne wene))

ssecce

after the

beam,

mead,

morning

light,

over the children of men,


of the second day,

dogores,

sunne swegel-weard

the sun, heaven's guardian,

su))an scineS.

from the south shines."

pa wses on salum

Then was

sinces brytta,

the distributor of treasure,

rejoiced

gamol-feax and gu5-r6f,

hoary-lock'd and war-fam'd,

geoce gelj-fde

trusted in succour

1221

brego beorht-Dena

the bright

gehyrde on Beowulfe

in

folces

hyrde

hlyn swjmsode.
1204.
2 16.

MS.
MS.

steadfast resolve.

} paer waes hselej^a hleahtor,

Danes' lord

Beowulf heard

the people's shepherd

fsestrsedne gej)6ht.

41

There was laughter of men,


the din resounded.

sende^.

wered.

In Judith, 144. 4, the Almighty

swegles weard.

E3

is

designated

v:

BEOWULF.

42

word wseron wvnsume

words were winsome


Wealbtbeow went forth,

code Wealh)?e5w for6,

cwen HroSgares

230

Hrotbgar's queen

c}T\na gemyndig,

mindful of their races,

grette gold-hroden

the

gold-adom'd one greeted

guraan on

the

men

and

healle,

and then

freolic wif

\>a

gave

gesealde

ful

serest

East-Dena

He

East-Danes'

leofne.

bade bim [be] blithe


at tbe beer-drinking,

be6r-J)ege,

1240

the dear to bis people.

He

on lust[e] gejiah

symbel and

sele-ful,

joyfully partook of

the feast

and ball-cup,

king renown'd for victory.

sige-r5f kyning.

the

Ymb-eode

Went round

ides

j>a

Helminga

of old

seghwylcne,

))set

treasure vessels gave,

untU occasion

alamp,

bio Beowulfe,

1250

beag-hroden cwen,

mode

offer'd,

tbat sbe to Beowulf,


the ring-adorned queen,

of

gejjungen,

medo-ful

and young

every part,

sinc-fato sealde,
oJj))aet SEel

tben

Helmings' dame

the

dugu))e and geogo)>e


dael

woman

joyous

countn,'s guardian

baed hine bK6ne [be5n]

leodum

the

cup

first to the

ejjel-wearde

set ))ere

the

in ball,

mind

the

aetbser

exalted,

mead-cup bore

grette Geata leod,

greeted the Goths' lord,

Gode

tbank'd

jjancode

wisfsest
J>ae5 ))e
J)aet

wordum,

bire se willa gelamp,

heo on senigne

that the will

bad

befall'n her,

that she in any

warrior should trust,

eorl gelyfde,

fyrena fr5fre.
1238. beon

God

sagacious in words,

is

1260

for comfort against crimes.

added from conjecture.

1241.

MS.

geheah.

BEOWULF.
He

He

ful ge))ah

Jjset

wael-reow wiga,

and

))a

,^

L^,
'-

Beowulf

beam
Ic

from Wealhtheow,

Beowulf spake,

raa])elode,

Ecgtheow's son

"

hogode,

1270

mid minra secga


ic

I resolv'd,

when on

on holm gestah,

sse-bat gesset,

))8et

said,

for battle eager

Ecg)>e6wes

|)set

Ja ic

and then

gyddode,

gu})e gefysed

of the cup partook,

the fierce warrior,

Wealhjjeowe,

set

43

gedriht,

anunga

the

main

with

my

warrior band,

your people's

willan geworhte,

wUl would work,

on wsel crunge,

feond-grapum

fsest.

gefremman

sceal

Ic

or

perform

I shall

or

meodu-healle,

280

minne gebidan.
para wife

in death,

deeds of noble valour,

oJjSe ende-dseg,
jjisse

bow

fast in hostile grasps.

eorlic ellen,

on

went,

that I alone

eowra leoda

o))6e

the sea-boat occupied,

J)a

my

last day,

in this mead-hall,

await."

The woman those words

word

wel licodon,

weU

gilp-cwide Geates

the Goths'

eode gold-hroden,

adorn' d with gold went

freolicu folc-cwen,

the joyful people's queen,

yfto

pa

swa

proud speech

by her lord to

hire frean sittan.

wses eft

lik'd,

sit.

Then was again

tcr,

inne on healle,

as ere,

within the haU,

)jry8-word sprecen,

1290

the bold

word spoken,

8e6d on sjelum,

the people joyous,

sige-folca sweg,

the ^ictor nations' cry,

oJ)))aet

semninga
1261.

MS.

untU suddenly
ge]>eah.

1263.

MS.

,'; y'*'

-j

Wealhjjeon.

BEOWULF.

44

-"'

sunu Healfdenes

Healfdene's son

secean wolde

would seek
evening rest

aefen-reste

his

wiste j)aem ahlEecan

he

to J>8em heah-sele

in the high hall

hilde ge|)inged,

conflict

si65an hie sunnan leoht

after the sun's light- they

geseon [ne] meahton,

might

1301

nipende

oJ)6e

or

knew

for the miserable

was

destin'd,

[not] see,

murky

niht ofer ealle,

night over

scadu-helm gesceapa,

(the

all

shadow-covering of crea-

tures)

came advancing,

cwome,

scriSan

wan under wolcnum.


Werod eall aras

dusky under the clouds.

grette

greeted then

The company aU arose

gum a

]>a.

one

o})erne,

Hr66gar Beowulf,
and him

13 10

man

another,

Hrothgar Beowulf,
and bade him

hael ahead,

gave him

win-sernes geweald,

hail,

command

of the wine-

hall,

and

word acwseS

Jjset

Nsefre

ic

and the word said

senegum men

"

I to

any man

before entrusted,

cer alyfde,

siJjSan ic

Never have

hond and rond

since I

hehhan mihte,

hand and

shield

could raise,

Sry]j-8ern

Dena,

the Danes' festive hall,

buton

nu-])a.

save

J>e

Hafa nu and geheald 1320


husa

MS.

rseste.

be of glory mindful,
1301. ne inserted from conjecture.

1304. BIS. scadu helma gesceapu.


1305.

to thee.

the best of houses

selest

gerayne mEerJjo,
1296.

now

Have now and hold

MS. cwoman.

BEOWULF.

45

raacgen-eUen cy5,

show

waca wis wrajjum

keep watch against the foes

ne biS

\>e

mighty valour,

ihy

no lack of things desirable

wilna gad,

shall

be for thee,
gif

\>u jjitt

ellen-weorc

if

thou that work of valour


escapest from.

aldre gedigest.

with

pa him Hro8gar gewat


mid his hcclejja gedryht,

with his band of warriors,

eodur Scyldinga,
I ut of

heaUe

1330

life

Hrothgar then departed

the Scyldings' protector.

out of the hall

would

wolde wig-fruma

the martial leader

WealhJ)e6w secan,

Wealhtheow

cwen

the queen, as bed-companion.

to gebeddan.

seek,

Haefde kyninga wuldor

The glory of kings had

Grendle to-geanes,

against Grendel,

swa guman gefrugnon,

as

sele-weard aseted

a hall-ward set

sunder-nytte beheold

ymb

aldor Dena,

men have heard

tell,

he held a separate office


1340

about the prince of the Danes,

eoten weard ahead.

the

Huru Geata

But

leod

ward announced

georne truwode

well trusted in

modgan maegnes,

his

Metodes hyldo.

his Creator's favour.

Da

Then he

he him ofdyde

isern-byman,

haughty might,

doff'd

from him

his iron bvrnie,

of things to be desired, desiderabilia.

1325.

i.

1333.

MS. Wealh^eo.

e.

the eoten.

the Goths' chief

1335.

MS.

kyning.

'337- ^IS- gefrungon.


1

341.

approach.

MS.

eoton.

It

was

his office to

announce the monster';

BEOWULF.

46
helm

of hafelan,

the

sealde his hyrsted sweord,

irena cyst,

1350

helmet from

his head,

gave his ornate sword,


choicest of irons,

ombiht-jjegne,

to an attendant,

and gehealdan het

and bade him hold

hilde geatwe.

Gespraec

jja

the gear of war.

goda

se

Spake the good chief xhen

gylp-worda sum,

some words of

Beowulf Geata,

Beowulf

he on bed stige

ser

ere

on

his

pride,

Goth,

the

bed he stept

No ic me an here-waestmum

"1 myself ?o not'va. martial vigour

hnagran

feebler account,

talige,

gu5-gevreorca,

1360

J)onne Grendel hine


for))an ic hine

swebban

aldre bene5tan,

of

ea6e msege.
J>ere

slea,

A%-it

1370

he gesecean dear

wig

ofer wgepeu

and

siJjSan witig

not of that warfare,

shield,

for hostile

but

works

we two

shall to-night

apply ourselves to

saecce ofersittan,
gif

easUy may.

that he strike against me,

hew my

on niht sculon,

to rest,

deprive,

fam'd though he be

sie

niJ)-geweorca
ac

life

lull

although

rand geheawe,
Jjeah 8e he rof

not

He knows

gu6e,

me ongean

he

Jjaet

him with sword

therefore I
will

nelle,

Nat he

if

strife,

-w-ithout

weapon

and afterwards

the wise

on swa-hw8e]jere bond,

on whichsoever hand,

halig Diyhten,

the holy Lord,

mcerSo deme,

shall glory

1358.

1366.
1373.

MS. wsesmun.
MS. J)ara goda.
MS. het.

he dare seek

war
God,

--'

than Grendel does himself;

sweorde

J)eah ic

v-^

of warlike works,

1365.

doom,

MS. eal.
MS. secge.

1372.

God,

BEOWULF.
swa him gemet
Hylde hine

as to

))ince.

hea)>o-de6r,

))a

47

him meet

shall seem.

him then

Inclin'd

the martial

beast,

hleor bolster onfeng,

1381

eorles andwlitan
i^

and hine
^nellic

the bolster received his cheek,


the warrior's face

ymb monig

and around him many a


keen seaman

s?e-rinc

sele-reste gebeah.

bow'd

Nsenig heora

Not one of them thought

eard-lufan

his lov'd

folc o)>8e freo-burh,


)>8er

he afeded wses

ac hie

hsefdon

home

again

ever seek,

gesecean,

aefre

to his hall-couch.

that he should thence

he Janon scolde

jjaet

eft

)>6hte

1390

his people or free city,

where he was nurtur'd

gefruuen

for they

had heard

hie

them

aer to fela micles,

before by

in J>sem win-sele,

in that wine-hall,

jjset

wael-deaS

fomam,

a bloody death

Deniga leode.

Ac him Dryhten

forgeaf

But

to the

and fultum,

\nei

is

mihtum.

Lord gave

Weders' people,

comfort and succour,

all

overcame,

by

his single powers.

Trtdy

gecv]>ed,

mihtig

the

by might of one,

crseft,

ofercomon,

selfes

had taken,

so that they their foe,

hie feond heora,

ealle

S6S

1400

them

to

Wedera leodum,

5urh anes

too many,

webs of battle-speed

the

]>aet

that of

of the Danes' people.

wig-speda gewiofu

frofor

much

tell

God

is it

shown,

that mighty

God

manna cynnes weold.

rules the race of men.

Wide-ferhS com,

From

afar came,

on wanre

in the

murky

niht,

1^8. MS.

earS.

night,

1392. hyra?

BEOWULF.

4S

shadow-walker stalking

scriSan sceadu-genga; 1410

the

sce5tend swcefon,

the warriors slept,

\>a.

{)aet

who

horn-reced

yldam

paet wses
]?3et

J)a

an save one.

buton anum.

eaile

cuS,

that

them might not

(since the

nolde,

Lord

will'd

it

not)

the sinful spoiler

se syn-scajja

under the shade drag

under sceadu bregdan


ac he wgeccende

1420

bad bolgen-mod

in

gej)inges.

off.

But he watching
in hate the foe,

wrajjum on andan,

beadwe

men was known,

It to

hie ne moste,

Metod

that pinnacled mansion

should defend,

healdan scoldon,

angry

mood

awaited

the battle-meeting.

XI.
pa com

of more,

under mist-hleojjum,

Then came from

the

under the misty

hills,

Grendel gongan

Grendel stalking

Godes yiTe

he God's anger bare

mynte

bser

man-sca6a

se

of the race of
1430

men

one to ensnare

in sele |)am hean.

in the lofty hall.

W6d

He

to

under wolcnum,

Jjses Jje

he win-reced,

strode under the clouds,

until

he the wine-house,

gold-sele gumena,

the golden hall of

gearwost wisse,

most

Jjset

wses

J)8et

forma

si^

he Hr5]jgares
1414. anum, L
1423.

men,

readily perceiv'd,

richly variegated.

fsettum fahne.

Ne

expected the wicked spoiler

manna cynnes
sumne bes}T-wan

moor,

e.

Nor was

that time the

first

that he Hrothgar's
Beowulf.

MS. beadwa.

1420. he,

i.

e.

Beowulf.

BEOWULF.
ham

home had

gesohte.

Naefre he on aldor-dagum,

XT ne

si))an,

heardran
-

1441

J)a

the

of joys depriv'd

bedseled

forthwith on the door henwiTa,

duru sona on-arn

fyr-bendum

onbrsed

fast

faest,

folmum

he hire

[hran]

]>&

with ^re-hard bands,

then

with

he

[touch'd]

(as

ra})e sefter }>on

soon after that

on

flor

feond treddode

him of eagum

the variegated floor

the fiend trod

went wroth of mood

eode yrre-mod

from

stod,

his eyes stood,

lige gelicost,

to flame

most

leoht unfaeger.

a horrid

light.

Geseah he
rinca

in

recede

1460

manige

He

in the

warriors

like,

mansion saw

many

swefan sibbe-gedriht

sleeping, a kindred band,

samod- setgseder e

all

mago-rinca heap

|)a

mod

his

mynte

it

mouth

the mansion's

fagne

hands

he was angry)

recedes mu]?an

Ton

his

bealo-hydig, 1450 undrew then the baleful minded

he abolgen wses,

|)a

ere nor since,

Came then to the mansion


man journeying,

rinc simian,

sy{>^an

sought.

in his life-days he,

or hall- thanes found.

to recede

dreamum

Never

a bolder n,

hsele,

beal-J)egnas fand.

Com

49

jjaet

ahlog

together,

company

then his

he gedcelde,

he

of fellow-warriors

mood

expected

laugh'd
that

he

would

separate,

dseg

8er|)on

cwome.

1449. ^^J^
aethran

1458.

is

but the

MS.

ere the day came.

supplied to complete the sense,


set is

needless.

ligge.

Rask conjecturfd

BEOWULF.

50

the fell wretch,

atol aglseca,

of every one

anra gehwylces
lif

wi^

j)a

him alumpen wses

1470

lice

wist-fylle

he

wen

ma

hope of a dainty glut


yet 'twas not his fate,

))a

more

that he might

moste

manna cynnes
^icgean ofer

then had arisen in him

ne waes wyrd J)a-gen,


})aet

from body

life

of the race of
niht.

men

^,

eat after that night.

pryS-swy^ beheold

Beheld

meeg Higelaces

kinsman of Hygelac

hu

how

se man-sca^a,

under faer-gripum,

1480

the strenuous

the wicked spoiler,

^fef^

during his sudden grasps,

gefaran wolde.

would proceed.

Ne

yldan ))6hte

Nor did that the miserable wight Z^mean to delay


h^jcuJUJL

ac he gefeng hra^e,

for

forman

at the first time,

Jsaet

se aglseca

siSe,

slsependne rinc,

tore him unaw&res,

bat ban-locan,

bit his bone-casings,

blod edrum dranc,

syn-sneedum swealh

the blood
1

490

drank from

soon had he

unlifigendes

of the lifeless

gefeormod,

all

Ifet and folma

his veins,

in endless morsels swallow 'd him;

sona hsefde

eal

seiz'd,

a sleeping warrior,

unweamum,

slat

he quickly

devour'd,

feet

and hands

forS near setstop,

nearer forth he stept,

nam

took then with his hand

pa,

mid handa

the

hige-])ihtigne
rinc

on

He

Rsehte ongean

feond mid folme

doughty-minded

warrior on his couch.

reste.

reach'd towards

1500

the foe

1498.

MS.

with his hand

rseste.

BEOWULF.
he onfeng

he instantly perceiv'd

hra))e

the guileful thoughts,

inwit-)jancum,

and

yvrS

Sona

earm

}>set

and on

gesaet.

Soon

onfunde

arm

his

rested.

as discover'd

the criminal,

fyrena hyrde,
jwet

51

that he

he ne mette

middangeardes,

had not found

of mid-earth,

eor})an sceatta,

of the world's regions,

on elran men,

in a stranger

mund-gripe maran,

15 lo

he on m5de wear^

he

forht on ferh^e

fearful in soul

no

sr fram meahte

Jjy

man,

a stronger hand-gripe,
in

mind became

not for that the sooner could

he escape

hyge wses him

his

hinfiis,

wolde on heolster

secan deofla gedraeg

ne wses his drohto^

his condition there

Jjaer

gemette.

Gemunde

such as he

was not

before had found.


se

J)a

g5da 1520

Remember'd then the good


kinsman of Hygelac

jefen-spraece

his evening speech

uplang astod,
faeste

upright he stood,

wi^-feng

and

at

him

firmly grasp'd

fingras burston,

his fingers yielded,

eoten waes utweard

the eoten

eorl furjjur stop

the earl stept further

mynte

the

se mjera

hwae})er

he meahte swa

widre gewindan,

and on-weg Jjanon


fle5n

on fen-hopu

ifoi. he,

i.

flee,

in his life-days

maeg Higelaces

and him

flight,

pack of devils seek

the

swylce he on ealder-dagum
aer

mind was bent on

he would into his cavern

fleon,

e.

BeowiUf.

1530

was outward

renown'd champion thought,

whether he might not so

more widely wheel


and away thence
flee to his

1529.

MS.

F 2

about,

fen-mound

hwaer.

he,

e.

GrendeL

BEOWULF.

52

knew

his fingers' power,

wiste his fingra geweald,

he

on grames graputn,

in his grasps of the fierce one,

))aet

t5

that he the stronger was.

he waes ge5cor.

Si$))aet se

hearm-sca^a

After the pernicious spoiler

Hsorute ateah,

to

dryht-sele djmede,

Denum

Heorot came,

the princely hall thunder'd,

was

eallam wearS,

ceaster-buendum,

1540

for all the Danes,

the city- dwellers,

cenra gehwylcum,

every vahant one,

eorlum ealu-ecerwen.

the earls, the ale spilt.

Yrre wgeron begen,

Angry were

re^e ren- wear das,

fierce, the

reced hlynsode
J>a

wses

Jjset

wundor

the

he on hrusan ne

feol,

faeger fold-bold
J)Ees

1550

withstood the warlike beasts,


so that

but

fseste waes,

it fell

not on the ground,

the fair earthly


it

was thus

dwelUng

innan and utan,

within and without,

with iron bands,

searo-))oncum besmi))od.

cunningly forged.

paer fram sylle abeag

There from

medu-benc monig,

many

J)aes

graman wunnon

ne wendon

ser

witan Scyldinga,
J>3et

hit

manna
hetlic

inclin'd

tell,

with gold adorn'd,

golde geregnad,
])aer J>a

its sill

a mead-bench,

as I have heard

gefrcege,

fast,

iren-bendum,

mine

it,

that the wine-hall

se win-sele

ac he

mansion resounded;.

then great wonder was

micel,

wi^-haefde heai)o-de5rum,
))8et

both,

powerful warders,

1560

where the

fought

the Scyldings' sages,

a mid gemete

that

senig,

any man,

and ban -fag,

fierce ones

therefore before ween'd not

it

ever in any wise

malicious and murder-stain'd,

tobrecan meahte,

could in pieces break,

Ustum tolucan.

or craftily lay open,

BEOWULF.

53

nym|)e liges fseSm

naught save the flame's embrace

swulge on swalo^e.

should with

Sweg up -as tag,

niwe geneahhe

NorS-Denum

1570

newly, abundantly

dire terror,

anra gehwylcum,

on every one
of those

wealle

who from

the wall

wop gehyrdon,

heard the whoop,

gryre-leo6 galan

the horrid lay

Codes andsacan,

of God's denier,

sigeleasne sang,

the triumphless song,

sar wanigean,

se

jje

manna

sung

his pain bewailing,

helle-hseftan

1580

heold hine [to]

it.

over the North Danes stood

stod

atelic egesa,

)>ara Jje of

heat devour

its

noise arose,

of the thrall of hell

held him [too]

fseste,

who

he

waes

of

fast,

men was

maegene strangest,

strongest of might,

on

in that

))cem daege

of this

))ysses Efes.

day
life.

XII.
Nolde eorla hleo

Would

senige jjinga,

for

jjone

cwealm-cuman

cwicne

the deadly guest


leave living,

forlaetan,

ne his lif-dagas

not the refuge of earls

any thing

1590

nor his life-days

any people

leoda senigum

to

nytte tealde.

accounted useful.

paer genehost braegd

Then forthwith drew

eorl

a warrior of Beowulf's

Beowulfes

ealde lafe

an ancient rehc

wolde frea-drihtnes

he would his lord's

1568.

MS.

swa^ule.

1580,

MS.

P3

hsefton.

1596.

MS,

freah.

BEOWULF.

54

hfe defend,

feorh ealgian,

the great prince's,

mseres ))e6dnes,

meahton swa.

|)8er

hie

Hie

Jjset

})a

ne wiston,

if

i6cx5

they might so do.

They knew

not,

it

when they endnr'd

hie gewin drugon,

heard-hicgende

the bold-eager

hilde mecgas,

sons of battle^

and on heal fa gehwone

and on every side

heawan

thought to hew,

Jj5hton,

his soul to seek,

])one sjTi- seaman

that the

Eenig ofer eorJ)an

on earth not any

gretan nolde

wicked scather~t-<-*Vr

choicest of irons,

gu^-billa nan

i6io

no

battle-falchion,

would touch

ac he sige-waepnum

but he martial weapons

forsworen hsefde,

had forsworn,

ecga gehwylcre.

every edge whatever.

Scolde his aldor-gedal,

His life-divorce was,

on Seem dsege

on that day

jjysses lifes,

of this

earmlic wurSan,

to

and se

1620

se

))8et

J)e

into the

power of

fiends

far to travel.

feor siSian.

iDa

life,

be miserable,

and the departing ghost

ellor-gast

on feonda geweald

Then

onfunde,

that found,

he who before many,

fela ccror,

modes

inyrSe,

in

manna

cynne,

against the race of men,

he [waes] fag
J)3et

him

witJ

God,

->

se lichoma

16 It. he,

i.e.

mirth of mood,

crimes had perpetrated,

fyrena gefreraede,

(he was the foe of God,)


that

Beowulf.
1626.

him

his

body

161 5. his,

MS.

sawle secan,

irenna cyst,

ike strife,

fyrene.

i.

e.

Grendel's-

BEOWULF,
would not

Isestan nolde

ac bine se raodega

1630

for

avail

bim tbe proud

kinsman of Hygelac

mseg Higelaces

bad

bonda

haefde be

55

band

in

wses gebwse))er oSrura

was eacb

lifigende la^

bateful living

lic-sar

to otber

body pain endur'd

gebad

wretcb

atol aeglseca

the fell

bim on eaxle wearS

on

syn-dolb sweotol,

a deadly

seonowa onsprungon,

the sinews

burston ban-locan

1640

bis sboulder

was

wound

manifest,

sprang asunder,

the bone-casings burst

Beowulf was

Beowulfe wearS

to

gu^-bre^

warUke fierceness given

gyfe)'e

scolde Grendel jjonan

Grendel must tbence

feorb-seoc fleon

deatb-sick flee

under fen-bleo^u,

under

Eecean wynleas wic

seek a joyless dwelling

wiste
Jjaet

J)e

1650

se

\>e

bis Ufe's

all

number.

the

Danes was,

after tbat mortal conflict,

gelumpen.
]>a,

his days'

For

eallum wearS,

aefter \>&va vrsel-reese,

Haefde

knew

end pass'd,

dogora daeg-rim.

willa

was

tbat

bis aldres waes

ende gegongen,

Denum

his fen-sbelters,

he tbe better

geornor

their

wiU accomplisb'd.

Had tben purified


be wbo bad before come from

geffelsod,

XT feorran com,

afar,

snotor and swyS-ferb^,


aele

wise and strong of soul,

Hro^gares,

A genered wi^

Hrotbgar's
sav'd

nvSe.

Nibt-weorce gefeh,
ellen-mjer])um

it

ball,

from malice.

In his nigbt-work he rejoiced,


1

660

1639.

his valour-glories

MS. seonowe.

BEOWULF.

56

East-Denum

had

to the

Geat-mecga leod

the

Go^'

gilp gelsested,

his boast fulfilled,

swylce on cy]j6e

as also in the country

ealle gebette

he had heal'd

hsefde

inwid-sorge,
]>e

that they before

and for J)rea-nydum


scoldon,

torn unlytel.

1670

paet waes tacen sweotol,

for

had

to endure,

had

suflPer'd,

hard necessity

affliction

not a

little.

was a token manifest,

when the beast of war


down the hand,
the arm and shoulder

alegde,

laid

earm and eaxle


|)8er

and

It

syj)^an hilde deor

bond

chieftain

the preying sorrow,

hie ser drugon,

jjolian

East-Danes

wses eal-geador

there

was altogether

Grendles grape

Grendel's grasp

under geapne hrof.

under the vaulted

roof.

XIII.

pa

Then was

wses on morgen,

mine

ymb

]>a.

in the morning,

as I have heard

gefraege,
gif-healle

1680

around the

tell,

gift-hall

gu^-rinc monig

many a

ferdon folc-togan,

the nation's chieftains came,

feorran and nean,

from

geond wid-wegas,

o'er distant ways,

wunder sceawian,

the

far

warrior

and near,

wonder

to behold,

1676. After this line there seems to be a want of connection with

what

follows,

though there

we should read

is

no lacuna in the BIS.

means of grasping.
1677. For hrof Thorkelin has
because

it

is

Perhaps for grape

grap, or gripe, meaning Grendel's entire limb, or

hraegl,

which must be an

void of sense, and 2dly, because

seems no doubt of the accuracy of hrof, which

it is

is

hh

error, ist,

a neuter.

also adopted

There

by K.

BEOWULF.

57

la})s lastas

the traces of the foe

no

his life-divorce did not

his lif-gedal

seem painful

sarlic })uhte

secga jenigum,
f)ara ]>e tirleases

any warrior,

to

1690

trode sceawode

who

the inglorious's

track beheld

hu he werig-mod

how he

on-weg

away thence,

jjanon,

weary

in spirit

overcome,

nv5a ofercumen,

in hostilities

on nicera mere,

to fAe nickers' mere,

fgege

death-doom'd and put to

and geflymed,

feorh-lastas bser.

death-traces bare.

Daer waes on blode

There was with blood

brim weallende,

y^a geswing

atol
eal

"

the surge boiUng,


1 700

gemenged

the dire
all

swing of waves

mingled

hat on heolfre

hot with clotted blood

heoro-dre5re weol,

it

dea^-fcege deog,

the

si^an

after he joyless,

dreama-leas,

well'd, with fatal gore,

death-doom'd had dyed

in fen-freo^o

in his fen-asylura,

feorh-alegde,

laid

haejjene sawle

his

))8er

him

panon

hel onfeng.

eft

gewiton

down

there
1

10

his life,

heathen soul

him

hell receiv'd.

Thence again departed

eald-gesi'Sas,

the old comrades,

swylce geong manig,

as also

of gomen-wajje,

from the joyous way,

fram mere modge,

proud from

mearmn ridan,
beomas on blancum.

to ride

paer wses Beowulfes

There was Beowulf s

mser^o msened

glory celebrated

monig

many

oft

gecwae^,

flight,

many

young

the mere,

on horses,

the warriors

on

oft said,

steeds.

one,

it,

BEOWULF.

58
Jjaette su'S

ne norS,

1720

that nor south nor north,

be ssem tweonum,

between the seas

ofer eormen-grund,

over the spacious earth

o)jer nsenig,

not any other,

under swegles begong,

under heaven's course,

selra nsere

better were

rond-hsebbendra,

of shield-bearers,

rices wyr^ra.

worthier of power.

Ne

Nor

hie

huru wine-drihten

yet did they their belov'd

lord

wiht ne logon
glsedne HroSgar,
ac waes

))set

Hwilum

in

1730

god cyning.

was a good king.


the fam'd in

war

let run,

in contest go,

geflit faran,

fealwe mearas,
Jjaer

for that

At times

heaj)0-r6fe

hleapan leton,

on

aught reprehend,

^Ae joyful Hrothgar,

their fallow steeds,

him fold-wegas

where to them

the earth-ways

fsegere ))uhton,

fair appear'd,

cystum

the fam'd for virtues.

cujje.

Hwilum cyninges }>egn,


At times a king's thane,
vaunt-laden man,
guma gilp-hlseden,
a
1740
gidda gemyndig,
se

mindful of songs,

who

5e eal-fela

full

many

eald-gesegena

old legends,

worn gemunde,

a great number, remember'd,

word

found another theme

ojjer

fand

s63e gebunden.

with truth combin'd.

Secg

Then

si6

eft

ongan

Beowtdfes

sn3^trum st)Tian,

and on sped wrecan,

the

man beg^

Beowulf's enterprise
discreetly to celebrate,

1750

and diligently to

spel gerade

the tale with skill

wordum

in

wrixlan.

words impbrt.

relate,

BEOWULF.
Well he each thing

Wei hwylc gecwaeS


he fram Sigemunde

j?aet

59
told

that he of

Sigemund
related,

secgan hyrde,

had heard

ellen-dEedum,

of valorous deeds,

uncujjes fela,

much unknown,

Wselsinges gewin,

the Waelsing's battles,

wide

wide journeyings,

sit5as,

jjara j?e

gumena beam

of which the children of

1 760

knew

men

gearwe ne wiston,

well

fsehSe and fyrena,

his warfare

buton Fitela mid hine.

save Fitela who was with him.

not,

and

his crimes,

ponne he swylces hwset

Then he something

secgan wolde,

would

earn his nefan,

of the uncle and his nephew,

swa

how

hie a wseron,

niSa

aet

gehwam,

they ever were,

at every strife,

needful associates.

nyd-gesteallan.

Haefdon eal-fela

They had

1770

many

full

Eotena cynnes

of the Jutes' race

sweordum gesseged.
Sigemunde gesprong,

To Sigemund

dom

with their swords laid low.

no

unlytel,

syJjSan wiges heard

wyrm

He

acwealde,

under

hame

httle glory,

after the bold in battle

the

hordes hyrde.

aejjehnges

sprang,

after his death-day,

dea6-daege,

aefter

worm had

slain,

the guardian of the hoard.

He

stan,

beam,

under a hoar stone,

the prince's chUd,

780

ana genet5de

alone ventur'd on

frecne dsede

the daring deed

ne waes him Fitela mid

Fitela

764. AIS. swulces

766. be

as uncle.

such-like

tell,

eame and

was not with him

he refers to the narrator.

his nefan

Sigemund was

See Glossarv' of Persons.

Fitela's father as well

BEOWULF.

60
hw3e})re

him

]>xt

swurd |)urh-w6d

|)set

wraetlicne
J>3et

wyrm,

that his sword pierced through

wondrous worm,

the

on wealle

hit

yet 'twas his fortune,

gesselde,

setstod

so that in the wall stood fast

drihtlic iren

the noble iron

draca morSre swealt.

the

Haefde aglseca

1790

by daring

ehie gegongen,
))8et

might enjoy

brucan moste

dome.

at his

own

pleasm^e.

The sea-boat loaded,

Sse-bat gehlod,
beer

gain'd,

that he the ring-hoard

he beah-hordes

selfes

dragon by death perish'd.

The miserable being had

bore into the ship's bosom

on bearm scipes

ornaments

beorhte fraetwa

the bright

Waelses eafera.

Waelse's offspring.

Wyrm

Heat

hat gemealt.

Se waes "wreccena

1800

wide mserost

He
by

the

worm

consum'd.

of wanderers

was

far the greatest

ofer vrer-))e6de,

throughout the human

wigendra hleo,

the warriors' refuge,

by

ellen-dcedum

he

}>9es ser

si68an

on})ah

valiant deeds

therefore at

Heremodes

race,

but after

first

he throve

Heremod's

earfoS and ellen

war had ceas'd,


his toil and energy

he mid Eotenum wear,

he among the Jutes was,

on feonda geweald

into the foes'

hild sweSrode,

18 10

for? forlacen,

power

forthwith betray'd,

snude forsended

quickly exU'd

hine sorh-wylmas

him sorrow's

boilings

leraedon to lange

had too long

afflicted

791.

By

the miirder of his father.

1800. He,
1814.

i.

e.

Sigemund.

MS. lemede.

1795- IMS. gehleod.

1809. He, L

e.

Sigemund.

BEOWULF.
he

to his people he became,

leodum wear^,

his

eallum 8ef5elingum,

to all his nobles,

to aldor-ceare.

a life-long care.

Swylce

oft

In such guise dft bewail'd,

bemearn,

serran mcelum,

swi6-ferh5es

in

1820

sit5

him bealwa

se 6e

beam

tSeodnes

should thrive,
succeed to

onfon,

gehealdau,

^^^ju.

defend

his father's

his treasure

hselejja rice,

the realm of heroes,

X* Scyldinga.
Jjser

1830

and refuge-citv,

the countrj' of the Scyldings.

There to

eallum wearS,

all

was

he,

maeg Higelaces,

Hygelac's kinsman,

manna cynne,

to the race of

men,

freondum gefsegra

to his friends,

more

hine fyren onwod.

him crime had

Hwilum

honours,

his people,

hord and hleo-burh,

He

and that the prince's child

ge}e6n scolde,
faedei' aejjelum

folc

d**^^h^^

for reparation trusted

to bote gelj'^de
j)set Jjaet

former times,

the bold-heart's Jet

many a sagacious man,


who had to him of bales

snotor ceorl monig,

Gl

grateful

enter' d.

Sometimes contending,

flitende,

fealwe strsete

the fallow street

mearum

they with their horses measur"d.

mseton.

When

pa wses morgen-leoht
scofen and scynded,

1840

the

morning

light

eode scealc monig

went many a warrior

swiS-hicgende

of strong purpose

to sele

to the high hall.

1819.

\>Cixx\

'

hean.

In former times/

was

sent forth and hasten'd,

i.e. in their

days of calamity, when Hrotli

gar and his people were suffering from the atrocities of Grendel.

1830.
1

The rune denoting

83 1. He,

i.

1835. hine,

e.
i.

eSel, as at

1.

1045.

Beowulf.

e.

Sigemund.

BEOWULF.

<>2

searo-wundor seon.

Swylce

self

to see the curious wonder.

So

cyning

also the

king himself

of bryd-bure,

from

beah-horda weard,

the guardian of ring- treasures,

treddode

with a large company,

cystum gecy)>ed,

cwen mid

bis

bower,

stept glorious,

tirfsest,

getrume micle,

and

his nuptial

for virtues fam'd,

1850

and

birn,

queen with him,

his

meadow-path measur'd

medo-stig gemset

the

m8eg})a hose.

with a company of maidens.

XIV.
Hr6t5gar majjelode

Hrotbgar spake

he to healle gong,

(be to the hall went,

stod on stapole,

stood in the fore-court,

geseah steapne hrof

saw

golde fahne,

with gold variegated,

and Grendles bond


Disse ansyne

Alwealdan

and Grendel's band


i860

ic la])es

grynna

set

wundor

Much

gebad,

Eenigra

widan

1870

wonder,

was not long


I

since,

of any

woes ween'd

not,

for all time,

feore,

compensation to await me,

when with blood

J)onne blode fah

MS. trj'ddode.

It

that

bote gebidan,

1848.

God work

after

glory's Guardian.

me

weana ne wende,
to

of malice I have endur'd,

wonder

wuldres Hyrde.

jjget ic

Almighty thanks

ever can

wundre,

Dfet wses ungeara,

:)

this sight

snares from Grendel

Grendle

jefter

For

forthwith take place

God wyrcan

a maeg

'

to the

})anc

lungre gelimpe.

Fela

the steep roof

1855.

MS.

geong.

stain'd

1866.

MS. wunder.

BEOWULF.
husa selest

63

the best of houses

heoro-dreorig stod

all

wea wid-scofen,

misery

witena gehwylcum,

o'er each of

ne wendon

who weened

Sara

jje

hie wide-ferhS

{)8et

leoda land-geweorc

gory stood;

the people's

devils

Nu

Now

scealc hafaS,

with cunning machinate.

secgan mseg

efne

swa hwylc msegj^a 1890

swa

J)one

aefter

lo

whatever matron.

if

that

this

after

hyre eald Metod

may

Yes

who

magan cende

gum-c}Tinum,

gyf heo gyt lyfaS,


jjset

all

ere could not

snyttrum besyrwan.
))3et

warrior has,

which we

ealle

Hwaet

and phantoms.
this

a deed perform'd,

dsede gefremede,

ne meahton

land-work

through the Lord's might,

purh Drihtnes miht,

fer

counsellors,

not

could from foes defend,

scuccum and scinnum.

we

my

that they evermore


1880

la])um beweredon,

6e

wide-spread

icas

say.

son brought forth,

human

kind,

she yet hves,

that to her the great Creator

este wsere

was gracious

bearn-gebyrdo.

in her child-bearing.

,Nu

Now

Beowulf,

ic

]>ec

secg betsta,

me

for

sunu wylle

freogan on ferhjje

ne bi6

geweald hsebbe.

1877.
188^;.

as

son will

fl

my

love in

new

our

gad

worolde wilna,
Jje ic

Beowulf,

heart

hold henceforth well

}je se nigra

1900

heald forS tela

niwe sibbe

\,

thee, best of warriors,

MS. gehwylcne.
MS. daed.

kinship

there shall not be to thee any lack

of worldly things desirable,


that

have power over.

K. proposes gehwylcum, no doubt,


1903.

MS.

G 2

aenigre.

See

1.

rightly.

1325.

BEOWULF.

64
Ful oft

Full oft I for less

ic for Icessan

lean teohhode,

have a reward decreed,

hord-weorJ)unge,

a treasure-honour

hnahran
s<emran

pu

])e

to a feebler warrior,

rince,

1910

set ssecce.

Thou

self hafast

dfedurn gefremed,

awa

so

May

}>ec

lie

nu gyt dyde.

as

beam Ecg])eowes
])8et

Omnipotent thee

he yet has done."

Beowulf spake,

Beowulf ma|>elode,

We

the

with good reward,

gode forgylde,

swa

by deeds achiev'd,

through every age.

t5 aldre.

Alwalda

conflict.

for thyself hast

that thy glory lives

[dom] lyfaS

|)cet jjin

worse in

Ecgtheow's son
" We that arduous work
:

ellen-weorc

1920

estum miclum,

with great good

feohtan fremedon,

thai fight

frecne geneSdon

boldly ventur'd on

will,

have achiev'd,

eafoS uncujjes

the monster's warfare

u]je ic swi]>or,

rather would 1 have given,

))set )?u

that thou himself

hine selfne

geseon moste,

mightest have seen,

feond on frsetewTim,

the foe in his trappings,

fyl-werigne.

slaughter- weary

Ic hine lirsedlice,

1930

him

quickly,

heardan clammum,

with hard bonds,

on wsel-bedde,

on

wrij^an Jjohte,

thought to bind,

}j8et

he for mund- gripe

minum

licgean lif-bysig,
1

913.

dom

1934.

is
11.

MS.

so that

through

my

hand-gripe

he shovdd

scolde

1929. See

hie death-bed,

lie

for life struggling,

not in the MS. , but rightly supplied by K.

1484-1494.

hand-gripe.

1930.

MS.

him.

BEOWULF.
s

65

butan his lic-swice.

without his carcase's escape.

Ic hine ne mihte,

)>a

Metod

ganges getWEeraan,
no

him

ic

})3es

could not him

(as the Creator will'd

nolde,
1940

georne

from

at-

his

it

course cut off

not)

him therefore

did not
assail,

fealh

enemy

feorh-geniSlan

the deadly

wiEs to fore-mihtig

was too greatly powerful

feond on
hwsejjere

on foot

the foe

fejje

he his folme forlet,

yet he his hand has


as a

last weardian,

to guard his track,

arm and shoulder

earm and eaxle

his

no

yet not any there

senige swa-]>eah

feasceaft

guma

1950

the

wretched

man

fr5fre

gebohte

comfort bought,

no

leng leofaS

nor

]>y

left,

life- support,

to lif-wra])e,

]jaer

will the longer live

laS-geteona,

the hateful criminal,

synnum geswenced

with sins oppress'd

ac hyne sar hafaS

for pain has

in ni6- gripe

in hostile gripe
straitly clasp'd,

balw on bendum

harm,

fah

i960

the

miclan domes,

hu him

scir

scrifan wille.

how

to

doom,

him

the bright Creator

will prescribe."-;^

secg,

sunu Ecglafes,

Then was ^Ae warrior more silent,


Ecglaf's son,

on gylp-sprsece

in vaunting speech

gu5-geweorca,

of works of war,

1956.

1965.

wretch stain'd with crime

the great

Metod

pa wees swigra

bonds

there shall await

abidan sceal

maga mane

in its

him

nearwe befongen,

jjaer

^
easily

MS. mid gripe.


MS. Eclafes. See

11.

1002, lOOj.

G3

BEOWULF.

66
i68an sejjelingas,

after the nobles,

eorles craefte,

through the hero's might,

ofer

heann^ hrof

1970

over the high roof

hand sceawedon,

had beheld

feondes fingras

the foe's fingers

each was before,

foran seghwylc wses,


8t<3e neegla

the hand,

iarfead. of nails, [each]

[gehwylc],

most hke,

style gelicost,

to steel

hcejjenes hand-sporu,

the heathen's hand-spurs,

hilde rinces

the warrior's,
the terrific one's sword.

eglan heoru.
-'Eghwj'lc gecwaeS ]>xt

him

Even,- one said that

heardra nan

1980

(of the bold ones)

it,

none

hrinan wolde

would touch

iren eer-god,

no iron of prime goodness,

)jaet

8ses ahleecan

that the miserable being's

blodge beadu-folme

bloody battle-hand

onberian wolde.

would

taste of.

XV.
pa wses haten

Then was

hra)je,

quickly order'd

Heort innanweard

Heort inward

folmum gefrsetwod

to be

fela jJBera waes,

many were of those,


men and women,

wera and wifa

1974.

MS.

steda.

990

gehwylc I believe shotdd be expunged.

1976. I suspect that hand-sporu

hand-sceo.

with hands adorn'd

is

a blunder of the scribe for

See hereafter.

1978. MS. eglun. My translation of the line is purely conjectural.


The whole text, to the end of the canto, is hardly intelligible, and
evidently corrupt.

K- reads egl un-heoru, and translates, the rude

terror.

1985.

MS.

onberan.

1986.

MS.

hrej>e.

BEOWULF.
who

win-reced,

\)e jjaet

67

the wine-house,

gest-sele gyredon

the guest- hall prepar'd

gold -fag scinon,

gold-varied shone

web

wagum,

aefter

wundor-siona

the

Waes

on swylc

))cet

to every

staraS.

much

inneweard

iren-bendum

of those

human being,
who gaze on such.

That bright dwelling was

beorhte bold

tobrocen swi6e,
eal

2000

all

shatter'd,

within

with bands of iron

faest

the hinges

hrof ana genses,

the roof alone

\>sl

fast

were rent asunder

heorras tohlidene

ealles

the walls,

wondrous sights many

fela

secga gehwylcum,
))ara Jje

webs along

was

wholly sound,

ansund,

when

se aglseca,

the miserable being,

fyren-dsedum fag,

stain 'd with criminal deeds,

on fleam gewand,

tum'd

aldres orwena.

hopeless of

No

That

jjaet

y8e by8

to befleonne,

fremme

se

2010

]>e

wille

to flight,

is

life.

not easy

to flee from,

accomplish

ac gesecan sceal

it

who

will

but he shall seek

sawl-berendra,

for soul -bearers,

nyde genydde,

by need compel'd,

ni|)6a bearna^

for the children of

grund-buendra,

for earth's inhabitants

gearwe stowe,
))aer

swefeS
2005.

MS.

symle.

his body,

fast in its

faest,

aefter

2020

bed of death,

after the feast shall sleep.

}>e.

2009-2020. These lines are extremely obscure:


donbt means death, implied in aldres orwena.
2012.

MS.

men,

the place prepar'd,

where

his lichoma,

leger-bedde

sav'd,

gesacan.

l>aEt (1.

2009) no

BEOWULF.

(58

pa

wses

))set

and

seel

Then was

mel,

the time

Healfdenes sunu

Healfdene's son

wolde

the king himself

symbel

Ne

cyning

self

m8eg|>e

ic ]>a

maran werode

ymb hyra
J)a

Never have

heard of the tribe

in a greater body

about their treasure-giver

sinc-gyfan

better bearing themselves.

sel gebseran.

Bugon

would

of the feast partake.

jjicgan.

gefrsegn

and moment,

that to the hall should go

gang

to healle

to bence

2030

Bow'd then

to the

bench

the prosperous warriors,

blsed-agende,
fylle gefcegon,

in the plenty they rejoiced,

faegene gepegon

joyful partook of

medo-ful manig

many

magas

the

J^ara

mead cup

kinsmen of those

swiS-hicgendra

stout-daring warriors,

on

in the high hall,

sele )jam bean,

HroSgar and Hro^ulf.

Hrothgar and Hrothulf.

Heorot innan waes

freondum

afylled

Heorot within was


2040

nalles facn-stafas

fill'd

with friends

no treacheries

peod-Scyldingas

the noble Scyldings

jjenden fremedon.

the while perpetrated.

Forgeaf

Gave then

beam

J)a

Beowulfe,

Healfdenes,

to Beowulf,

the son of Healfdene,

segen gyldenne,

a golden banner,

sigores t5 leane,

in

hroden-hilte cumbor,

an ensign with

helm and byrnan

a helm and byrnie

reward of victory,
hilt adorn'd,
;

4j^"

msere maSjjum sweord 2050 a sword, a great treasure,

manige gesawon
beforan
2033.

beom
MS.

beran.

faegere geJ>aegoii.

2045. ^^^' brand.

many saw
before the hero borne.
2036.

MS.

hicgende.

BEOWULF.
Beowulf partook of

Beowulf gejjah
on

ful

scamigan

ic

feel

2060

with gold adorn'd,

many men,

fela,

in ealo-bence

on the ale-bench,

o8rum

to others give.

gesellan.

\>ses

"ir-i-

four precious things,

golde gegyrede

Ymb

^t/t:^^^^

shame.

Never have I heard more friendly

freondlicor

madmas

gum-manna

in the court

before the warriors,

needed

})orfte.

gefraegn

feower

cup

not of that precious gift he,

feoh-gyfte,

jjaere

sceotendum

fore

Ne

the

flette

no he

ftii

Around the helmet's

helmes hrof,

roof,

heafod-beorg,

the head-guard,

wirum bewunden,

with wires bound round,

wsel on-utan heold,

held sjayghter without,

pcet

him

fealo laf

so that

frecne ne meahte,

scur-heard

sce|>)jan,

scour-harden'd, injure,

when

ongean gramum

against his foes

gangan

should go.

scolde.

the bold shielded warrior

Bade then

eorla hleo

the shelter of warriors

eahta mearas,

eight steeds,

faeted-hleore,

with cheek adorn'd,

on

into the court be led,

in

flet

rv>'^

might not dangerously,


2070

J)onne scyld-freca

Heht Sa

a,

him /^^-faMow-sword

te5n,

under eoderas

in

2056.

MS.

for scotenum.

2065.

^'^S.

beorge.

under the enclosures

The heafod-beorg seems

to be

an additional

guard on the crown of the hebnet, analogous with heals-beorh, hauberk.

Obg. halsperga.

2067.

2068.

MS. walan utan.


MS. fela laf, perfectly

doubt, of bronze or copper;


hereafter.

2069.

MS. meahton.

devoid of sense.

The sword was, no

fealo-brun, as in brun-ecg.

See note

BEOWULF.

70

anum

J)ara

on one of tbem stood

stod

searwum

sadol

fah,

2080

wses hilde setl

J)8et

a saddle cunningly variegated,

with treasure ornamented

since gewurjjad

that

was

the war-seat

heah-cyninges,

of the high king,

Jjonne sweorda gelac

when

sunu Healfdenes

the son of Healfdene

efnan wolde

would perform

naefre

on ore

the

game

of swords

(never in warfare flag'd

Iseg

wid-cu)jes wig,

the wide-fam'd's martial ardour,

]>onne walu feollon,

when

and

]>a.

bega

Beowulfe

2090

the slaughter'd

and then

to

fell),

Beowulf

of both one and other

geh\v8e|>res

eodor Ingwina

the Ingwinas' protector

onweald geteah,

possession gave,

wicga and waepna

of horses and weapons

het hine wel brucan.

bade him them well enjoy.

Swa

Thus manfully

manlice

msere ))e6den,

the great prince,

hord-weard

the treasure- ward of heroes,

heelepa,

warlike onslaughts requited,

heajio-rsesas geald,

mearum and madmum. 2100 with steeds and treasures.


Swa by naefre man lybS,
So them never man will blame,
se Jie secgan wile
who will say
s6S

the sooth riffhtlv.

sefter rihte.

XVI.
f

Da

Then

gyt seghwylcum

\>ara

|je

mid Beowulfe

of those

brim-lade teah,

on

])cere

the

who

with Beowulf

sea-way came,

on the mead-bench,

medu-bence

2087. on orlege alaeg

besides to each,

the lord of warriors,

eorla drihten,

2107.

MS.

leade.

BEOWULF.
a present gave

ma})5um gesealde,
yrfe lafe

and

21 lo

with gold be paid

golde forg\4dan,
|)one

3e Grendel

whom

ser

ma

nefne him witig

w\Td

as he

God

had not him


fate,

jjses mannes mod.


Metod eallum weold
gumena cynnes,

git

for))an bi6

andgit

deS

The Creator rul'd


2120

se

who long
in these

worulde bniceS.

in the

and sweg

samod-aetgBedere

spirit

shall abide

on Syssum win-dagum

here

days of

strife

world participates.

There were song and sound

131

at

once together

fore Healfdenes

before Healfdene's

hilde-wisan,

martial leaders,

gomen-wudu

the glee- wood

greted,

gid oft wrecen,

when

medo-bence,

after the

m?enan scolde
[be] Finnes eaferum,
))a

hie se fser begeat


2

18.

Beowulf's.

the jov of hall

Hrothgar's gleeman,

Hr56gcT,res scop^
sefter

was touch'd,

the lay oft recited,

heal-gamen

J)onne

understanding

of lov'd and loath'd,

la)>es,

pser waes sang

is

forethought of

much

longe her

})e

all

evers'where best,

gebidan

and

God,

men,

he now yet does

therefore

ferhSes fore))anc

leofes

the race of

as

seghweer selest,

fela sceal

the wise

prevented,

and the man's courage.

and

swa he nu

slain,

would more of them,

wolde,

forstode,

for,

Grendel ere

wickedly had

mane acwealde,
swa he hyra

relic

and bade the one

heht

|)one senne

an hereditary

mead-bench,

should recount
2140

[of] Fin's offspring.

when them
21 40.

peril

o'erwhelm'd

be supplied from conjecture.

BEOWULF.
when Healfdene's hero,

Healfdenes

haele]>

Hnsef Scyldinga,

the Scyldings' Hnsef,

in Fres-wsele

in Friesland

feallan scolde.

was doom'd

Ne

Not Hildeburh

huru Hildeburh

herian

had need

jjorfte

to

fall.

at least

to praise

Eotena treowe

the faith of the Jutes

unsynnura wear6

sinless she

beloren leofutn

2150

jjam lind-plegan,

aet

at the linden play,

bearnum and broSrum

her children and brothers

on gebyrd hruron,

hie

wunde
geomuru

gare

]>xt waes

was

of her beloved ones depriv'd

they in succession

by

the dart

wounded

that was a mournful

ides.

Nalles holinga

Not without cause

Hoces dohtor,

Hoce's daughter
the Lord's decree

metodsceaft bemearn,
syj)3an
])a

morgen com,

after

heo under swegle

2160

geseon meahte

heo

?er

woman.

bemourn'd,

morning came,

when she under heaven


might see

mor))or-bealo maga,
|)aer

fell,

the slaughter of her kinsmen,

where she ere had most pos-

mseste heold

sess'd

worolde wynne.

of the world's joy.

Wig

W^ar had destroy'd

ealle

fornam

Finnes Jjegnas,

nemne feaum anum,


))aet

on

save a few only,


so that he

he ne meahte

might not

on the battle-place

])cem meSel-stede

wits

all

Fin's thanes,

Hengeste

2170

against Hengest

wiht gefeohtan,

aught gain

ne

nor the sad remnant

)>a

wea-lafe

2142.
2163.

MS.
MS.

Healfdena.
he.

2168.

2149. unsinnig?

MS. mehte.

in fight,

MS. hild.
MS. wig.

2 151.

2170.

BEOWULF.

73

wige for|jringan

by war protect

}e6dnes ))egne

from the king's thane

ac hig

hie

{)set

eal

him

him oSer

th at they to him another dwelling

flet

gerymdon,

healle

would wholly

and heah-setl,

hie healfne

Jjset

a hall

geweald

wis Eotena beam

yield,

and throne,

that they half

2180

might possess.

and

and

feoh-gyftum,

Folcwaldan sunu.

power

with the sons of the Jutes

agan moston,
aet

but they offer'd him conditions.

geJ)ingo budon,

at the money-gifts,

Folcwalda's son.

dogra gehwylce,

every day,

Dene

the

weorjjode,

Danes should honour,

Hengestes heap

Hengest's band

hringum

J)enede,

with rings should serve,

swi'Se

even as much

efne

swa

sinc-gestreonum

with precious treasures

faettan goldes,

2190

of rich gold.

swa he Fresena cyn

as

on be5r-sele

in the beer-hall

he

the Frisian race

byldan wolde.

would decorate.

Da

Then they confirm'd

hie

getruwedon

on twa healfa

on the two sides

faeste frio8u-wjere

a fast peaceful compact

Fin Hengeste,

Fin to Hengest,

elne unflitme,

earnestly without dispute,

aSum benemde,
j)set

he

])a

with oaths declar'd.

wea-lafe,

2200

that he the sad remnant.

weotena dome

by

arum

piously would maintain.

jJset

heolde,

Saer genig

mon.

i.

e.

'

witan's'

so that there not

wordum ne worcum.
2174.

his

doom
any man.

by words or works,

Hengest.
2187.

2179.

MS. wenede.

MS.

healfre.

BEOWULF.

74
waere ne brsece,

should break the compact,

ne

nor through guileful craft

jjurh inwit-searo

sefre

gemEendon,

J)eah hie hira

should they ever lament,

beag-gyfan

though they

banan folgedon,
2210

]je6denlease,
)ja

him swa

their ring-giver's

slayer follow'd,

gej^earfod waes

now
as

lordless,

was thus needful to them

it

gyf ])onne Frysna hwylc,

but

frecnan spraece

by audacious speech,

?5aes

if

should

call to

J)onne hit sweordes ecg

then

the

sweSrian scolde.

should appease.

mind,

edge of sword

and moreover gold

and icge gold


ahsefen of horde.

2220

rais'd

Of

Here-Scyldinga
betst beado-rinca

aet

it

The oath was taken,

wses gesefned,

wses on bsel gearu

'

from the hoard.

the maitial Scyldings

the best of warriors


:

])m ade wses

on the

pile

at the

heap was

was ready

easy to be seen

ej)-gesyne

swat-fah syrce,

the blood- stain'd sark,

swyn eal-gylden,

the swine all golden,

eofer iren-heard,

the

aejjeling

awyrded,

sume on

wael crungon.

boar iron-hard,

many

manig

wundum

2230

a noble

with wounds injur' d,

(some had in the slaughter fall'n)

Bade then Hildeburh,

Het Sa Hildeburh,
set

at Hnasf's pile,

Hnaefes ade,

own sons

hire selfre suna,

her

sweoloSe befsestan.

be to the

2207.

fire

committed.

MS. gemaenden.

2210. lordless: their lord, Hnaef, being

2213.

this deadly feud

mor])or-hetes

myndgiend wee re,

A6

MS.

of the Frisians any,

frecnen.

2217.

slain.

MS. sy^an.

2234.

MS.

sunu.

BEOWULF.

75
be burnt,

ban-fatu baernan,

their carcases

and on bsl don

and on

earme on axe.

the luckless ones to ashes.

The lady moum'd,

Ides gnornode,

geomrode giddum

2240

to

bewail'd in songs
the warrior ascended,

guC-rinc astah,

wand

be done

the pile

wolcnum

eddied to the clouds

wsel-fyra maest

the greatest of death-fires

hhiiode for hlsewe,

roar'd before the

hafelan multon,

their

heads were consum'd,

wound-gates burst,

mound,

ben-geato burston,

their

Sonne blod aetsprang,

then the blood sprang out

lat5-bite lices

from

lig ealle forswealg,

flame swaUow'd

gaesta gifrost,
t>ara J>e J)aer

2250

gu5 fomam

the corpse's hostile bite

(greediest of guests)

those

whom

stroy' d

bega

there

war had de-

of both nations

folces wses

all

was

their prosperity departed.

hira blaed scacen.

XVII.
Gewiton him

J)a

wigend

wica neosian,

freondum

befeallen,

Frysland geseon,
2238.

MS.

2241.

i.

e.

ii.

p. 68.

of their friends bereft,

Friesland to see.

eaxle.

Hnaef ascended

Feuer und Ranch) aufgehen.


V.

The warriors then departed


the dwellings to visit,

l)8et

(in flame

and smoke),

So also in Homily

ceaf he forbaemiS .... forJan

like the Ger. (in

(.i^lfric's

'Se t>ffira

Homilies,

manfnlra smic

astihS on ecnysse.

2244.

MS.

hlawe.

2247.

^'^S- setspranc.

2354. After the suspension of hostilities,

it

appears that Hengest's

Jutes dispersed themselves over Friesland, for the purpose of seeing


and, no doubt, of quartering themselves for the winter.

it,

ianaa

BEOWULF.

76

homes and

hamas and beah-burh.

the

Hengest

Hengest

6a.-gyt

wael-fagne winter

2260

chief city.

still

the death-hued winter

wunode mid Finne

dwelt with Fin

unflitme

without dissension

eard gemunde,
]jeah pe

his

he meahte

home remember'd,

though he might

on mere drifan

on

hringed-stefnan.

the ringed prow.

Holm

storme weol,

won wis
winter

The deep

winter lock'd up the wave

beleac

is-gebinde,
ojjSset o])er

boil'd with storm,

war'd 'gainst the wind,

winde,

f]>e

the sea drive

2270

com

with icy bond,


until there

came a second

gear in geardas

year into the courts

swa nu gyt d66

now yet do
those who constantly

]>a

so

Se syngales

watch a happy moment,

ssele bewitiaS,

wuldor-torhtan weder.

gloriously bright weather.

Da

Then was winter

waes winter scacen,

fseger foldan

bearm,

earth's

fundode wrecca,
gist of

geardum

bosom

departed,

fair,

the stranger hasten'd,

2280

the guest

from the dwellings

he t5 gyrn-wraece

he on wily vengeance

swi'Sor ))6hte

was more

jjonne to s?e-lade,

than on a sea- voyage,

gif he torn-

gemot

jjurhteon mihte
))8es

if

he Eotena beam

MS.
MS.

de'S.

2286. iMS.

i>vet.

2261.

2273.

intent

he a hostile meeting

could bring to pass

Finnel.

because he the sons of the Jutes

MS. unhlitme.
MS. sele.

2262.
2 2 75.

Seel. 2198.

Eotena beam, in allusion apparently to the Jutes

that had fallen in the conflict with the Frisians.

Or beam may here

BEOWULF.

//

inn-gemunde

inwardly remember'd

swa he ne forwymde

so he refus'd not

worold-rjedenne,

worldly converse,

j)onne

when he

him Hunlafing, 2290

Hunlafing,

hilde le5nian,

the flame of war,

billa selest,

the best of falchions,

on bearm dyde
ecge

men

cucSe,

his selfes

SijjSan

hard misery from the sword,

ham.

own home.

at his

grimne gripe

2300

GuSlaf and Oslaf,

When

him

fierce of gripe

Guthlaf and Oslaf,

aefter sae-si5e,

after their sea

sorge msendon
cctwiton

were

sword renown'd,

Fin afterwards o'erwhelm'd

sweord-bealo sliSen,
aet

for the

also of spirit bold.

begeat

eft

for with the Jutes there

swylce ferhS-frecan.

Fin

bosom placed

in his

waeron mid Eotenum

})cEs

weana

voyage,

had grievously upbraided,

reproach'd for part of ^^eir woes,

dsel,

ne meahte waefre-raod

he might not his wavering cou-

forhabban in

in his breast retain.

rage

Da

hre))re.

Then was

wes heal hroden

feonda feorum.

his hall beset

with hostile men.

be ia the singular number, and allude to Hneef, the Jutish leader, with
Hengest, whose

fall is

related at U. 2143, sqq.

2290. Hunlafing I take to be the

Hrunting, Nageling,

etc.

The meaning

name
is

of Hengest's sword, as

not that he stabbed himself,

but that he merely placed the weapon in or on his bosom, in allusion


probably to the

mode

of wearing

be seen in old illuminations.


hereafter,

where there

is

it

in front,

(An

examples of which

may

exactly similar passage occurs

no question of stabbine.)

In other words,

that he girded or prepared himself for a renewal of the contest.

The

whole passage, indeed the whole episode, is extremely obscure.


2301. The Ordlaf of the " Fight at Finnesburg;" which seems the

more

correct orthography.

H3

BEOWULF.

78
swilce Fin sleegen,

cyning on

corJ)re,

2310

and se5 cwen numen.

amid

his train,

The Scyldings' warriors

scypum feredon

to their ships convey'd

house chattels

eal in-gesteald

all the

eorS-cyninges,

of the land's king,

swylce hie
fin dan

sigla

aet

Finnes-ham

se-lade

drihtlice wif

to

Denum

such as they at Finnesham

might

meahton,,

searo-gimma.

Hie on

2320

feredon,

find,

of jewels

and curious gems.

They on

the

the princely

to the

laeddon to leodum.

slain,

the king

and the queen taken.

Sceotend Scyldinga
to

Fin also

sea-way

^^
^^

woman

Danes convey'd,

to their people led.

Le56 waes asungen,

The lay was sung,

gleomannes gyd,

the gleeman's song,

gamen

pastime rose again,

eft astah,

was

beorhtode benc-sweg,

the bench-noise

byxelas sealdon

the cupbearers gave

wine from curious

win of wunder-fatum.

pa cwom Wealh})e6w

forS,

loud,

vessels.

Then came Wealhtheow

forth,

gan under gyldnum beage,


2331
Jjser J;a godan twegen

walking under a golden diadem,

sseton suhter-gefsederan

cousins sat

pa-gyt waes hiera sib

as yet

aet-

to

where the two good

was

their peace together,

gsedere,

s-ghwylc oSrum tiywe

2313.

MS.

each to other true

scipon.

2316. Finnes-ham

is

no doubt meant as the proper name of Fin's

town, and identical with Finnes-burh, the name given


ment entitled " the Fight at Finnesburg."
2329.

it iji

the frag-

MS. Wealh>eo.

2332. Hrothgar and Hrothulf.

For

Rask's Anglo-Saxon Grammar, p. 158.

this long species of verse see

BEOWULF.
swylce \)XT Hunfer))

fotum

set

dinga

sset

there also Hunferth the orator

J)yle

frean Scyl-

sat at the feet of the Scyldings'

his ferhSe

every one of them was confident

v^

lord;

gehwylc hiora
treowde,

in his

he hsefde

))aet

))eah

he

]>e

mod

that he

micel,

magum

his

mind,

had great courage,

although he to his kinsman had


not been

naere

ecga gelacum. 2340 true in the plays of swords.

arfaest set

^^praec

c5a

0nf6h

Jjissum fuUe,

Spake then

ides Scyldinga

the Scyldings'

freo-drihten min,

my

sinces brytta

dispenser of treasure

})u

on stelum wes,

beloved lord,

be thou happy,

gumena
Geatum sprsec

gold-wine

gold-friend of

and

and

to

mildum wordum,
swa sceal man don
beo wis Geatas

jju

glsed,

and feorran

nu

as one should do

2350

thou hast now [promis'd,]


I

sunu wolde

told,

the warrior have.

Heorot

gefcelsod,

is

have been

that thou for a son wouldst

heie-rinc habban.

Heorot

Goths,

tfte

gifts,

near and far

ssegde,

for

]>dst pu.

be cheerful towards
mindful of

hafast,

me man

men

Goths speak

to the

with kind words,


:

geofeua gemyndig,
iieiin

is

purified,

beah-sele beorhta:

the bright hall of rings

bruc Jjenden

enjoy while thou mayest

m5te

J)u

manigra medo,

and )jinum

2360

magum

2339. See

11. 1

2356.

2vIS.
i.

e.

the

mead

of the

many,

and to thy sons leave

leef

78, sqq.

2353- After hafast a word

2360.

dame:

" Accept this cup,

23;
is

i.

Correctly geofa

(gifa).

wanting, probably gehaten, promised.

here ric
the

mead of which the

others (the

many) were partaking.

BEOWULF.

80
folc

and

folk

rice,

\metodsceaft seon.
Ic

to see the

minne can

glaedne HroSulf,

he

))Bet

]>&

wene

piously maintain

8er ))onne he,

if

he mid gode

)jset

ween

will

eal

that he with

gemon

if

he that

all

hwset wit t5 willan

what we two

and to worSmyndum,

and honours,

umbor wesendum

erst

ser

arna gefremedon.

Hwearf
Jjser

jja

bi

bence,

2380

se

goda

a child,

Turn'd then by the bench,

Hrethric and Hrothraund,

beam,

and the children of warriors,

giogo6 aetgaedere
J)aer

for his pleasure

where her sons were,

hvre byre wseron,

haelejja

when

remembers

of benefits perform'd."

HreSric and Hrognjund,

and

good

repay

our offspring

uncran eaferan

he

friend of Scyldings,
leavest the world

gyldan wille

gif

thou earlier than he,

2370

oflaetest

ic j)set

know my

that he the youthful will

geogo(5e wile

wine Scyldinga,
worold

must go

forth

Godhead.

festive Hrothulf,

arum healdan
gyf pu

and realm,

when thou

6u forS scyle

})onne

the

youth together,

where

sset,

sat the

good

Beowulf Geata,

Beowulf

be jJEem gebroSrum twsem.

by the two brethren.

the

Goth,

XVIII.

Him
and

To him

wses ful boi^en,

wordum bewsegned,

the cup

and friendly

freond-lajju

2390

in

words

was borne,

invitation

offer'd,

and wunden-gold

and twisted gold

estum geeawed.

kindly shown,

BEOWULF.
earm-reaf twa,
hrsegl

sleeves two,

and hringas,

a mantle

heals-beaga msest

gefraegen hsebbe

nsenigne

of those that I on earth

have heard

more

selran hyrde

hord-madmum heelejja,

Hama

syjj^an

since

Hama

bore off

to the noble bright city

Brosinga mene,

and

excellent have heard of

2400 treasure-hoard of men,

setwaeg

to here-byrhtan byrig

sigle

of

tell

not anv under heaven

under swegle

ic

and rings,

of collars the largest

on foldan

|ara ]>e ic

81

the Brosings' necklace,

the jewel and its casket

sinc-faet

searo-niSas fealh

he into the guileful enmity

Eormenrices

of Eormenric

and chose

geceas ecne

ried.

pone bring

hsefde

siSjjan

Hygelac the Goth,


Swerting's nephew,

2410

the last time,

siSe,

when he under

be under segne

sine ealgode,

wael-reaf

bine

sij)6an

fornata,

he for wlenco

faehSe t5

he

]>&

Frysum

took

eorcnan-stanas,

MS.

the spoil of the slain

him

off,

he for pride

the Frisians

the precious stones.

reade, which affords

war with

he the ornament convey'd.


2420

adjective red, with

or fern, twa agree

fate

sought his own woe,

frsetwe waeg,

2393.

banner

guarded

after

wean ahsode,

his

defended,

his treasure

werede

wyrd

th' eternal council.

That ring bad

Higelac Geata,
nefa Swertinges,

nyhstan

fell

what does

it

no

agree

sense.

If

it

is

meant

for the

and with what does the neuter

not with the masc. hringas.

By

earm-reaf

we

are

probably to understand long pendant sleeves, no doubt of some costly


Tiaterial.

3405. feci?
I

2407.

i.

e.

death.

2420.

MS.

eorclan-stanas.

BEOWULF.

82
ofer

ySa

over the cup of waves,

ful,

the powerful king

rice ])e6den

he under rande gecranc

gehwearf

\>a,

Francna

in

faeSm

he

fell

beneath his shield

the

Franks

feorh cyninges,

the king's

breost-gewEedu,

his breast-weeds,

and

se

beah somod

and the

w\Tsan wig-frecan

life,

collar also

plunder'd the

guS-sceare

worse warriors

wsel reafedon,
aefter

departed then into the grasp of

2430

fall'n,

after the lot of

war

Geata leode

^^^ Goths' people

hrea-wic heoldon.

held the mansion of the dead.

Heal swege onfeng

The "hall receiv'd the sound

he5 fore])cemwerede spraec:

Weaththeow spake,
before the company she

Bruc

" Use this

|Wealh)>e6w majjelode,

3isses beages,

Beowulf

JjLsses

youth, with prosperity,

hrsegles neot,

)jeod-gestre6na,

and gejjeoh
cen pec mid

2440

and

this

mantle enjoy,

these lordly treasures,

and thrive well

tela

animate thyself with vigour,

crsefte,

and jjyssum cnyhtum wes

and to these boys be

lara liSe

in counsels gentle

ic

pe

J)3es

geman.

lean

1 will "therefore

reward
Hafast
J)aet

})u

Thou

gefered,

hast that achiev'd,

that thee far and near,

6e feor and neah,

throughout

weras ehtigaS,

men

swa

swa
See

side

2450

bebugeS
2429.

MS.

be mindful to

thee.

ealne wide-ferbS,

efne

said

collar,

dear Beowiilf,

leofa,

hyse mid h^le,

and

all

time,

will esteem,

even as widely
as the sea encircles

reafeden.

2440.

MS.

i>eo.

BEOWULF.
windy land-walls.

windge eard-weallas.

the

Wes

Be while thou

jjenden

an

ic \>e

lifige,

]>u.

I will well

tela

J)u

sunum minum

be thou to

sous

holding them in joy.

dream-healdende
is

my

gentle in deeds,

dsedura gedefe,

Her

grant thee

precious treasures

sinc-gestreona

beo

livest

a prosperous noble

eadig

ae})eling

83

eeghwylc eorl

2460

Here

is

every

man

to other true,

ojjrum getiywe,

modes milde,

mUd

man-drihtne hold

to his liege lord faithful

syndon

jjegnas

ge|)w?ere,

of

mood,

the thanes are united,

\>e6d eal gearo,

the people all ready,

druncne dryht-guman

the

doS swa

ic

do as

E5de

to setle

))aer

j>a

bidde.

druncon win weras

there
2470

the

was of

to her seat

men drank
knew

wine,
not,

geosceaft grimne,

grim calamity,

swa

how it had befallen


many a man.

hit

agangen weai-^

manegum.
SyJjSan sefen cwom,
and him HroSgar gewat

eorla

After evening came,

and Hrothgar had departed

to hofe sinum,

to his court,

rice to reste,

the powerful one to rest,

reced weardode

unrim

swa

hie oft er
2453.

2457.
2463.

guarded
2480

eorla,

dydon

the

mansion

countless warriors,
as they oft ere

MS. wind geard weallas.


MS. suna, originally perhaps sunu.
MS. heol, the e with a stroke through

2472. geocsceaft?

*'

feasts the choicest,

fate they

cujjon,

^^^-''^

^'^^

i^io-w-i-.,

bid."

She went then

waes symbla cyst,

wyrd ne

drunken vassals

had done

it.

BEOWULF.

8"4

beredon

benc-|)elu

they bared the bench-floor

geond-breeded wearS

hit

beddum and

it

with beds and bolsters.

bolstram.

Of

Beor-scealca sum,

and

fus

bow'd

gebeag

him

setton

the beer-skinkers one,

ready and fated,

fsege,

flet-reste

heafdum

to

to his domestic

hilde randas,

their disks of war,


their

on bence wses,

shield-wood bright

ofer ae))ehnge,

over the noble,


easy to be seen

heajjo-steapa helm,

his

high martial helm,

hringed byrne,

'his

ringed bymie,

and war- wood

Waes

It was their custom,

))eaw hyra,

for

ham ge on herge,

ge gehwsej'er

stout.

that they oft were

hie oft wseron

an wig gearwe,
aet

2500

war prepar'd,

both at home and


or both of

{)ara

in the host,

them

efne swylce mgela

just at such times

swylce hira man-dryhtne

as to their

Jjearf geseelde

need

waes seo Jjeod

^
T"

'))raec-wudu jjrymlic.

ge

there on the bench was,

y))-gesyne

jjaet

couch

they set at their heads

bord-wudu beorhtan, 2490


))ser

was overspread

hege lord

befel

was the people ready.

tilu.

XIX.
Sigon

sum

j)a

to sleepe

TTiey

his

sefen-reste,

2486.

Why

2496.

MS.
MS.

evening

rest,

the beor-scealc was fus and ftege does not appear, as no

further mention of

3488.

sank then to sleep

one sorely paid for

sare ongeald

Viini

heafdon.
l>rec.

occurs

probably some lines are wanting.

MS. gesene.
MS. angeald.

2493.
2507.

BEOWULF.
swa him

ful oft

gelamp,

sif>San gold-sele

2510

Grendel warode,

death after sins.

That was seen,

pset gesyne wearS,

wide -known to men,

werum,

wrecend

end came,

until an

swylt sefter synnum.

))8ette

had happen'd,

full oft

unrighteousness perpetrated,

ende becwom,

wid-,cu)>

them

since the gold-hall

Grendel occupied,

unriht aefnde,
oJ)))8et

as to

85

that an avenger yet

Jsa-gyt

lifde sefter lci)>um,

liv'd after the foe,

lange )>rage,

for a long space^

guS-ceare,

sefte'r

2520

after the battle-care,

Grendel's mother;

Grendles modor

woman, wretched

crone,

ides agljec wlf

the

yrmSe gemunde,

was of her misery mindful,

seo

)je

she

waeter-egesan

wunian

cealde strearaas,
si))5an

to

Cain gewearS

after
iht

}>a

watery horrors
,

Cain became

murderer

of his only brother,,

bre]>er,

faederen-maege.

He

the

inhabit,

the cold streams,

ecg-banan

angan

who

must

scolde,

2530

his father's son.

He

fag gewat

then blood-stain'd departed

mor})re gemearcod,

by murder mark'd,

man-dream

fleeing the joy of

fleon,

westen warode
J)anon

woe

thence arose

fela

geosceaft-gasta,

wretched

wses

of those

J)tera

Grendel sum,

heoro-wearh hetelic
se aet

wseccendne wer

MS.

sprites,

the hateful fell wolf

540
se

many

was Grendel one,

who had

Heorote fand

2524.

man,

dwelt in the waste

at

a watching
2527.

Jje.

2536. geocsceaft?
I

Heorot found

man

MS. camp

weafS.

^(

BEOWULF.

86
wiges bidan,
jjaer

him

the conflict awaiting,

where for him the miserable being

[se] aglseca

food-greedy was

set-gfadig wearS

gemunde

hwseJJre he

mcEgenes strenge,

abundant

the

Se hhn 'God sealde,

that

God had

and him to anwaldan

and

in

are gelyfde,

piously trusted,

Sy he

and fultum

2550

him

mansion of death to

the

the foe of

foe,

see,

mankind

but his mother yet,

)>a-gyt,

and galg-mod,

greedy and gallows-minded,

gr;4n wolde

would go

thfulne sio

256c

3unu

jjeod-wr-^

Com

jja

rr

given him,

as sole Ruler

of joy depriv'd,

mari-cynnes fcond

'

gift,

the sprite of hell

deajj-vsic seoj^,

modor

un

.^

c sorrowful journey,
direfully to

avenge her son.

She came then to Heorot,

to Heorote,

where

Hring-Dene

^'eond J>et sseld sweefon.

the

Ring-Danes

throughout the hall were sleeping.

r)a

jjser

sona weai^

ihwyrft eorluin.

,,<'
'

Si))$an

Grendles modor.

2546.

uoi

is

2544. he,

e.

i.

MS.

^566. That

is

there was

a relapse to the

warriors'.

in rush'd

Grendel's mother,
...

e MS.

3543.

MS.

grsepe.

Beowulf.

gimfseste.

2555- secan?

Then forthwith

When

jnue fealh V.0

2542: se

then he humble departed,

dreame bedselcd,

Hf his

'

comfort and support

his

subdued

helle gast

hean gewat,

]ja he"

'

J>one feond ofercwom, therefore he overcame the

gehn*gde

gifre

*'*'

the strength of his might,

ginfaeste gife,

frofre

^-^

S^

yet he remember'd

See Boet. p. 179.

2557.

MS.

and.

edit.

Rawl.

2564.

of the miseries caused by Greadel.

MS.

swafiin.

BEOWULF.
wses se gryre

swa

was the

Isessa,

swa micle

efiie

2570

mscg))a craeft,

bit5

wig-gryre wifes,

87
terror less,

by

just as

as

is

the

much

power of maidens,

the hostile dread

bewsepned-men,

to that from an arm'd

))onne heoru-bunden,

when

hamere

swm

fah,

andweard

hammer

doughty

above the helm,

,of

edges,

present shears.

scireS.

waes on healle

2580

Then was

heard-ecg togen,

the hard

sweord ofer setlum,

the

sid-rand

beaten,

stain'd with gore,

the swine

jjyhtig,

man,

strongly bound,

sword

tfie

ofer helme,

ecgura

pa

with

ge})uren,

sweord swate

from women,

sword over

many

manig

in the

haU

edge drawn,
the seats,

a broad disk

hafen handa-fost,

rais'd fast in hand,

helm ne gemunde,

helm

the

tcarrior

remember'd

not,

byrnan
\>ix

nor ample bymie,

side,

hine se broga angeat.

Heo

wses on ofste,

2590

heo onfunden wses.

Of

la leofost,
-

iSes had,

e 8aem

life,

was

discover'd.

the nobles quickly she

fast seiz'd,

gang

waes Hro^gare

shed.-

had one

anne hsefde
faePte beictugen,

save her
as she

seSelinga

hd h^o to feune

was on him

in haste,

would out from thence

feore be organ,

HraSe heo

terror

She was

wolde ut Jjanon

J)a

when

tv..

2578. Thorkelin has dyhttu

as to the fen she

went

he was to Hrothgar
of heroes dearest,
in a

comrades' character,

between the

In the
i

MS.

seas.

the word

is

destroyed,

BEOWULF.

H8
ric e

rand -wiga,

))one

^iheo on

2600

a prosperous hero.^

blged-faestne beorn.

Nses Beowulf

Beowulf was not there,

Sser,

ac waes o))er in

for another dwelling

XT geteohhod,

before assign'd,

aefter

ma|>5um-gife,

to the

Hream

There was a cry

cu])e

weartS in Heorote

folme

2610

cearu waes geniwod

geworden

Ne

wees

])ast

hie

gewrixle

renowned Goth.

the well

on ba healfa

known hand

had renew'd

become
til,

in the dwellings.

That was no good exchange,


that they on both sides

bicgan scoldon

must buy

freonda feorum.

with the

pa wses

Then was

frod cyning,

lives of friends.

the wise king,

man

hoary

of war,

bar hilde-rinc,

the

on hrepnjmode,

in angry mood,,

sySjjan he aldor-j^egn

Heorot

in

she amid clotted gore took

grief

wicum.

in

jjaet

had been

after the costly gift,

meerum Geate.
heo under heolfre genam

>!

a powerful shield-warrior,

reste abreat ,whom she on/scouchdestroy'd,

2620

when he

his senior thane

unlyfigendne,

lifeless,

jjone deorestan,

the dearest,

deadne wisse.

knew

Hra))e waes to'bure

Quickly to his bower was

Beowulf

Beowulf

fetod,

to be

dead.

fetch'd,

sigor-eadig secg.

the victorious warrior.

Samod

Together ere day

cer

dsege

eode eorla sum,


ee]>e\e

weiit with

cempa,

the noble

self

mid gesiSum,

J?er

se snotera bad,

hwsejjre

2630

him AKvalda
2612.

MS.

wicun.

some of

his earls,

champion,

himself with his comrades,


to

where the wise prince awaited,

whether him the All-powerful


2632.

MS.

alfwalda.

BEOWULF.
ever would,

aefre wille,

wea-spelle

aefter

89

after the sad intelHgence,

wyrde gefremman.

his fortune prosper,

Gang 6a

Went

aefter flore

fyrd-wyrSe

mid

man

with his

he

))one

wordum

wisan

2640

frean Ingwina

him

that he the wise prince

words sooth'd,

his

the Ingwinas' lord

ask'd

wsere,

he had had,

if

after the urgent

neod-laSu,

aefter

till

by

hnsegde,

frsegn gif

man

suite,

{the hall- wood resounded)

heal-wudii dynede,
^set

then along the floor

the warlike

his hand-scole,

^^ -,^-

.a^^ -^-UT

summons,

an easy night.

niht getsese.

XX.
'

HroSgar ma)>elode,
helm Scyldinga

Ne

frin )ju aefter

sorh

is

the Scvlding's protector

sslum

is

geniwod

"

Ask thou not

sorrow

Denigea leodum
dead

Hrothgar spake,

2 650

^Eschere,

Yrmenlafes

is

after happiness

to the Danes' people

iEschere

is

Yrmenlaf's
elder brother,

min run-wita,

my

confident,

and min rsed-bora,

and

my

eaxl-gestealla,

my near attendant,
when we in war

we

dead,

yldra br6))or,

})onne

o n orl ege

counsellor,

hafelan weredon,

our heads defended,

{)onne hniton fejjan

when

hosts against each other

rush'd
2635.

MS. wyrpe.

2644.

i*

e. after

renew'd

2638.

!}IS. scale.

having sent so urgent a

summons

to Beowulf.

13

-^

BEOWULF.

so
eoferas cnysedon

2660

cer-god

and boar-crests crash'd

man

be,

preeminently good

such should a

swylc scolde eorl wesan

swylc ^schere wses.

such as yEschere was.

WearS him on Heorote

To him in Heorot there has been

to

hand-banan

for

murderer

wsel-gaest wsefre.

a deadly wandering guest.

Ic ne wat liwaejjer

atol sese-wlanc

the fell glorier in carrion

her steps back has traced,

eft si8as teah,

fylle gefrefrod.

Heo

2670

with slaughter comforted.

She has avenged the

fcehSe wrsec,

J)a

]>e Jju

know not whether

quarrel,

for that thou yesternight

gystran niht

didst Grendel slay,

Grendel cwealdest,
jjurh hcestne had,

through thy vehement nature,

heardum clammum

with hard grasps

he to lange

forjjan

for that

my

leode mine

v;anode and wyrde

he

set vrige

and nu

diminish'd and destroy'd

he

gecrang,

ealdres scyldig,
o)>er

he too long

people

2680

cwom

in battle

succumb'd,

his life forfeiting,

and now

is

come another

mihtig man^iScaSa,

mighty

wolde hyre mseg wrecan

who would her son avenge,

gefeor hafaS

|^]jSe
|)egne
se

J)e

se

eefter

sinc-gyfan

eow wel hwylcra

2660.

MS.

cnysedan.

it

for

in spirit weeps,

greotej),

se5 hand ligeS,

))e

may seem,
many a thane,
who after his treasure -giver
as

monegtma,

hre^er-bealo hearde.

Nu

Wcirfare establish'^!,

Jjincean mssg,

on sefan

destroyer,

she far off has

gestaeled

jJEes \>e

fell

2690

in

hard

Now

heart-affliction.

the hand

lies low,

which you for every


2670.

MS.

gefrsegnod.

BEOWULF.
desire avail'd.

wilna_dphte.
Ic

J)aet

91

lond-buend,

the land's inhabitants,

it

my

people,

sele-rsedende,

my

hall-counsellors,

secgan hyrde,

have heard say,

leode mine,

))aet

that they have seen

gesawon

hie

two such

swylce twegen
micle mearc-stapan

2700

moras hecddan,

inhabiting the moors,

stranger guests,

ellor-gsestas,
tSaera

of which one was,

oSer wses,

))8es ]>e

huge march-stalkers

from what they most certamly

hie gewislicost

could know,

gewitan meahton,

woman's

idese onlicnes,

o^er earm-sceapen,

the other

likeness,

wretched wight,

on weres wsestmum

in a

wrsec-lastas trsed^

trod a wanderer's footsteps,

nsefoe he waes

man's

mara ))on 2710 save

jenig

man

J)one

on gear-dagum

figure,

that he greater

whom

in

days of yore

Grendel nemdon

Grendel nam'd

fold-buende

earth's inhabitants

no hie fseder cunnon,

they a father

hw3e})er
ser

him

was than

any other man;

oj>er,-

know

not,

whether any to them was

senig wses

acenned

before'

dvrnra gasta.

bom

of the dark ghosts.

They

Hie dygel lond


warigeaS wulf-hle5t5u,

that secret land

inhabit, the wolf's retreats,

windige nsessas,

windy nesses^

frecne fen-gelad,

the dangerous fen-path,

Saer fyrgen- stream,

where

under naessa genipu,

under the nesses' mists,

nij)er

the mountain-stream,

downward

gewiteS,
2706.

MS.

onlicnses.

flows,

BEOWULF.

92
flod

under foldan.

Nis

jjaet

the flood under the earth.

feor heonon,

a mile's distance,

mere standeS,

se

J)8et

not far thence,

It is

mil gemearces,

ofer ])8em^_hongia6

that the
2730

hrinde-bearwas

ha^y

wudu wyrtum

fsest

wBeter ofe rhel ma^

mseg nihta gehwsem

))3er

ni6-wundor se5n,
fyr

on

No

jjaes

homum

2740

he

in

jjset

the heath-stalker,

seek that holt-wood,

seleS,

driven from afar,


ere will he

his

wiUe

life

heoru stow

J)onon y8-geblond

2750

resign,

breath upon the bank,

ere he will in

hafelan [hydan]
nis

the bottom knows.

Although

the hart firm of horns,

tram,

aldor on ofre,
ser

lives

by the hounds v?earied,

feorran geflyraed,

he feorh

one so wise

who

grand wite.

hccS-stapa

holt- wudu sece,

ser

may

of the children of men,

hundura geswenced,
heorot

there every night

No

frod leofaS

jje

roots

its

fire in the flood.

flode.

])one

peah

by

fast

water overshadows

a dire miracle be seen,

gumena bearna
jjset

stands,

groves

wood

the

mere

over which hang

it

[hide]

Ms head

that

no holy place

is

up

up-astige8

rises

won

dark to the clouds,

to

J)onne

wolcnum,

wind styreS

la6-gewidru,
o8})8et lyft

{_

dryrmaS,

is s e

eft set )je

when

the

wind

stirs

hateful tempests,
until the air

grows gloomy,

the heavens shed tears.

roderas reotaS.

Nu

thence the wave-blending

rsed gelang

Now

anum

again of thee alone

2748. hydan added from conjecture.

is

counsel long

2755'

MS. drysma^.

BEOWULF.
2760

fela-sinnigne secg.

Sec gif

]ju

dyrre

the perilous place,

where thou mayest

fiudan miht

J>jer ))u

knowest not,

the spot thou yet

eardjgit_ne const,

frecne stowe,

93

much

this

Seek

ic Je })a fsehSe

it if

sinful

thou durst

thee for the strife

I will

money recompense,

feo^leanige,

with

eald-gestreonura,

with old treasures,

swa

as I before did,

ic 8cr

dyde,

wunden-golde,
gyf

jjii

find

man.

with twisted gold,

onweg cymest.

if

away thou comest."

XXI.

Beowulf ma})elode,

beam

Ne

2770

sorga snotor guma,

selre biS segliWcem


})aet

" Sorrow not, sage man,


better

he his freond wrece,

Jjonne he fela

Beowulf spake,
Ecgtheow's son

Ecg{)e6wes

mume.

'tis

for every

than that he greatly mourn.

lire aeghwylc sceal

Each of us must

ende gebidan

an end await

worolde

of this world's hfe

lifes

wyrce

se

domas

ser deat5e

|)aet

]je

one

that he his friend avenge,

mote

let

2780

biS driht-guman

him who

work

can,

high deeds ere death

to the warrior that will be,

unEfgendura

when

agfteTjipIfltit^

afterwards best.

Aris rices weard,

Arise, guardian of the realm,

uton hra])e feran

let

Grendles magan

of Grendel's parent

gang sceawigan
ic hit j)e

gehate,

2768.

MS. wundum

lifeless,

us quickly go

the course to see


I

promise

it

2780.

thee,

MS. domes.

BEOWULP.

94
no heo on hglm
DC on foldan

nor into the momitain-wood,

ne on geofones grund,

nor in ocean's ground,

)>aer

heo

pys dogor

go whither she

wille.

have patience

weana gehwylces,

for every woe,

swa

as I expect

ic ]je

Gode

wene

to.

se gomela,

se

pa

man

thank'd God,
2800

gesprsec.

said.

Hrothgar

a horse bitted,

a steed with curled mane.

The wise prince

fengel

gengde

stately

went

men

gum-fe]>a stop

a troop of

lind-haebbendra.

shield-bearing.

2810

after the forest-spoiler

wide ^esyne,

gang

ofer

widely seen,
her course o'er the grounds

grundas

gegcum^or,
ofer

proceeded,

Traces were

after wald-soa^fm

before them,

myrcan mor

over the

murky moor

mago-])egn^a beer

of their fellow thanes she bore

j?one selestan

the best

sawolleasne,

soulless,

J>ara ]>e
I

for

wicg wunden-feax.

Lastas waeron

mighty Lord,

what the man had

hors gebjeted,

geatolic

oj

the

for

Then was

waes HroSgare

Wisa

from thee."

Leapt up then the aged man,

jjancode,

mihtigan Drihtne,
\>!es

will.

This day do thou

]ju

ge))yld hafa

Ahleop 3a

"

nor into earth's bosom,

2790

ne on fyrgen-holt,

KOC^T)^ ga

('

not into the sea shall she escape,

losaS,

fsej)m,

ham

mid HroSgare

2789.

2793.

MS.
MS.

their
he,

he.

2810. swajjum.

who with Hrothgar


home defended.

of those

eahtode.

and helm.

2792.
'.

2806.

MS.

MS.

gende.

2819. ealgode.'

gyfenes-

BEOWULF.
Ofer-eode
aej>elinga

2820

))a

beam

deep rocky gorges,

stige nearwe,

fl

enge anpaSas,

strait lonely paths,

uncuS gelad,

an unknown way,

neowle

precipitous headlands,

njessas,

He

feara

He

sum

wisra raonna,
sceawian,

o))))set

he fseringa

the plain to view,

until

he suddenly

mountain-trees,

ofer harne stan

o'er the hoar rock

hleonian funde,

found leaning,

wynleasne wudu

a joyless

wseter under stod

water stood beneath

wood

dreorig and gedrefed

gory and troubled

Denum

To

all the

tJie

Scyldings' friends,

ealluni wses,

winura Scyldinga,

2 840

on mode

Danes

it

was,

grievous in mind

to gejjolianne,

to suffer,

Segne monegum,

to

oncj6 eorla gehwera,

portentous to every warrior,

sy8]?an j^Escheres,

when

on ))am holm-clife,

on the sea-shore,

hafelan metton.

the

Flod blode weol,

The flood

many

a thane,

of .55schere,

head

found.

thei/

boil'd with blood,

the people look'd

tt^aj'>vv

hatan heolfre

"

before,

wise men,

fyrgen-beamas

'!^S9Xce.

^.c-

with a few

went
2:
2830

wong

folc tossegon

narrow road,

nicker-houses many.

fela.

beforan gengde

over then

these sons of nobles

steap stan-hliSp,

nicor-husa

j-

Went

95

2850

the hot gore

on

horn stundum song

the

fuslic furjjon leo8.

also a de^th song.

2852. Thork. fiighton.

horn

The word

at times

sang

has perished from the

MS.

BEOWULF.

96

The band

re]>a eal gesaet

gesawon

jja sefter

wyrm-c}Tines

they

waetere

the water

sellice sse-dracan,

strange sea dragons,

sund cunnian

tempting the deep

swylce on nses-hleoj'um

also in the headland- clefts

nicras licgean,

nickers lying,

t5a

on undern msel

oft

bewitigaS

2860

at

morning time

keep

their sorrowful coarse

on segl-rade,

on the

wyrmas and wildeor


hie onweg hruron,
bitere

which
oft

sorhfulne si6

sat

worm-kind many,

of the

fela,

all

saw along

sail-road,

worms and wild

and gebolgne,

bitter

the instant they

gu6-horn galan

the

sumne Geata

2870

him on

here-strsel

from
from

feores getwgefde,

from

aldre stod

sundes

in

hjne swylt fornam.

ySum,

mid eofer-spreotum
heoro-hocihtum,

hearde genearwod,

life

separated,

his wave-strife,

the sea

was

swimming the slower,


when him death took off.
Quickly on the waves was he

ssenra,

Hraj^e wearS on

arrow-bow,

the hard war-shaft

he in

\>a

lord,

his

so that in his vitals stood

hearda

he on holme wses
]je

heard

war-horn sing

one the Goths'

leod,

yS-gewinnes,
})aet

and angry,

bearhtm ongeaton,

of flan-bogan,

beasts

they sped away,

vrith boar- spears

2880

sharply hook'd,

hardly press'd,

and on nses togen,

humbled of his mischiefs,


and on the headland drawn,

wundorUc waeff-bora

the

nitJa

genaeged,

2877.

MS.

9884.

i. e.

i>e.

2880.

wondrous wave-bearer

MS. hoc yhtum.

the monster that Beowulf had shot,

1.

2869 sqq.

BEOWULF.
men

07
gaz'd on

weras sceawedon

the

gryrelicne gist

the grisly guest.

Gyrede hine Beowulf

Clad himself Beowulf

nalles for ealdre

mearn

scolde here-bvrne,

2890

hondum gebroden,

for life he car'd not


his martial

byrnie must,

with hands twisted,

ample and curiously variegated,

and searo-fah,

sid

weeds

in warlike

eorl-gewsedum

sund cunnian,

tempt

seo ^e ban-cqfan

which

beorgan

cu})e,

could

hilde grap

so that hostile gripe his

jjaet

him

hre})re

ne mihte,

his hfe injure

helm

2900

hafelan werede,
jje

that head,

(which the sea-grounds

scolde,

should disturb,

secan sund-gebland,
since geweorjjad

but the bright helm

guarded

mere-grundas

mengan

secure,

the wrothful's wily grasp,

aldre gesce{)San

se

body

his
ivell

breast might not,

'

eorres inwit-feng,

ac se hwita

the deep,

seek the mingle of the deep.)


with treasure ornamented,

befongen frea-wrasnum,

with noble chains encircled,

swa hine fym-dagum

as

worhte waepna smi^,

the

wundrum

2910

hine sySjjan no

brond ne beado-mecas

jjonne msetost

him on ^earfe
2t^i. "

so that

it

afterwards no

brand nor battle-falchions


r

bite.

Nor then was

that the least

of powerful aids,

maegen-ftdtuma,
jjaet

days of yore

beset with forms of swine,

might

bitan ne meahton.
I^?e_s })aet

in

armourer wrought,

wondrously fram'd,

teode,

besette swin-licimi,
jjaet

it

lah

which

Helm nor hauberk's

at

need him lent

twisted mail."

Gry.

BEOWULF.

98
Hro^gares.

]?yle

Waes

Hrothgar's orator.

Was

jjsem hseft-mece

Hrunting nama
))aet

of that hafted falchion

Hrunting the name

wses an foran

2920

that

had before been one

eald-gestreona

of the old treasures

ecg wses iren

its

ater-tanum fah,

tainted with poisonous twigs,

harden'd with warrior-blood

ahyrded heaj)0-swate
naefre hit set hilde

ne swac

manna sengum,
J)ara

^e gryre

gegan

J>Bet

])set

of those

who

who ways

sias

brandish'd

forma

2930

that

it

should achieve
at all events

mago

Ecglaf's son,

Ecglafes,

what he ere had

aer gespraec,

wine druncen,
jjses

remember'd not

crafty in trouble,

eafojjes craeftig,

he

the first,

a work of valour

sefnan scolde

)>a

said,

with wine drunken,

waepnes onlah

when he

the weapon lent

selran sweord-frecan, 2940

to a better

Selfa ne dorste

Himself durst not

sworded warrior.

under ySa gewin

amid

aldre gene|)an,

venture his

drihtscype dreogan

a noble deed perform

]>8er

he

with

the trysting place of perils.

That time was not

si^,

hit ellen-WQorc

he

it

of terror

huru ne gemunde

Jaet

deceiv'd

durst go,

dorste,

folc-stede fara.

Nses

it

hands,

bewand,
se

never in battle had

any man,

mit mundutn

hit

J)e

edge was iron

dom

1.

1003.

for valorous deeds

ellen-meerjjum

2935. See

waves

life,

there he his credit lost

forleas

2917. Hunferth.

the strife of

See

1.

2922. See note on

1002.

2945.

MS. dome.

1.

3070.

BEOWULF.
ne waes

not so was

})?em o'Srum swa,

gegyred

it

when himself

he hine to g\x6e

s}r8))an

U9
with the other,
for battle

he

had prepared.

haefde.

XXII.
Beowulf ma'Selode,

beam

Ecg))e6wes

Gejjenc

maga

nil se

Beowulf spake,

2950

Ecgtheow's son

meera

'

'

son of Healfdene,

Healfdenes,

the sagacious prince,

snottra fengel,

nu

ic

eom

now

si^es fus,

hwaet wit ge5 sprsecon

If I for

me

ready for

lose

2960

a wsere

my

life,

that thou wouldst ever be to me,u'hen

on

in a father's stead.

fseder stsele.
\>n

hild

my

]>e \>u

me

Hro^gar

nime

if

Sa raadmas,

sw)'lce \>u

near comrades,

war take me

off;

which thou hast given me,


dear Hrothgar,

2970

Higelace onsend

pxm

a guardian

fellow thanes,

also do thou the treasures,

sealdest,
leofa,

maeg ])onne on

my

to

hond-geseUum,

mec

hence departed,

Be thou

mundbora

minum mago-|)egnum,
gif

thy

for^-gewitehum

Wes

my journey,

need should

scolde

aldre linnan,
Jjast \>u

am

what we have before spoken

Ic aet |)earfe

Jjinre

gold-friend of men,

gold- wine gumena,

Gif

Let now bear in mind the great

send to Hygelac
then by that gold

golde

may know

ongitan

Geata dryhten,

the Goths' lord,

geseon sunu Hre^les,

the son of Hrethel see,

)7onne he on

when he on

jjaet

sine stara?,
2974.

MS.

Hraedles.

K 2

that treasure gazes,

^^A^^-

BEOWULF.

100
)>aet ic

gum-cystum

that I for his bounties

g5dne funde,
beaga brj'ttan

distributor of rings

I enjoyed them when / might.

Ibreac )>onne moste.

And

J)u

Hunfer^

Iset

2980

ealde lafe^
wraetlic
,

And do

thou

Hunferth

let

the ancient rehc,

wTg-sweord,

the curious war-sword,

wid-cu^ne man,

the far-fam'd

heard-ecg babban

the hard-edged,

ic

me mid

Hruntrnge

I will

man,
have

with Hrunting

dom

gew}Tce,

work renown,

ojj^e

mec dea^ nime^.


wordum

After those words

or

--Efter Jjsem

Weder-Geata leod
efste

mid

found a good

ebie,

me

the

2990

me

death shall take."

Weder-Goth^ord

with ardour hasten'dj

'

nalas andsware

nor answer

bidan wolde

would await

brij^-wj'lm onfeng

the ocean-surge received


the warlike

bilde rince.

Da
jer

bwH

waes

he

Jjone

Then was

daeges

grund-wong

ongytan mibte.

fSona

})Bet

begong

heoro-gifre bebeold

bund

missera^

grim and grsedig,


J)set jjser

gumena sum

man.

a day's space

ere he the ground-plain

could perceive. /
Forthwith discover'd

onfunde

seo ^e floda

she

3000

who

the floods' course

bloodthirsty had held

a hundred years,
fierce

and greedy,

that there a

man

aelwihta eard

the country of strange creatures

ufan cunnode

was from above exploring

grap

then grasp'd towards him,

J)a

t5-geanes,

gu6-rinc gefeng
2982.
i^97.

the warrior seiz'd

MS. waeg sweord. wig-sweord=gu5-sweord.


MS. mehte.
2999- MS. se l>e.

BEOWULF.
clommum

atolan

no

])y aer

101

in her horrid clutches

yet not the sooner did she pene-

in-^estod

trate

halan

the

3010

lice,

sound body,

for the ring-mail protected him

bring utan-ymb bearh,

without,

heo

Jwet

})one

)>urh-f6n

fyrd-hom

so that she that

the lock'd hmb-sark,

locene leoSo-syrcan,
la)>an

Baer

with her hostile fingers.

fingrum.

Bore then the

seo brim-wylf,

]>a

when

heo to botme com,

J)a

hringa jjengel

modig

she to the bottom came.

to her dwelling,

swa he ne mihte
J>8em

*-^

sea- wolf,

the prince of rings

to h5fe sinum,

he

war-case

might not pierce through,

ne mihte,

no,

so that he

3020

waes,

(resolute as

waepna gewealdan
ac hine wundra

))aes

might not

his

he was)

weapons command

but him therefore

fela

many won-

drous beings

swencte on sunde,
sse-deor

oppress'd in the deep,

monig

many

a sea-beast

hilde-tuxum

with

here-syrcan braec,

the martial sark brake,

its

battle-tusks

ehton aglsecan.

Me miserable beings pursued him.

pa

Then the warrior found

se eorl ongeat

jjset

he

[in] ni5-sele

that he in a hostile hall,

3030

hwylcum waes,
Jjser him nsenig waeter

where him no water

wihte

in

nat

he

lie scQJ>ede,

knew not what, was,


aught could scathe,

ne hipi for hrof-sele

nor him for the roofed-hall

hrinan ne mihte

could touch

3009.
,3016.

MS. gescod.
MS. wyL Seel.

3i4' ^IS. leodo.


3203.

3024.

3030. in is inserted as necessary to the sense.

MS.

swecte.

3035. -MS. meht*'

BEOWULF.

102

sudden gripe

faer-gripe flodes

the flood's

fyr-leoht geseah,

he saw a fire-light^

blacne leoman,

a pale beam,

beorhte scman

brightly shine

ongeat

J)a

se

goda

3040

then the good warrior perceiv'd

grund-vfyrgenne,

the ground-wolf,

mere-wif mihtig

the

msegen-rses forgeaf

he

hilde bille

with his war-falchion

heoro-sweng ne ofteah,
]>?et liire

on hafelan

mighty mere-wife

made

sword-blow withheld not,

the

so that on her head

brand sang

the ringed

gryreKc gu6-leo6.

a horrid war-song.

se gist

jjaet

se

Then

onfand

beado-leoma

3050

the guest found

war-beam

that the

bitan nolde,

would not

aldre scej)6an,

hfe injure,

ac seo ecg geswac

but that the edge

))e6dne

its

set jjearfe

bite,

lord at need

had endur'd many

erst

hond-gemota,

hand- encounters,

helm

the

oft gescser,

fseges fyrd-hrsegl

]>cet

his

dom

helmet often slash'd,

the fated's

war-garb

then was the

waes forma si5

deorum madme,

it

3060

alaeg.

fail'd

J>olode ser fela

J)a

a powerful onslaught

hring-rasel agol

pa

first

time

for the precious treasure,

that

its

power

fail'd.

Eft wses anreed,

Again was

nalas elnes

slacken'd not his ardour,

mffirSa

Iset,

gemyndig,

resolute,

of his great deeds mindful,

mseg Hygelaces

Hygelac's kinsman

wearp Sa wunden-msel,

cast then the twisted brand,

^settum gebunden,

curiously bound,

3045.

MS. hord swenge.

3065. JUS. Hylaces.

MS. grsedig.
MS. wuudel.

3048.
3066.

BEOWULF.

stiS

and

angry champion,

the

y rre oretta,
]>3st hit on eorSan

103

so that on the earth

laeg

styl-ecg,

3070

stiff

strenge getruwode,

in his strength

mund-gripe msegenes

in his

swa

man

sceal

he trusted,

man

)jonne he set gilSe

when

thinks of gaining

longsumne

16f,

na ymb

lif

his

Gefeng Sa be

in battle

he

lasting praise,

cearaS.

nor about his

life

cares.

Seiz'd then by the shoulder,

eaxle,

nalas for fsehSe mearn,

(he reck'd not of her malice)

guS-Geata leod

the war-Goths' lord,

3080

Grendel's mother

Grendles modor
braegd
j)a

beadwe heard,

Jja

then the fierce warrior drag'd

he gebolgen wses,

(as

heo on

He5 him

he was incens'd,)

the mortal foe,

feorh-geniSlan,
^})3et

so that

gebeah.

flet

on

the place she bow'd.

She him again quickly

eft hrapie

hand-lean forgeald

paid a iiand*re\Yard

grimman grapum,
and him to-geanes feng

with her

ofer-wearp

werig-

]>a,

m5d

3090

vvngena strengest,
fejje-cempa,
|>aethe'

Qfsaet

on
\>a

a*^^

do,

gegan

jjenceS

lay

hand-gripe of power f

so must a

don,

it

and steel-edged,

and

at

fierce grasps,

him caught

mood,

)jone sele-gyst.

of warriors strongest,
the active

fylle weart5.

overthrew then the weary of

so that

champion,

1'

he was about to perish,

She then press'd down the

hall-'

guest.
to be understood literally;

the weapon, whether


Homer's heroes, of bronze or copper,
and having an edge of iron or steel fastened on it by means of rivets.

3070. Tliis

is

sword or axe, being,

Specimens of

this

like those of

kind are preserved in the

Antiquities at Copenhagen.

Museum

of Northern

^n

BEOWULF.

104

and h)Te seaxe geteah,

and her poniard drew,

brad brun-ecg

broad, brown-edged

wolde hire bearn wrecan,

she would avenge her son,

angan

her only offspring.

eaferan.

Him on

On

eaxle laeg

breost-net broden,
|)3et

3100

his shoulder lay

the braided breast-net,

which

gebearh feore,

his life protected,

wi6 ord and wiS ecge

against point and against edge

ingang forstod.

entrance withstood.

Hsefde 6a forSsiSod

Had

sunu Ecgjjeowes

Ecgtheow's son

under ginne grund,

under the spacious ground,

then perish'd

Geata cempa,

the Goths' champion,

nemne him hea6o-byme

had not him Ms martial byrnie

helpe gefremede,

help afforded,

here-net hearde,

31 10

his

war-net hard,

and hahg God

and holy God

geweold wig-sigor

in

witig Drihten,

the wise Lord,

rodera Rsedend,
hit

Ruler of the

on rvht gescod

decided

ySehce,
syJ)San

war triumphant,

it

rul'd

skies,

with justice

easily,

he

when he again

eft astod.

stood up.

XXIII.
Geseah

Jja

sige-eadig

Then saw

a victorious falchion,

eald sweord eotenisc

ecgum

Jjyhtig,

wigena weort5mynd

3104.

31 15.

among

on searwum
bil,

MS.
MS.

3120

the arras

an old eotenish sword


of edges doughty,
the pride of warriors

forsi^od.

gesced.

he

3106.
31

7.

MS.

he,

i.

e.

gynne.

6eowul

BEOWULF.
[wges] wrcpna cyst,

))aet

buton
aenig

hit wses

mon

mare

))onne

105

that [was] of

save

it

game

to the

aetberan meahte,

might bear

god and

good and

geatolic,

the

He gefeng

Then

fetel-hilt, 3 130

freca Scyldinga

seiz'd

giants.

he the knotted

hring-msel gebraegd,

fierce

and deadly grim,

the ringed

orwena

brand he drew,

of hfe hopeless

yrringa sloh,

angrily struck,
so that against her neck

hire wig halse

heard grapgde,

it

ban-hringas brsec,

her bone-rings brake,

bil eal

Surh-w6d,

flet

3140

w eorce

gefeh

TTie

work

leoht inne stod

light stood within,

even as from heaven

swa of heofene

hadre scineS

serenely shines

rodores candel
aefter recede^

hwearf

J)a

the candle of the firmament.

He through ^^e dwelling look'd;

wlat

be wealle,

3150

then by the wall tum'd,

weapon

waepen hafenajlef

his

heard be hUtum,

hard by the

Higelaces 5egn,

Hygelac's thane,

yrre and anrsed

angry and resolv'd

3123. wses

3146.

MS.

is

rejoiced

beam shone,

the

He

all

sword was gory,

the warrior in his

lixte^e le5ma,

efne

through

her fated carcase

on the ground she sank.

gecrong.

Sweord wses swatig.


I s ecg

grip'd her hard,

the falchion pass'd

faegne flaesc-homan

heo on

hilt,

the Scyldings' warrior

ireoh and heoro-grim,

\>set

of war
forth,

elegant,

work of

giganta geweorc.

aldres

choicest,

any other man

o'Ser

to beadu-lace

\>a,

weapons

was greater than

rais'd
hilt,

not in the MS., but inserted as necessary to the sense.

hefene.

3154. 3IS. unrsed.

\y

BEOWULF.

106
naes seo ecg fracod

(nor was the edge useless

hilde rince

to the warrior

ac he hrajje wolde

for

;)

he would forthwith

Grendle forgyldan

Grendel requite for

gu3-rcesa

the

he geworhte

)>ara jje

to

fela,

3160

West-Denum,

on

oftor micle

Jjonne

the

onslaughts

than on one occasion,

siS,

hearth-enjoyers

sloh on sweofote,

slew in their rest,

sleepende fraet

sleeping devour'd

Denigea

of the Danes' folk

fyftyne men,

fifteen

3170

men,

and as many others

ut of-ferede

convey'd away,

laSKcu

hateful offerings.

lac.

He him

jjses

when he Hrothgar's

Hro^gares

and o^er swylc

by much

heorS- geneatas

folces

had made

West- Danes,

oftener

on cenne

J)onne he

many

that he

lean forgeald,

He

had

for that paid

him

his

reward,
rej)e

to

cempa,

Saes

J)e

the fierce

he on reste

champion,

so well that on his couch he

saw,

geseah,

gu8-werigne,

of contest weary,

Grendel hcgan

Grendel lying

aldorleasne,

swa him

hUd

set

ser

lifeless,

gescod

Heorote.

as

3180

had

for

him before decided

the conflict at

Heorot

/^

Hra wide sprong,

{The corpse ypcdng far away,

syj'San he sefter deaSe

when

dree_^rowade,

the stroke suffer'd,

heoro-sweng heardne.

the

3175.

MS.

after death

he

hard sword-blow,)

raeste.

BEOWULF.
and hine

heafde be-

\>s,

and him then sever'd from

j>aet

Saw

gesawon

6e mid HroSgare

those

on holm wlitou,
3190

gcTnenged,

eal.

men,

who with Hrothgar,

that the wave-blending


all

brim blode fah

forthwith

were on the water looking,

wges yS-geblond

])aet

it

the sagacious

snottre ceorlas,
})a

the

blonden-feaxe

deep stain'd with blood

the old, about the

together spake,

hig

jjaes

come

mrne

jjeoden

})a

^ses

]>xt

that he in victory exulting,

would come to seek


3200

monige gewear^,

hine seo brim-wylf

their great prince

as of this

that

pa com Don

Then came

dseges,

left the

the

noon of day,

headland

hwate Scyldingas

the bold Scyldings

gewat him ham jjonon

departed

gold-wioe gumena,(^

the gold-friend of

modes

v- ^

"^

''

' ''

'''

seoce,

3210

and on mere staredon,


wiscton and
]>3st

ne wendon

heora wine-drihten
selfne

gesawon.

3203.
3212.

MS.
MS.

home thence
men,

his guests to seek,

sick of

mood,

and on

the

mere

wish'd and
they

hie

notice,

him the sea-wolf

had destroy 'd.

naes ofgeafon

was a

it

abroten haefde.

gistas -eeesm,

'

expected not again,

he sige-hre^ig

secean

good warrior

that of the noble they

seSelinges

ne wendon,

jjaet

the grizzly hair'd,

on-geador sprgecon,

eft

was

mingled,

gomele ymb g5dne

))aet

his

head.

cearf.

Sona

107

they gaz'd,

ween'd

not

their dear lord

himself should see.

abreoten.
wiston.

K., no doubt rightly, reads wiscton.

that

BEOWULF.

108

pa

{>set

Then

sweord ongan

that

sword began'

after with battle-gore

heajjo^wate

aefter

hilde gicelum,

in icicles of blood,

wig-bil wanian,

that war-falchion, to fade

wundra sum,

Jjaet

wses

Jjset

hit eal gemealt

3220

ise gelicost,

bend

jjonne forstes

was a miracle

(that

so that it ciU

to ice

most hke,
the frost's

onwindeS weeg-rapas,

unwinds

ssela

who

s65 Metod.

that

Ne nom he in

J)sem

Weder-Geata

le5d,

wicum

ma5m-3ehta ma,
J)eh

he

buton

and

pier

3230

monige geseah,

is

\^>y^

the true Creator.

He

took not in those dwellings,

the

Weder- Goths'

more

lord,
"'^

treasures,'

(though he there many saw,)

and

somod,

hilt

^^'

except the head,

J)one hafelan,

]>a

the wave-ropes,

has power

of times and seasons

and meela

)>aet is

band

Father relaxes,

the

geweald hafaS

\)

melted

when

Faeder onlseteS,

se

away

the lult also,

with treasure variegated

since fage

gemealt,

the

sword bad already melted,

forbarn broden msel

the

drawn brand was burnt

sweord

waes

ser

jjset

blod to ]>xs hat,

so hot
so

se ])aer-inne swealt^

who

Sona waes on sunde


se

]>e Eer set

saecce

3240

gebad

was the blood,

venomous

aettren eUor-gaest,

therein

the strang er

had

gue st,

perish'd.

Forthwith was afloat

he who before

'<

at strife awaited

wig-hiyre wraSra

the battle-faU of foes

waeter up )jurh-deaf,

he div'd

weeron y5-gebland,

the wave-blendings were

up through

eal gefgelsod,

all clear'd,

eacne eardas,

the vast dwellings.

the water,

3217. Lit. in icicles of war.

3224.

MS.

wael, for

which K. no doubt
,

rightly, reads wjeg.

BEOWULF.

no
fela-modigra

of those rauch-daring ones

feower scoldon,

on

four must,

})2em wsel-stenge,

3280

on the deadly stake.

weorcum gefenan

laboriously convey

to J)em gold-sele

to the gold-hall

Grendles heafod

Grendel's head

semninga

ojj^set

once

until at

comon

to sele

to the hall

came

frome f^^d-hwate

stout active in warfare

feowertyne

fourteen

Geata gongan,

Goths marching,

gum-dryhten mid

with their lord

gemonge
meodo-wongas traed.
pa com in-gan
raodig on

3290

proud

in the

throng

he trod the meadsjs;,- plains.

Then came entering

ealdor Segna,

the prince of thanes,

dsed-cene mon,

the deed-bold

dome

with glory honour'd,

gewur))ad,

human

man,

haele-hilde-deor,

the

HroSgar gretan.

Hrothgar to greet.

pa.

waes be feaxe

on

flet

Then by

boren

the locks

was

into the court borne

Gr^3les heafod,
))8er

war-beast,

3300

guman druncon,

Grendel's head,

where men were drinking,

b^ors

egeshc for eorlum,

terrific

and

and the woman'iS also

Jjsere

idese

mid

the warriors,
;

wlite seon wcaEflic

an aspect wonderful to see

weras onsawon.

men

look'd on.

XXIV.
Beowulf majjelode,

Beowulf spake,

beam

Ecgtheow's son

Ecgjjeowes

Hwaet we

\>e J)as

sse-lac.

" Behold,

we

thee these

offerings,

-^

BEOWULF.
|)a

when

se ellor gast

]jas

Com

pa,

the stranger guest

left

her life-days,

leenan gesceaft.

and

this miserable creation.

to lande

Came

oflet llf-dagas,

and

109

3250

lidmanna helm,

then to land

the sailors' refuge,

swi'8m6d swymman,

stoutly

SEe-lace gefeah,

in his sea- offerings rejoiced!

m8Pgen-byr})enne,
jjara \>e

his

he him mid hsefde.

swimming,

mighty burthen,

of the^/joiVsthat he had with hiin.

Went

Eodon him jja to-geanes,


Gode l^ancodon,

thank'd God,

SrySlic jjegna heap,

the stout

jjeodnes gefegon,

in their lord rejoiced,

)jaes J)e

hi

hyne gesundne

geseon moston.

Da

waes of

jjseni

3261

hroran

helm and byrne


lungre alysed,

band of thaneS,

for that they

might

him sound

see.

Then was from the vigorous chief


helm and bymie
quickly loosed,

lagu drusade,
waetei*

then towards him,

'the stream toekled

under wolcnum,

down,^:

wael-dreore fag.

stain'd with deadly gore.

Ferdon forS

They went forth thence,

jjonon,

fe^e-lastum

with their foot- steps,

ferh|)um faegne,

3270

the

high-way measur'd,

cujje streete

the

well-known road

cyning-balde men,

the nobly bold

from

from the sea-shore,

men,

hafelan bseron,

bore the head^,

earfoSIice

with

heora seghwae]>rum.

to each of them.

3253. OflPeriDgs,
3255. Spoils,

i.

i.

e.

e.

'

(in their souls rejoicing,)

fold-weg mEeton.

j)em holm-clife,

-i-

water under the clouds,

difficulty

to Hrothgar, the heads of his deadly foes.

the heads of Grendel and his mother and the

ponderous sword-hilt.

BEOWULF.
sunu Healfdenes,

Ill

son of Healfdene,

leod Scyldinga,

lord of Scyldings^

3310

lustum brohton,

joyfully have brought,

tires to tacne,

in token of glory,

Ic

which thou here lookest on.

her to-locast.

j>e })U

jjaet

unsofte

I it

hardly

ealdre gedigde,

with

wigge under wsetere,

the conflict

weorce gene))de

with pain ventur'd on

earfo^lice

with

aet rihte

life

escap'd from,

under water,
it ;

difficulty

according to right had been

wses

gu5 getwpfed,

the contest parted.

3320

nymSe mec God

scylde.

had not God shielded me.

Ne

hilde

meahte

ic set

mid Hruntinge

ac

))get

wsepen duge

me geuSe

though that weapon be good

eald sweord eacen,

))aet

ic ]>y

Ofsloh

(full oft

\>a.

me

Sfel

saecce,

ageald

and that

He

the

/ slew then

directed

weapon drew;

in that conflict

me the opportunity requited)

(as

buses h\Tdas
))a jjaet

has

the friendless,)

waepne gebrsed.

J)a aet |)jere

saw

beautiful

an old powerful sword,

S33

wisode

wineleasum

men,

that on the wall I

hang

granted

the Ruler of

on wage geseah

wHtig hangian

oftost

me

but

ylda Waldsnd,
)>8et ic

in the conflict

aught accomplish,

wiht gewyrcan,
\>eah

might not

with Hrunting

the house's keepers

then that battle-falchion,

hilde bil

forbam brogden mael,


swa j)aet blod gesprang,

that

hatost heaJ)o-swata

hottest of hostile gores

3332. wingea, Thork.

3340
;

".

drawn brand, was burnt up.

as the blood sprang,

but the

to

has perished from the

remains appears like nigea.

L 2

MS. What

BEOWULF.

112
ic |)aet hilt Jjanon

I the hilt

feondum

from the foes bore away,

aetferede,

thence

fyren-dseda wi-sec,

avenged

deaS-cwealm Denigea,

the Danes' deadly plague,

swa

hit gedefe waes.

Ic hit

)>e

as

|)onne gehate,

on Heorote most

J>aet ])u

sorhleas swefan

mid

)>mra secga gedryht,

3350

jju

thee,

and every thane


noble and youthful

iogo)>e

him ondrsedan ne

so that for

not to

them thou needest

fear,

prince of Scyldings,

on that

healfe.

side,

^<;^^^^ life's bane of thy


dydesj^^i^^^" as thou erst didst."

aldor-bealu eorlum,
yj

swa

Da

|)U ser

Then was

waes gylden miz

gamelum rince,
harum hild-fruman,

to the

3360

on hand gyfen,

on

the

aeht gehwearf,

hilt

aged warrior,

hand given,

the giants

golden

wzuriors,

the hoar war-leader,


in

enta ser-geweorc
hit

it

work

of old

sefter deofla hryre,

after those devils' fall,

of the Danes' lord,

frean,

wundor-smijja geweorc
J)a ]jas

worold ofgeaf

the

work

of

and when

wondrous smiths

this

world resign'd

grom-heort guma,

the fierce hearted

Godes andsaca,

God's denier,

morSres scyldig,

and

his

modor

eac,

3370

of

pass'd into the possession,

Denigea
and

with the company of thy warriors,

Jjeoden Scyldinga,
J^a

it

Heorot may'st

that thou in

Jjearft,

on

fitting.

of thy people,

^inra leoda,

dugoSe and

was

now promise

sleep secure

and |)egna gehwylc

])aet

it

the crimes,

murder

and

his

man,

guilty,

mother eke,

on geweald gehwearf

it

worold- cyninga

of worldly kings

pass'd into the

power

BEOWULF.
^it'in

the best

selestan

Seem tweonum,

je

jjara

\>e

113

between the

on Sceden-igge

of those

sceattas dselde.

seas,

who

in Scania

treasures dealt.

HroSgar maSelode,

Hrothgar spake,

hylt sceawode,

gaz'd on the

ealde lafe,

hilt,

the old reUc,

3380

on ^Eem wses or writen

on which the origin was written

fyrn-gewinnes,

of the ancient war,

sy^jjan fl5d ofsloh,

after the flood

geofon geotende,

the flowing ocean,

had

'

slain,

giganta cyn

the giants' race

frecne geferdon.

insolently they bore them,

past waes fremde )>e6d

that

ecean Dryhtne

to the eternal

him

to them, therefore, a final reward,

J>ses

ende-lean,

J)urh ^aeteres

Waldend

wylm,

was a people strange


Lord

through the water's rage,

3390

sealde.

the

Swa waes on ^aem sceDDum

Almighty gave.

of bright gold,

)>urh run-stafas,

in runie letters,

gemearcod,

rightly mark'd,

geseted and gessed,

set

and

hwam ))3et sweord geworht,

for

whom

irena cyst,

of irons choicest,

jerest waere,

first

wreo)>en-hilt and wyrm-

with

fah.

Da

3400

3384.

MS.
That

said,

that sword,

was wrought,
hilt

bound round and

ser-

pentine.

Then spake the wise

se wisa sprsec

34CX).

'

So was- on the mounting

sciran goldes,

rihte

gifen.
is,

adorned with

figvu-es

of snakes interlaced, a favourite

and uiuversal ornament among the Scandinavian nations, innumerable


specimens of which

still

capitals of pillars, etc.

exist in

works of metal, wood and stone, as

BEOWULF.

114
sunu Healfdenes

son of Healfdene

swigedon

(all were silent)


" Lo, that may say,

mseg secgan,

paet la
se

ealle

he who truth and right

soS and riht

)je

fremeS on

practises

folce,

gemon,

feor eal

gebcvea betera.

3410

born

Thy

arsered

is

people,

remembers,

that this earl should have been

Ses eorl waere

Bleed

among
all

an old country's guardian,

eald -X'-weard,
))8et

back

far

better.

glory

is

exalted

geond wid-wegas,

through wide ways,

wine min Beowulf,

my

J)in

ofer |)e6da gehwyice.

Eal

Jju hit

gejjyldum heald-

Thou

msegen mid modes snytmine gelaestan


wit

furSum

t5u scealt to fr5fre

weorjjan,

swa

sprsecon

I shall

love,

prudence

evince to thee

even

as

3420

thou shalt for a comfort be,


a very long time,
to thy people,

{)inum,

for a help to warriors.

Ne

Not

wearS Heremod swa,

eaforum Ecgwelan,

to

Scyldingum
willan,

deaS-cwalum

breat bolgen-mod

3420.

MS.

is

to the Danes' people

3430

he in angry

of higher degree

twidig.

he wax'd not for their benefit,

and for a deadly plague

Deniga le5dum

3410. That

was Heremod

but for their slaughter,

ac to wael-fylle,

'

so

Ecgwela's children,

a blessing to the Scyldings

ne geweox he him to

to

my

we two have

hseleSum to helpe.

and

of

said

eal lang-tidig,

le5dum

ar

pa-

all

it

mind.

sceal

freode

might, with

thy

trum.
))e

supportest

tiently,

est,

Ic

friend Beowidf,

over every nation.

mood

destroy'd

that he should have been a king.

3427.

MS.

fealle.

BEOWULF.
his table sharers,

beod-geneatas,

his nearest friends,

eaxl-gesteallan,
o)}set

he ana hwearf,

until

msre jjeoden,
mon-dreamum from
8eah

Jje

115

hine mihtig

he lonely departed,

/.wx.

the great prince,

from the joys of men

God

God

although him mighty

maegenes wynnum,

with the delights of power,

eafejjum stepte,

with energies had exalted,

men

ofer ealle

above

forC gefremede

3440

him on ferhSe

hwse})ere

all

men

advanced him

it

yet in his soul there grew

greow
breost-hord blod-reow

a sanguinary heart
he gave no rings

nallas beagas geaf

Denum

aefter

dome

to f^e Danes according to desert

dreamleas gebad,
{>aet

he

jjses

joyless he continued,

gewinnes

so that of

war he

misery

weorc Jrowade,

the

leod-bealo longsum.

a longsome public bale.

Pu

))e leer

be

Teach thou thyself by

))on,

gum-cyste ongit.
Ic

))is

gid be

suffer'd,

3450

This strain of thee

\>e

awrsec wintrum frod.

in winters wise

Wundor

Wonderful

is

to secganne

'tis

how mighty God,


to the race of

through

his

men,

ample mind,

snyttru bryttaS,

dispenses wisdom,

eard and eorlscipe

land and valour

He ah

ealra

geweald

hwilum He on lufan
laetcS

He

3460

hworfan

3442.

^*<^

possesses power of

sometimes
lets

monnes m6d-ge|)onc,

recited.

to say

manna

jjurh sidne sefan,

have

hu mihtig God
cynne,

this man,

understand munificence.

He

as

it

all

Ukes

wander

the mind's thought of


Lit. breast-hoard.

man.

-r-i-U,

^
.

BEOWULF.

116
mseran cynnes,
seleS

him on

of the great race,

gives

ej)le

wynne

eor|>an

him

in

Ms country

joy of earth

to healdanne,

to possess,

men

hleo-burh wera

a shelter- city of

gedeS him swa gewealdene

thus makes to him subject

worolde

the portions of the world,

dcelas,

side rice,
jjset

3470

he his

selfa

ne mseg,

ample realms,
so that

unsnyttrum

for his

he himself may not,

through his lack of wisdom,

Ms end

ende gejjencean

think of

wuna)) he on wiste,

he continues in feasting,

ne hine wiht drefeS

nor him

adl ne yldo,

disease or age,

ne him inwit-sorh

nor for him guileful care

on sefan sweorceS,

in his

ne gesacu ohwaer

nor

ecg-hete eoweS
ac

him

eal

wendeS on
he

Jjset

3480

aught

in

afflicts,

mind darkens,

strife

shows

anywhere

hostile hate

worold

but for him

willan

turns at his will

all the

world

he the worse knows not,

wyrse ne con,

XXV.
0)jj>8et

him on-innan

ofer-hygda

Until within him


a deal of arrogance

dsel

))onne se

weard swefeS,

when

the guardian sleeps,

the soul's keeper

sawele hyrde

too fast

biS se sleep to fsest

bisgum gebunden,

grows and buds,

weaxe^ and wrida^,

3490

the sleep

is

bound by

cares,

bona swi^e neah,

the slayer very near,

se pe of flan-bogan

who from Ms arrow-bow,

3470. Correctly ricu.

3475.

MS.

dwele^.

BEOWULF.
fyrenum sce5te^
jjonne biS

on

117

wickedly shoots

then will he be in the breast,

hrej)re,

under helm drepen,

beneath the helm stricken,

biteran strjele

with the bitter shaft

him bebeorgan ne con

he cannot guard himself

wom-wundor-bebodum

from the wicked wondrous com-

wergan gastes

of the cursed spirit

mands
pince^ him t5 lytel
]>det

3500

he to lange heold,

faette

on gylp sele^

Jja

gives not in his pride


rich rings,

forS-gesceaft

forgyte^ and forgyme^,


jjaes \>e

him

held,

fierce-minded he covets,

beagas,

and he

little

what he too long had

gytsa^ grom-hydig,
nallas

seems to him too

God

ser

sealde,

and he the future

state

forgets and neglects,

because

God

him before has

to

given.

wuldres Waldend,

weor^mynda

Ruler of glory,
a deal of dignities.

dsel.

Hit on ende-stsef

It in the final close

afterwards befals,

gelimpeS,

eft
))3et

se lic-homa

that the

body

Isne gedreose?,

miserably sinks,

faege gefealle^

fated falls

feh^
'"'

3510

se

\>e

another succeeds,

o]>er to,

who

unmumlice

madmas

without reluctance

treasures dispenses,

dsele^,

eorles fer-gestre5n,

the warrior's former gains,

egesan ne gyme?.

terror heeds not.

Bebeorh

]je

))one

Beowulf

bealo-

3520

tiy6,

that

evil,

dear Beowulf,

le5fa,

secg betsta,
3504.

Keep from thee

best of warriors,

MS.

fsedde.

3513.

MS.

Uege.

baleful

BEOWULF.

118
and

selre geceSs,

\>e jjset

and choose

for thee the better,

ece rsedas

eternal counsels

ofer-hyda ne gym,

heed not arrogance,

msere cempa

renown'd champion

nu

now

meegnes blsed

is ))ines

eft-sona bi^

3530

o^^e

fyres feng,

o^^e

flodes

o^e

gripe meces,

o^Se gares

or

fire's clutch,

or falchion's gripe,
or arrow's flight,

fliht,

or dire age,

or twinkhng of eyes,

oSSe eagena bear htm,

J)3et \)ec

be that thee

sword

or rage of flood,

wylm,

atol yldo,

oppresses and darkens

and forsworceS

semninga

will

't

disease or

from thy energy separates,

eafojjes getwgefeS,

forsite^

suddenly

bi6,

dryht-guma

3540

it

will be,

that thee, warrior,

deaS oferswySeS.

death overpowers.

Swa

Thus

ic

might

the flower of thy

eftsoons

J)set J)ec

adl oS6e ecg

o^^e

is

for a while

ane hwile

Hring-Dena

Ring-Danes

I the^

hundred years

hund missera

for half a

weold under wolcnum,

had

and hig wigge beleac

and them from war secur'd

manegum

from many

geond

msegjja

jjysne

middangeard,

j\

tribes

throughout this mid-earth,


with spears and swords,

aescum and ecgura


|)3et ic

rul'd under the clouds,

me anigne

so that I

me

any,

under swegles begong 3550 under heaven's course,


gesacan ne tealde.
adversary counted not.

Hwaet me

Jjses

on

e]>\e

Lo, to

me

of this in

my

country

edwendan cwom

a reverse came,

gnym

sadness after merriment.

aefter

gomene,

3537. This alludes to the

e\Tl eye, for

which see Grimm, D.M. p. 1053.

3564- MS. gyrn.

BEOWULF.
since Grendel became,

Grendel wear?!,

seo))(5an

119

eald gewinna,

my

old adversary,

in-genga min

my

invader

socne

ic f)Eere

constantly have borne

singales wseg

mod-ceare micle

Metode

\>xs sig

for tbat visitation

3560

great mental care

be

therefore

))anc,

to

Creator

the

thanks,
to the eternal Lord,

ecean Drihtne,
jjses

Se

J)set

ic

ic

on aldre gebad,

heoro-dreorigne,

clotted with gore,

ofer eald gewin,

after our old contention,

eagum

starige.

with

nu

to setle,

Go now

Gra

symbel- Wynne dreoh,


wig-geweor]>ad

my

eyes

may

gaze.

to thy seat,

enjoy the pleasure of the feast,


3570

unc sceal worn

in life,

on that head,

that I

on ))one hafelan,

have remain'd

for that I

for battle honour'd


for us

fela

two

common

ma]}ma gerocenra,

shall a great

many

treasures be,

Geat Wees glsed-mod,

when it shall be morning."


The Goth was glad of mood,

gong sona

went straightways

si))San

morgan

biS.

t5

setles neosan,

swa

occupy

as the sage commanded.


Then were again as before,

se snottra heht.

pa wses

eft

swa

to

his seat,

ser,

the valour-fam'd

ellen-rofum,
flet-sittendum,

.^580

court-residents,

faegere gereorded

fairly feasted,

niowan

with

stefne.

new

spirit.

Niht-helm geswearc,

The helm of night grew murky,

deorc ofer dryht-gumum

dark o'er the vassals,

doguS

the courtiers all arose

eal aras

3573. After this line


3575.

MS.

geong.

suspect that two lines are wanting.

BEOWULF.

120
wolde blonden-feax

the grizzly hair'd prince

beddes neosan,

his

bed

would

visit,

gamela Scylding

the

aged Scylding

Geat ungemetes wel

the

Goth immeasurably well

the

renown'd shield-warrior

rand-wigan

roftie

3590

restan lyste.

wished to

Sona him

Forthwith the hall-thane him,

siSes

sele-))egn,

wergum,

from

feorran-Gumenum,
forts

had

3600

heajJo-liSende

habban scoldon.
\>a

all

reverence

things provided

such as in that day

dogore

Reste hine

afar,

for the thane's need,

jjegnes Jjearfe,
]>j

journey weary,

who from

andrysnum

beweotede

swylce

his

comer from

guided forth,

wisade,

se for
ealle

the

rest.

navigators of the main

should have.

rum-heort,

Rested him then the amplehearted

mansion tower' d,

reced hlifade,

the

geap and gold-fah

vaulted and golden-hued


the guest slept therein,

gsest inne swsef,


o}j})8et

until the black

hrefn blaca

wynne

heofenes

bliS-heort

raven

heaven's delight
blithe of heart

bodode

announced
coming,

cuman beorhte [sunnan]

the bright [sun]

scacan sca])an.

robbers fleeing away.

3610

[Scealcas] onetton,

[The warriors] hasten'd,

wgeron

the nobles

eft to

sejjelingas

again to their people

MS.
MS.

3597-

3594.
3603.

feorran cundum.

MS.

beweotene.

hliuade.

3609. Thork. coman.


beorht.

were

leodum

sunnan

is

36x1. Scealcas

The word has

perished from the

supplied from conjecture.


is

added from conjecture.

MS.

MS.

BEOWULF.

121

fuse to farenne

anxious to go

wolde feor ))anon

would

cuma

the high-soul'd guest

collen-ferhS

far

from thence

ceoles neosan.

his vessel visit.

Heht

Bade then the bold

hearda

se

J)a

chief

Hrunting be borne,

Hrunting beran,
sunu Ecglafes

3620

.-'->

the son of Ecglaf

heht his sweord niman,

bade take back his sword,

leoflic iren

the precious iron

ssegde

him

]>?es

leanes jjanc,

gave him for the loan thanks,

cw8e$ he J)one guS-wine

said that he the war-friend

godne

accounted good,

tealde,

wTg-craeftigne
nales

wordum

in battle

meces ecge
jjset

And

]>a.

the falchion's

modig

w?es

siS-frome,

West-Denum

3ej>eling
fjser

to-yrnan,

se o}>er vrses,

3630

edge

was a high-soul'd warrior.

that

secg.

searwum gearwe
wigend wjeron,
eode

powerful

nor with words blam'd he

log

And when
with arms

eager for departure,


all

ready

the warriors were,

went

to the

West-Danes

the noble renaing, to

where the other was,

human war-beast

haele-hilde-deor

the

Hr56gar

he Hrothgar greeted.

grette.

XXYI.
Beowulf majjelode,

Beowulf spake,

beam

Ecgtheow's son

Ecgjjeowes

3614.

MS.

3615.

The MS. has ne

farene.

before wolde, apparently a repetition of that

immediately preceding.
3624. gu5-wine, i.e. the sword.
3634.

MS.

to yppan.

3633.

3636. 3IS. helle.

MS. weor^.

BEOWULF.

122

Nu

se-liSend

]>e

3640

"

Now

to thee

we sea-farers

secgan wyllaS,

desire to say,

feorran cumene,

we comers from

))cet

we

we

that

fundiaS

are

Hygelac to seek

Higelac secan

wgeron her tela

we have

willum be)>enede,

cordially, serv^,

J)u

us wel dohtest.

Gif

Jjonne

ic

maran
Sonne

in

3650

lord of men,

])8et

1 shall

gefricge,

if I

ofer floda begang,


\>iet

]jec

hwilum

yet have done,

be straightways readv

that thee those dwelling around

with terror urge,

hetende

3660

as those hating thee


at times

dj'don,

have done,

thee thousands

ic Jje jjusenda

I to

))egna bringe,

of warriors will bring,

haelejja to helpe.

of heroes, to thy help.

know

Ic on Higelace wat,

Geata dryhten,

lord of Goths,

))eah

6e he geong sy

he mec fremman

although he be a young

wile,

wordum and weorcum,


)>set ic ]>e

of Hygelac,

shepherd of

folces hyrde,
])set

learn,

over the floods' course,

pec ymb-sittend

egesan ])ywa6,

swa

of warlike works,

beo gearo sona

gif ic

aught can,

than

gyt dyde,

gu3-geweorca,
ic

us.

earth

for thy mind's love,

dryhten,

ic

i---^**-^***

execute more,

tilian,

gumena

now on

If I

owihte maeg,
J)inre

here been kindly,

thou hast well treated

on eorjjan

mod-lufan,

afar,

most desirous

his folk,

that he will enable me^

3670 by words and works,

wel werige,

that I

3646. MS. bewenede.

3670.
3671-

MS.

may

well defend thee,

MS. weordum and worcum.

herige.

BEOWULF.
and

and to thee

to geoce

\)e

a support to thy power,

maegenes fultum,
Se bi6

manna

J)earf.

Gif him j>onne Hrejjric


to

beam,

ge)>inga6 })e6dnes

freonda findan

3680

be55

him

\>e

then Hrethric

the king's son, craves

friends find

better when sought,

selfa deah.

who on

to hira

himself relies."

Hr66gar ma))elode,

Hrothgar spake

him on andsware

to

pe

"

word-cwydas

Jja

wittig Drihten

on sefan sende

ne hyrde

it,

far countries are,

selran gesohte,
jjaem

thou have need of men.

If

he may there many

]>xr fela

feor-cy))Sa

if

at the Goths' courts,

hofum Geata

he mseg

for succour

the javelin- shaft bear,

gar- holt here,

))aer

123

ic snotorlicor.

him in answer
To thee those words

the wise

Lord

into thy

mind has

sent

never have I heard more prudently,

on swa geongum feore, 3690

in so

guman

jjingian.

pii eart

maegenes

sti'ang.

and on mode frod,


wis word-cwida

wen'

{8et

J>8et

se

hild

and

geganget5,

if it

war

heoru-grim,

3687.

expectation,

is

happen,

fiercely grim,

Hrethel's ofi'spring,

3700

disease or iron,

thy prince.

ealdor Sinne,
3676.

of might,

sage,

that the dart take,

Hre))les eaferan,

3678.

mind

in

think there

gar nimeS,

adl o})6e iren,

life,

wise of verbal utterances

ic talige,

gif

young a

man discourse.
Thou art strong

MS.
MS. geHnged.
MS. wigtig.

HreSrinc.

Hrothgar' s son.
3681.
3697.

MS.

MS.

\>e.

See

1.

2382.

cy>;Se.

3698.

MS. grimme.

BEOWULF.

124
folces hyrde,

and

his people's shepherd,

feorh hafast,

])u ))in

and thou thy

life

hast,

that the Sea- Goths

See-Geatas

]>8et \>a.

selran naebben

wiU not have a better

to geceosenne,

to choose,

cyning senigne,

not any king,

hord-weard

or treasure-ward of heroes

h8elej)a

gif ]ju healdan wylt

maga

Me

rice.

J)in

3710

mod-sefa

lica^ leng

le5fa

if

swa

folcum

\>xt ))am

kinsmen's realm.

thy mind

dear Beowulf:

thou hast borne thyself

gefered

j)u

t/iy

Me

pleases the longer the better,

wel,

Beowulf:

hafast

so that for the nations shall

sceal,

Geata leodura

(the Goths* people

and Gar-Denum,

and

sib

gemgenum

and sacu

^20
ic

wealde

have borne,

erst

shall be while I rule

the

rices,

rest^

the guileful enmities,

which they

hie cer dnigon,

widan

Gar-Danes)

and contention

restan,

wesan |?enden

the

peace be to both,

inwit-ni))as,
))e

ample realm,

ma))mas gemeene

treasures

manig ojjeme

many

common

a one another

g5dum gegretan

greet with benefits

ofer ganotes baeS

over the gannet's bath

bark

sceal hring-naca,

the r'mg-prow'd

ofer bea^u bringan

o'er the main, bring

lac

Ic

ge

and luf-tacen.
]ja

3730

leode wat

wi6

fe5nd

ge

wiS

MS.

know

both towards foe and towards

fast constituted,
t>e.

shall,

and love-tokens.

the nations

friend

geworhte,
3704.

gifts
I

freond
fseste

thou wilt hold

3726.

MS.

gegrettan.

BEOWULF.

1 -i.")

aeg^hwaes untsele,

bkmeless

ealde wisan.

in the old wise."

Da

git

him

eorla HTeo

-j,

L-

To him

in everything,

besides the warriors'pro-

tector

gave to possess,

inne gesealde,

mago

Healfdenes,

majjmas

the son of Healfdene,

treasures twelve

xii

het hine mid jjsem lacum

bade him with the

leode swsese

his

3741

secean on gesyntum

seek in safety

snude

quickly

cuman.

eft

Gecyste

gifts

own people
come

again.

Kiss'd then

})a

cyning jejjelum god,

the king nobly good,

j)e6den Scyldinga,

the Scyldings' prince,

Segn betstan,

the best of thanes,

and be healse genam

and round

hruron him tearas,

tears fell

blonden feaxum

3750

him waes bega wen,

the

neck him took

the grizzly hair'd prince

the old sage,

oJ)re3 s\vi6or,

but of the second stronger,

hi

he had hope of both,

ealdum infrodum,

\>set

seo66an

that

thei/

themselves afterwards

geseon moston,

might

modige on

the loftv 07168, in conference,

Wses him
jjset

he

mej)le.

se

jjone

him on

breost-wylm

MS.

man

so dear,

that he the fervour of his breast

3760

but in his bosom,


fast in

faest,

deorum men,

3740.

the

might not restrain

hrejjre,

hyge-bendum
aefter

see,

man to ))on leof, To him was

forberan ne mihte
ac

from him,

bonds of thought,

after the dear

man.

inne.

3751. hope of both,

i.

e.

of

liis

safe

amval

at

home, and of

speedy return to Denmark, referring to U. 3740-3743.


3759. MS. mehte.

M3

his

BEOWULF.

126

dyme
born

longing secretly

langaS

%vi(5

bum'd

blode.

against blood.

Him Beowulf })anon,

Beowulf tbence,

guS-rinc gold-wlanc,

the warrior

grses-moldan

trod the grassy mould,

traed,

since hremig.

The sea-ganger awaited

agend-frean,

3770

on an ere rad.

\>e

at

lord,

anchor rode.

Then was on

HroSgares

the gift of

the

way

Hrothgar

often prized.

oft geaehted.

That was a king

an cyning

pset wses

owning

2^5

which

pa waes on gange
gifu

segbwses orleahtre,

in ever}i:hing faultless,

benam
maegenes wynnum,

until

age him took

from

the delights of vigour,

o))})aet

se

j)e

bine yldo

oft

'^

in treasure exulting.

Sse-genga bad

se

proud with gold,

manegum

which oft had overpower'd man v

scod

XXVII.
Cwom
fela

})a

to flode

3780

modigra

Came then to
manv proud

the flood

hsegstealdra

bachelors

hring-net bseron,

ring-nets they bore,

locene leoSo-syrcan.

clos'd limb-sarks.

Land-weard onfand

TTie

eft-si^ eorla,

the warriors' return,

swa he

aer

3764.

The only

dvde

land-warden perceiv'd

as he before

MS. beom.

The words

'

had done

wi5 blode' are very questionable.

interpretation of which the line seems susceptible

is,

that he

(Hrothgar) entertained a stronger affection for Beowulf than for

own

blood, that

is,

his

own

children.

I consider the case

his

an incur-

able one.

3765.

MS.

l>anan.

3770.

MS.

aged.

3785. See

11.

473, sqq.

BEOWULF.

127

no he mid hearme,

not with insult he,

of hli^es nosan,

from the

gaest

ne grette,

3790

him to-geanes rad

ac

cwae^

]ja

hill's

point,

greeted the guest,

but towards hira rode

bade welcome then

vvilcuman

Wedera leodum.

to the

Scacan scir-hame

Departing, the bright-clad war-

to scipe foron.

went

Da

Then was on

Weders' people,

riors

waes on sande

to the ship.
the sand

the sea-curv'd bark

sae-geap naca

hladen here-wgedum,

laden with martial weed^,

hringed-stefna,

the ringed prow,

mearum and maSmum

3800 with steeds and treasures

msest hlifade
ofer

the

over Hrothgar's

Hr55gares

hoard- treasures.

hord-gestreotium.

He

He

bat-wearde,

})cem

to the boat-guard,

bnnden golde,

bound with

sward gesealde,

gave a sword,

jjaet

he syS])an wses,

so that he

on meodo-bence,

madme

))y

on

the

gold,

was afterwards,

mead-bench,

the worthier for the treasure,

weorjjra,

yrfe-lafe.

3810

the heritable relic.

Gewat him on nacan,

He

drefan deop waster,

agitating the deep water,

Dena land ofgeaf.


pa waes be maeste

Then was by

mere-hraegla sum,

a sea-mantle,

segl sale faest

3792.

MS.

3804. He,
3810.

No

J)8et.
i.

e.

mast tower'd

Beowulf.

the

departed in the bark,

Danes' land

sail,

3794-

left.

the

by a cord

MS.

fast

scawan.

3809. BIS.

madma

alliteration with the following line; for

probably read yjjum.

mast

t>y

weorJ>re.

nacan we should

BEOWULF.

128

sund-wudu
no

SEe-genga

wind above

the

siSes getwsefde

not there the wave-floater

ofer j Sum

wind

fleat

the sea- wood rattled

jjunede

wteg-flotan

]>3ZT

from

3820

its

the billows

course parted

famig-heals

foamy neck'd

floated the

for6 ofer yfSe,

forth o'er the wave,

bunden-stefna

the

ofer brim-streamas,

over ocean's streams,

J)aet

hie Geata clifu

bounden prow

so that they the Goths' shores

ongitan meahton,

might perceive,

cuj)e nsessas.

the

Ceol up-gejjrang,

The vessel press'd up,

lyft-geswenced

on lande

set

on land

leofra

the hithe- guard ready,

manna,

the dear

course had beheld

for wlatode

sande

he

sid-ffe6med scip

oncer-bendum
]>y Ises

fsest,

k forwrecan meahte
up beran

aej)elinga gestreon,

frsetwa
nses

and

him

3818.
3840.

3841.

fset

gold

feor Jjanon

to the

sand

broad-bosom'd ship

with anchor-bonds

3840

hit y|)a 'Srym,

jja

bound

the

wudu wynsuman,
Het

men's

(prompt at the shore)

fus <et faroSe,

sEelde to

stood.

it

who, a long time before,

lange tid

])e eer

headlands.

Quickly at the sea was

holme

hy6-weard geara,
se

known

weather- beaten

3830

stod.

Hrajje waes

the sea-ganger went,

for,

lest
-

it

fast,

the billows' force,

the gallant

wood,

might wreck.

He then bade be home up


the nobles' treasures,,

ornaments and rich gold


he had not

far thence

MS. weg.
3839. MS. fas'Sme.
3837. MS. feor.
MS. on cear bendum. Tlie rectification is Grundtvig's.
MS. hym.
3846. MS. fraetwe.

BEOWULF.
to

to seek

gesecanne

the dispenser of treasure,

>iaces bryttan,

Higelac Hrejjling,
vr
Ifa

hiim

set

\29

3850

wunode

Hygelac, Hrethel's son,

where

mid gesiSum,

at

home

dwelt,

himself with his companions,

near the sea-wall.

5ia?-wealle

neah.

Bold wses

betlic,

The mansion was excellent,

brego rof cvning,

a chief renown'd the king,

hea healle

high the hall

Hygd

Hygd

swiSe geong,

jjeah

^e wintra

3860

amid

the

burgh- enclosure

Hsereth's daughter

Hserejjes dohtor

hnah

swa-))eah,

although she was not mean,

ne to gneS gifa

nor of

Geata leodum,

to the Goths' people,

majjin-gestreona,
5(n6d-|;TySo

fremu

cwen,

]>xt dorste

too sparing

yet violence of

mood mov'd

the folk's bold queen,

crime appalling.

firen ondrysne.

Nenig

gifts

of treasure-acquisitions^

wseg

folces

3870

No

one durst that

deor genegan^

beast address,

swEesra gesiSa,

of the dear companions,

nefne sin-frea,
\>e

hire aii-dseges

save her

wedded

who on

her daily

lord,

eagum starede
him wsel-bende

but to him a death band

weotode

decreed, calculated.

with eyes gaz'd

ac

3851.
3868.

tealde.

MS. wuna*'.
Fremu seems

3861.

MS.

hsebbe.

here without sense.

3864.

3871.

MS.

gene^an.

MS.

:^'-

gnea.

Perhaps we should read

frome, bold, strenuous.

had abided

gebiden hsefde

naes hi5

though winters few

lyt

under burh-locan

very young,

wise, well-nurtur'd,

wis wel-})ungen,

vt

BEOWULF.

130

hand-bound,

hand-gewrijjene,

was quickly -after,

hraSe seo])5an wses,

jtjUAM^ ^Wt-Vll

sefter

mund-gripe

mece

ge|?inged

3880

so that

scyran moste,

must

it

the deadly bale

such

is

idese to efhanne,

for a

woman

machinate

lig-tome,

aefter

huru

3890

mannan

jjaet

make known

onhohsnode

to practise,

after

to deprive

with that reproach 'd her


son,

others said,

))set

hio leod-bealewa

that she dire evUs

laes

gefremede,

less perpetrated,

in^^it-ni^a,

guileful iniquities,

wear^

after she

gold-hroden

3900

was

first

given gold-adom'd

geongum cempan,

to the

aeSelum diore,

the noble beast,

sy65an hio Offan

3880.

The grasp

3884.

MS. sceaden.
From this line

3888.

A periphrasis for

young warrior,

after she Offa's court,

flet.

3882.

1.

^-'^

life,

man

while drinking ale

Tale,"

of

at least

ealo-drincende

g)-fen

--

burning anger,

Hemming's

o3re SEedon,

a dear

Heminges maeg,

sj-^^an ?erest

no feminine usage

that a peace -weaver

feores onscece,

leofne

of affected reconciliation.

the 3IS.
a

is vrritten

woman. See

in another

also

and worse hand.

" The Scop

or Gleeman's

II.

MS. lige.
3892. MS. onhohsnod. qu. on hosp dyde ?
MS. Hemninges. Hemming's son is Eomer. See 1. 3925.
3895. MS. o^er sseden.

3890.
3893.

although she be beautiful,

sy,

freoSu-webbe

jjsette

brand

the pernicious

cwealm-bealu cj'San

Se hio senlicu

t.,

decide,

ne bi swylc cwenlic jjeaw

J)eah

f"

with the sword resolv'd

hit sceaSen msel

jjaet

after the hand-grasp,

BEOWULF.
ofer fealone flod,

over the fallow flood,

be faeder

through her father's counsel,

lure,

by journey sought,

si8e gesohte,
j)aer

in

where she afterwards

hio sySSan wel

well

on the throne,

gum-stole,

gode msere

good and great

the

39'o

lif-gesceafta

life's

creations

lifigende breac,

living enjoy'd,

heold heah-lufan

high love entertain'd

wis

towards the prince of heroes,

heelej)a

brego,

mankind,

ealles uion-cynnes,

of

mine

as 1 have heard,

gefrccge,

between

tweonum,

bi ssem

all

the best

)>one selestan
.

131

the seas,

human

eormen-cynnes

of the

forjjam Offa waes,

for Offa was,

race

3920 for gifts and wars,

geofum and gu})um,

man

arms)

gar-cene man,

(a

wide geweorjjod

widely honour'd

wisdome heold

he in

e6el sinne

his country

|jonon

bold

in

wisdom held
;

from him Eomer sprang

Eomer woe

for help to heroes,

hseleSum to helpe,

Heminges meeg,

Heming's

nefa Gurmundes,

Garmund's grandson,

ni6a

mighty

craeftig.

3916.

MS.

3925-

J>8es.

son,

in conflicts.

MS. geomor.

3928. It would seem from this line that nefa signified not only

nephew and grandson, but


for gen. nefaa, as I suspect

also great-yrandson, unless


it

to be,

and

it

be an error

in opposition to

Heminges,

meaning that Heming was the grandson of Garmund.


3929.

The preceding

intelligible.

digression about

Hygd and

Offa

is

barely

BEOWULF.

132

XXVIII.
Gewat him
mid

J>a

se

hearda

his hond-scole,

3931

Departed then the bold warrior


with his chosen band,
himself along the sand,

sylf sefter sande,

sse-wong tredan,

the sea-plain treading,

wide waro'Sas.

the

Woruld-candel scan,

The world's candle shone,


the sun from the south hastening

suSan fus

sigel

they drag'd on their way,

hi si8 dragon,

resolutely went,

elne geeodon,
to

J)3es ]>e

wide shores.

men,

until the protector of

eorla hleo,

Ongentheow,

bonan Ongen)>e6wes, 3940

the slayer of

burgum

within his burghs,

in innan,

young martial king,

geongne gu^-cyning

the

g5dne gefrunon

the good,

hringas dslan.

was rings dispensing.

Higelace waes

To Hygelac was

Beowulfes

siS

Beowulf's voyage

snude gecy^ed,

speedily

on worSig,

Jjset ))aer

the protector of warriors,

3950

cwom,

gongan.

proceeding to his mansion.

se rica behead,

feSe-gestum
flet

se

?e

J^a

Quickly was clear'd,


as the chief

commanded,

for the pedestrian guests

innanweard.

Gesset

alive,

whole from the game of war

Hra'Se wses geiymed,

swa

his shield -companion,

was come

hea^o-laces hal
to hofe

made known,

that there into the place

wigendra hleo,
lind-gestealla,

lifigende

they had heard,

the hall within.

wi5 sylfhe

ssecce genaes,

Sat then facing himself

he who had come safely from


the conflict,

3940.

MS.

Ongen)>eoes.

3959.

MS.

se

'5a.

BEOWULF.
maeg wi5 maege.
Syt5tSan

kinsman facing kinsman.

3960

After his liege lord,

man-dryhten,

J)urh hleoSor-cvrj'de,

in sonorous speech,

holdne gegrette,

his faithful /r/enrf

meaglum wordum,

in powerful words,

''^<jrr.\t"

had greeted,

meodu-scencum hwearf,

with mead-hbations went,

geond

through the

)>3et

heal-reced,

hall,

HsereSes dohtor

Hiereth's daughter

lufode 5a leode,

she lov'd the people,

li5-w?ege baer

the

h eanum to handa.
I

133

wine-cup bare

to the high chief's hand.

3970

Higelac ongan

Hygelac began

sinne geseldan

his guest

in sele J)am

hean

in the

hyne fynvet

high hall

kindly to question

fsegre fricgean

curiosity

braec,

as to

si6as wjeron.

coui:ses

Hu lomp eow

on

"

lade,

How

the

Sea-Goths'

had been.
befel

it

you on

8u fseringa

when thou suddenly

3980

feorr gehogodest

didst resolve afar

saecce secean

conflict to seek

ofer sealt wseter,

over the

hilde to Heorote,

contest at Heorot,

)>aet

HroSgare

tJu

the way,

dear Beowulf,

le5fa Beowulf,
\)a.

was bursting him,

what

hwylce Sse-Geata

salt

that thou to

wid-cu6ne wean

his

water,

Hrothgar

wide-known calamity

wihte gebette,

mightest somewhat compensate,

mserum

the great prince

Ic

jjses

J)e6dne.

mod-ceare

sorh-wylmum seaS

I
;

MS. side reced.


MS. haenum.
3986. MS. wi.

3966.

3970.

have

3990

The

on this account my mind's care


in sorrow-boilings seeth'd

alliteration requires heal.

MS. ac
MS. gebettest

3985.
3987.

BEOWULF.

1J4

/ trusted not in the voyage

ne tniwode

sitSe

mannes

leofes

of the dear

shouldest in no wise greet,

wihte ne grette,

SiiS-Dene

lete

but let the

geweorSan

sylfe

that thou the deadly guest

J)one wsel-gaest

J)set t5u

man

I pray'd thee long,

lange bsed,

ic J)e

South Danes

themselves decide

gu^e wis Grendel.

the contest with Grendel.

Gode

To God

secge,

ic )>anc

)>ses tSe ic

Se gesundne

4.000

say thanks,

for that I thee

sound

might see."

kgespon moste.

Beowulf maSelode,

Beowulf spake,

beam

Ecgjjeowes

Ecgtheow's son

paet is

undyme,

" It

my

dryhten Higelac,

is

not secret,

lord Hygelac,

[uncer] geineting

[our] meeting

monegum

to

fyra,

many men,

hwylce [orleg]-hwil

what while [of

uncer Grendles

of myself cind Grendel

weart5
J)aer

on J)am wange, 4010

he worna

was on the

conflict]

place,

where he a great abundance,

fela

Sige-Scyldingum

to the victorious Scyldings,

sorge gefremede,

had of sorrow

yrmSe

to aldre.

misery everlasting.

Ic

eall

))set

swa ne

gewrsec,

have avenged

4006. uncer

is

supplied from conjecture.

4008. orleg

is

supplied from conjecture.

4009. This

is

an O. Norse construction.

in other tongues a personal

pronoun

the conjunction and (ok), the ok


in the dual or plural

proper name.

See Caedmon,
instances.

Rask, Anvisn.
p. 296. 6,

all that,

so that need not boast

gj'lpan ))earf

noun put

caus'd,

is

is

The

rule

is,

that where

joined with a proper

in O. Nor. omitted,

name by

and the pro-

number, and the same case as the

till

Islandskan. Stockh. 1823, p. 228.

and Cod. Ezon. pp. 324. 31, 467.

7, for

other

BEOWULF.
maga

Grendles

of Grendel's kinsmen

any on earth

[aenig] ofer eort5an

uht-hlem
se

J>e

135

of that twihght tumult,

Jjone,

lengest leofa^

4020

who

shall longest live

laSan cynnes.

of the hateful race.

jPeeribifongen,

With

ic ))ser

to

furSum cwom,

Sam

hring-sele,

me

mago

encompass'd,
there,

to the ring-haU,

HroSgar gretan
sona

perils

had but just come

Hrothgar to greet

se msera

when forthwith to

Healfdenes,

son of Healfdene,

me

my

sy^an he mod-sefan

after

minne cue,

mind's purpose knew,

wi^

his sylfes

sunu

4030

ne seah

waes on
ic

opposite his

own

son

a seat assign'd.

setl getsehte.

Weorod

he

the great

wynne

Avidan-feorh,

The company was joyous


not in

my

life

have

under heofones hwealf,

under heaven's

heal-sittendra

of hall-sitters

medu-dream maran

a mead-joy greater

seen^

vault,

hwilum mseru cwen,

at times the great queen,

fri^u-sibb folca,

the peaceful tie of nations,

geond-hwearf.

flat eall

baedde byras geonge


oft hio

the hall all travers'd.

4040

beah-wri^an

secge [sealde],
er

for

young sons address'd


ringed wreath

to the warrior gave,

hie to setle gong.

Hwilum

her

oft she a

ere to her seat she went.

dugu^e

At times before

the nobles

dohtor Hro^gares

Hrothgar's daughter

eorlum on ende,

to the earls in order

ealu-wsege baer,

the ale-cup bore,

)a ic

whom

Freaware
4042. sealde
4043.

MS.

is

Freaware

supplied from conjecture

geoDg.

N 2

BEOWULF.

136

the court residents

flet-sittende

nemnan

hyrde,

4050

where she bright treasure

hio gled-sinc

j)8er

to the warriors gave

hsele]jum sealde
sio

geong gold-hroden,

young, gold-adom'd,

gladum suna Frodan


))8es

to the glad son of

geworden

therefore

wine Scyldinga,
rices

J)8et

|)8et

he mid

the

Froda

wife

4060

kingdom's shepherd

tells,

that with the wife he


a deal of deadly feuds

wael-fcehSa dsel,

has allay'd

ssecca gesette

and

oft seldan hwaer^

though seldom anywhere,

aefter leod-hryre,

lytle

strifes

after a people's fall,

hwile

even for a

bon-gar bugeS,
))eah seo

d>^i^

he become

and that report

rsed talaS,
'6y

is

the Scylding's friend,

hyrde

and

she was promis'd,

gehaten [wses],

[ha]fa6

heard name,

little

while

the fatal dart ceases,

although the bride be good.

bryd duge.

XXX.
*u

Mseg

))onne ofjjyncan

J>3es

at
This then

may

ill

endure

))e6dneHea6o-beardna4o7i the Heathobeards' prince

4053. wses

is

supplied from conjecture.

For
But ignorance of the events alluded

4063. Oft seldan present a very incompatible juxta-position.


oft I suspect

to

and the

we should

read J^eah.

defective state of the

MS.

render every attempt at inter-

pretation little else than guess-work.

MS. is wanting, consisting of the remainder


XXVIII., the whole of XXIX., and the beginning of XXX.
4071. MS. Jjeoden.
4070. Here a part of the

of Canto

BEOWULF.
and )>egna gehwam

|)onne

on

and every thane


of those peoples,

leoda,

jjara

when with

he mid fsemnan

walks

flet gseS,

on him gyrdeS

the

woman

he

in the court,

the Danes' princely child.

dryht-bearn Dena,

by

dugu^e bejjenede,
gomelra

137

the noble serv'd,

l-

on him girds

'''^'*-^

the relic of the old,

lafe,

heard and hring-msel, 4080

hard and ring-raail'd,

HeaSo-beardna gestreon,

Me treasure of the Heathobeards


while they those weapons

wsepnum

jjenden hie ))am

might command,

jrealdan moston,

until they misled

otJSset hie forla^ddon

to

?am hnd-plegan

to the shield- play


their dear associates

swaese gesiSas

ond hyra

ponne cwi^
se

J)e

set

Then

beore

beah gesyhS,

he

eald sesc-wiga,
se

\>e

and their own hves.

sylfra feorh.

eall

at the beer will say

who

the ring shall see,

an old spear-warrior,

4090

geman

who remembers

all

gar-cwealra gumena,

the slaughter of the

him

(fierce will

biS

grim

[se]fa,

be his

onginne^ geomor-mod

sad of

mood

geong[ne] cempan,

of the

young

))urh hre'Sra

gehygd,

through

his

mind

will he begin

warrior,

bosom's thought

higes cunnian,

the

wig-bealu weccean,

war-bale waken,

and

]j3et

word acwyS

Meaht Su min wine


mece gecnawan,

to prove,

and that word

will say

my

friend,

the falchion

know,

"Thou,

4100

Jjone \>m fseder

which thy father

to gefeohte bser

bore to the fight

4077.

MS.

dugufia bewenede.

4081. Hea^a-beama.

4078.
4084.

N3

men,

spirit,)

MS.

MS.

mightest

gladia'g.

forlaeddan.

BEOWULF.

138
under here-griman,

under the martial helm,

hindeman

for the last time,

sitSe,

dyre iren,
))ser

hine

the dear iron,

Dene

slogoij,.

^_

where

the

Danes him

weoldon wael-stowe,

were masters of

sySSan WiSergyld

when Withergyld had

slew,

the slaughter ^

place,
laeg,

sefter hselejja hryre,

4110

hwate Scyldingas.

the bold Scyl dings.

Nu

Now

her

]>ara

banena

the son, I

frsetwum hremig

in

on

walks

and

jjone

ma5|)um byreS,

mid

know not whose,

arms exulting
in the court,

of the slaughter boasts,

morjjres gylpeS,

])one pe 'Su

,.,.-

here of those murderers

byre nat hwylces

flet gseS,

perish'd,

after the faU of heroes,

and the treasure bears,

which thou with right

rihte

command."

rsedan sceoldest.

shouldst

ManaS swa and myndga^,

Thus prompts he and reminds,

meela gehwylce,

41 21

sarum wordum,

on every occasion,
with painful words,
time comes,

oSSaet Seel cyraeS,

until the

Joet se fsege jjegn,

when

fore feeder dcedum,

for his father's deeds,

sefter billes bite,

after the falchion's bite,

the fated thane,

bl6d-fag swefeS,

blood-stain'd sleeps,

ealdres scyldig.

to death condemn'd.

Him

Thence the other

se o])er J)onan

losaS wigende,

4130

vrarrior escapes,

con him land geare.

he the land well knows.

ponne bi53 brocene,

Then

on ba

on both

healfa,

aS-sweord

eorla.

[SyS]J)an Ingelde
4124. MS. femnan.

will

be broken,

sides,

the oath-swearing of warriors.

Afterwards
4i33

in

Ingeld

MS.

healfe.

3>'-'

BEOWULF.

weallat5 wael-ni8as,

deadly hates will boil,

and him wif-lufan,

and

aefter

colran weor6a6.

py

ic

woman's

love,

after the heats of care,

cear-waelmum,

will

Heaj)0-beardna

hyldo ne

his

4140

become

Therefore
affection

talige,

cooler.

the Heathobeards'

esteem not,

dryht-sibbe dsel

nor part of lordly kinship

Denum

to the

unfsecne,

Danes

guileless,

freondscipe fsestne.

their friendship fast.

Ic sceal forS-sprecan

I shall

gen ymbe Grendel,

again about Grendel,

J)aet

hwan

hond-rees h8ele))a.

4150

afterwards

After heaven's

glad ofer grundas,

had glided

out

gem

o'er the earth,

came angry,

the guest

cwom,

fell

the hand-conflict of warriors.

Sy66an heofenes gim


gaest yrre

know,

dispenser of treasure,

how

wearS

S}i55an

now speak on

that thou well mayst

6u geare cunne,

sinces brytta,
to

eatol aefen-grom,

the giant fierce at eve,

user neosan,

to visit us,

where we sound

))aer

we gesunde

sele

weardodon

jjaer

waes hond-scio

guarded

hilde onssege,

feorh-bealu feegum
se

]>e

fyrmest

4140.

:v.i

4160

was

in the

war not

his glove
idle,

a life-bale to the fated

who

Iseg,

the hall

there

MS. Hea^o-beama.

foremost lav,
4i4i-

MS.

telge.

4154. Giants are no doubt said to be fierce at eve, because, shunning


the light of day,

it

was only

on deeds of violence.
transformed to stone.

after nightfall, that they issued forth bent

If surprised

by the light of the sun, they became

See Glossary,

v. eatol.

Eatol may, however,

be an error for atoL


4157.

MS.

4161. se
is e.

saeL

)>e.

K., rightly

MS.

all

think, supplies the defect with se

\>e.

Thorkelin has he, but in the


I

that remains

BEOWULF.

140
gyrded cempa,

a girded champion,

him Grendel wearS,

to

him was Grendel,

mserum magu-jjegne,

to

my

to inu(5-bonan

a mouth-murderer

leofes

mannes

lie eall

no Sy

the belov'd

idy he

forswealg

swallow'd

empty-handed,

bona bl5dig-t66,

the bloody-tooth'd murderer,

4170

bealewa gemyndig,

Sam

man's

all

nor yet for that the earher out,

ger ut ))a-gen,

idel-hende,

of

great fellow-thane,

of evils mindful,

from that gold-hall

gold-sele

would go

gongan wolde
ac he raaegnes rof

but he, proud of his might,

min costode,

trial

grapode gearo-folm,

grasp'd ready-handed,
his glove

gl5f [hangode]
sid

and

si5 wees
eall

4180

it

gegyrwed

all

he

there within

the brutal perpetrator,

_would make

ged5n wolde

one of manv

manigra sumne

e.

me

unsinning,

dior*dced-fruma,

i.

prepared

and dragon's skins

on-innan

unsynnigne

4165.

because he devoured his victims.

4177. This about Grendel's glove (hond-scio,


intelligible.

imagine

his hand-sporu.

the

name

was cunningly

with a devil's crafts

and dracan fellum


jjser

hung

with curious bindings fast

fsest,

orSoncum

diofles crseftum

he mec

of me,

wide and wondrous,

syllic,

searo-bendum

made

it

to be identical with

1.

what

4158)

at

1.

is

not very

1976

is

called

once thought with Gnmdtvig that hand-scio was

of the warrior slain by Grendel (as

Handschuh does

exist as

a proper name), but both the context and this mention of his glove
are adverse to this interpretation.

BEOWULF.
hyt ne mihte swa,
sy6t5an

ic

on yrre

it

4190

]4l

might not so

when

in

anger

upp-riht astod.

upright stood.

To lang

Too long

hu

ys to reccenne

})am leod-scaSan,

[ic]

gehwylces,

yfla

)>e6den

is it

for every evil,

mm,

there

\>me leode

I,

my

prince,

thy people

weorSode weorcum.

honour'd by

He onweg

He

lytic

losade

hwile

4200

lif-wynna breac
hwaejjre

him

for a little while

pleasures enjoy'd

life's

sio swiSre

yet his right hand

swa6e weardade

guarded on
in Heorot,

sad of mood,

mere-grund gefeoU.

to the

wine Scyldinga
golde

lake-ground feU.

^M.e for that deadly onslaught

jjone wael-raes

faettan

his track

and he humble thence,

he hean 6onan,

modes geomor,

Me

my works.

away

escap'd

hand on Hiorte,
-?^-^and

to recount

[I] to the miscreant,

paid a manual reward

(^ond-lean forgeald
J)aer ic,

how

be,
I

the Scyldings' friend

4210

with rich gold

fela lean ode,

abundantly rewarded,

manegum mat5mum,

with

many

sySSan mergen com,

after

morning came,

and we to symble

and we to

geseten hsefdon.

had

paer waes gidd

and gle5,

treasures,

the feast

sat.

There was song and

glee,

aged Scylding,

gomela Scylding,

the

fela fricgende,

much

feorran rehte

related things irom times remote,

hwilum

hilde deor

4220

inquiring,

at whiles the beast of

hearpan wynne,

the joy of

gomen-wudu

greeted, the

grette

war

harp

wood

of mirth

BEOWULF.

142

hwilum gyd awraec


s5^ and

hwilum

sometimes the lay recited


sooth and sorrowful

sarlic

sometimes a wondrous

syllic spell

tale

rehte sefter rihte

told in order due

riim-heort cyning

_the liberal-hearted

hwilum

sometimes again began,

eft

ongan,

by age

eldo-gebunden,

gomel guS-wiga

4230

king

restrain'd,

the old warrior

geoguSe cwiSan,

with the youth to speak,

hilde strengo

the strength of

hret5er inne weoll,

his breast within

war

him

boil'd,

worn geraunde.
Swa we J)3er-inne

when he in winters wise


many things eall'd to mind.
So we therein

andlangne daeg

the livelong

he wintrum frod

))omie

niote

namon,

oS^set niht

in

becwom

yldum.

o])er to

pa WKs

eft

until night

4240

the

came

second to men.

Then was

hra^e

day

enjoyment pass'd,

in turn quickly

ready with wily vengeance

gearo gyrn-wrsece
Grendel's modor

Grendel's mother

si(5ode sorhfull

she

sunu

dea))

joumey'd sorrowful

her son death had taken,

fomam,

the

Weders'

hostile hate

wif unhyre

the

monster

woman

hyre

beam gewraec,
beom acwealde

her child avenged,

eUenlice.

daringly.

wig-hete

Wedera

a warrior slew
4250

paer wses ^schere,

There was from ./Eschere,

frodan fyrn-witan,

the sage ancient councillor,

feorh uSgenge

life

no

tSser

hy hine ne moston,

when morning came,

sy66an mergen cwom,


4238.

departed;

nor there might they him,

MS.

niode naman.

BEOWULF.

143

death-weary

deaS-werigne,

the

Deuiga leode

the Danes' people

bronde forbaernan,

with

ne on bsel hladan

nor on the

mannan

leofne

hio

He

})aet

4260

hreowa

tornost,

]jara jje

leod-fruman

pa

pme

[be]

.\,r

Then
4270

on holma gejjring

that in the throng of waters I

he

gehet.

wide cuS,

life

ventuj-e,

me

meed promis'd.

is

widely known,

the grim, horrific

grund-hyrde fond

unc hwile wses

would

then of the boiling deep,

which

grimne gryrelicne

J)aer

life,

great glory achieve

Ic 'Sa ^ses waelmes,


jje is

ground-keeper found
4280

there

we had

a while

hand-gemsene

a hand-conflict

holm

the water

and
in

heolfre weoll,

ic

heafde becearf,

^m

[gu^]-sele,

4257.

MS.

4269. be
4278.

is

MS.

4284. gu'S

rhythm and

the prince me,

besought, fierce of mood,

wy

ealdre geneSde,

me mede

Hrothgar

would a valorous deed perform,

eorlscipe efnde,

he

to

had long o'erwhelm'd

by thy

msertJo fremede

of those which the nation's chief


>v^

life,

healsode hre5h-m6d,
)>aet ic

-1-*^!J<\*^

of sorrows saddest,

Seoden mec,

se

i'^'

there under Me mountain stream.

That was

HroSgare

lange begeate

pile raise

man

the dear

the fiend's parent,

under firgen-stream.

paet wses

consume,

fire

she the corpse bore away,

setbaer,

feondes ftedrunga,
jjaer

one,

bubbled with blood,

and from her head

I cut,

in that battle-hall,

Denia.
supplied from conjecture.
griinme.
is

not in the MS., but supplied as necessary to the

alliteration.

BEOWULF.

144
Grendles modor

Grendel's mother

eacnum ecgum

with powerful edge


with

unsofte Jjonan

feorh o^ferede

nEes ic feege j^a-gyt

me

ac
eft

4290

thence

hore awav

me

but

the protector of warriors

again gave

gesealde

maga

life

was not yet doom'd

eorla hleo

ma^ma

difficulty

I my

many

menigeo,

treasures,

Healfdene's son.

Healfdenes.

XXXI.
Swa

se

So the great king

^eod-cyning

becomingly

)>eawum lyfde
nealles ic

Sam leanum

forloren hsefde,

had

msegnes mede

the

meed

for

he

ac he

me [magmas]

geaf,

sunu Healfdenes,

on [minne]

ic Se,

sylfes

liv'd

not the rewards

4300

dom,

beorn-cyning,

bringan wyUe,

I lost,

of might

me

[treasures] gave,

Healfdene's son,

[my] own power,

in

which

I to thee, warrior-king,

will bring,

make ready

estum gegyrwan

with gladness

gen

moreover of thee are

lissa

is eall set

^e

my

gelong

ic lyt

hafo

heafod-maga^
nefne Hygelac

all

pleasures long

have few

near kinsmen,
save thee, Hygelac."

))ec.

Het ^a in-beran

4310

Bade then

in

be borne

boar-head banner.

eofor-heafod-segn,

the

hea^o-steapne helm,

the warlike towering helm.

4285.
4299.
the

MS.
431

1.

MS. Grendeles.
magmas is supplied from
So likewise K.

MS.

eafor.

conjecture;

it

has perished from

BEOWULF.
the [martial] byrnie,

[here]-bynian,

gu^-sweord geatolic

gyd

Me

wra?c

aefter

the splendid battle-sword

"

worde

To me

this

war-gear

Hrothgar gave

sealde

the sagacious prince

snotra fengel
surae

speech afterward recited

this

is hilde-sceorp

Hr6gar

14.3

some

het,

word

by

things

com-

manded,
ic his

))aet

terend

gessegde

eft

cwse^

]>set

4320

j)e

that

I to

thee his errand

again should say

said that

hyt hasfde

had had

it

Hiorogar cvning,

king Hiorogar,

leod Scyldinga,

the Scyldings' lord,

lange hwfle

for a long while

no ^y

ser

syllan wolde,

would he give,
to the bold

he him hold WEere,

breost-gewfedu

4330

ic

)>ani

Jjset

though he

fraet-

wum

it all

well

heard that of these appoint-

swift alike,

foUow'd the track,

weardode,

apple-fallow.

aeppel-fealuwe.
est

He

geteah

gave to him a present

meara and ma^ma.

of steeds

Swa

So should a kinsman

sceal

meeg don,

nealles inwit-net

o^rum bregdan
4313. here
4320.
4341.

kind,

four steeds,

lungre gelice,

He him

him was

ments

feower mearas,

last

Heoroweard,
to

these breast-weeds
!"

enjov

bruc ealles well.

Hyrde

yet not the sooner to his sou

suna sinum

hwatum Heorowearde,
|)eah

<^'

MS.
MS.

is

4340

and treasures.
do,

not a net of treachery


for another braid

supplied from conjecture.

8erest, for

which Conybeare justlv substitutes

bregdon.

aerend.

BEOWULF.

146

dyrnum

with secret

craefte,

dea6 re

death

craft,

hond-gesteallan.

for an associate.

Hygelace waes,

Was

nijja

heardum,

to Hygelac,

the bold in conflicts,

nephew very

nefa swy^e hold,

his

and gehwsej^er

and each to other

o>ruin

gemyndig.

hrojjra

mindful of benefits.

Hyrde ic J)8et he ))one


beah

Hygde

heals

gesealde,

heard that he the neck-ring

Hygd

to

^e him Wealhjjeow which

him Wealhtheow had

a prince's daughter,

wicg somod,

together with three horses,

swarte and sadol-beorhte

black and with saddles bright

hyre sy^^an waes,

was then,

beah-^ege,

after the presentation of rings,

breost geweor^od.

her breast honour'd.

Swa bealdode
beam Ecg^eowes,
guma gu^um cu^,
godum dfedum
dreah

to

given,

Seodnes dohtor,

sefter

gave,

wundor-majrSum, the curious, wondrous treasure,

geaf,

])rio

435

wrsetlicne
J)one

afifectionate,

aefter

4360

Thus

flourish'd

Ecgtheow's son,

dome

the

man known

for

good deeds

in wars,

he acted after judgment

nealles druncne slog

nor struck he the drunken

heor^-geneatas

enjoy ers of his hearth

4353. HIS. W3ell>eo.


4356. 3IS. swancor and sadol-beorht, both

wicg

is

sing.,

though the noun

plur.

4358.

Not improbably an

error for beor-J^ege, as at

1.

234; though

the reading of the text receives support from hring-^ege, Cod. Exon.
308. 24.

4359.
collar.

MS.

brost.

Her

breast was honoured or adorned with the

BEOWULF.
naes

him hreo

maeste craefte,
ginfaestan gife,

him God

soul,

but he of mankind

ac he man-cynnes

\>e

was no rugged

his

sefa,

14)

4370

t/ie

greatest strength,

the

ample

that

sealde,

gift,

God had

given him,

heold hilde deor.

possess'd, the beast of war.

Hean

swa hine Geata beam

Long was
when him

godne ne tealdon,

not good accounted,

ne hyne on medo-bence

nor him on the mead-bench

micles

waes lange,

wyrSne

the shame,
the sons of the

much worthy

of

Lord of hosts

Drihten wereda

the

gedon wolde

would make

sw\e
))aet

[oft

saegjdon

4380

he sleac wjere,

ae^eling

very [oft they said]


that he was slack,

unfrom

a sluggish prince

edwendan cwom
tir-eadigum

Goths

a reverse

men

came

to the glorious

man

torna gehwylces.

of every grievance.

Het 6a

Bade then

eorla hleo

ike protector of

war-

riors

in gefetian,

fetch in,

hea6o-r6f cyning,

the

HreSles

Hrethel's relic,

lafe,

golde geg}'rede
nses

4390

mid Geatum ^a

war-fam'd king,

with gold adom'd


there

was then not among

Goths
sinc-ma^)5um seka

a better treasure

on sweordes had
)>8et

of a sword's kind

he on Beowulfes

bosom

bearm alegde,
4380. [oft saeg]
4383.

is

laid,

supplied from conjecture.

MS. edwenden.

4395. See

11.

2290-2293

which he on Beowulf's

for a similar expression.

O 2

the

BEOWULF.

148

him gave

and him gesealde

and

seofoa jjusendo,

seven thousand,

to

bold and brego-stol.

a habitation and a princely seat.

Him

To them both together was

on

wses

^am

bam samod

leodscipe

4400

in

the community

lend gecynde,

the land natural,

eard-e^el-riht

the patrimonial right

o?>rum swiSor,

in the

side rice

the

^iam

his,

6ser selra waes.

one stronger,

ample realm

who

there was the better.

Eft ]>xt geeode

Afterwards that pass'd away,

uferan dogrum,

in later days,

hilde

hlemmum,

sy^^an Hygelac

in war's tumults,

when Hygelac had

Iseg,

and Heardrede

4410

fall'n,

and to Heardred

hilde mecas,

battle-falchions,

under bord-hreo^an,

under

the shield,

^^^

to

bonan wurdon,

became

))a

hyne gesohton,

on

sige-{)e6de,

when him sought


among the victor-people,

the bane,
'

hearde hilde-frecan,

bold-daring warriors,

hea^o-Scylfingas

the martial Scylfings

ni^a gensegdon

quell' d in

nefan Hererices.

Hereric's nephew.

Sy^^an Beowulfe

4420

Afterwards of Beowulf

brade rice

the broad

on hand gehwearf

into the

4397. This expression has undergone


but none of them satisfactory.
4405.
4406.

4408.

441

1.

4418.

i.

e.

wars

realm

hand devolv'd

many attempts at explanation.

the better (higher) born, namely Hygelac.

MS. ^ft l^aet geiode.


MS. hlammum.
MS. meceas.
MS. gehnsegdan.

MS. ufaran.
MS. Hearede.
44i4- MS. gesohtan.
4421. MS. brsede.
4407-

4410.

BEOWULF.
he held

he geheold tela
fiftig

waes

wintru
J)set

frod cyning,

149
well

it

fifty

winters

that

was a wise king,

eald e)>el-weard,

an old land-guardian,

o^set an ongan,

until

deorcum nihtum,

in the

draca ricsian,

a dragon, to hold sway,

se 5e

on heape

4430

one began,

which

dark nights,

in a

heap

hoard watch'd over

hord beweotede

his

stan-beorh steapne

a steep stone-mount

stig

under

the path lay beneath,

laeg,

eldum uncu^.
paer on-innan

to

of

})8et

to the

sy^an

after

sleeping by

fire,

heathen hoard

he that

slspende be

know not who

hwylc
4440

since fah

he

men

hge^num horde
bond

men unknown.

There within went

gong

ni^a nat hwylc


*

*
the fire,

f)Tena h\Tde

the guardian of crimes

|)e6fes craefte,

by

jjset

*
))aet

sie

a thief's craft,

that

folc-biom

that he

he gebolge waes.

was angry.

XXXII.
Nealles [mid] geweoldum.

Not

wyrm-horda

the

craeft,

of his

sylfes willum,

4425.

MS.

J>a.

4427.
4435.

own

MS. on.
MS. giong.

03
-J

spontaneously,

worm-hoards'

craft,

will,

4432.

MS. steame.

W4,.{L.t^U

BEOWULF.

150
se 6e

him

gesceod,

ac for ))rea-nedlan

4450

who

he

nat hwylces.

know not

haeleSa bearna,

sons of men.

hete-swengeas

hateful strokes

and

secg syn

sig

forthwith look'd in
*

stod

Hwae

sceapen

'Sam gyste

se fees begeat

peer waes swylcra


in

There of such were many.

fela,

Mm eorS-[scr8efe],

in that earth-cave.

ancient treasures,

8er-gestre6na,

swa he on gear-dagum,

as he in days of yore,

gumena

what man

nat hwylc,

eormen-lafe
ae))elan

4460

know

not,

the great legacy

of a noble race.

cynnes.

)janc-hycgende.
)>8er

thoughtful,

there had hidden,

gehydde,

deore magmas.

precious treasures.

Ealle hie dea^ fornam,

Death had taken them

serran mselum,

in

and se an Sa-gen

and the one

leoda duguSe,

of peoples' nobles.

se

'8aer

MS.

447c

in watide.

at length

there longest wander'd,

was a sad man


1467.

4470.

all,

former times.

who

lengest hwearf,

wearS wine geomor


4454.

what

braeg

jjset

of

and therein

sona in-wlatode,
*

j^ea

jjser-inne weall

but from dire need

MS.

MS.

si.

weard.

4469.

MS.

Ser.

BEOWULF.
he wish'd for a delay,

wiscte ]>xs yldan,

he

])!et

that he a

lytel faec

longer the treasures

brucan moste.

might enjoy.
The mound

eal gearo

ready

stood on the plain,

waster-y^um neah,

near to the water-waves,

niwel be nsesse,

down by

nearo-crseftum

fast

faest

on-innan bser

4480

by

the headland,

arts stringent

there within bore

eorl gestre5na,

the earl his treasures,

hringa hyrde,

the guardian of rings,

heap-fundne

the heap-found portion

dsel

of rich gold

fsettan goldes

fea

mi

a few words said

worda cwae^

Hold ^u

"

hruse,

nii

hwjer hit

Hold thou now, earth

the possession of nobles

jer

on Se

where

gode begeaton

449

gu^-dea^ fornam,

good

it

7nen acquir'd

war-death has taken,


a cruel life-bale,

fyra gehw}'lcne

every

leoda minra

of

5e

})is

gesawon
4v<^.-

[lif ]

sale- dream

they

4487.

4495.

MS.
MS.
MS.
MS.

man
people

who

this life resign'd

had seen joy of

hall

brandishing of swords,
*

the rich cup,

drync-fset deore,

4483.

or

fseted wjege,

4471.

my

of those

ofgeaf

hwa sweord-wege,

otSSe fe

on thee

erst

feorh-bealo frecne,

jjara

(now men must not)

hsele^ ne moston,

eorla aehte

all

wunode on wonge,

\>ser

space

little

leng gestreona

Beorh

*3

151

rihde.

4500
4473-

hard fyrdne.
msestan.
l>a

na.

MS.

long.

4485.

4489.
lif is

the precious drink-vessel.

MS.

4478.

MS.

hwaet.

MS.

niwe,

fee.

4493- ^IS. fyrena.

supplied from conjecture.

BEOWULF.

152

dug[ut5e] ellen-seoc

nobles valour sick

sceal se hearda helm,

the hard

[hyrjsted golde,

adorn'd with gold,

faegum befeallan

from

feorh-wund swefaS

mortally

]>a

~7^

5e beado

gnmman

the fated fall

wounded sleep
who war to rage

those

'

by trumpet should announce,

geswylce seo here-pad,

in like

set

which

hilde gebad,

ofer borda gebraec,

4510

brosna^

sefter

beome

wig-fruman

go

there

gomen gleo-beames,

ne

side of heroes

is

4520

mearh

swings through the

hall,

nor the swift steed

burb-stede beate^,

tramps the city-place,

bealo-cwealm hafa^

baleful death has

tela

no joy of harp,

no good hawk

swinge'S,

se swifta

not

no glee-wood's mirth,

hcifoc
ssel

may

far

on the

hearpan wyn,

geond

after the warrior

after the martial leader

hsele^um be healfe

ne god

moulder

the byrnie's ring

wide feran

nis

war-shirt,

over the crash of shields,

shall

ne maeg byrnan bring


sefter

manner the

in battle stood,

the bite of swords,

bite arena,

j^^i.5

shall,

bymian sceoldon
seo

j^^J^^

helm

many

feorb-cynna

living kinds

[for^] onsended.

sent [forth j."

Swa gioraor-mod

So, sad of mood,

gioh^o msende

his afflictions bewail'd

an

sefter

eaUum

one

unblfSe hwse * *
dseges and nihtes,

MS.
MS.
4517. MS.

4501.

ellor.

4505.

feor

4525.

mynd.

uses.

forts is

after

unbhthe
4530

all,

by day and night.


4504.

MS.

faetum befeallen.

4507- ^IS. bj'wan.


4520. sele?

supplied from conjecture.

BEOWULF.
o^^aet deaes folm

hran

aet

foncl

death's

;il

hand

^j

The hoard-delight found

eald uht-scea'Sa

the old twilight scather

opene standan,

standing open,

se

who burning

e byrnende

biorgas sece^

seeks out mounts

nacod ni^-draca

the naked, spiteful dragon*

nihtes fleoge^

4540

beam
*

))aer

the land-dwellers

sceall

he ge

in fire envelop'd

him

hyne fold-buend
*

by night

flies

fyre be fangen

hrusan,

where he heathen gold

he hte^en gold

waraS wintrum fr5d

defends, with winters wise

ne b)"^ him wihte

he has not aughtl

se jieod-scea^a

So the great scather

))re6

bund wintra

three hundred winters

heold on hrusan

held in the earth

sum

a hoard-house

eacen-crseftig,

exceeding strong,

o^8et hyne an abealh 4550

until

him enraged one-

mon on mode

man

in

man-dryhtne

Swa

hord-eerna

_/

touch'd him at heart.

heortan.

Hord-wynne

l.)3

mood

to his liege lord he bore

baer

faeted wsege,

a rich cup,

frio^o-were baed

pray'd a covenant of security

hlaford sinne.

pa waes hord

of his lord.

Then was

rasod,

4S3I. MS. wylm.

4547.

the

MS. hrusam.

hoard explor'd,
4556. reafod

BEOWULF.

154

o^boren beaga

the

liord,

ben geti^ad

hoard of rings borne

feasceaftum men.

man.

to the poor

Frea sceawode

4560

The lord beheld

work

hnra fyrn-geweorc

the ancient

forman

for the first time.

pa

se

si^e.

When

wyrm onwoc

wroht wses geniwad


stone

^a

the

the crime

of

stearc-heort onfand

worm awoke
had been renew'd

the foe's foot-trace

he to forS gestop,

he had stept

dyrnan

by

crsefte,

dracan lieafde neah.

4570

forth,

secret craft,

near to the dragon's head

Thus may an undoom'd man

unfsege

from

ea^e gedigan

easily escape

wean and

calamity and exile,

wrsec-si^,

who

Se Waldendes

the

Almighty's

favour holds.

hyldo gehealdeS.

Hord-weard sohte

The hoard- ward sought

georne

diligently along the ground,

sefter

grunde,

wolde guman findan,


))one

\)e

he the

him on sweofote

sare geteode

the stout of heart found

feondes fot-last

se

men

he then smelt along the stone,

sefter stane,

Swa mseg

off,

the prayer granted

4580

man would

him who

to

him

find,

in sleep

had caused pain

mood

hat and hreoh-mod

hot and savage of

hlcew oft ymbe-hwearf,

Memound/^eoftwander'd round,

ealne utanweardne

ne Saer eenig

all

mon

on J)am westene

4557.

outward

not there any

MS. onboren. emend. K.

4568. he,

i.

e.

the foe.

4585. Thork. ^aere.

man

in that desert.

4558- MS. bene.


MS. hlsewii.
The sense seems to be

4582.

!MS. westenne.

that

the dragon went prowling about, but found no one inclined to contend

BEOWULF.

155

hwse^ere hilde gefeh,

however, in

bea[do]-weorces;

in the

beorh

on

hwilum

set-

J)3et

hsefde

war

mount,
his treasure vessel

sona onfand,

})set

conflict rejoiced,

of

sometimes he return'd to the

hwearf,
sinc-fset sohte

he

work

4590

gumena sum

sought

he forthwith found,
that

some man had

goldes gefandod,

meddled with

heah-gestreona.

the chief treasures.

the gold,

Hord-weard onbad

The hoard-ward awaited

earfo^lice

with

difficulty

until

evening came

oS^set aefen

cwom

waes ^a gebolgen

then was angry

beoi'ges hyrde,

the

wolde

fela

mount's guardian,

4600

with

fire

requite
A^s" drink- vessel.

drync-faet dyre.

dearly for

pa wses dseg sceacen,


wyrme on v/illan

Then was day

no on weaile leng

not within his

after the

departed,

worm's wishes

mound

but with burning went,

btele for,

hastening.

fyre gefysed.

with

Wses

The beginning was

fruma egeslic

se

hit

lungre wearS, 4610

on hyra

is

as

it

quickly was,

painfully ended.

The whole

story,

owing to the bad

very unintelligible.

4600.
4604,

MS.
MS.

lig e,

dreadful

in their treasure giver,

sinc-gifan,

sare geendod.

with him.

fire

to the people in the land,

leodum on lande,
swa

longer

would he abide

bidan vrolde

mid

would much then

^a

fyre forgyldan

ac

with no alliteration.

Iseg!

\rn
i

state of a very

bad MS.

BEOWULF.

156

XXXIII.
pa

Then

ongan

se gsest

the guest began

gledum spiwan,

with gleeds to vomit,

dwelhngs

beorht-hofu bcernan

the bright

bryne-leoma stod

the fire-beam stood

men

eldum on andan

in hate to

no ^0er aht cwices

nothing Hving there

la^ lyft-floga

the hostile air-flier

Ixfan wolde.

Wses

J)aes

4620

wyrmes wig

would

to burn';

leave.

That worm's war wa


widely seen,

wide gesyne,
nearo-fages ni6,

the torturing foe'a malice,

nean and feorran,

near and

hu

how

se

gu6-scea^a

Geata leode
hatode and

hord

far,

the hostile scather

the Goths' people

hated and oppress'd

hj'^nde

then darted back to his hoard,

eft gesceat,

dryht-sele dyrnne,
ssr

daeges hwile.

his secret hall,

4630

ere day-time.

Haefde landwara

He

lige befangen,

in flame envelop'd,

bcele

had the land-inhabitants

with

and bronde

beorges getruwode,

and burning

fire

mount he trusted,
war and mound

in his

wiges and wealles

his

him seo wen geleah.

him

pa

that

hope deceiv'd.

Then was

to

broga gecy^ed

the terror

made known

snude t5 so^e,

speedily in sooth,

))aet

waes Beowulfe

his sylfes

bolda

"

ham,

4640

own home,

of mansions best,

selest,

bryne-wylmum

that his

Beowulf

was by

mealt,

fire-heats consum'd,

the Goths' gift-chair.

gif-stol Geata.

4640.

MS. him.

BEOWULF.
8am godan

pset

That

waes

hreow on hre^re,

157

to the

good prince was

grievous in mind,

hyge-sorga msest

of mental sorrows greatest

wende

the wise chief

se wisa

against

ofer ealle riht,

ecean Dryhtne,
bitre

gebulge

ween'd

that he with the Almighty,

he Wealdende,

J>aet

465c

all right,

with the eternal Lord,

should be bitterly incens'd

breost innan weoll

his breast boil'd within

)>eostrum gejjoncum,

with dark thoughts,

swa him

as

gejjwsere ne waes.

it

was not

befitting him.

The fire-drake had

Hsefde lig-draca
leoda faesten,

the people's fastness,

ealond utan,

an island without,

eor^-weard ^one,

the country's safeguard,

gledum forgrunden.

with gleeds destroy'd.

Him

]>ses

Wedera

gu5-cyning, 4660

For
the

J)e6den,

this the warlike king,

Weders'

prince,

wraece leomode

vengeance learn'd

heht him

bade for him then be wrought

gewyrcean

}>a

wigendra hle5,

the protector of warriors,

eall irenne,

all

eorla dryhten,

the lord of earls,

wig-bord

a wondrous war-board

wraetlic

wisse he gearwe
}>set

he well knew

him holt-wudu

helpan ne meahte,
lind

that

4670

wi6 hge.

the forest-wood
help,

jer-god

these miserable days

the

good prince

4649.

MS.

ealde.

Him

here seems redundant.

4672.

MS.

t)end,

4654.

fire.

Of

4660.

K. Ian.

him

might not

linden against

Sceolde Isen-daga
aejjeling

of iron,

MS.

get>ywe.

must

4658. card?

without either sense or alliteration.

adopt with

BEOWULF.

158
ende gebidan,

an end abide,

worulde

of this world's

lifes,

and se wyrm somod


Se hord-welan

j)eah

he long had held.

heolde lange.

Oferhogode"

Disdain' d then

hringa fengel
]>set

life,

worm with him


^though the hoard-wealth
amj the

4680

he jjone wid-flogan

the prince of rings

that he the wide-flier

weorode gesohte,

with a host should seek,

sidan herge

a numerous band

no he him
ne him

J)a

\>?es

ssecce ondred,

wyrmes wig

he dreaded not the

conflict,

nor the worm's warfare

for wiht dyde,

for aught accounted,

eafoS and ellen

his

he

for})on

nearo-neSende,
niSa gedigde,
hilde

hlemma,

sy33an he HroSgares,

energy and valour

because he erst many,

ser fela,

rashly darings

4690

strifes

had escap'd from,

tumults of war,
since he Hrothgar's

sigor-eadig secg,

(victorious warrior)

sele fslsode,

hall

had

and

and

in conflict

aet

guSe forgrap

Grendles magan,
laSan cynnes.
I No

J)3et

Isesest wses

hond-gemota,
|)8er

purified,

grasp 'd

Grendel's relation,
of loathsome race.

Nor was

that least

of hand-meetings,

monHygelacslob, 4700 where Hygelac was

sySSan Geata cyning,

when

guSe-raesum,

in war-onslaughts,

slain,

the Goths' king,

frea-wine folca,

the lordly friend of nations,

Freslondum on,

in the Frieslands,

H regies

Hrethel's ofi'spring,

eafora.

4684.

MS. H.

4696.

MS.

Grendeles

megum.

BEOWULF.
sword-drunken perish'd,

heoro-druncen swealt,
bille

1.09

by

gebeaten.

the falchion beaten.

ponan Beowulf com

Thence Beowulf came

sylfes crsefte,

by

his

sund-nyde dreah

the

need of swimming

haefde

4710

him on earme
*

own power,

he had on his
*

XXX.

suffer'd

arm

thirty

war-equipments

hilde geatwa,

Nealles Hetware

when he to the sea went down.


Not the Hetwaras

hream

had need of

j)a

he to holme [st]ag.

ge))orfton.

\>e

who

him foran ongean

in front against

him

bore the hnden

li^e bseron
lyt eft

exultation,

in that host of war,

fetSe-wiges,

becwom

4720

few again came

fram J)am hild-frecan,

from that warlike darer,

hames niosan

their

ofer-swam J>a siole^a bigong

home to visit
swam over then the seals'

sunu EcgtSeowes,

Ecgtheow's son^

earm anhaga,
eft to
{)aer

a poor solitary,

leodum,

again to his people,

him Hygd gebead

hord and

course

where him Hygd

offer'

treasure and realm^

rice,

beagas and brego-stol

rings and princely throne

beame ne truwode,

in her child she trusted not,

|>8et

4730

he wi^ selfylcum

'

that he against foreign folks

e))el-st61as

his paternal seats

healdan cu^e.

could hold.

t/-

4706.

MS.

4723.

hioro dryncum.

4710.

suspect that the word S5el

that bigong

is

is

MS.

nytte.

lurking in this ^iole'Sa, and

merely a gloss dragged into the text by the copyist, to

the destruction of both sense and rhythm, and that

ofer-swam

l>&

siol-eSel

sunu Ecg^eowes, etc

P 2

we should

read,

BEOWULF.

160

Da

-Then was Hygelac dead^

waes Hygelac dead,

^et not for that sooner the poor

/lio ]>y er feasceafte

people
findan meahton
set

^am

could prevail

with the prince,

ae^elinge,

on any account,

senige jjinga
))aet

that he to Heardred

he Heardrede

hlaford Wcere,

o^^e

4740

cynedom

J)one

would be
or the

lord,

kingdom

would choose

ciosan wolde

him among

hwse^re he hine on folce

yet he

freond-larum heold,

with friendly instructions main-

estum mid are

kindly with honour

o^aet he yldra wearS,

until

\Weder-Geatum weold.
Hyne wrsec-mecgas

Him

his people

tain'd,

and rul'd the Weder-Goths.

ofer see sohton

4750

hy forhealden,

haefdon

rovers

over the sea sought

sunu^ Ohtheres

the son; of

they had subdued,


the Scylfings' helm,

})one selestan

the best

sae-cyninga,

of sea-kings,

^e in Swio-rice

of those

sine brytnade,

])aet

to

he J)8er*orfeonne
Beowulf.

e.

4737.

i.

MS.

in

Sweden

a great prince

mearge wear^

4749.

who

treasure dispens'd,

mserne J)e6den

him

Ohthere

helm Scylfinga,

jjara

he became older,

sohtan.

that to his

marrow went

he there iraitlessly
4743.
4750.

MS. him.
4748. MS. msecgas.
MS. suna Ohteresj but see 1. 4764

4752. EadgUs.
4758.
refers to

MS. mearce.

Es geht einem durch ilark und Bein

Heardred, as also he in the line following.

4759. he,

i.

e.

Heardred.

Hint

BEOWULF.
feorh-wunde

hleat,

4760

161

*ank with a mortal wound,

sweordes swengura,

with strokes of the sword,

sunu Hygelaces

the son of

and him

and again departed

gewat

eft

-Ofetheres bearn,

hames

let

Obthere's son,

niosan,

sy^an Heardred

Hygelac

his

laeg

home

after

^one brego-stol

to

visit,

Heardred had

he the royal seat

fall'n

Beowulf healdan,

Beowulf to hold,

Geatum wealdan

over the Goths to nile

\)Xt

waes god cyning. 4770

that was a

left

good king.

XXXIV.
Se

He

leod-hryres

tJses

lean

gemunde

uferan

for the people's fall

retribution reraember'd

d5grum

in after days

became

Eadgilse wearS

he

feasceaftum freond

when

to Eadgils

in distress a friend

folce gestepte

with people he supported,

ofer See side

over the wide sea,

sunu Ohtheres,

Ohthere's son,

wigum and wsepnum

with warriors and weapons

he gewrsec

sy^an

4780

he afterwards avenged
*

cealdum cear-si^um,

with cold sad fortunes,

cyning ealdre bineat.

their

4764.
4778.

MS. OngenSiowes.
MS. Ohteres.

king of Ufe depriv'd.

4767.

let refers to

Heardred.

4780. Here some couplets are evidently wanting, containing an


account of Beovrulf's, or Ead^la', proceedings against the " wraec-

mecgas"

(1.

4748),

seek aid of Beowulf.

who had slain Heardred, and driven


The king mentioned at 1. 4782 is, no

king of those rovers.

P3

Eadgils to
doubt, the

BEOWULF.

162

Swa he m^a gehwane

Thus he every enmity

genesen haefde,

had outUv'd,

sli^ra geslyhta,

every fierce conflict,

sunu Ecg^iovres,

Ecgtheow's son,

ellen-weorca,

every valorous work,

0^ one anne
\>e

daeg,

4790

he wi^ })am wyrme

gewegan

until that

one day,

when he against the

Went

Gewat |)a xiia sum,


tome gebolgen,

then with

xii.

dryhten Geata,

the Goths' lord,

the dragon to behold

])a

hwanan
him

gefrunen

4800

ma^]>um-faet vaxre,
))urh jjses

se waes

^am

the hostihty arose,

baleful

enmity of warriors

for his

bane to him had come

the

meldan hoad,

on

fam'd precious vessel,

through the discoverer's hand,

who

Create

in that

band was

])reotteo^a secg,

the thirteenth

se ^aes orleges

who

hyge giomor,

sceolde hean

wong

wisian

he had a sad mind,

^anon

he must humble thence


the plain point out

he ofer willan gong,


to Saes

man,

of that strife

the beginning caus'd

5r onstealde
haefde

had then leam'd

whence

beoma

banan cwom

to

he

sio fgeh^ aras,

bealo-ni^

others,

with anger swollen,

dracan sceawian
haefde

worm

must proceed.

sceolde.

4810

e he eorS-sele

against his will he went,

because that he the earth-hall

ana wisse,

alone knew,

mound under

hlaew under hrusan,

the

holm-wylme neah,

to the sea-raging near,

yt5-gewinne,

the strife of waves.

4797.

4808.
4812.

MS.
MS.
MS.

hseft.

honon.
anne.

the earth,

MS. bearme.
4802. MS. maeldan
4810. MS. giong.
4814. MS. neh.

4800.

BEOWULF.
se waes inn an full

weard

it

gearo gu^-freca,

to

4820

y^e ceap

gegangenne

t5a

held the golden treasures,


old,

under the earth

that

was no easy bargain

to obtain

gumena senigum.
Gesaet

any man.

for

Sat then on the ness

on naesse

ni^-heard cyning,

the bold warrior king,

))enden hselo abead

whUe

heorS - geneatum

to his hearth-enjoyers,

gold- wine Geata

him wses geomor


and

waefre

he bade farewell

the Goths' gold-friend


sefa,

4830

his

mind was

the fate close at hand,

gomelan

which the aged man

gretan sceolde,

must

secean sawle hord,

must seek

sundur-gedgelan

asunder part

lif

wi^

no

Jjon

lice

life

4840

ic

from body

wrapt in

life

flesh.

Beowulf spake,

raajjclode,

beam EcgSeowes
Fela

his soul-treasure,

the prince's

bewunden.

Beowulf

greet,

not then long was

lange wses

feorh 3e})elinges
fljesce

sad,

wandering and death-bound,

wael-fus,

wyrd ungemete neah,


se Jjone

Ecgtheow's son
" I in youth many

on giogo^e

gu^-raesa genses,

war-onslaughts have

orleg-hwila

hours of warfare

ic J)set eall

ic
\>a.

gemon

I all

waes syfan wintre,

mec

a ready bold warrior,

eald under eor^an


Jjaet

within

full

a monstrous guardian,

unliiore,

gold-magmas heold,
naes

was

of ornaments and wires

and wira

wraetta

1H3

that

4841.

MS.

remember

was seven winters

when me

sinca baldor,

outliv'd,.

old,

the lord of treasures.

maj>elade.

BEOWULF.

164
frea-wine folca,

the noble friend of nations,

minum feeder genam,


from my father took,
heold mec and haefde 4851 held and had me
aet

Hre^el cyning

me

geaf

sine

Hrethel the king

and symbel,

gemunde
ic him to life

me

gave

treasure and feasting,

sibbe

of our kinship

naes

was mindful

was not to him

in life

aught more unwelcome,

la^ra owihte,

in

beorn in burgum,

a warrior in his burghs,

))onne his bearna hwylc,

than any of his children,

Herebeald and Hse^cyn,

Herebeald and Haethcyn,

0^6

Hygelac min.

or

Waes

})am yldestan

4860

my

Hygelac.

For the eldest was

ungedefelice,

unbecomingly,

mjeges dsedum,

by

mor))or-bed stred,

the death-bed strew'd,

sy^^an hyne Hse^cyn


of horn-bogan,

when Haethcyn him


from his hom'd bow,

his frea-wine

his lord

flane

geswencte

his

mseg

)jaet

friend,
;

he miss'd his mark,

ofscet,

4870

and

his

kinsman

shot,

one brother another,

bro'Sor o'Serne,

blodigan gare

and

with a shaft laid low

miste mercelses,

and

his brother's deed,

with a bloody arrow

waes feohleas gefeoht,

that

was a

priceless fight,

fyxenum gesyngad,

criminally perpetrated,

hre^re hyge-me^e

heart- wearying to the soul

sceolde hwse^re swa-))eah

yet nathless must

sejjsling

unwrecen

the prince

ealdres linnan

lose his

swa bi^ geomorlic.

so sad

4873.

i.

e.

with what we
its price.

inexpiable with money.

know

of the old

German

unavenged

life

it is.

The Swedish seems


law,

at variance

by which every crime had

BEOWULF.
gomelum

4880

eorle

young on
then

gyd wrece,

hang

the gallows

may he

a lay recite,

a sorrowful song,

sarigne sang,

sunu hangaS

jjonne his

man

that his child

his byre ride

giong on galgan
|)onne he

for an aged

to await

to gebidanne
jjset

165

when

his son

hangs

hrefne to hroSre,

for solace to the raven,

and he him helpe ne mseg,

and he him help may

eald

and

aenige

old and

infrod,

gefremman

4890

not,

feeble,

any afford

symble biS gemyndgad,

ever will he be reminded,

moma

every morning,

gehwylce,

of his offspring's death

eaforan ellor-siS

to gebidanne

to await

burgum on-innan

within his burghs,

yrfe-weardes,

another heir,

when

})onne se an hafaS,
]jurh

another he cares not

gymeS

o^res ne

the one has,

through death's necessity,

deaSes nyd,

his

deeds expiated.

GesyhS sorh-cearig

He

sees sorrow-anxious

on his sun a bure

in his son's

win-sele westne,

the wine-hall desert,

wind-gerseste,

wind-rush'd,

deeda gefondad.

4900

bower

rote berofene

of the rote bereft

ridend swefa^

hanging sleeps

hodman

haele^ in
nis

Jjcer

gomen

in

swylce

jjaer

4880.
4896.

the warrior in darkness

hearpan sweg,

iu waeron. 4910
ceorle.

no sound of harp,

as there

were of

old.

MS. helpan.
4807. MS. weardas.
MS. gereste.
4905. MS.
4888.

in innan.

4900. gefselsod

is

no mirth in the courts,

geardum,

MS.
MS.

there

4904.

reote.

BEOWULF.

166

XXXV.
GewiteS Jjonne on sealman, Then passes he to songs,
a sad lay sings,

8orh-le68 gseleS,

an

anum

aefter

one

after

all

Swa Wedera

Thus

aefter

and habitation.

the plains

helm,

the

Weders' helm,

after Herebealde,

Herebealde,

heart's sorrow

heortan sorge
weallende

one

seem'd to him too spacious,

him call to rum,


wongas and wic-stede.
))uhte

wsg

boiling bore

wihte ne meahte,

4920

he in

no wise might,

on 'Sam feorh-bonan

on the murderer

fjeh^e gebetan

the feud

no ^y

nor the sooner he the warrior

ser

he

Jjone hea^o-rinc

hatian ne meahte

could hate

la^um dsedum,

bun

|)eah

He Sa

leof

ne

with hostile deeds,

although he was not dear to him.

waes.

He

raid ))gere sorge,

Godes leoht geceas,

then with that sorrow,

when him

him sio sar belamp,


gum- dream ofgeaf,

pa,

eaferum

avenge

that pain befel,

gave up the joy of men,


4930

chose God's light,


to his offspring left

leefde,

does a prosperous man)

swa de6 eadig mon,

(as

lond and leod-byrig,

land and native city,

\>a.

he of

life

when he from life departed.


Then was sin and strife
of Swedes and Goths,

gewat.

pa waes synn and sacu


Sweona and Geata,
ofer

wid wseter

4922.
4937.

MS. fsegh^e.
The wide water

over the wide water


4927.
is,

MS.

sorhge.

no doubt, the Malar sea or

lake,

which

formed the boundary between the Swedes and Goths, or Geats.

It

extends about 60 miles from the sea into the interior, and in breadth
varies

from 20 to 40 miles.

BEOWULF.

167

common,

wroht gemsene,

dissension

here-ni6 hearda,

cruel war-hate,

sy5t5au HreSel swealt, 4940

after

him OngenSeowes

oCtSe

Hrethel died,

or to him Ongentheow's

sons were

eaferan waeron.

frome fyrd-hwate,

bold martial leaders,

freode ne woldon

peace would not

ofer heafo healdan,

over the water hold,

ac

ymb Hreosna-beorh

but around Hreosna-beorh


dire artifice

atolne inwit-scear

gefremedon

oft

4950

swa

and f}Tene,

})e

kinsmen

enmity and crime,

the

as

hit gefrjege waes,

J)eah

my

avenged,

mine gewraecon,
fseht5e

oft perpetrated

that

mseg-winas

)>aet

it

was well known,

although one [of them]

oSer [hyra]

bought,

his ealdre gebohte,

with his hfe

heardan ceape

a hard bargeun

Hse^cynne wearS,

for

Geata dryhtne,

the Goths' lord,

gu^
pa

onsaege.

ic

4960

on raorgne

gefraegn,.

it

Hsethcyn was,

war not

idle.

Then on

the

morrow,

have

heard,
raseg
billes

that the other kinsman

oSeme
ecgum

on bonan

4942.

with falchion's edge


stole

staelan

MS.

wjeran.

on

the slaver

agree with K. that several lines are here

wanting, which, no doubt, contained an account of the continuation of


the war between the Goths and Swedes.

4949.
4952.

MS.
MS.

eatolne.

495

gewrsecan.

4955. hyra supplied from conjecture.

MS.

wine.

BEOWULF.

168

Ongenjjeow

\>xr [wses]

Eofores niSes

Ongentheow

there [was]

sated with Eofor's enmity,

saed,

gu8-helm toglad

his

war-helm glided

gomela Scylfing

the

aged Scylfing

fell

pale

hreas blac

bond gemunde

4970

yet did his

hand remember

fgeh^e genoge,

the feud full well,

feorh-sweng ne ofteah.

nor withdrew the

Ic

him

]>e

he

me

geald

set

him the

magmas,

sealde,

that he

]>a

swa me gifeSe wses,

as

with

He me

He

lond forgeaf,

him

had given me,

was granted me,

my

bright sword.

gave

me

land,

a paternal home's delight

eard e^el-wvn

\>dt

tcnig })earf,

4980

he t5 GifSum,

he had no want,
so that

he among Gifthas,

o55e to G&'-Denum,

or Gar-Danes,

o85e

or in

in Swio-rice,

secean

Sweden,

needed seek,

jjiirfe,

wyrsan wig-frecan

a worse warrior

weorSe gecypan.

buy with

Swylc

ic

him on fe^an

Thus

value.

in the host I

beforan wolde,

would before him

ana on orde,

alone in front.

and swa
ssecce

jjset

to aldre sceal 4990

fremman,

|?enden

Jjis

mec

and

J)ola^,

si^

engage

ic for

duge^um

Daegrhrefne wearS

while this sword endures,

which me early and

MS.

late

since I valorously
of Dsffhrefn

4965. wses inserted from conjecture.


4971.

shall

in,

has oft bestead,

oft gelseste,

srS^an

go,

and so while living


conflict

sweord

ger

fatal stroke.

treasures,

paid in warfare,

gu^e,

leohtan sweorde.

nses

off;

faehSo.

4973-

was

4966.

^^j

i-

e.

MS.

Hrethel.

niosaiS.

BEOWULF.
hand-bonan,

t5

the slayer,

Huga cempan,
nalles

169

the

Hugas' champion

not the decoration he

he Sa fraetwe

Fres-cyninge,

5000

to the Frisian king,

breost-weorSunge,

the breast-honour,

bringan moste,

might bring,

ac in

campe gecrong

but in battle sank

cumbles hyrde,

on

aejjeling

Ne

waes

him

ac

the standard's guardian,

the noble valorously.

elne.

[ic]

ecg-bona,

hilde grap

slew him not with the sword,

but in battle grasp'd his

heortan wylmas,

heart's throbbings,

ban-hiis gebraec.

the

Nil sceal billes ecg,

5010

bone-house brake.

Now

shall the falchion's edge,

bond and heard sweord,

the

ymb hord

for the

wigan.

Beowulf ma))e]ode,

beot-wordum

hand and hard sword,


hoard do battle."

Beowulf spake,
words of threat utter'd

sprsec

niehstan siSe

for the last time

Ic genej)de fela

"

gu5a on geogoSe

battles in

gyt

ic wylle,

frod folces weard,


5020

mEer^um freraman,

mec

se

my youth

people,

gloriously accomplish,

man-scea^a

me

if

the atrocious spoiler

lit-geseceS.

will seek out."

his earth-hall

Gegrette ^a

He

gumena gehwylcne.

each of the men,

hwate helm-berend,

the bold

MS. cyning;

my

a conflict seek,

from

5000.

will yet,

of eor^-sele

spoil

have dar'd many

a sage guardian of

ffeh^e secan,

gif

then greeted

helm -bearer.

5001. breost-weor^unge;

i.

e.

he gained

from Beo\vTilf to carry home to his king.

5003.

MS. cempan.

5006.

ic

supplied from conjecture.

BEOWULF.

170

hindeman

his dear

swsese gesi'Sas

Nolde ic sweord beran, 5030 "

hu

against the miserable being

/ might

meahte

swa ic gio wi^ Grendle dyde


ic 'Saer

hates wene,

fierce

on hafu 5040

bord and byrnan

[me] beorges weard

and venomous

therefore I will have on

and byrnie

I will

not [me] the guardian of

mount
over

ofer-fleon [Isetan]

[suffer] to fly

[ne] fotes trem

[not] a foot's step

ac unc sceal weorSan

set

but to us

swa unc wyrd geteo^j

shall

be at the

as fate shall to us decree,

metod manna gehwses.

eom on mode

gylf

it

mound

wealle

]>aet ic

me

shield

the

Ic

wis

the lord of every

from,

|)one guS-flogan

ofer-sitte.

5050

Gebide ge on beorge

am

in

mind

man.

resolute,

so that I against the war-fly

lay aside vaunt.

Await ye on the moimt

byrnum werede,

with byrnies protected,

secgas on searwum,

ye men, in arms,

hwaeSer

which may

sel nisege,

the better,

aefter weel-rsese,

after the fatal onslaught,

wunde gedygan

from wound escape

5035.

I there intense fire,

hot, expect,

reSes and hattres

nelle ic

as I of old against Grendel did

but

hea^u-fyres

foi-^on ic rae

else

with gripe grasp at him,

gripe wi^-gripan,

ac

knew how

if I

wi^ ^am aglsecean


elles

companions

would not bear a sword,

nor weapon to the worm,

wsepen to wyrme,
gif ic wiste

for the last time,

si8e,

MS.

gylpe.

5042, 5043, 5044.


coDJectiu-e.

5039. hattredes (attredes) ?


brackets are supplied from

The words between

BEOWULF.
uncer twega.

Nis

\>set

of us two.

eower

no enterprise of yours,

It is

si3,

ne gemet-mannea,

common man,
me alone)

nor of a

nefhe min anes,


jjaet

171

5060

he wi^ aglcecean

(of none save


that he

against the miserable

being
labours share,

eafo(5o dsele,

stoutness prove.

eorlscipe efne.

Ic

mid elne

sceal

gold gegangan,

with valour shall

obtain the gold,

o66e gix6 nimeS,

or war shall take,

feorh-bealu frecne,

fierce,

frean eowerne.

your lord."

Aras ^a bi ronde

deadly bale,

Arose then by

rof oretta,

5070

the

his shield

renown'd champion,

heard under helme

bold beneath his helm

hioro-sercean bser

he bore his war-sark

under stan-cleofu,

under the stony

strengo getruwode

he trusted in the strength

anes mannes

of a single

ne hrS swylc earges

Geseah
se Se

J)a

si^.

(he

fela,

gum-cystura god,

gu8a gedigde,
hilde

is

man

clifi"s,

no coward's enterprise.

He saw

be wealle,

worna

such

then by the

who

mound

a number,

for his bounties good,

5080

hlemma,

of battles

had escap'd from,

tumults of war,

jjonne hnitan fe^an,

when

stondan stan-bogan,

a stone arch stand,

stream

and a stream out thence

lit

]>onan

break from the mount

brecan of beorge
waes

{>Eere

human waelm

5061.
5083.

MS.
MS.

hosts assail)

wat.

the boilins: of that

5062.

MS.

eofo^o.

stod on, perhaps originally stodan.

Q 2

bourn was

BEOWULF.

172
heatSo-fyrum hat;

with intense

ne meahte horde neah

he might not near to the hoard

unbyrnende,
5090

deop gedyfan
fo r

for the dragon's flame.

Let then from

of breostum,

5a he gebolgen wees,

as

Weder-Geata leod
word ut-faran.

words issue

his breast,

he was incensed,

Weder- Goths'

the

lord

forth.

The stout of heart storm' d

Stearc-heort styrmde
stefn

in-becom

under harne stan.

sounding loudly
5100

clear,

under the hoar stone.

Hete wses onhrered,

His hate was rous'd,

hord-weard oncneow

the

raannes reorde.

the voice of

Naes

jjaer

mara

Eerest

to

cwom

out of the rock,

hot sweat of battle

hat hilde swat

hruse dynede,

51 10

born under beorge

^am

Da

against the grisly guest

gryre gieste

the Goths' lord.

Then was

wees bring- bogan

beorte gefysed
sEGCce to seceanne

5091.

ser

gebraed

MS.

gedygan.

his shield's disk turn'd

drj'hten.

sweord

the earth resounded,

burn'd under the mount

bord-rand onswaf

Geata

demand peace
came forth

the miserable being's breath

of stane,

wi'S

man.

time was there

first

oruS aglfecean
lit

hoard-ward recogniz'd

No more

fyrst

freoSe to friclan

from

the voice enter'

heaSo-torht hlynnan,

any while

for

deep dive,

dracaa lege.
"Sa

hot

unburn'd

senige hwile

Let

fires

the ring-bow'd's

heart excited
to seek the conflict

his

5io5-

sword had before drawn

MS.

freode.

5111.

MS.

biorn.

BEOWULF.
god gu^-cyning,
gomele

good warUke

the

an ancient

5120

lafe,

173
king,

relic,

ecgum unsleaw

of edges not dull

aeghwse^rum waes

to either

bealo-hycgendra

of the bale-intention'd

broga fram oSrum

fear

was
the other

from

mood

stood

sti6-m6d gestod

stubborn of

wis steapne rond

against his towering shield

Wedera

the

bealdor

Weders' prince

worm

bent

5a se wyrm gebeah

then the

snude tosomne

quickly together

he on searwum bad

gewat

tSa

(he in arms awaited:)

5130

went then burning

byraende

gebogen scriSan

bow'd departing,

to gesceape scyndan.

hastening to Ids

Scyld-weall gebearg

The shield-wall secur'd

lif

and

for a less while

Isessan hwTle

maerum
Caer

of the great prince

Jieodne

Jjonne his

and body

the life

lice

fate.

myne

than his mind sought,

sohte,

he py fyrste

if

forman d5gore,

5140

he the time

at early

day

might have commanded

wealdan moste

swa him wyrd ne

so fate ordain'd not for him.

gescraf.

Hre^ set hilde,


hond up-abrsed

rais'd his

Geata dryhten,

the Goths' lord,

gryre-fahne sloh

the

Fierce in conflict,

hand

grisly

variegated

monster

struck
5121.

MS. ungleaw.

5130. he, L

5133.
5134.

MS.
MS.

e.

5127.

MS.

winia.

Beowulf.

gescipe.

wel.

See

From

1.

52.

this line to

obscure.

Q3

5142 the sense

is

particularly

BEOWULF.

174

Incges

with Inge's

lafe,

sio

}jset

ecg gewac,

brun on bane

relic,

edge

so that the

fail'd,

the hro-wn falchion

bat unswiSor

5150

on the bone

bit less strongly

{)onne his 6i6d-cyning

than

jjearfe hsefde,

had need,

great king

its

bysigum gebseded.

oppress'd with labours.

pa

Then was

wses beorges weard,

heaSu-swenge,

asfter

after the

the

on hreoum m5de,

in a fierce

wearp

he cast deadly

wsel-fyre,

wide sprungon

mount's guardian

mighty

stroke,

mood,
fire,

widely sprung

hilde le5raan

the rays of conflict

hre6 sigora ne gealp, 5160

the fierce conqueror boasted not,

gold-wine Geata,

the Goths' gold-friend,

giiS-bill

geswac,

his battle- falchion fail'd,

na god

aet

nyde,

(not

good

swa

no

sceolde,

as

should not,

hit

Jjagt

at need,)

an iron primely good

iren ?er-g6d

ne waes

it

Jjset etSe

si6

that

se msera

son of Ecgtheow

grund-wong

the earth- plain

])one

ofgyfan wolde,

5170

would give up,


that he should spontaneously

sceolde willan

eardian

o dwelling inhabit

elles-hwergen.

Swa

elsewhere.

sceal aeghwylc

So must every man

mon

alsetan Iten-dagas.

leave these transitory days.

Nses ^a long to ?on.

Nor was

5147.

MS. incge.
unknown

inege being

My interpretation
to me.

of some proper name.

5163.

that the great

maga Ecgt5e5wes

^v^c

was no easy enterprize

MS. nacod

set ni^e.

believe

is

it,

it

then long

until,

quite conjectural, the

word

however, to be a corruption

BEOWULF.
pxt ^a aglsecean

175

that those

fell

beings

gemetton

again each other met

hyrte hyne hord-weard,

had recruited himself

hy

eft

the hoard-

ward,
hre^er ee^me weoU,

5180

his breast

heav'd with breathing,

new energy

niwan stefne

with

nearo jjrowade,

suffer'd distress,

fyre befongen,
se

Se

by
weold

?er folce

nealles

ymbe
ac

stood around,

hiora in

in warlike

holt bugon,

ealdre burgan

5190

anum

bands

but they to the wood


their life to save

his

them boil'd
mind with sorrows

maeg

kinship can never

wiht onwendan

aught pervert

yam

in

'Se

retir'd,

in one of

weoll

wis sorgum

sibb sefre ne

hand-companions,

sons of nobles,

gestodon,

hy on

sefa

his

beam,

cystum

wel jjence^.

him who

rightly thinks.

XXXVI.
Wiglaf was hight

Wiglaf waes haten

Weoxstanes sunu,
leoflic

Weoxstan's son,
a belov'd shield-warrior,

lind-wlga,

leod Scylfinga,

maeg ^If heres

52^

a Scylfings' lord,

^Ifhere's kinsman

geseah his mon-dryhten

he saw his liege lord

under here-griman

under

hat J)r6wian

heat sufi"ering

S185.

rul'd

not in a body him

hand-gesteallan,

hilde

encompass'd,

he who had ere a people

him on heape

aeSelinga

fire

Mne?

his martial

5186.

MS.

helm

heand.

BEOWULF.

176

gemunde
))e

t5a

he him

he then call'd to

Sa are

that he had formerly given him,

jer forgeaf,

weUgne

wic-stede

mind the pos-

the wealthy dwelling-place

Wsegmundinga,

of the

folc-rihta gehwylc,

every public right,

swa

Ne

5210

his fseder atrte.

had

as his father

He

mihte ^a forhabban,

Waegmundings,
possess'd.

could not then refrain,

hond-rond gefeng,

but grasp'd his shield,

geolwe Unde,

the yeUow-linden,

gomel swyrd geteah,

drew

wses

J)8et

mid eldum

Eanmundes

that

a relic of

laf,

suna Ohtheres
))am

set ssecce

wear,

Weohstan bana^

Eanmund,

of

whom

in conflict was,

when a friendless
5220

meces ecgum
his

sword,

Ohthere's son,

wreccan wineleasum^

and

his ancient

among men was

Weohstan

exile,

the slayer,

with falchion's edges,

magum

and from his kinsmen bore away,

set-baer

brun-fagne helm,

the

brown-hued helm,

hringde byrnan,

the ringed

eald sweord eotonisc,

the old eotenish sword,

Jjaet

him Onela

his companion's

gu^-gewEedu,

n5 ymbe ^a fseh^e
jjeah

battle -weeds,

5229

ready martial gear


he spake not of the feud,

sprsec,

e he his bro'Sor beam

although he his brother's child

abradwade.

had

He

He

fraetwe geheold

and byrnan,

5217.

MS.

Ohteres.

exil'd.

the

many

fela missera,
bill

bymie,

which him Onela had given,

forgeaf,

his gsedelinges

f)Td-searu fuslic

"T

armour held

years,

the falchion

5219.

MS.

wrsece.

and bjrmie,

5220.

MS. Weobstanes.

BEOWULF.

177

'

otJfiaet

might

until his son

his byre mihte

some valorous deed achieve,

eorlscipe efnan,

swa

his ser-fccder

as his father erst

eeaf

him 6a mid Geatum

he gave

him then among

the

Goths
gu6-gew8eda

5240

neghwses unrim
)ja

of war-weeds

every kind numberless

he of ealdre gewat

then he from

departed

life

way

frod on for8-weg.

aged on

pa wses forma

Then was the first time


for the young champion,

siS

geongan cempan,
Jjset

mid

he guSe

his

forth.

that he a war-onslaught

raes

with his noble lord

his frea-dryhtne

fremman sceolde

should achieve

negemealthira semod-sefa, nor did his courage melt,


ne his maegenes

gewac
Jjset

se

aet

laf

5250

wige

wvrm

nor his kinsman's legacy


the contest

fail in

onfand,

that the

worm

found,

syS(5an hie togsedre

when they together

gegan haefdon.

had come.

IWiglaf
rWiglaf maSelode

Wiglaf spake

word-riht'a fela,

many

saegde gesiSum,

said to his comrades,

him wses

sefa

geomor

(his

"

geman,

Ic ^aet mael

sentences,

mind was sad

I that

:)

time remember,

}>onne

we were drinking mead,


when we promis'd

ussum hlaforde

our lord

in bi5r-sele,

in the beer-hall,

})a

we medu Jjegon,
we geheton

5260

Se us Sas beagas geaf.


]>3Et

we him

t^a

guS-getawa

him

J)yslicu

5252.

who gave us these rings,


that we him the war-equipments
would repay,

gyldan woldon,
gif

as

if

MS.

J>a.

him

such-like

5260.

MS.

Jjser.

BEOWULF.

178
gelumpe,

jjearf

need

helmas and hearde sweord,

^a he

usic

when

on herge geceas

to jjyssum siSfaete,

befel,

helms and hard swords,

the

us in his band he chose

for this expedition,

5271

own

sylfes willutn,

of his

onmiinde usic mserSa,

reminded us of

me

and
]>e

))8es

maSmas

and

geaf,

he usic gar-wigend

gode

good accounted,

ana
to

bold helm-bearers

^e hlaford user

although our lord


this bold

ellen-weorc

))is

}johte

to perform,

hyrde

forjjam he

work

thought alone

5280

gefremmannej

folces

glories,

presents gave,

because he us warriors

tealde,

hwate helm-berend
)>eah

me

accord,

the people's guardian,

manna

because he of

maest

glories

dseda dollicra.

rash deeds.

Nu

is

]>aet

ure man-dryhten

se daeg

Now

cumen

all

men most

had achiev'd,

mserSa gefremede,

is

the day

come

that our liege lord

maegenes behofa^,

has need of might, U

g5dra gu^-rinca

of

wutun gongan

to

let us

5290

i-

'Mu

good warriors
advance

helpan hild-fruman,

to help the warlike leader,

jjenden hat sy

while be hot ka

gled-egesa grim.

the fierce fiery terror.

God wat on mec,

God knows in me,


that to me it is far

]>aet

me

JaBt

minne lic-haman,

is

micle le5fre

preferable

mid minne gold-gyfan,

my body,
with my gold-giver,

gled fejjmie

fire

5269.
'5274.

5292.

MS.
MS.
MS.

heard.
bas.

that

MS. \>e.
MS. us.

5270.
5278.

hit: hat conj.

K.

should clasp

MS. si'Sfate.
MS. a'Sohte.

5271.
5280.

BEOWULF.
ne jjynce^

me

gerysne

we rondas beron

})set

it

5300

seror

seems to me not

that

we

fitting

our shields bear

back to our home,

eft to earde,

nemne we

179

msegen

we

unless

may

before

fane gefyllan,

fell

the foe,

feorh ealgian

the

life

Wedra

of the

Weders' prince.

I well

know-

Ic

^eodnes.

wat geare

defend

})aet

ncPion eald-gewyrht,

that his old deserts were not such,

|)aet

he ana scyle

that he alone should

Geata dugu^e

of the flower of the Goths

gnorn

tribulation

jjrowian,

gesigan

set

5310

sgecce

sufiier,

sink in conflict

unc sceal sweord and helm,

for us

byrne and beadu-scrud,

byrnie and martial garb,

bam gemaene
wod \>a Jjurh Jjone

to both le
wsel-rec.

he

two

then

shall

sword and helm,

common

waded

through

the

deadly reek.

Wiglaf

Wiglaf

ellen bser

frean on fultum

worda cwseS

fea

Isest eall tela,


]>u

5320

on geogu8-feore

be
I

8u ne

tSe

scealt

all well,

as thou in youthful

life

that thou wouldst let not,

alaete,

while thou didst

lifigendum,

dom gedreosan

perform

long since didst sav,

geara gecweede,
))aet

courage bare

few words he said


" Dear Beowulf,

Leofa Beowulf,

swa

his

to his lord's aid

nu dsedum

live,

thy greatness sink

thou shalt now, for deeds re-

rof

nown'd.
5312.

MS. urum.

53^3- ^IS. byrdu.

5314. Thork. ban.

5316.

MS. wig hea

53^5folan.

If

we adopt

MS.

rsec.

hafelan, the

orthography, the validity of the emendation becomes

still

more usual

more

evident.

BEOWULF.

180
anhydig,

setSeling

ealle

a resolute prince,

with

msegene

thy

feorh ealgian
fie

je

full^stu.

S330

^fter Sam wordum

support thee."

After those words


the

worm came

the

fell,

otSre siSe,

a second time,

yrre

cwom,

fyr-wylmum

his foes to visit,

manna

la^ra

the hostile

men

with flame-waves was burnt

lig-ySum forborn
brad wig-rond

the

byme ne meahte

5340

broad war- disk

the byrnie

geongum gar-wigan

to the

geoce gefremman

aid afford

ac se

angry,

guileful guest,

with fire-boilings colour'd,

fah,

fionda niosan,

maga geonga

might not

young warrior

but the young

man

under his mseges scyld

under his kinsman's shield

elne geeode,

valorously went,

})a

I will

might
defend

atol inwit-gest,

wyrm

'

all

life

his

when

agen [wses]

his

own was

gledum forgnmden.

by

pa-gen gu6-C}"ning

Then again

[mserjja]

gemunde,
5350

mind,

with mcdn strength struck


with his battle falchion,

hilde bille,
hit

consum'd.

the warlike king

his glories call'd to

msegen-strengo sl5h

{jaet

the gleeds

on heafolan

stod,

mSe genyded;

so that

on

the

head

it

stood

by hate impel'd

Naegling forbserst,

Nsegling snapt asunder,

geswac

fail'd in the conflict,

set saecce,

sweord Beowulfes,
5339.

Beowulf's sword,

MS. bord wi^

rond.

5346. wses supplied from conjectvire.


5349. mserSa supplied from conjecture.
5354. Naegling

is

the

name

of Beowulf's sword.

BEOWULF.
gomol and
him

))aet

an ancient and grey brand

grseg-tnsel

gife^e ne wses

it

him irenne

})cet

helpan

set

5360

seo 8e

meca gehwane,

naes

falchion,

as I have heard,

swenge ofer-swi^de,

by

wundrum heard

him wihte 5e

its

stroke overpower'd,

although he to the contest bore

he to saecce bser

wsepen

the hand was too strong,

which every

mine gefrsege,

jjeah

him iron

edges might
in battle help

hilde

waes sio hond to strong,

was not granted him

that

ecga mihton

181

weapon wondrously hard,

naught for him the

yet 'twas

sel.

better.

pa waes

Then was

jjeod-sceaSa,

|>riddan siSe,

5370

the great destroyer,

a third time,
the fell fire- drake,

frecne fyr-draca,
fsehSa

gemyndig

mindful of enmities

raesde

on Sone

he rush'd on the renown'd chief,

\>a

him rum

rofan,

then him amply requited,

ageald,

hot and fiercely grim

hat and hea^o-grim


heals ealne

biteran

ymb-feng

banum

his

whole neck he clasp'd

with his horrid bones

he geblodegod wearS

he ensanguin'd was

sawul-driore

with life-gore

swat

y^um

weoll.

5380

the blood in

>f

waves bubbled.

XXXVII.
pa

ic set )>earfe [gefrsegn]

5359.

MS. irenna.
MS. ofersohte.
MS. wundum.

Then

have leam'd that

S360.

MS.

ecge.

5366.

MS.

5381. gefrsegn, supplied by conjecture.

K.

5365.
5367.

at

need

of the great king

})e6d-cyninges

5363.
l)omie.

MS.

se^'e.

BEOWULF.

182
andlongne

the warrior earl

eorl

ellen cySan,
craeft

valour manifested,

and cen8u,

swa him gecvnde waes


ne hedde he

heafolan,

\>ses

and courage,

as to

him was natural

he heeded not the head,

ac sio hand gebarn

but the hand

modiges mannes,

of the bold

jjset

))a

he his maeges healpe

he

J)one ni5-gsest

nioSor

hwene

,-

5391

})8et ]j8et

sweord gedeaf

so that the

his

kinsman help
struck,

sword div'd

blood-stain'd

ongon

fyr

might

then he the hostile guest

the warrior in arms,

fah and faeted


})set ))set

that he

bum'd

man,

somewhat lower

sloh,

secg on searwum,

so that

the

and ornate,

fire

began

sweSrian sy56an

afterwards to abate

jja-gen sylf cyning

then again the king himself

geweold his gewitte,


wael-seaxe gehraed,
biter
J>aet

craft

got
5400

and beadu-scearp,

he on

byman waeg

command

drew
bitter

of his senses,

deadly knife,

his

and battle-sharp,

that he on his bjrmie bore

forwrat "Wedra helm

the

Weders' protector scor'd

wjTm on

the

worm

middan,

feond gefylde,

avenged

ferh-ellen wraec,

and

hi bNTie

in the middle,

fell'd the foe,

)ja

his deadly ardour,

and they him then both

begen

abroten haefdon,

had destroy'd,

sib-aeSelingas

the kindred princes

swylc sceolde secg wesan,

such should a warrior be,

))egn aet ))earfe.

a thane at need.

541

5383. The word andlongne

is

very doubtful; but see Glossary

aolang.

53S7.

i.

5390.

MS.

5392.

i.

e.

e.

the head of the dragon.


haer

he his msegenes healp.

than the head.

5391- ^^S.

5405- ^^3. gefyldan.

^aet.

v.

BEOWULF.
8am

pact

183

That to the prince was

jjeodne wses

moment

a victorious

si6es sige-hwil,

of his en-

terprise,
sylfes

by

dsedum,

- Da sio wund ongon,


\>e

him

se eor^-draca

He

He

)>8et

5420

him on breostum

that in his breast

venom, within

gesset

so that

on sesse

sat

fseste,

on a seat

look'd on the giants' work,

how

hu Sa stan-bogan,
5430

on

the stone arches,

pillars fast,

ece eor3-reced

the eternal earth-house

innan healde.

held within.

Hyne

Him

\>a,

mid handa

)e6den
jjegn

mEeme,

ungemete

wine-dnhten

then with his hand

the battle- gory

heoro-dreorigne

he by the mound,

wisely thinking,

seah on enta geweorc,

stapulum

boil'd,

then the prince went,

gong,

he bi wealle,

wis-hycgende,

harm

attor on-innan
se aeSeling

great prince,
the thane infinitely good,

till,

his liege lord,

his,

waetere gelafede,

with water lav'd,

hilde saedne,

him with

and

h^lp onspeon. 5440


Beowulf majjelode,

and his health

he ofer benne

of his

his

5413.

,^

swell.

baleful

))8et

soon found

bealo-ni6 weoU,

Sa

burn and

to

sona onfand

^j

\^

had wrought,

erst

swelan and swellan.


))aet

deeds,

Then the wound began,


that him the earth-drake

geworhte

aer

own

his

of his woridly work.

worlde geweorces.

sprsec,

MS.

si'Sas sige

allur'd.

Beowulf spake,

wound he

hwile.

5440.

conflict sated,

5424.

MS.

helo,

said,

MS.

giong.

BEOWULF.

184

wunde

wsel-bleate

his

wisse he gearwe,
])aet

he

he da?g-hwila

gedrogen

that he his

his

dogor-gerimes,
5450

me

my

gifetSe

swa

if

so granted

yrfe-weard

any heir

sefter

wurde,

were

Ic 6as leode heold

wintra
5460

senig 5ara,

?iot

bad

Ic

held

tela,

fela

my

well,

nor swore many

I for all this

5463.

MS. winum.
I\IS.

'5eon,

own

sustain'(

oaths unrighteously.

ealles maeg,

5465.

from

have

sought no treacheries,
5470

on unriht.

jjaes

vicissitudes

ne sohte searo-niSas,
ne ne swor

in martial strifes

In 7ny land

DQcel-gesceafta

aj)a

any of them,

with terror serve.

egesan Fenian.

mm

been no nation's king

durst greet,

gretan dorste,

heold

winters

there has

who me

mec gu5-winnum

Ic on earde

my body.

this people rul'd

of those surrounding,

ymb-sittendra,

]>e

have

fifty

nses se folc-cyning

me

after me,

belonging to

gelenge.

fiftig

now

my war-weeds,

ffinig

lice

son

would give

wolde

gu6-gewedu,
))aer

all

death immediately nigh


" I to

nu suna minum

syllan

]oy of earth;

of his days' number,

dea6 ungemete neah


Ic

day-moments

then was departed

sceacen

eall

livid

had pass'd through,

haefde,

eorSan wynne

Sa wses

wound deadly
knew well,

may.

of no meaning here, and the correction

is

certain.

5467. Translation purely conjecturaL

547-

^^- ^ ^'

far

BEOWULF.

18j

feorh-bennnm seoc,

sick with mortal

gefean habban

have joy

forSam

me

Waldend

witan ne 6earf

of

lif

Nu

mm sceaceS

when

lice.

life

3u langre gong

5480

hord sceawian
mider harne

Wiglaf

nu

now

ligeS,

aefter

min
lif

5490

in haste,

may perceive,

well behold
the jewels, curious

gems,

that I the softer may,

maege,

8y
maSSum-welan,

after the treasure-wealth;

resign

alaetan,

and leodscipe,

t^one ic

now

the gold-treasure,

searo-gimmas,
seft

hes,

wounded,

that I the ancient wealth,

gearo sceawige

j)aet ic

worm

the

of his treasure bereft

be

ofoste,

gold-aeht ongite,

sigel

go thou quickly

sleeps sorely

ccr-welan,

))3et ic

body.

its

Wiglaf dear

since bereafod

nu on

Now

my

shall depart

from

under the hoar stone,

stan,

swefe^ sare wund,

bio

need not

the hoard to view

leofa

wyrm

se

me

men

with the deadly bale of kinsmen,

mor^or-bealo maga,
))onne

because upbraid
the Ruler of

fira

wounds,

life

longe heold.

my

and people,

that I loner have held."

U-

XXXVIII.
pa

ic

Then heard

snude gefraegn

sunu Wihstanes,
aefter

word-cwydum,

wundum

I that

quickly

Wihstan's son,

dryhtne

after these verbal sayings,


5;

his

woimded

lord

hyran heaSo-siocum,

obeyed, mortally sick

hring-net beran,

bore his ringed net,

5480.

MS.

geong.

5 49 1.

R3

MS.

swegle.

BEOWULF.

186

brogdne beadu-sercean,

his twisted war-sark,

under beorges hrof.

imder the mount's

Geseali 8a sige-hre^ig,

Saw

he

))a

bi sesse

gong,

as

gold glittering,

grunde getenge,

5510

wundur on svealle,
and J>aes wyrmes denn,

the old twiUght flyer's,

^shes

standing,

vessels of

fatu,

feormenlease,

men

of yore,

foodless,

hyrstum behrorene

their

monig

wses helm

ornaments faU'n

there was

eald and omig,

searwum

the ground,

and the worm's den,

orcas stondan,

earm-beaga

heavy on

wonders in the mound,

ealdes uht-flogan,

jjser

the seat,

treasure-jewels many,

fela,

gold glitinian,

fyrn-manna

he went by

the bold kindred thane,

mago-))egn modig,

ma^^um-sigla

many

old and rusty,

fela

5520

many

armlets

cunningly fasten'd

gesaeled

gold on grunde,

gold in the earth,

gum-cynnes gehwone

every one of

oferhigian,

despise,

8e wylle

hide

swylce he siomian geseah

he

it

also

who

may,

(treasure easily

se

human

will

race

:)

saw hang heavily

segn

eall

gylden

an ensign aU golden

heah

ofer horde,

high o'er the hoard,

hond-wundra

msest,

5530

gelocen leoSo-craeftum,
of

6am leoma
5506.
5516.

MS.
MS.

st5d,

geong.

of

hand-wonders greatest,

lock'd by arts of song,

from which there stood a


SS08.

MS.

rav.

fealo.

feormendlease.

5522. treasure

5532.

oflF:

a helm

sine eaSe mseg,

hyde

roof.

then in victory exulting,

is

here the nominative.

MS. leoman.

The

sense

is

obscure.

BEOWULF.
jjaet

he

J)one

grund-wong

geond-wlitan.

Naes Sses wyrmes

onsyn

he the ground-surface

might perceive,

ongitan meahte,
wrsete

so that

187

the

wonder over-scan.

Not

jjser

of the

worm was

him had

ac hyne ecg fornam.

for

Da

Then heard

on hlcewe gefrsegn

ic

hord

reafian,

5540

the

edge destroy'd.

the

I that in the

anne mannan,

one man,

him on bearm hladan


bunan and discas,
sylfes dome

in his

segn eac genom,

an ensign also took,

beacna beorhtost,

of signs brightest,

at his

6ara

own

will

a falchion brass- shod,

ecg wses iren

J>e

bosom loaded

cups and dishes,

cer-gescod,

the edge

eald-hlafordes,

5550

maSma

was iron

the old lord's,

who

mundbora wses

of those treasures

had been

the

guardian

longe hwile

a long while

lig-egesan wseg

fire-dread he bore

hatne for horde,

hot before the hoard,

hioro-weallendne,

fiercely boiling,

middel-nihtum,

at

o8J)aet

Ar

he morSre swealt.

geom,

5560

by

hyne fyrwet

him

he by murder died.
in haste,

the

ornaments accelerated

curiosity brake,

hwaeSer collen-fer8

whether the bold warrior

cwicne gemette

he should Uving find

5535.

MS.

wraece.

5549. Seel. 3070.

Qu. wrsetta?
sssi.

^,.^

desirous of return,

frsetwum gefyrSred
brsec,

midnights,

until

The messenger was

wses on ofoste,

eft-siSes

mound

hoard had robb'd,

the old giants' work,

eald enta geweorc,

bill

there

appearance any,

aenig,

MS. H.

5543.

MS. hlodon.
MS. weallende.

5556.

BEOWULF.

188

Sam
Wedra

wong-stede,

on the

J)e6den,

the

in

ellen-siocne,
J)3er

He

he hine

valour-sick,

where he before had

ser forlet.

8am maSmum

6a mid

field,

Weders' prince,

mserne ]>e6den,

557c

He

his lord,

dri5rigne fand,

found gory,

ealdres

set

ende

he again began him

wsetere weorpan,
oSJjset

end

at life's

ongon

eft

him.

the great prince,

dryhten sinne^

he hine

left

with the treasures then

with water to sprinkle,

wordes ord

word's point

until the

brake through the treasure of

breost-hord ]jurh-brsec.

his breast.

fS omel on giohSe
gold sceawode

The aged man

Ic ^ara fraetwa

Frean

in

5580

"

for those ornaments,

I,

thanks to the Lord for

ealles Jjanc,

Wuldur-cyninge,

the Glory-king,

wordum secge,
ecum DryhtnCj

in

words

the

Lord

]>e ic

jjses

her on-starie

Se

mmum

which

because

moste,

ic

sorrow

the gold beheld

say,
eternal,

here gaze on
I

leodum,

for

my

people,

ere

my

death- day,

nu

ic

on

such to acquire

maSma hord

5590

minne bebohte

now

I for the treasures'

frode feorh-leg

my

perform ye

nii

life-flame

leoda jjearfe

the people's

ne mseg

55 75-

her leng wesan

MS.

wseteres.

hoard

have prudently sold

fremma6 ge
ic

have been able,

aer swylt-dsege,

swylc gestrynan

all,

may
MS.

need

here no longer be

SS78. MS.giogoe.
SS93.

now

na.

5592.

MS.

lege.

BEOWULF.

189

hlsew gewyrcean

command the warlike


a mound to make

beorhtne

bright after the

heaSo-mcere

liata^

<vt

aefter bsele,

brimes nosan,

se sceal to

pile,

at the sea's naze,

gemyndum

5600

which
to

heah

tower on high

hlifian

remembrance

shall for a

my

ininum le5dum

people

on Hrones-naes

on Hrones-niEesse
jjaet

brave

that

hit Scc'-liSend

sea-farers

it

may

sy6San hatan

afterwards

Biowulfes biorh,

Beowulf's mount,

Sa Se brentingas

those

ofer fioda genipu

over the mists of floods

their

foamy barks

drive from afar."

feorran drifaS.

Dyde him

who

call

of healse

5610

Doff'd then from his neck

bring gyldenne

a golden ring

])i6den jjristhydig,

the bold-hearted prince,

Jjegne gesealde,

to his thane gave

geongum gar-wigan,

to the

young

it,

javelin-warrior,

gold-hued helm,

gold-fiihne helm,

his

beah and byrnan

his ring

het bine brucan well

bade him use them well

pii eart ende-laf

"

usses cynnes,

of our race,

Waegmundinga
ealle wyrd forsweop
mine magas

5620

ic

him

on elne

my

MS.

Godhead,

I shall

latest

5621.

MS.

follow them."

That was the aged

gomelan

seel.

kinsmen

earls in their valour

gingeste word,

5600,

remnant

Waegmundings
swept away all

to the

sefter sceal.

pset wses ))am

of the

art the last

fate has

to Metodsceafte,

eorlas

Thou

and byrnie

chieftain's

word.

forsweof.

5627.

MS.

gingaeste.

BEOWULF.

190

from

breost-gehygdum,
ser

he

hate heaSo-wylmas

him

5630

of hreSre gewat

his soul, to seek

dom.

s66faestra

hot intense flames

from his bosom departed

sawol secean
\

his breast's thoughts,

ere he chose the pile,

bgel cure,

doom

the

of the just.

XXXIX.
pa W3es gegongen

Then

gumum unfrodum

the youthful

eaifoSlice,

sorely,

Jjaet

he on eorSan geseah
ende

man

that on the earth he

at life's

bleatne gebeeran

bona

befel

640

swv'lce laeg,

livid

end

appearing

his slayer in

Uke manner

lay,

the formidable earth-drake,

egeslic eorS-draca,

ealdre bereafod,

of

bealwe gebaeded

by bale compel'd;

beah-hordum leng

his ring-hoards

wyrm woh-bogen

the crook -bent

wealdan ne moste

might not

ac

saw

his dearest /r/enrf

Jjone leofestan
lifes set

it

him irenne

life bereft,

for

longer

worm
command

from him iron

ecga fornamon.

edges had taken them away.

hearde heaSo-scearpe, 5650

hard, war-sharp,

homera
)>aet

lafa

the

wundum

hammer's legacies

so that the wide-flyer

se wid-floga

with wounds

stille

still

hreas on hriisan,

had

hord-seme neah

nigh to the hoard-house.

5631.
5650.

MS. hwae^re.
MS. scearede.

5640.

MS.

fall'n

on the earth,

5648.

bleate.

5651.

MS.

lafe.

MS.

irenna.

BEOWULF.

191

nalles aefter lyfte

not along the air

lacende hwearf

sporting went he

middel-nihtum

at midnights

maSm-aehta wlonc,

of his treasures proud,

ansyn ywde

showed

5660

his

countenance

ac he eorSan gefeoll

but to earth he

for tJses hild-fruman

before the war-chief's

hond-geweorce.

handiwork.

Huru

Yet

J)am on lande

fell

in the land

lyt^i^ma Sah

few men have thriven

va^fki agendra,
mine gefraege,

possessing might,
as I have heard,

although he in every deed

8e he daeda gehwaes

J)eah

were daring,

dyrstig wsere,

he

)>aet

wi^

attor-scea-

?an

he against a venomous de-

if

stroyer's

5670

oreSe gereesde,

breath rush'd,

o^e

or his ring-hall

hring-sele

hondum
gif

with hands disturb 'd,

styrede,

he wseccendne

if

he waking

weard onfunde

found the guardian

buan on beorge.

dwelhug

Biowulfe wearS

By Beowulf was

dryht-maSma

his

dsel

hefde seghwseSrum

of this transitory

Nses 6a lang to

dragon.

l>8et.

until,

that the battle-tardy ones

holt ofgeafon.

MS.
MS.

life.

'Twas then not long

jjon,

6a hild-latan

5680.

an end brought

lifes.

5664.

share of noble treasures

he had to each

5680

ende gefered

Jjset

mount.

with death paid for

deaSe forgolden

Isenan

in the

left the holt.

MS.

5674.

aeghwsetSre.

he,

5685.

e.

MS.

wseccende.

5676.

MS. buon.

death, referring to Beowtdf and the


ofgefan.

BEOWULF.

192
tydre treow-logan,

dastardly faith-breakers,

tyne setsomne,

ten together,

5a ne dorston

dareSum

who

Eer

onhyraman-dryhtnes 5690
(miclanf]?earfe
ac

hy scamiende

bare their shields,


their

gomela

war- weeds,

where the aged warrior

to

Iseg,

wlitan on "Wiglaf.

He gewergad

at their liege lord's

but they ashamed

guS-gewsedu,
se

^^i-''-'

great need

scyldas bceron,

))3er

durst not before

with javelins play,

lacan,

lay

looking on Wiglaf.

He

saet,

wearied

,ai**a^^M.

sat,

the active champion,

feSe cempa,

near his lord's shoulders,

frean eaxlum neah,

wehte hine wsetre

5700

him wiht ne speow,


ne meahte he on eor6an,

quicken'd him with water

he no whit succeeded,

he might not on

':

^'-'

earth,

5eah he u6e welan,

though he had given wealth,

on 6am frum-gare

in the chieftain

feorh gehealdan,

life retain,

ne

Wealdendes

)>aes

nor the Almighty's


will avert;

willan oncirran

wolde

dom Godes

doom

the

dgedum raedan

of

God would

in deeds rule

gumena gehwylcum, 5710 over every man,


as it now yet does.
swa he nu gen deS.
pa waes set 6am geongum Then was from the youth
answer

grim andswaru

a fierce

e6 begete

easily gotten

J)am 6e ser his elne for-

for

MS.

bseran.

5 703.

MS.

his cou-

lost.

Wiglaf spake,

Wiglaf maSelode,
5693.

him who had before

rage

leas.

5696.
wel.

MS.

Wilaf.

5707.

5701.

MS.

MS.

wiht.

speop.

BEOWULF.

193

Weohstan's son,

Weohstanes sunu,
secg sarig-ferS

the warrior sorrowful in soul

seah on unleofe

look'd on the odious cowards

mseg secgan

paet la
se

^e wyle

))aet

se

se

s6t5

5720

sprecan,

mon-dryhten,

eow ^a magmas

who

may

geaf,

truth will speak,

who to you those treasures gave,


the martial gear,

pe ge \>xr on-standa^

on ealu-bence

in

which ye there stand

(when he on

the ale-bench

oft gesealde

often gave

heal-sittendum

to the hall-sitters

helm and byman,

helm and bymie,

jjeoden his J?egnum

5730

the prince to his thanes,

swylce he jjry^licost

such as he most valiant

ohwser feor o^^e neah

anywhere

findan meahte,

might find;)

J)3et

he gegnunga

those war-weeds,

wra^e forwurpe,

his defence, cast

Nealles folc-cyning

hwse^re him

of his comrades in arms

5740

God

u^e,

sigora Waldend,
\>ddt

he hyne sylfne gewrsec

Ic

him waes elnes


him lif-wra^e

lytle

meahte

setgifan aet gu^e,

5718.
5734.

needed not to boast


yet did

God

grant him,

the Ruler of victories.

ana mid ecge,


jja

overtake.

The people's king

fyrd-gesteallum
)jorfte

away,

when him war should

hyne wig begeat.

gylpan

far or near

that he totally

gu^-gewsdu
))a

say

that the liege lord,

eored-geatwe,

))onne he

" Lo, that

that he himself avenged

alone with edge,


Jjearf.

when he had need


I

to

of valour.

him hfe-support

could Uttle
give in the conflict,

MS. sec.
5731. MS. hrydlicost,
5732. MS.
MS. genunga.
5737. MS. beget.

ower.

BEOWULF.

194
and ongan
ofer

and yet / undertook

swa-|)eali

min gemet

mseges helpan

symle wses

])f

5750

my means

above

kinsman

to help viy

ever was

ssemra,

/ the worse,

jjonne ic sweorde drep

when with my sword

ferh^-genvSlan,

the deadly foe,

fyr ran swi^or

the fire ran stronger,

weoU

boil'd

of gewitte

wergendra
Jjrong
J)a

Nu

throng'd round their prince,

]je5den,

sio Jjreag

his entrails

struck

defenders too few

to lyt

ymbe

hyne

from

when

becwom.

sceal smc-])ego

5760

the calamity came on him.

Now shall

the partaking of trea-

sure

and sweord-gifu,
call

and

swords,

gift of

aU joy of country,

e^el-wyn,

eowrum cynne

to your beloved

leofum alicgean

kindred

lond-rihtes
Jjffire

mot

fail

of land-right

mEeg-burge

must

of the tribe

man

raonna seghwylc

every

idel bweorfan,

wander

sy^^an seSelingas

after nobles

void,

from

afar shall hear of

fleam eowerne,

your

flight,

domleasan

your inglorious deed.

feorran gefricgean

5770

dged.

Death

Dea'S biS sella


eorla

gebwylcum

is

for every

than a

Jjonne edwit-lif.

better

man

life

of reproach."

XL.
Heht ^a
to

Jjaet

hea^o-weorc

hagan biodan.
5755.

5760.

MS. iyran.
MS. Hu.

He

bade then the mighty work

at the enclosure
S7S7-

MS.

5764.

fergendra.

MS.

be announced.
5759.

lufena licgean.

MS.

J>rag.

BEOWULF.
up

up on the ocean's shore,

ofer eg-clif,

))aer jjJEt

195

where the warrior band,

eorl-werod,

morgen-longne daeg, 5780 the livelong day,


mod-giomor sset,
sad of mood, sat,
bord-hsebbende,

shield-bearers,

bega on wenum,

of both in expectation,

ende dogores,

of the day's end,

and eft-cymes

and of

leofes

monnes.

ihe return

of the dear man.

Lyt swigode

Little

was he

niwra spella

of the

new

se

who

^e njes gerad

ac he so^lice

5790

ssegde ofer ealle

Nu

is

to the ness rode

"

Now

the kind giver

is

of the Weders' people,

leoda,

dryhten Geata,

the Goths' lord,

dea^-bedde

on

fsest

wuna^ wsel-raeste,
wyrmes dsedum
him on efn hge^

^am

death-bed

through

by him

the

worm's deeds

fell

being

cause a wound.

Wiglaf

Wiglaf

site^

sits

ofer Biowulfe,

over Beowulf,

byre Wihstanes,

Wihstan's son,

o^rum

one warrior over another

unlifigendum

MS.

by any means

wunde gewyrcean.

5778.

lies

with knife- wounds sick

on the

aglcccean

healde^ hige

with his sword he could not

senige J>inga

orl ofer

fast

his deadly adversary,

5800

sweorde ne meahte

on

his

he rests on his fatal couch,

ealdor-gewinna,

seax-bennum seoc

but he truly
said of all

wil-geofa

Wedra

silent

intelligence

lifeless one ;

me^um
ecg.

;8io

5800

holds with weary

MS.
S

siex.

5810.

spirit

MS. mse^um.

BEOWULF.

196
heafod-wearde

chief

leofes

and

Nu

leodum wen

is

ward

over friend and foe.

la6es.

Now to the people is expectation

orleg-hwile,

of a time of war,

sySSan under [begen]

after

Froncum and Frysum

Franks and Frisians

fyll

cyninges

among

the king's fall

wide weor^e^.

becomes

Wags

The

sio

[both]

wroht sceapen

heard wi Hugas,

sy^an Hygelac

5820

cwom

^'idely known.

quarrel was form'd

Hugas,

fierce against the

Hygelac came

after

faran flot-herge

faring with a naval force

on Fresna land,

to Friesland,

pxr hyne Hetware

where him

hilde gehnsegdon,

in

elne geeodon

boldly

mid ofer-msegene,

with over-might,

))8et

se byrn-wiga

Hetwaras

went

so that the mail'd warrior

must bow

bugan sceolde
feoU on fe^an

the

war vanquish'd,

5830

he

fell in

his host,

no martial gear gave

nalles frsetwe geaf

ealdor dugu^e.

th prince to his warriors.

Us

To

us has been ever since

Mere-Wioinga

the

Mere-Wioings*

milts migyfeSe.

mercy denied.

Ne

Nor do I with <Ae Swedish people

wses a sy^^an

ic t5

Sweo-^eode

sibbe o^^e treowe

0/ peace or faith

wihte ne wene

aught expect

ac wses wide cu^


)>8ette

OngenSeow

for

5840

was widely known


Ongentheow

it

that

had of

ealdre besny^ede

life

depriv'd

5815. begen added from conjecture, the line being defective.


5819.

5840.

MS. scepen.
MS. Ongen>io.

5834.

MS. Wioingas.

5836.

MS.

te.

BEOWULF.
Hse^cyn

Hsethcyn, Hrethel's son,

Hre})ling,

by Hrefna-wood,

wis Hrefna-wudu,
)>a

for

serest

197

when

onmedlan,
gesohton

in their pride

sought

first

Geata leode

the Goths' people

gu^-Scylfingas.

the warlike Scylfings.

Sona him

Forthwith him the venerable

faeder

se froda

Ohtheres

father of Ohthere,

eald and egesfull,

old and terrific,

5850

bond- sly ht ageaf

abre5t brim-wisan

the sea-leader bore

bryda heorde,

from the bridal hearth,

gomela

io

meowlan

hand-blow gave

maid

golde berofene,

with gold adorn'd,

Onelan modor,

Onela's mother,

and Ohtheres

and Ohthere's

and Sa folgode

and then pursued

feorh-geniSlan,

his

oS-eodon

hj

deadly enemies,

until they escap'd

5860

earfo^ce

with

in Hrefnes-holt,

into Hrefnes-holt,

hlafordlease.

lordless.

Besset

a scip-here

sweorda
5842.

Beset then the naval force

MS. HseScen.

5849. L

5852. abrsed brim-wisa


5853. bryd-beorSe?

Heethcyn, the maiden,


sons,

e.

Ongen>e6w.

defective

text of this

My

version

The meaning seems

since the old sea-leader

is

but see

is

5898, 5899.

and the preceding

to be, that

many

his queen,

5864.

83

MS.

is,

years had passed

(Ongentheow) bore away

who became

line

founded on the conjectural

his

bride from

and was mother of his

Onela and Ohthere.

5855. gehrodene?

11.

The

hopelessly corrapt.

readings.

difficulty

the sword's leaving.

lafe.

5850, 585 1. Here the alliteration

fear,

away

the old warrior, long since, the

f-"^-

otJtSaet

'

sin herge.

/,->&+-*-[

BEOWULF.

198

wundum werge
wean

oft

with wounds weary

woe

gehet

earmre teohhe,

x*^oMj^

he oft promis'd

to the miserable progeny,


the livelong night

andlonge niht

cwae^ he on mergenne, 5870 said that he them at morn,

meces ecgum

with falchion's edges

gretan wolde,

would

sume on galg-treowu,

some hang on

[fuglum] to gamene.

[to the birds] for sport.

Frofor

eft

greet,

Comfort

gelamp

gallows-trees,

cifter wards

the sad of

somod

together ere day,

ser dsege,

came

sy86an hie Hygelaces

when they Hygelac's

horn and byman

horns and trumpets

galan ongeaton,
)>a

se

5880

sounding perceiv'd,

when

goda com,

to

mood,

sarig-modum,

the good king came,

leoda dugu^e,

with the flower of his people,

on

marching on

last faran.

their track.

XLI.
Waes

si5

Was

swat-swa%u

Sweona and Geata,

the bloody trace

Swedes and Goths,

of

wael-raes wera,

the deadly rush of

wide gesyne

widely seen;

hu ^a

folc

how

mid him

the people with

them

enmity excited.

fseh^e to-wehton.

Gewat him ^a se goda


mid his gaedelingum,

men,

5890

Departed then the good

kincf

with his associates,

^v**.

latiiitWc
1

5869.

MS.

ondlonge.

5872.

MS.

getan.

5873.

MS. sum.

5874. fuglum inserted from conjecture. " fuglum to frofre." Judith


(Anal. A. S. p. 150.)

5880.
s886.

MS.
MS.

gealdor.

weora.

5885.
5890.

i.

e.

MS. Swona.
Hygelac.

BEOWULF.

199

much

frod fela-ge5mor,

sage and

fsesten secean.

the fastness to seek.

sad,

Eorl Ongen|)e6w

The warrior Ongentheow

ufor oncirde

had proceeded higher

haefde Higelaces

he of Hygelac's

hilde gefrunen,

warfare had heard,

wlonces wig-craeft

the

wi^res ne tniwode

yet behev'd not

J)aet

he sse-mannum

proud

chief's war- craft

that he the seameh

5900

onsacan mihte,

could repel,

hea^o-lvSendum

from

hord forstandan,

his

beam and

his children

bryde.

^'cUM-^,!l

'

the traversers of the deep

hoard defend,

and

bride.

Beali eft )7onan

Withdrew again thence

eald under eorS-weall.

the

aged chief under

the earth

wall.

Da

Then was wealth announced

wses seht boden

Sweona leodum,

to the Swedes' people,

segn Higelaces,

freo^o-wong

the

banner of Hygelac,

the peaceful plain.

5910

))one.

Ford ofer-eodon,

The ford they went over,

sjrSSan Hre^lingas

after the

5893. In Hrefnes-holt, where


Groths

would seem the remnant of the

had entrenched themselves.

5894.

MS. OngenHo.

5899. wi^res.
I

it

Hrethhngs

This

have so rendered

it

take to be an error, possibly for hwsej're, yet.

as instances are not wanting of

one unaspirated.

syllable alUterating with

See

11.

an aspirated

5850 and 5851,

also 5936, 5937.

5900. he,

i.

e.

Higelac.

5906. eor'S-weall,

i.

e.

the entrenchment above mentioned, where

Ongentheow was attacked and


Eofor and Wulf.
5909.

theow to

MS.

Higelace.

his Swedes.

slain

by the HrethUngs (Goths) under

This was part of the spoil promised by Ongen-

BEOWULF.

200
to

hagan

had

Jirungon.

to

entrenchment

the

throng'd.

Daer wear^ Ongen^eow,

There was Ongentheow,

ecgum sweorda,

with swords' edges,

blonden-fexa,

the grizzly-hair' d,

on beado wrecen,

in that conflict punish'd,

J>aet

se ))e6d-cyning

so that the great

must submit

^afian sceolde

Eofores anne dom.

5920

king

to

Eofer's sole doom.

Him

Hyne yrringa
Wulf Wonreding

Wolf, Wonred's son^ -

wsepne geraehte,

with his weapon reach 'd,

JjBet

him

for

swenge

'

angrily

S^'-

so that, for the blow, his

swat sedrum sprong,

blood sprang from the veins,

forS under fexe

forth under his locks

yet

was he not

gomela Scylfing,

the

aged Scylfing,

ac forgeald hra^e,

but requited quickly,

nses

he forht swa-'Seh,

wyrsan wrixle,
wael-hlem

5930

with a worse exchange,


that deadly onslaught,

])one,

sy^^an ^e5d-cyning

when

})yder oncirde

tum'd thitherward

ne meahte

the great

king

nor could the swift

se snella

Wonred

sunu Wonredes

son of

ealdum eorle

to the old warrior

hond-slyht gifan,
ac he

helm
})8et

a hand-stroke give

him on heafde

for he
the

jer gescaer,

he blode fah

5940

5920.

MS. OngenSio.
MS. eafores. He

and 4965,
5936.

on his head

helm clave previously,

so that he blood-stain'd

must bow

bugan sceolde
S914.

afraid,

S9i7- ^IS. bid.


fell

by the hand of Eofor.

See

11.

5953-5.

sqq.

MS.

ceorle.

593/.

MS.

giofan.

5939.

MS.

gescer.

BEOWULF.
feoll

he

on foldan,

201

on the earth,

fell

naes he fsege j'a-gyt

yet was he not doom'd

ac he hyne gewyrpte,

but he recover'd himself,

\>eah

^e him wund hrine.

though

wound had touch'd

the

him.

Let se hearda

Caus'd then the

Higelaces )>egn

thane of Hygelac

bradne mece,

his

his

}>a

broSor

fierce

broad falchion,

as his brother lay,

laeg,

eald sweord eotonisc,

5950

his old eotenish

sword,

helm

entiscne helm

the giant

brecan ofer bord-weal

to break o'er the shield-wall

^a gebeah

then sank [the] king,

[se] cyning,

the people's shepherd,

folces hyrde,

waes

Da
Jje

him feorh drepen.

his life was stricken.


Then were many

wseron monige

his

who

maeg wriSon,

kinsman bound,

quickly rais'd,

ricone arserdon,

when

%a him gerymed wearS,


)>aet

his

?>t\f'<^'

hie wsel-stowe

5960

it

was

clear'd for them,

so that they the slaughter-place

wealdan moston,

might command,

jjenden reafode

while stript

rinc o^erne.

o'.e

Namon Ongen^eowe

They took from Ongentheow

iren byrnan,

his iron byrnie,

heard swyrd hilted,

and his helm somod

his hilted

and

hares hyrste
5969

[He am] frsetwum


5947. Eofor.

S964.

MS.
MS.

5970.

He

his

hard sword,

helm

also

the hoar ivarriors trapping

Higelace bseron.

5955.

warrior another.

in

feng,

5948.

and dropen.

OngenJ>io.

MS.

they to

[He

Hygelac bore.

the] war-gear receiv'd,


5953- se not in

brade.

59575969-

})am has perished from the

i-

MS.
MS.

e. his

baer.

wounds.

MS.

BEOWULF.

202
and him

and them promis'd

faegre gehet

fair

rewards among the people,

leana [on] leodum,

and gelsste swa

and so perform'd

geald ))one gu^-raes

requited the martial onslaught

Geata dryhten,

the Goths' lord,

Hre^les eafora,

Hrethel's offspring,

\>a.

when

he to ham becom,

Eofere and Wulfe mid


ofer

ma^mum

to

gehwse^rum

hund

jjusenda

to each of them,

5980

a hundred thousand

landes and locenra beaga

ne ^orfte him ^a lean

of land and closed rings

for those rewards

middangearde,

ant/

svg^an hie ^a mser^a ge-

one on mid-earth,

since they those honours had

slogon

won

in battle

and ^a Eofore forgeaf

and then he

angan dohtor,

his only daughter,

to Eofer gave

ham-weor6unge,

an honour to his home,

hyldo to wedde.

as a pledge of favour.

Daet ys

and

That

5990

sio fffih^o

))aet

^e

ic

the feud

the deadly hate of

whence

[wene] hafo

when they

shall learn

5972. on has perished from the JIS.

1.

MS.

lofore.

the Swedes' people,

leode,

sy^^an hie gefricgea^

5978.

men

expect

that us will seek

us secea^ to

Sweona

is

and the enmity,

se feondscipe,

wael-nrS wera
Saes

The A.

S.

5973-

MS.

gelaesta.

paraphrast has evidently here, and

5986 retained the orthography of his Scandinavian original.


5986. MS. lofore.
5979. MS. matSmam.
5993- wene is omitted in the MS.
5994.

nor needed to reproach them

crS-

witan

mon on

he besides treasures gave,

sealde

hi era

^f^iXbJ^

home he came,
Eofer and Wulf with him
to his

MS.

t'e.

5995-

MS-

leoda.

BEOWULF.
frean userne

our lord

ealdorleasne,

lifeless,

j)one

^e

hord and

before defended,

against enemies,

6000

treasure and realm,

rice,

aefter hsele^a

is

who had

geheold,

ser

wi^ hettendum,

203

hryre

and, after the

fall

of heroes,

hwate Scyldingas

the bold Scyldings

folc-riht fremede,

public right establish'd,

oS^e

furt5ur

gen

or yet further,

eorlscipe efnde.

valorous deeds perform'd.

Nu

is

Now

))3et

we

)>8er

sceawian,

and

]jone

ofost betost,

that

Jjeod-cyning

on

gebringan

ad-fsere

maSma

there shall not

for there is a

hord of treasures,

gold without number,

grimme gecea[po]d

cruelly purchas'd

and nu

and now

at last,

with his

own

si6estan,

sylfes feore,

beagas [bolijte
)ja

sceal

brond

these shall

fretan,

fire

flame cover,

wegan
mat56um to gemyndum,

no warrior

ne msegS scyne

nor maiden

nalles eorl

it

would appear

hfe,

he has bought rings

6020

aeled jjeccean,

6003. Hence

aught of any one

be consum'd with the bold king

hord,

gold unrime,

set

king

who gave us rings


on the way to the pile

meltan mid ]>&m modigan


J>ser is

the great

and bring him

6010

ne sceal anes hwaet

ac

speed best,

there behold,

us beagas geaf

J>e

is

we

devour,

shall bear

a treasure in remembrance,

tliat

fair

Beowulf, in consequence of the

fall

of Hrothgar's race, was called to rule also over the Danes (Scyldings).

6004.

MS.

red.

6007.

6025. Perhaps a glee-maiden


is

compelled to wander abroad.

MS. me.
is

6013.

MS.

seel.

meant, who, ha\ing lost her patron,

BEOWULF.

204
habban on healse

have on her neck

hring-weorSunge

a ring-honour

ac sceal geomor-mod,

but

golde bereafod,

of gold bereft,

6030

oft nalles sene,

sad of mood,

often not once,

el-land tredan

a strange land tread

nu

now

se here-wisa

the martial leader

has ceas'd from laughter,

hleahtor alegde,

gamen and gleo-dream

sport and joy of song

forSon sceal gar wesan,

therefore shall the javelin be,

monig morgen

many a morning

ceald,

mundum ne wunden,
hsefen on
nalles

handa

ac se
fiis

wonna

nor rais'd in hand

no sound of harp
6040

shall the warrior raise

but the dusk raven,

hrefh,

eager o'er the

ofer fzegum

much

fela reordian,

eame secgan
hu him

cold,

not by hands brandish'd,

hearpan sweg

wigend weccean

shall,

fallen,

shall tell,

shall to the eagle say

set aete

how it with him

speow,

at his food sped,

|)enden he wi^ wulfe

while with the wolf he

wael reafode.

spoil'd the slain."

Swa

se secg

Thus the bold warrior

hwata

was speaking

secgende waes
laSra spella

he ne leag

6050
fela

unwelcome speeches
he

falsified

not

much

wyrda ne worda.

of events or words.

Weorod

The band

eall Eiras,

all

arose,

eodon unbli6e

went unblithe

under Eama-nses,

under Eama-nges,

weollon tearas.

(their tears

MS. be wunden.
The Eagles' ness or promontory.
6056. MS. wollen teare.
6037.
6055.

bubbled forth)

BEOWULF.
wundur sceawian.

Fundon

the

M on sande

|>one

J>e

)a

him hringas geaf

mEelum

chief gone,

the Weders' prince,

Jjeoden,

a wondrous death should die


but they there saw

gesegon

a stranger thing,

syllicran wiht,

wyrm on wonge,
wi^eiTEedne

good

for the

so that the war-king,

wundor-dea^e swealt
J>ser

him who had given them rings


in earlier times

se gu^-cyning,

ac hi

holding his couch,

then was the end-day

g^dum gegongen,

Wedra

to view.

soulless,

6060

waes ende-daeg

J>aet

wonder

They then found on the sand

sawulleasne,

hlin-bed healdan,

serran

2(tr

6070

the

worm on

the plain,

the adverse one there,

jjser,

la^ne hcgean

the hostile, lying

waes se leg-draca,

the fire-drake was,

grim horror,

grimlic gryre,

the

gledum beswseled

with gleeds scorch'd

se waes fiftiges

he was

f5t-gemearces

feet of

lang on legere

long on

lyft- Wynne

Tie

heold

nihtes hwilum,

ny^er

eft

6080

his

dennes niosian

in the night's hours,

his
faest

bed

the delight of air enjoy'd

again came

gewat

waes ^a dea^e

fiftv

measure

den to

down

visit

he was then fast in death

haefde eorS-scrafa

he had of his earth-dens

ende genyttod

the

him big-stodon

by him stood

bunan and orcas

cups and bowls

6060.
6068.
6086.

end enjoy'd

MS. hlim rightly corrected by Grimm, D. G. ii. 484.


MS. ser
gesegan.
6071. MS. wiSer raehtes.
MS. stodan.
;

BEOWULF.

206
^

7^'
lUkA

'-

****"!

dishes lay there,

discas lagon,

and dyre swyrd

and costly swords

oraige jjurh-etene,

swa

hie

6090

wi^ eor^an fse^m

as

eacen

TJ
J^^t-^*^''

tA/>/

had there continued

eardodon

))onne waes

they in the lap of earth

if

a thousand winters

jjusend wintra
)>3er

rusty, eaten through,

the gold of

galdre bewunden,

encircled

^am

hring-sele

nefne

God

He

is

t5e

manna

he wolde.

God

King

true

(He
the

swa-hwylcum manna

swa him gemet ^uhte.

is

himself,

of victories,

should give

gehyld,

herd openian,
efne

any man,
unless

sylfa,

sigora s6S Kyning,


sealde ))am

of old,

by enchantment,

might not touch


6100

senig,

men

it

to

whom he would
men)

the well-wilier of

hoard to open,

just to whatever

as might to

man

him seem meet.

XLII.

Da

Then was seen

waes gesyne

))aet

that fortune favour'd not

se si^ ne Jjah

|)am ^e unrihte

61 10

him who unrighteously

inne gehydde

within had hidden

wrsete under wealle.

treasure, under the

Weard

The guardian had before

ccr

ofsloh

some

feara sume,
J)a

sio i;Ch^

mound.

gewrecen wra^lice.

vsTothfully avenged.

"Wundiu- hwaet ))onne

"What wonder when

609c

etone.

slain

of a few,

then was the quarrel

gewear^

6112.

MS.

wrsece.

6117.

MS.

'"-"

so that that ring-hall

hrinan ne moste

gumena

iiOK^LA^,>

exceedingly strong,

crseftig,

iu-monna gold,

))set

was

for that heritage

yrfe

])set

hwar.

BEOWULF.
a brave renown'd warrior

eorl ellen-rof

ende gefere

to the

6120

lif-gesceafta,

J>onne long

mon mid

medu-seld

Swa
j)a

end journey

of living creatures,

when long may not

ne maeg

magum

his

207

biian,

man with

the

his

kinsmen

mead-bench occupy

So 'twas

to

Beowulf;

he biorges weard

when he

the

mount's guardian

sohte searo-nias,
seolfa ne

sought, his guileful hate,

cue

hwaet

J)urh

himself

his

worulde

dippe

benemndon

)>aet

or

how

it

doomsday

tiU

solemnly declar'd

who

^ser dydon,

man

should be

synuum scyldig,
hergum gehea^erod,

with harryings

hell-bendum

in hell -bonds fast,

96 jjone

with sins guilty,

fsest,

by

gewitnad,

wong

6140

agendes est

in,

should that plain despoil.

He was
more

gearwor hsefde

hemm'd

terrors punish'd,

who

strade.

Naes he gold-hwaete

-^-a^*^

there that treasure put,

that the

se secg wsere

wommum

t^^^><^^

those great princes,

|)e5dnas nicere,
))a jjset

not covetous of gold

readily

previously purchas'd.

Wiglaf ma^elode,

Wiglaf spake,

Wihstanes sunu

Wihstan's son

Oft sceal eorl monig.

" Oft must a man many.

2 1.

MS.

leng.

6134. This
off a

had he

the owner's favour

geceapod.

61

from

should be,

sceolde,

0^ d5mes dseg 6130

hit

his parting

the world

weorSan

swa

knew not

through what

gedal

Eer

WEes Biowulfe

is

the usual malediction laid oa whoever should carry

hidden treasure.

6140. he, L

e.

Beowulf.

6143.

T a

MS.

gesceawod.

BEOWULF.

208

for the sake of one,

fines willan,

hardships suffer,

wraeca dre5gan,

swa us geworden

Ne meahton we

as has befallen us.

is.

gelseran

leofhe jjeoden,

6151

rices hyrde,

could not inculcate on

our dear prince,


the realm's guardian,

any counsel,

rsed Benigne,
}j8et

We

--

that gold-ward

gold-weard jjone

him

lete

hyne licgean

hut let

})aer

he longe wses,

where he long had been,

wicum wunian,

lie

in his habitation continue,

o^ woruld-ende,

tUl the world's end,

healdan heah gesceap. 6160

hold the high appointment.

Hord ys gesceawod,
grimme gegongen.
Wses ))3et gife^e to swi^,
J;e ^one j^yder ontyhte.

The hoard has been seen,


cruelly acquir'd.

Too powerful was


was

and

and

eall

geond-seah,

recedes geatwa,
|)a

me gerymed

wses

look'd over,

it all

when

it

was

clear'd for

si^ alyfed

6170

the
in

on ofoste gefeng

mundum

way permitted

under

I in

the

earth-mound

haste seiz'd

with viy hands a great

mighty burthen

maegen-byrSenne
hord-gestreona,

of hoard-acquisitions,

hider ut aetbaer

bare them out hither

cyninge

minum

to

MS.

king

6160.

dreoge'5.

6164. '5one (him),

my

he was yet living,

cwico waes })a-gena,


6148.

me

not pleasantly

inn under eor^-weall

micle mid

therein,

the house's furniture,

nealles swseslice

ic

that grant,

which impel'd bim thither.

Ic waes Jjasr-inne,
J>aet

U-^

that he should not assail

he ne grette

i.

e.

Beowulf.

MS.

heoldoa.

BEOWULF.
WIS and gewittig

worn

wise and sensible

call gespraec

6180

gomol on geh^o,
and eowic gretan
baed

jjaet

aefter

2()9

very

many

things said

the aged prince in sadness,

and bade me greet you,

het,

ge geworhton,

wines dsedum,

pray'd that ye would make,


befitting our friend's deeds,

in b?el-stede,

in the pile's stead,

beorh

a lofty mount,

J)one hean,

micelne and mseme,

great and glorious,

swa he manna wses

as he of all

wigend weor^fullost

the worthiest warrior

wide geond eor^an,

6190

men was

widely throughout the earth,

))enden he burh-welan

while he the wealth of

brucan moste.

might enjoy.

Uton nu

Let us

oSre

efstan,

now

_^
*

other

seon and secean

to see

and seek

searo-gejjraec,

the curious mass,

})aet

wealle

the

ne onsceawia^

wonders beneath the mound.

I will

ge genoge
6200

guide you,

so that

enough ye

will not

gaze on

rings and broad gold.

beagas and brad gold.


Sie sio bser gearo,

Let the bier be ready,

sedre geaefned,

quickly made,

})onne

we

when we come

ut cymen,

and ))onne geferian

j>aer

our lord,

mannan,

the dear

he longe sceal

to

on ^aes Waldendes
waere ge})olian.

out,

and then bear

frean userne,
leofne

hasten,

wundur under
ic eow wisige,

cities

man

where he long

shall

in the All-powerful's

6210

care endure."

Het ?a gebeodan

Bade then command

bvre Wihstanes,

Wihstan's son,

T3

""'

,A

BEOWULF.

210

the human war-beast,


many men,

haele-hilde-deor,

monegum

haele^a

house-owning,

bold-agendra,
jjaet

hie bsel-wudu

that they pile-wood

from afar should convey,

feorran feredon,
folc

agende

g5dum

Nu

folk-owning,

towards the good prince

to-geanes

sceal gled fretan,

6220

"

Now

^wyrdan wonna leg,

the

wigena strengel,

the prince of warriors,

^e

J)one

oft

dusky flame destroy,

him who

gebad

the iron

isern scures

shall the gleed devour.

oft

awaited

shower

]jonne strsela storm,

who when

strengum gebsded,

from strings impel'd,

scoc ofer scyld-weall,

pass'd o'er the shield-wall,

the storm of shaft?.

sceaft-nytte heold,

the shaft-notch held,

t'e^er-geanvum

when, prompt with

fus,

its

feather-

gear,
flana

4^yll

Huru

eode.

6230

the fall of arrows

sunu Wibstanes

son of Wihstan

acigde of corre

call'd

cyninges J)egnas

king's thanes

sj-fone
]>a.

went"

Forthwith the prudent

se snotra

[to-som]ne

from

the

band

seven together
the choicest,

selestan,

code eahta sum

went himself

under inwit-hr5f

under the treacherous roof

hilde rinc

sum

on handa

baer

aeled-leoman,
se Se

on orde gong.

6219.
6224.
6230.

MS.
MS.
MS.

togenes.
scure.

flane full.

the eighth

a warrior

6240

in his

hand bare

a fire-brand,

who went

at the head.

MS. weaxan.
6222. J^engel
MS. fseder. garum?
6242. MS. geong.
6231. Sona?

6221.

6229.

BEOWULF.
onhlytme

Naes

t5a

hwa

\>xt

211

was not then without

It

lot

sy%^an or-wearde

who should the hoard despoil


when without a guard

aenigne dsel

some

secgas gesegon

the

on

in the hall remaining,

sele

Lord strude,

wunian,

Isene licgan
lyt senig

lit

thinly scatter'd lying

mearn,

6250

regretted any,

speed they

all

might convey out

geferedon

dyre

little

that with

hie ofostlice

}>aet

deal

men saw

magmas

the precious treasures

dracan eac scufon,

the

dragon eke they shov'd,

wyrm

the

worm,

ofer weall-clif,

o'er the wall-cliff,

wave

leton wseg niman,

let the

flod fseSmian,

the flood embrace,

frsetwa hyrde
jjfer

waes

the treasure's guardian

wunden gold

on ween hladen,

there was twisted gold


6260

on

wain laden,

the

of every kind numberless

ajghwees unrim
fe))eling

take,

and the prince borne,

geboren,

har hilde-[rmc]

the hoar warrior,

to Hrones-nsesse.

to Hrones-naes.

XLIII.

Him ^a

For him then prepar'd

gegiredon

Geata leode

the Goths' people

ad on eor^an

a pile

unwaclicne,

helm-behongen,

with helmets hung,

hilde-bordura.

war-boards,

6254.

MS.

6262.

I\IS. selSelinge

ec scufun.

boren.

on the earth,

mighty

one,

6259.
conj.

K.

6263. rinc supplied from conjecture.

MS.

i>xt.

BEOWULF.

212
beorhtum byrnum,

bright byrnies,

swa he bena wses.


Alegdon ^a to-middes

Laid then

mgeme

the great prince

as

Jjeoden

ongunnon

J>a

their beloved lord

began then on

on beorge

the

mount,

of bale-fires the greatest

bsel-fyra msest
)

midst

in the

the warriors lamenting,

haeieS hiofende,

hlaford leofne

he had requested.

wi^ end weccan

the warriors to kindle

wudu-rec astah

6280

the

wood-reek ascended

sweart of Swio-6ole,

swart from the Swedish pine,

swogende

the roaring flame,

leg,

with weeping mingled,

w5pe bewunden,
wind-blond gelseg,
o^))aet

he

])aet

wind-blending ceas'd)

(the

ban-bus

until

it

the bone-house

gebrocen hsfde,

had broken,

hat on hre^re.

hot on the breast.

Higum

Sad

unrote

in spirits

mod-ceare meendon

they with mind-care bewail'd

TOon-dryhtnescwealm; 6290

their liege lord's death;

swylce geomor-gyd

as

heorde

|)8et

sorrowing bound

*
*

neah,

hio hyre
*

a mournful lay

sorg-cearig SEelde
*

if

under

gas hearde

ode wa *
*

ylla

won

egcsan
^

)(.)(.

heaven swell'd with smoke.

heofon rece swealg.


6a8i.

MS.

swic.

MS. let.
MS. sealg.

6282.
6292.

6285.

MS.

)>a.

BEOWULF.

213

Geworhton ^a

Wrought then

Wedra

the

leode

hlsew on hli^e
se waes

heah and brad,

Weders' people

mound on

the hill

was high and broad,

it

weg-li3endum

by wave-farers

wide to-syne

widely to be seen

and betimbredon

and constructed

on tyn dagum

6300

in ten days

renown'd warrior's beacon,

beadu-rofes beacn
k bronda
be *

the

^.^ wealle beworhton,

with a wall surrounded

^-'^

f*

swa

as

hit weorSlicost

fore-snotre

men

it

men

highly sagacious

findan mihton.

might

find.

Hi on beorg dydon

In the

mound

beagas and

rings and jewels,

eall

siglu,

ni^-hydige

genumen

they placed

6310

ser

men

men

had taken.

hsefdon.

They

eor^an healdan,

to the earth to hold,

gold on greote,

nu gen

swa

where
[to

as

hit [ser] waes.

hilde deor

6320

cwiSan

cyning msenan,
6295.

6319.

MS.
MS.

lide.

riodan.

6297.

would

MS.

speak

king bewail,

et liSendum.

6320.

rode

the twelve

all

their

mound

the

war-beasts

of

yet remains

as useless

[ere] was.

it

nobles

ealra twelfa

woldon

now

it

men]

Then round

ridon

seSehng

treasure of earls

left the

gold in the dust,


lifaS

[yldum] swa unnyt

pa ymbe hlsw

'

such as before in the hoard


hostile

Forleton eorla gestreon

\>XT hit

'"''

"

also ornaments,

swylce hyrsta,

swylce on horde

it,

most honourable

MS.

deore

6308.

MS.

beg.

,^

(K^^U-

BEOWULF.

214
word-gyd wrecan,

a verbal lay recite,

and worn sprecan

and many things say

eahtodon eorlscipe,

esteem'd his bravery,

and

and

his ellen-weorc

dugu^um demdon,
swa

6330

hit ge[defe] bi^,

works

nobly judged,
as

mon his wine-dryhten


wordum herge,

))set

it is fitting,

that a

man

his liege lord

with his words praise,

ferh^um freoge,

in his soul love,

})onne he for^ scyle

when he

of lic-haman,

from

weor)jan.

Swa begnornodon

jjset

become.

their lord's fall,

said that

mildust,

he was

of

men, mildest,

and kindest,
to his people gentlest,

IrSost,

and 16f-geornost.
6326.

of world-kings,

[and mon-]})Werost,

leodum

the body,

his hearth- enjoyers

he wsere

woruld-cyninga,

manna

i-vei^yOL-

go forth

the Goths' people

6340

heor^-geneatas

cwaedon

shall

Thus deplor'd

Geata leode
hlafordes [hryre],

his valiant

MS. ymb

6347
se.

and of praise most desirou?.


6335.

MS.

scile.

THE SCOP OR GLEEMAN'S TALE,


AND

THE FIGHT AT FINNESBURG.

V
.

>

THE SCOP OR GLEEMAN'S TALE.

Widsi ma^elode,

Widsith spake,

word-hord onleac,
se

word-hoard unlock'd,

his

msest maegSa

\)e

he

who

a vast

[mette] ofer eorjjan,

had met on

folca g-eond-ferde

travel'd

oft

he

flette ge))ah

oft

mynelicne ma})))um.

Hine from Myrgingum


aejjele

to the

faithful

peace-weaver,

at the first time,

si]je,

HreS-cvninges

the Hreth-king's

ham

home had

ges5hte,

eastan of Ongle,

1.

WidsiS

is

erratic calling

racter of a
I.

MS.

the

sought,

east of Angeln,

name

assigned to the gleeman, in allusion to his

analogous to GangraSr, assumed by Odin in his cha-

wanderer ; Gangleri, Farvid,

etc.

ma'Solade.

K., with great probability, suggests msegSa.

3.

IMS. maeriSa.

4.

mette supplied from conjecture.

8.

For Hine from

case, as I

Myrgings

he with Ealhhild,

freo^u-webban,

forman

in court receiv'd

memorable present.

nobles sprang

he mid Ealhhilde,
fcclre

tribes

through many nations

he had

From him

onwocon

many

earth,

am

There

would substitute

not aware that onwacan

poet speaks of his offspring.

is

Him

is

no hiatus in the MS.

from, the prep, after

used actively.

At

I.

106

its
tlio

THE SCOP

218

Eormanric's,

Eormanrices,

wra})es Wcerlogan.

::

hostile faith-breaker.

Ongon )>a worn sprecan


ic monna gefi'aegn

Fela

Began then much to say


Of many men I have heard

maegjjum wealdan

ruling over tribes

sceal J)e6dna

])eawum

20

gehwylc

se

live fittingly,

lifgan,

chief after other


rule o'er the country,

Tcedan,

who

his Jieoden-stol

])e

(every prince should

eorl sefter ojjrum


e'Sle

his princely throne

desires should flourish).

gej)e5n wile.

Of

para wses Hwala


hwile selest,

30

Hwala

these was

a while the best,

and Alexandreas

and Alexander

ealra ricost

of

all

monna cynnes

of

mankind

and

and he most prosper'd

lie

])ara

msest gejjah

Ipe ic

most powerful

of those

ofer foldan

whom

gefrsegen hsebbe.

have heard

^tla weold Hunum,

Attila rul'd the

Eormanric Gotum,

Eormanric

Becca Baningum,

Burgendum

Gifica

Becca
;

40

the

the

on earth

of.

Huns

the Goths,

Brondings

Burgundians Gifica

Casere weold Creacum,

Caesar rul'd the Greeks

and

and

Gaelic

16.

Finnum,

Here some

Gaelic the Fins

lines are evidently wanting,

although there

is

no

hiatus in the MS., as the words wraj^es wsrlogan cannot apply to

Eormanric, the object of the poet's praise (see


lines

11.

175 sqq.).

The

lost

would no doubt have informed us who the persons were before

whom
23.

the tale was recited or sung.

H.

)>eoda.

K., with great probability suggests I'eodna, which I

adopt.
19.

MS. Wala.

30.

MS.

selast.

OR GLEEMAN'S TALE.
Hagena Holmrycum,

Glommum

and Henden

219

Hagena the Holmrycs,


and Henden the Gloms

Witta weold Swiefum,

Witta

rul'd the Swsefs,

Wada

Wada

the Helsings,

Haelsingum,

Meaca Myrgingum,
Mearchealf Hundingum

Meaca

Deodric weold Froncum,


50

Theodric rul'd the Franks,

Thyle the Rondings,

Breoca

Breoca Brondingum,

Wernam

Myrgings,

Mearchealf the Huudings

Dyle Rondingum,

Billing

the

the Brondings,

Billing the

Werns

Oswine weold Eowum,

Oswine

and Ytum Gefwulf

and the Yts Gefwulf;

Fin Folcwalding

Fin Folcwalding

Fresna cynne

the Frisians' race

rul'd the

Hnsef Hocingum,
60

Sycgum,

Sea-Danes

the Wulfings,

the

Woings,

the Thyrings,

Saeferth the Sycs,

Sweora Ongendjjeow
Sceafthere

Helm
Wald

Wod

Dyringum,

SseferS

Eows,

Hnaef the Hokings,

Helm Wulfingum,
Wald Woingum,

Wod

rul'd the

Sigehere longest

Sigehere lengest

Sse-Denum weold

the

Ymbrum,

Swedes Ongendtheow

Sceafthere the Ymbers,

Sceafa Longbeardum,

Sceafa the Longbeards,

Hun Hsetwerum,

Hun

and Helen Wrosnum,

and Holen

Hringweald wses haten

Hringweald waes hight

Here-farena cyning

70

the Hsetweras,

the

Wrosns,

the Herefaras king;

Offa weold Ongle,

Offa rul'd Angeln,

Alewih Denum,

Alewih

se wges ])ara

modgast

manna

ealra,

who
of

the Danes,

of those

all

men was

proudest,

no hwce})re he ofer Offan

yet not over Offa he

eorlscipe fremede

supremacy

effected;

THE SCOP

220

monna,

cniht wesende,
80

cyne-rica msest,
nsenig sefen-eald
eorlscipe

won

for Offa

ac Offa geslog,
ajrest

men,

when

a boy,

still

kingdoms most,
none of

him

in battle,

earliest of

like

age with him

dominion greater

maran

on-orette,

in contest gain'd,

ane sweorde

by

his single

merce getncerde

his

march he enlarged

sword

wi8 Myrgingum,

towards the Myrgings,

bi Fifel-dore.

by

Heoldon

Continued thenceforth

for6-si)j))an,

Angles and Swaefs,

Engle and Sweefe,

swa

Fifel-dor.

hit Offa geslog.

90

Hrojjwulf and Hr68gar

as Offa

it

had won.

Hrothwulf and Hrothgar

heoldon lengest

longest held

sibbe setsomne,

peace together,
the paternal-cousins,

suhtor-faedran,
si|))>an

hy forwrsecon

after they

wicinga cynn,

had expel'd

the race of vikings,

and Ingeldes

and Ingeld's

ord forbigdan,

point had bent,

forheowan

aet

Heorote

HeaSo-beardna

Swa

ic

))rym.

slaughter' d at
100

geoud-ferde fela

Heorot

the host of Heathobeard-s.

Thus

travers'd

many

fremdra londa,

foreign lands

geond ginne grund

over the spacious earth

godes and

good and

})3er ic

vfles

cunnade,

there

evil

prov'd,

cnosle bidteled,

of mij offspring depriv'd,

freo-magum

from my dear kindred

feor,

folgade wide
for])on ic

I foUow'd widely

mseg singan,
107.

therefore I can sing,

MS. freo-maegum.

far,

OR GLEEMAN'S TALE.
and secgan

no and

spell,

221

a tale recite,

recount before the many,

msenan fore mengo,


in meodu-healle,

in the mead-hall,

hu me cyne-gode

how me

cystum dohton.

bounteously treated.

mid Hunum,

Ic waes

Sweom

mid

and

was with

the

Huns,

and with the Hreth-Goths,

and mid HreS-Gotum,

mid

the noble of race

with the Swedes and with the

Gefitum,

Geats,

and mid SiiS-Denum

and with the South Danes

mid Wenlum

with the Wenlas

raid

waes and

ic

Waernum,

the

and mid wicingum

mid GefSum

120

waes and

ic

mid Englum

with the Gefthas


the

the Swaefs,

^nenum

mid Seaxum

ic

and with

waes and

ic

the

^Enenas

with the Saxons

mid Sycgum,
;

waes and

and with

the

Sweord-weras

with the Hrons

mid Deanum,

the

Deans,

Heatho-Reamas

and with

mid Dyringum

with the Thyrings

ic

waes,

and mid Drowendum,

and mid Burgendum

me

beag

\>xr

130

ge))ali

GiiShere forgeaf

the

the Tlirowends,

and with

the

Burgundians

a ring receiv'd

there

there

me Guthhere

welcome present,

songes to leane

in

reward of song

|>aet

was,

and with

glaedlicne ma|)]5um,

naes

gave

that was no sluggish king.

saene cyning.

114

MS.

dohten.

^3

was and with

and mid Hea))o-Reamum

Jjaer ic

was and with

the Sycgs,

and mid Sweord-werum

mid Hronum

the Gefflegas

with the Angles I was and with

mid Sweefum^
and mid

was and with

Winedas,

and with

wses and

ic

Waernas,

and with the vikings

mid Wined um,


and mid Gefflegum

was and with

THE SCOP

222

Mid Froncum

waes and

ic

mid Frysum,

With

Franks

the

and mid Frumtingum

and with

mid Rugum

with the Rugs

wses and

ic

mid Glommum,
and mid
swylce

140

wses on Eatnle,

mid ^Ifwine,
se hsefde

mine

lofes to

was and with

and with
also I

Rum -Wealhs

the

was

who had

of all mankind,

as I have heard,

hond

the readiest

wyrcenne,

hand

praise to call forth,

heortan unhneaweste

the

hringa gedales

in the distribution of rings

beorhtra beaga,

bright collars,

beam Eadwines.
Mid Sercingum ic
and mid Seringum

mid Creacum

ic

150
waes,

J)e

most

liberal heart

the Serkings I was,

with

the Serings

Greeks

the

was

and

with the Fins,

and with Csesar,

who

win-burga

o'er the joyous cities

geweald ahte,

had sway,

Wiolane and Wilna,

Wiolane and Wilna,

and Wala rices.


Mid Scottum ic

With

and of
waes and

mid Peohtum,

'

the

Walas' realm.

the Scots I

was and with

the Picts,

andmidScride-Finnum; 160 and with

mid Lid-wicingum

ic

waes

and mid Leonura,

with

tfie

the Scrid-Fins

Lid-vikings

with the Leons,

and with the Lombards

mid Hse'Snum

with Hsethens

ic

wses and

Haelejjum,

and mid Hundingum

was and

and mid Long-beardum

mid

Eadwine.

the son of

With

and with

waes and

mid Finnum,
and mid Casere,
se

in Italy,

with ^Ifwine,

mon-cynnes,

gefrsege,

leohteste

Frumtings

the

Gloms,

the

Rum-Walum

ic

was and with

the Frisians,

Hseleths,

and with

the

was and with

Hundings

OR GLEEMAN'S TALE.

223
was,

mid Israhelum ic wses,


and mid Ex-Syringum

and with

mid Ebreum and mid In-

with the Hebrews and with the

with the Israelites

deum,

Ex-Syrings

the

Indians,

and mid Egyptum

mid Moidum

and with

wa's and

ic

Egyptians

the

Medes

with the

mid Persum,

was and with

the Persians,

and mid Myrgingum,

170

and Mofdingum,

and with the Myrgings,


and the Mofdings,

and ongend Myrgingum,

and again with

and mid Amothingum

and with

mid East- Dyringum icwses

with the East Thyrings

and mid Istum,

and with

and Idumingum

and

and ic wses midEormanrice; and


ealle Jjrage

me Gotena

cyning

se

me

there
180

was

the Eols,

the Istas,

Idumingas

was with Eormanric

me

the Goths'

king

well treated,

he

beiig forgeaf,

Myrgings,

which time

all

g5de dohte,

the

the

Amothings

the

and with

and mid Eolum,

jjser

me

a collar gave,

burg-warena fruma,

the chieftain of his citizens,

on ))am siex hund waes

on which

smsetes goldes

of beaten gold

six

hundred were

gescyred sceatta,

sceats scor'd,

scilling-rime,

in skillings reck on' d,

))one ic Eadgilse

which

on

in possession gave^

seht sealde,

minum
]ja ic

my

hleo-dryhtne,

to

ham bicwom,

190

leofum to leaae,

me lend forgeaf,

J)3es \>e

he

mines

fseder-ejjel,

I to

patron lord,

when

to ?ny

came,

because he had given

my

paternal heritage,

Myrgings' prince

Myrginga

the

and

me

and to

Ealhhild

home

in requital to mi/ friend,

frea

])a

Eadgils

me

me

then Ealhhild

land,

THE SCOP

224
ojjerne forgeaf,

another gave,

dryht-cwen dugu^e,

noble queen of chieftains,

dohtor Eadwines

Eadwine's daughter

hyre lof lengde

geond

Ion da fela,

200

jjonne ic be songe

where

under swegle

ic

many lands,
when I by song
had to say

secgan sceolde
hwser

her praise extended

over

knew

selest wisse

under heaven

a most excellent

gold-hrodene cwen

gold-adom'd queen

giefa bryttian.

gifts dispensing.

Donne

When

wit Scilling,

uncrum sige-dryhtne

for

and SkiUing,

with clear voice,

sciran reorde,

song ahofan,

210

for our victorious lord


rais'd the song,

hlude bi hearpan

loud to the harp

bleojjor swinsade,

our voice resounded,

monige men,

))onne

modum
wordum
|jaet

said in words,

song

ic

well knew,

that they never song

ne hyrdon.

Donan

who

those

cu}jan,

hi nsefre

sellan

haught)^ of mood,

sprecan,

wel

]ja ]je

many men,

then

wlonce,

better

geond-

ealne

had heard.

Thence

I travers'd all

hwearf
ej)el

Gotena.

Sohte
)ja

ic

220

waes inn-weorud

Eormanrices.

MS.

that

was

the

household band

of Eorraanric.

196. o)>erne,

204.

courses I ever sought

the best

selestan

j?Eet

the country of the Goths.

Of

sijja

i.

203.

e. eSel.

selast.

206.

MS.

MS.

swegl.

giefe.

207. For this construction see note on Beowulf, 4009.


224.

MS.

Earmanrices.

OR GLEEMAN'S TALE.
Ile^can s5hte

ic

and Bea-

Hethca

225

sought and Beadeca,

decan,

and the Herehngs

and Herelingas

Emercan

sohte

and

ic

Emerca

sought and Fridla,

Fridlan,

and East-Gotan,

and

frodne and godne,

sage and good,

feeder

Unwenes

230

East Goth,

the

Unwen

the father of

sought and Becca,

Seccan sohte ic and Beccan,

Secca

Seafolan and Deodric,

Seafola and Theodric,

Hlijje

Heathoric and Sifeca,

and Sifecan,

Heajjoric

Hlithe and Incgentheow

and IncgenJ>e6w

Eadwine sohte

ic

andElsan'

Eadwine

sought and Elsa,

^-Egelmund and Hungar,

^gelmund and Hungar,

and

and the proud bands

)>a

wloncan gedryht

WiS-Mvrginga
Wulfhere

of the

sohte

and

ic

Wyrmhere
ful oft ]>XT

With-Myrgiugs

Wulfhere
here

wig ne

alaeg, 240

full oft

sought and

war ceas'd

there

))onne Hrseda here,

when

heardum sweordum,

with hard swords,

ymb

wergan sceoldon

had

ealdne ejjel-stol

their ancient native seat

sohte

and

ic

Rondhere,

Rumstan and

to defend

from the folks of

leodum.

Rsedhere

not,

army,

the Hrced's

about Vistula- wood,

Wistla-wudu,

^"Etlan

Wyrm-

Rsedhere

Attila.

sought and Rond-

here,

Rumstan and

Gislhere,

Gislhere,

Wijjergield and Freo]>eric,

Withergield and Freotheric,

Wudgan and Haman

Wudga

ne wseron
]ja

\>set

gesijja

)je

nemnan
Fal

ic

hy a nyhst

sceolde.

oft of )?ain

250

and

Hama

thev were of comrades not


the worst

ssemestan

J>eah

heape

though

them ever

last

should name.
Full oft from that

band

THE SCOP OR GLEEMAN'S TALE.

226

hwinende fleag

whining flew

gieUende gar

the

yelHng shaft

on grome

on

the fierce nation,

))e6de,

where would avenge

wrseccan pxr weoldan

wundnan golde
werum and wifum,
Wudga and Hama.

Swa
on

ic jjset

]?3ere

))aet

se

260

symle onfond,

and Hama.

Thus have

I ever found,

in that journeying,

that he

leofast

lond buendum,

is

dearest

to the land-dwellers,

se J)e him God


gumena rice

syle6

to

whom God

empire over

to gehealdenne,

))enden he her leofa6.

Swa

men and women,

Wudga

feringe,

bij)

the chiefs gold-adorn'd


their

gives

men

to hold,
270

while he here lives.

Thus roving,

scrij)ende,

gesceapum hweorfaS

with their devices wander

gleomen gumena

the

geond grunda

through many lands,

fela,

secga6,

|>earfe

their

ojjjje

need express,

words of thanks

J)onc-word sprecaS,
simle su6

gleemen of men

norS

sumne gemeta^

find one

gydda gleawne,

knowing

geofum unhneawne,
se

]>e

fore duguj)e wile

utter,

ever south or north

280

in songs,

liberal of gifts,

who

before his court desires

grandeur to

d5ra arseran,

his

eorlscipe aefnan,

valorous deeds achieve,

oJ)J)8et

eal scaceS

leoht and

Lof

se

lif

somod.

gewyrceS,

exalt,

until all departs

light

and

life

together.

He who works

praise,

hafaS under heofonum

has under heaven

heah-faestne dom.

exalted glory.

THE FIGHT AT FINNESBURG.


A FRAGMENT^.

nas

bymaS

Hleojjrode

]>a,

the

warUke young king

" This dawns not from the east,

ne dagaS eastan,

6is

never burn.

Cried aloud then

heajjo-geong cyning

Ne

nsefre.

ne her draca ne fleogeS,

nor

ne her

nor of

J)isse

healle

horn naes ne byrna'S


ac her forS bernS

dragon here,

flies

this hall

here

are the cressets burning

but here

it

burns forth

the birds sing,

fugelas singaS,
gylleS grseg-hama,

the cricket chirps,

gu3-wudu hlynneS,

the

scyld scefte oncwytJ.

shield to shaft responds.

Nu
nu

Now

mona

scyneS 6es

wajjol

now

moon

arise

woful deeds,

that this hatred of the people

5e 8isne folces ni6

The fragment,

shines the

wandering amid clouds,

under wolcnum,

arisaS wea-dseda,

war-wood resounds,

as far as I can judge, begins with a speech of

Fin, the Frisian prince,

on seeing a glare of

light in his palace,

which

has been fired by the Danish invaders, in an attack by night.

ii.

3.

Hickes hearo.

5.

fiery one.

p. 31.

and

ne.

9. believing it to
1 1

this,

i.

e. this light.

p. 155.

iii.

H. homas

7.

4.

For these light-bearing dragons see North. Mjrth.

the spear.

8. beralS.

be daylight.

10.

on seeing the

fire-light.

THE FIGHT

228

fremman

willaS.

Ac onwacnigeaS

will

promote.

But wake up now,

nu,

my

wigend mine,
habba^ eowre land,

20

warriors

preserve your lands,

be mindful of valour,

hicgea^ on ellen,

winna^ on orde,

fight in front,

wesa^ anmode.

be unanimous."

Da

monig

aras

gold-hroden

Then

gyrde hine his swurde

girded him with his sword

cempan,

the noble warriors,

Sigefer^ and Eaha,

30

hyra sweord getugon

and

set

o^rum durum,

Ordlaf and Gu61af,

and Hengest

Da

Then

their

their track.

yet Garulf

at the first

durum

40

moment,

to the hall's doors

hyrsta ne bsere

bore not arms,

nu

now them

hie ni^a heard

a fierce

animan wolde

would take.

ac he frsegn ofer eal

But he, above

undeaminga,

openly,

10.

H. lands.

The

26.

H. hladen.

22.

line alliterating

H. winda^.
with this

is

all,

23.

H.

hyt.

43. H. any man.

enemy
inquir'd

H. on mode.

wanting.

38-43. These lines are particularly obscore.


42.

Guthere reproach'd,

si^e

24.

swords

that he a soul so joyous,

he swa freolic-feorh

forman

at the other doors,

and Hengest himself,

gyt Garulf

to ^aere healle

drew

and

tum'd on

laste.

Gu^ere styrode,
Jjaet

Sigeferth and Eaha,


they

Ordlaf and Guthlaf,

svlf,

hwearf him on

then to the door went

pa to dura eodon
drihtlice

many

arose

a gold- decorated thane,

Jjegn,

41.
44.

H.

H. baeran.

fragn.

AT FINNESBURG.
de6r-m5d

the fierce warrior,

haele^,

hwa a duru

heolde.

who

Sigefer^

mm

Sigeferth

is

nama,

eom Secgena

leod,

wrecca wide cu^


fela ic

50

weana gebad,

is

^u

name, quoth

am

the Secgas' lord,

a warrior widely

known

many woes have

sylf to

me

whichever thou thyself from

secean wylle.

wilt seek.

Da

Then was

wses on healle

the din of slaughter,

sceolde nalaes bor3

the shield

genumen handa,

be in

ban-helm berstan

60

buruh-6elu dynede,
aet {)ere

gu^e

might not

hand taken,

the

bone-helm they lack'd

the

burgh -floor resounded,

Garulf

ealra ferest

earliest of all

eor6-buendra,

those earth-dwellers,

fell,

Gu^lafes sunu

Guthlaf's son,

ymb hyne godra fela hwearf

surrounded him of

la^ra hraew

foes the corpses

hraefen wandrode,
;

stod,

H. wrecten.
H.

celses

bor^\

70

swart and sallow-brown


the

swvlce eal Finns buruh


50.

many good

the raven wander'd,

sweart and sealo-brfn

58.

until in the conflict

Garulf gecrang,

swurd-leoma

me

in the hall

wsel-slihta gehlyn,

o5

sustain'd,

for thee is yet here decreed

gyt her witod

swaejjer

my

is

hard battles

heardra hilda

^e

the door held

he.

cwae?; he,
ic

229

as

sword-gleam stood,

if all

54. swse

Fin's castle

\>er.

So great was the hurry and confusion conse-

quent on the surprise, that the Frisians had no time to take their
shields.

59.

H. genumon.

68.

H.

lacra hrser.

60.

bone-^lm,

i.

e. shield.

THE FIGHT AT FINNESBURG.

230

fyrenu wsere.

were on

Ne gefraegn ic nsefre wurS- Never


licor.
aet

fire.

have

heard more wor-

thily.

wera

in a conflict of

hilde,

men.

sixtig sige-beorna

sixty conquering heroes

sel gebjeran.

better behave,

ne nsefre sang ne hwitne

nor ever song or bright mead

medu
sel forgyldan.

better requite.

))onne Hnsefe guidon

80

than to Hnsef requited

young

his haegstealdas.

his

Hig fuhton

They fought

dagas,

fif

swa hyra nan ne

warriors.
five days.

so that none of

feol

them

fell

driht-gesiSa

of the associates

ac hig ta duru heoldon.

but they the door held.

Da gewat him wund haeleS Then


on weg gangan.
ssede

)>aet

his

byme

wses

90

helm

his

war-garb weak,

his

and

that

also

his

helm was

pierced.

yrl.

Da

bymie

was broken,

here-sceorp unhror,
eac

wounded went

he said that his

abrocen wgere.

and

the hero

walking away.

hine sona fraegn

Then him

quickly ask'd

the people's guardian.

folces hyrde,

hu Sa -wigend hyra

how

wunda

wounds had recovered from ?


or whether of the young men

genseson.

oS^e hwaejjer

78.

))3era

hyssa

the warriors their

By song and mead

are

H. swa noc.

meant the joys of Hnsef s

hall.

86. heelers,

90.

i.

e.

Hnsef.

H. sceorpum

hror.

87.

H. on wseg.

93. Hengest,

GLOSSARY AND INDICES.

GLOSSARY.
Compound words are arranged

Note.

ponent.

The first components

will be

in the order of iheir last com-

found explained

in their

alpha-

betic order.

A,

ever, always.
id.

1562.

awa,

(m), fire. 6022, 6241.

aeled

O. Sax.

19 14.

ac, but, for, Lat.

nam, enim.

Dan.

eld.

O. Nor.

aenig, any.

270, 1484.

See an.

ad(m),p27e.2 2 24,2 233,62 67.

senile.

adl(f),c?s6'a5e.3476,353o,etc.

seppel (m), apple.

edre

sedre,

(f),

vein.

1489,

59251

54, 714,

aefter,

^66,

etc.

according

after,

along. 24, 170, 1892, etc.


seglsec.

See

aerend,

etc.

aerende (n), errand.

546, 696,

138;

^\, a prefix, signifying foreign,

more usually
all.

el,

which

see.

etc.

Comp.

(n), house, room.

ae.

156

5655

4548,

di\,for eal,

a prefix to an adjective

hecd-sern.

..
ge-aehtian
I ^

> See eantian.

253,
1236.

first.

corresponds to primely.

it

sem

aglsec.

See agan.

ge-sehtle

Eerest,

1982,
to,

4336.

5548.

before, prime.

ere,

260;

As

etc.

sefen (m), evening. 831, etc.

seht.

ser (n), brass.


ser,

sedre, soon, quickly.

aefre, ever,

elldr.

ild.

hord-se.

medo-se.

-win-ae. 1 3 1 2

))ryt5-

1318.

ses (n?), carrion.

aadsel.

^3

2668. Dan.

GLOSSARY.

234
sesc (f), ash, spear

made
set, at,

(because

alone. gi; senga,anga,on/y,

of ash), 665, 3548.

sole,

See etan.

set.

See

pettren.
sejjele,

S. T. 9.

an,

agjjeling,

prince,

an.

Comp.

sib-se.

sejjelu (f), nobility.

O. Sax. athom.

Comp.

etc.

1049,

2031

blaed-

bold-a.

62i5;folc-a.62r8. seht(f),
domain.

possession,

Comp.

gold-ae.

03 7

5489

2522;

aglse-

ca, aeglseca, ahlreca, mise-

rable being. 3 20, 854, 871,


1 1

16,

188, 1297, 1468,

1482, 1636,

hearsay. 851, S70, 2417.

4618.
life.

1024,

T080, 1327, 1364, 1648,


etc.

vitals? 28^^. ealdor-

leas.

5998.

aldor.

See

O. Sax. aldar.

only. 292,

ancer, oncer (m) anchor. 611,


,

3770, 3840.
envy,

hate,

andgit

Mhg.
(m),

rancour,

Ohg. anado,

1421,4617.

ande.

understanding.

2122.
andswarian,

to

answer. 522,

etc.

andweard, present ? 2579.


andlang? 5383. anlang cem-

garius,

Cott.

Lye.

136.

See lang.
ansyn.

anunga.

See seon.
See an.

etc.

ar (f), honour, benefit, pity,

2549.

ana, alone,

855, etc.;

aen.

639,920, 2379,

4745'

(arna gen.

pi.

ally for ara.)

5205'

etc.

occurs usuarfsest, true,

honourable. 2340.
to

eald.

an, one, only. 201

etc.

See unnan.

piety. 34,

aldor, ealdor (n),

einlih.

1358,

ar (m), messenger. 677, 933,

etc.

ahsian, axian, to ask, seek,

aht, aught.

senlic,

pa, miles ordinarius, gre-

ma))m-Be. 3230, 5659.


aglsec, miserable.

q. on, in.

anto.

agan, to own, possess. 979,

agende.

i.

anda,

go, 1826, etc.

e5m (m), breath, breathing.


5180.

Ohg.

3887.
etc.

398, 531,

noble. 5, etc.

5409.

3098;

1272;

id.

singular, unique, fair. 507,

attor.

noble.

2529,

755,

anunga,

from. 89, 1263.

arian,

have mercy on. 1201;

arum, piously, honourably.


597, 2202, 2368.

GLOSSARY.
am

and

its

compounds. See

yman.
horrid.
1

320,

eitr.

nomous. 3238

venomed,

venom.

bana, bona, slayer, bane. 319,

2236, 5149, 5377.

Ohg.

2923, 5423.

2209, 3491,

etc.

ecg-b. 2528,

5006

aettred, en-

b.356; hand-b. 925, 2665;

hattres

(hat-

O. Sax.

axe, ashes. 2238.

gast-

mu8-b. 4165.
ge-bannan,

to

proclaim. 149.

Comp.

bat (m), boat. 427.

hettar.

a^ (m),

Comp.

eitar;

aettren, ve-

5039.

?)

4848, 5127.
See bealu.

ban (m), bone. 1488, 1640^

etc.

attor, ater (n), poison,

O. Nor.

balw.

n88,

332,

196, 1468,

tredes

baldor, bealdor (ra), prince,


lord.

dire, foul, fell,

atelic,

atol,

235

sse-b.

1270, 1795.

beacen {n) beacon, sign.

oath. 169, etc.

144,

5547' 6301. beacnian,

B.

Bad

{{),

Comp. nyd-

pledge.

forced pledge. 1200.

b.

See biddan.

baed.

impel, urge.

bsl

to

5153, 5644,
address? 4040.

(n) pile {funeral), confla-

gration. 2223,

4606, 4633,

2237,4259,
O. Nor.

etc.

1006,

(f),

war,

battle,

108, 1423, 1984,

beah, beag (m), ring, collar,


diadem. 69, i6i, 1050, etc.

Comp.

5520

earm-b.

heals-b. 2395,

435

^O"

cen-b. 5982.
beald, bald, hold.

Comp.

cy-

ning-b. 3273.

bal.
baer.

beado, beadu

etc.

bzedan, gebzedan, to compel,

6226;

to

beckon, indicate. 283.

See beran.

ge-baeran,

to

(oneself),

bear,

bealdian, to thrive, flourish.

conduct

appear.

2029,

5640. F.F. 77.


nan.

bae^ (m), bath. 3727.

O. Sax.

beldian,

animare, corroborare.

baernan, forbaernan. See byr-

baetan, to bit (a horse).

4360.

fortem, audacem reddere,

bealdor.
bealu,

2803

See baldor.

balw (m),

bale, injury.

567, 1450, 1822, 1958,

5644.

Comp.

aldor-b.

GLOSSARY.

236

cwealm-b. 3884;

3356;

irritate. 1 4^21,

1451, 3083,

feorh-b. 314, 4160, 4492,

4450; bolgen, gebolgen,

hreJ3er-b. 2690
3448,3896; morS-

angry. 1422, 2866, 3083,

5067

le5d-b.
b.

272; mor5or-b. 2162,

5477; niht-b. 3 89 sweord;

b.

wig-b.

2298;

4098.

O. Sax. balo (n).

beam (m), beam,

Ger.

tree.

Comp. fyrgen-b.

2833

gleo-b. musical in-

strument, harp. 4518.

(n), child, Scot, bairn.

bam.

O. Nor. Dan.

Comp.
or

princely

4076;

dryht-b. a

noble

child.

yldo-b. 140.

O.

Sax. eldi-b-

beam

(m),

dea^-b.

6060

282,

5795

bench,

(f),

etc.
;

Comp.
hlin-b.

so hlin-rseced. Cod.

Exon. 257. 6; mor])or-b.

5726

659,

ealo-b.

medo-b.

O.

etc.

Selx.

benki, benk (n).


{va.i.) ,band, bond.

1958,

3222. Comp. fyr-b. 1448;


hell-b.

3761

6137

oncer-b.

4179;

hyge-b.

iren-b. 1553,

3840

2001

searo-b.

wael-b. 3876. bin-

Comp. is-gebind
2270

beod (m),

table.

announce, com-

mand.

776,

131

1,

6211;

to

command.

bedda. 126, bedfellow.

691, 3431.

beodan, abeodan, gebeodan,

bedda.

begen, both. 1 07 7, 1 543, 209 1


belgan, abelgan, gebelgan, to

icy

O. Sax. biod.

to offer, bid,

heals-ge-

(n),

heoru-bun-

den, strongly bound. 2574;


dido-gebunden, 4229.

4864; wEel-b. 1932; ge-

1334;

seat.

Comp.

etc.

976,

bond.

beatan, to beat. 4522, 4707.


(n), bed.

5473

dan, to bind. 438, 845, etc.

Comp.

grove.

hrinde-b. 2731.

bed

feorh-b.

seax-b. 5800.

bene

bend

O. Sax. barm.

117, etc.

wound. 2246, 5442

(f),

Comp.

1556, 2108,

bearm (m), hosom. ^2,'/ o, etc.

beam

6272.

2062,

See beorht.

bearhtm.

prayer. 861, 4558;

(f),

bena, suppliant. 710, 734,

ben

baum, Goth, bagms, Ohg.

poum.

etc.

ben

bebod

786,

210,

bebeodan,
808,

etc.

mandate

GLOSSARY.
Comp.

wom-wundor-b.

3498beogan, bigan,
bow,

bend.

237
2867,

instant.

klitig,

3537bugan,

to

beom

(m),

warrior,

etc.

Comp.

428,

3085, 5190, etc.;

abeo-

4445; gu8-b. 634;

gan,

1555.

b.

to incline from.

Comp. woh-bogen. 5646.

hero.
folc-b.

1385,

659,

sige-

F. F. 76.

beot (n), promise, threat. 160,


gebeotian, to pro-

forbigan. S.T. 98; bebu-

gan,

mise, threaten. 964, 1076.

to encircle.

Comp.

boga,

bote,

flan-b.

2870, 3492.

b.

4866;

arch.

(n), beer.

beran, to bear, convey. g6,

432,

away.^^, 1043, 3x27,

ringed

forberan,

234,965,2192,

beorh (m), charge, safe keeping ? beorgan, bebeorgan,

gebeorgan, burgan,

1,

543,

sawl-berende.2013;

bora, guardian, protector.

3101, 3497,

2964, 5552

heafod-beorh. 2065.

borne.

427, 450,

5504,

Comp.

stan-

beorht, byrht,

Comp.

858,

bright.
1

186,
etc.

144,

here-byrht, glori-

ously bright.

2402

b.

beorhtian,

4356

brighten,

6202

rsed-b. coun-

2655; W36g-b. wave-

2884
;

baer

byrjjen

(f), bier.

(f),

burthen.

Comp. maegen-b. 3254,


6174.
berian, to lay bare. 2482.

4432.

318,

mund-

to de-

2590,

beorh, beorg (m), mountain,

b.

on-

bear away. 1 163, 4557helm-berend. 5027, 5277;

sellor.

5606, 6 1 86.

oS-beran,

to

3520,5134,5191. Comp.

mount.

re-

for6-beran.

1985;

etc.

restrain,

to

588; in-beran. 43 1 o
beran

fend, secure.

setheran, to bear

etc.

press, ^y^f^;

2485, 4088.

2895, 301

5083,

dragon. 5115.

heor

05

hom-

stan-b.

hring-b.

5429.

245 1

87,

to

sadolto

become loud.

2325. bearhtm (m),

/;-

on-berian.

See byrgian.

berstan, to burst, give way,


fail,

lack,

1525, 1640,

Comp.
^-^fS'

Lat. deficere.
F. F. 60.

etc.

for-b. to

fy

5354ge-betan. See bot.

in shi-

GLOSSARY.

238
gebicgan

bicgan,

(pret.

bohte), to buy. 1951, etc.

be-bycgan,

to sell.

5591;
on gold

Caedm. 301. 5.
bebycgean,

Beda,

^Ifr.

Ohg.

bidan, gebidan, abidan, onbidaiij to await, expect. 14,

O. Nor.

36, 2253, 2602, etc. blaed-

rity.

2031.

blanca, blonca, horse.


strictly,

1959. 4594. 4605.


to bid, pray, beg. 58,

stood.

biddan,

Hence Engl.

bead.

bigan, forbigan. Seebeogan.


bil (n), bill, falchion. 79, etc.

Comp. guS-b. 1610,5162;


hilde-b.
b.

1118,3337;

^S'

bior.

See bend.

bisig

(n),

bour,

s^i' 349O' 5^53

Comp.
bitan,

occupation,

lif-b.

la;

1985

4126,

4511. Comp. Ia3-b. 2248;


2866, 3496,

5377,5401;

\i\\x&, bitterly.

3606,

Nor. blek, Dan.


pale.

5640. Ohg.

pleizza, livor.

plez,

Comp.

5443.

gebland, geblond (n), mix'


ture,

Comp.

confusion.

sund-g.

2904

wind-b.

blonden,

mixed,

3750,- 5916.
blican, to glitter, shine. 449.
blfSe, blithe.

877,

etc.

un-

bU^e, sad. 261, 6054.


blod

(n),

blood.

977,

etc.

bl5dig, bloody. 900, 1984,

4651.

blac,

bleat, livid.

grizzly {hair). 3193, 3586,

bit (f), bite.

black.

p. 165.

1488^ 2913,

biter, bitter.

blac,

See A.

or dapple-grey.

and E.

white

6284; f^-g. 2750, 3190,

on-bitan, to bite into ?

etc.

rode

warriors on dun

3244.

bite.

on

usually

horses

struggling for

1936.
to

under-

blendan, to blend, mix. blond,

bisig, busy, active; also bysig,

life.

Kings and princes

wael-b.

See beor.

1716

perhaps, a white

horse being

one,

from

3218,

bindan.

bleikr.

blsed (m), prosperity, glory.

164,533,608, 800, 1863,

etc.

bleach.

to

bleih, O. Sax. blec,

agende, possessing prospe-

12.

II.

whence Engl,

etc.

O.

blaek, ink.

3038,

4969

etc.

geblodigian, to ensan-

guine.

blonden.

5378.

See blendan.

GLOSSARY.
break

See beogan.

boga.

bolca, bulwark (of a ship

Ohg.

467.

qua ad

remiges acceditur.
iii.

?)

plur. balkun,

loca per

agiavia,

Graff,

bold (n), dwelling. 1 998, 3 854,

6215. C01np.fold-b.1550.

See belgan.

bolgen.
bolster

in pieces. 1 5 65 ,

gebrsec (n), crash.

brec^a, broken

bolster.

(n),

1381,

{in spirit).

bredan, abredan, gebredan,


to

drag; also

braid,

draw,

to brandish, vi-

4341; 14 1 9, 1593,

brate.

3082, 3133, 3333, 51 18;


1033. Comp. up-abredan,
to

2484.

1 999
4510;

344-

bregdan,

108.

p.

239

brandish on high. 5144.

bona.

See ban a.

onbredan,

bor^.

See beran.

geond-breeded, drawn over,

bord

board, shield

(n),

(of

to

overspread.

undraw. 1450.

part,

2483.

board). 4412, 4510, 5041,

broden,

5782. Comp. hilde-b. 799,


6270; wig-b. 4667. bord-

2891, 3100, 3236, 3338,

hsebbende, warrior. 5782.

bom, gebom.
hot

See byrnan.

amends, atonement.

(f),

318, 567,
to

make

3854;

king. 858,

etc.

(f),

breast.

91

1,

11 09,

used usually in the

plur.

breotan, abreotan, to break,

botm (m),

bottom. 3017.

broad.

6201

3096,

5948,

abradwian,

abroad,

drive

into

to

send

exile.

destroy.

2601,3203,3430,

5408, 5852?
brim (n), ocean. 56,
bringan,

to

bring.

etc.

331

1,

6010.

5232-

See brond.

brand.

br5ga,/ear, terror. 92 8, 1 170,

brecan, abrecan, gebrecan, to


break,
etc.

108,

breme, renowned. 35.


brenting. See bront.
breost

betera, better,

1222, 3855,3913-

1665,

943-

brad,

5503, etc.
brego (m), prince,

heXViC, excel-

amends.

3987,4922.
lent.

gebetan,

etc.

brogden.

burst.

470, 6286,

F. F. 89.

to-b. to

2587,

brond

etc.

(m),

2912.

O.

brand,

sword.

Nor. brandr.

GLOSSARY.

240
It. fire,

conflagration. 4258,

bront,
1

foamy. 482,

surgy,

brandung,

Ger.

140.

surge; O. Nor. at brana,


audacter mere,

(m)

brenting-,

ship, poet.

brosnian,

5607.

moulder,

to

gebr6])ra,

brethren.

2387.
brown. 3096, ^149Often applied to a sword

brun,

or helmet

copper or

of

Comp.

bronze.

sealo-b.

(f), bride.

1846, 4067,

105,
freo-

free (or loved P)

city.

bute, dispense.

3457, 4756,

S. T. 206.

brytta,

dis-

penser, distributor. 69, etc.


inhabit,

to

235, etc.

buende.
F. F. 65

Comp.
1540

1048;

freoSo-b.

1390;

2258;

hleo-b.

1828,3467; hord-b. 938;


leod-b.

4933

maeg-b.

5766

family.

tribe,

win-b. S. T. 155.

burne

(f),

bourn, brook. 5086.

buton, save, except. 1 46, 1 3 1 9,


etc.

byldan,

cultivate,

ceaster-

eor^-b.

feor-b. 5 1 4, etc.

fold-b. 624, 2714,

grund-b. 2016;

4541;

land-b.

decorate

adorn,

to

See beogan.
5J44, 6087.

trumpet.

(f),

to

5879.

sound a trum-

4507.

See beran.

byran.

ge-byrd
sion.

order, succes-

(n.?),

2153.

ge-byrdo

(f) (child) -bearing.

Comp. bearn-g.
bjrre (m), son.

4882,

etc.

896.

2381, 4040,

both sing, and

plur.

byrel (m), cup-bearer, skinker.

2327.
b)Tgean,

191, 2694.

(f), cup.

byme
pet.

brytnian, bryttian, to distri-

bune

city.

Comp.

1050, 2402.

bymian,

5853. 5904.
bryne. See byrnan.

bugan.

burgh,

(f),

with imagery. 2193.

F. F. 70.

buan,

burh

kin,

brucan, to enjoy. 1793) etc.

bryd

See beorh.

burgan.

beah-b.

(m), brother. 1178,

etc.

b. 1846.

b.
rot.

4512.
br6}jor

bur (m), bower, chamber. 282,

2624,4902. Comp. bryd-

4633,6021.

to taste,

feast on. 901


33. 12.

partake

of,

See Csedm.

on-b. id. 1985.

GLOSSARY.

Goth.

4986, 6017, 6143.

See beorht.

byrht.

241

burn,

kaupon, Ohg. kaufon, O.

3764, 5111, 5131,


5388; F.F. 7. forbyrnan,

kaupa, O. Fris. kapia, Dan.

byrnan, gebyrnan,

to

V. n.

to

burnt

be

3338'

(m).

baernan,

4642.

burning.

kjobe, Sw. kjopa, Netherl.

3236,

up.

W^^e

52,3'^-

forbcernan, to burn. v.

a.

mail.

coat

corselet,

(f),

79,

481,

etc.

of

O.

Engl. Scot, byrnie, Goth,

Ohg. brunja, O.

brunjo,

koopen,Ger.kaufen. Conf.
Gr. KanrjKos, Lat. caupo.
cearu

c.

care.

Comp. gu^-b. 648


here-b.
hea{)0-b. 3108;

cempa.

nia.

bringed-b.

2890, 4313;

See

bysig.

3077.

C.
(m),

Ohg.

conflict.

5003.

cempa,

soldier.

2629, 3092,

kamfo.

406,

Ohg.

etc.

O. Nor. kempa.

candel (n), candle, lamp.'^ 150.

Comp.woruld-c.5M.3935.
ceald, cold. 1097, etc.

ceap

(n),

chattel,

4822, 4957;

valour.

(f),

bargain.

geceapian,

gecypan, to cheapen, buy.

to,

daed-

3921;

gar-c.

3294;

5385.

make

animate,

2442.

cennan, acennan,

champh.

champion,

Comp.

Ger. kiihn.

bold.

Camp

town. 1540.

See carap.

cenan, to

bisig.

Comp.

cearian, ^0

(f), city,

cen^u

See beran.

byrfjen.

4901.

cene, valiant, freen.418,1541.

c.

249J-

cearig, an-

solicitous

sorh-c.

ceaster

brj'nie,

8 1 7; guS-

mod-c. 3560,

3989, 6289.
xious,

Sw. bry-

Dan.

aldor-c.

2520;

Sax. brunjo, O. Nor. brynia,

380, 569.

care.

(f),

Comp.

2236, 4258, 4615.

byrne

Sax. capon, capan, O.Nor.

to give birth

procreate.

24,

1891,

2717.
ceol (m), keel, skip. 76, 482,

3617, 3829.
ceorfan,

to

cut,

beceorfan,

to

lit.

carve.

amputate.

3185, 4283.
ceorl (m) free
ble),

lit.

man

churl.

(not no-

407, 837,

1821, 3187.
ceosan, geceosan (pret.

ceiis,

GLOSSARY.

242
2.

cure, part, gecoren), to

4742, 493c,

choose. 417,

This verb

5629.

many

in

is

used

denoting

cases

deaths as geceas ecne rsed.

2407
cyst

ceosan, 5629.

bcel

(f),

the choicest, best.

1350, 1609. 1738, 1850,

Ohg. O. Sax.

etc.

cust,

cEstimatio,

optio,

electio,

Comp. gum-cyst,

etc.

bounty.

2976,3450,5079;

cystum, bountifully.

S. T.

cigan, acigan^ to
cirran, to turn

call.

oncirran,

id.,

clam, clom (m), bond, clutch.


I.

(n),

cliff,

shore.

3826. Comp. brim-c. 449

570, 4139.

See ferh^.

collen-ferh^.

ge-coren.

See ce5san.

corner (n), company, train.

2310,6233. Ohg.kortar,
herd.
costian, to prove, try, tempt.

4nscrseft

(m.

craft.

strength, art,

f.),

1402, 1969, 2571,

4369. Comp. gu3-c. 254;

eg-c.

ocean-shore,

stan-cleofu.

5073

fall

weall-

46,

crsef-

423; wig-c. 3626.


gecringan, to

(in

battle),

lit.

to

to

etc.

231,

come.

to

2513.

5098.
one

come from afar, stranger.

know. 410
to

die,

2231, 2423,

Comp. feorran-cumen,

oncnawan,

knowing. 2936.

cuman, becuman,

See clam.
1

recognise.

5102.

3594.3642. cuma,
stranger.

3616.

p'we^^

Comp.

c\vealm-c.i588; wil-c.782,

cniht (m), boy, youth. 750,


etc.

cnosl (n

lagu-c.

2679,

5778

6255.

ge-cnawan.

tig, crafty,

nearo-c.

44795 wig-c. 5898.

cringe. 1275,

holm-c. 465, 2846, 3274

c.

col, cool.

cringan,

2675, 3008.

cleof

clom.

carcase. 2894.

meegen-c. 765

6233.

/oarers 5707,5895,5933.

clif,

c.

leoSo-c. enchantment.^^;}

114.

193

Comp. ban-

c5fa, chamber.

794.

cyme (m), coming,


Comp. eft-c.

advent. 520.
?),

offspring.

S. T.

106.
cnvsian,/o bruise, crush. 2660.

5785.
1694.

ofercuraan. 1403,
etc.

wilcume (0,

welcome. 782, 3792.

GLOSSARY.
cumbol, cumbor

(n), banner,

ensign. ,5004, 2048.

cunnan,

known.

cuS,

oncu^,

etc.

303,

oncy^,

unknown,

strange, portentous ?

lit.

Cornp.

uncouth. 558, etc.

wid-cu^. 2c88, 2516,

etc.

cu^lic,

open, public. 493.

cyjjan,

gecyjjan,

make

to

known. 704, 1323.

perience. 1021, 2857, etc.

T. 105.

S.

cweccan,

to shake, brandish,

acwellan,

21 14, 2673, etc.

slay.

to

cwealm

(m), death, pestilence. 215,


etc.

cwealm.

Comp.
4823,

dea6-c. 3344,
c.

(f),

1230,

3428

See cuman.

cymlic, comely, handsome, 75.


(n), kind, kin, race.

846,

214,

eormen-c. 3918; feorh-c.

gar-

24,

Comp.

dryht-c. S.

3885.
cwe^an, acwe^an,

to speak,

say. 184, 1313, etc.


to

frum-

man-c. 221, etc.;

gecynde,

4401, 5386.

natural.

cvnin^ (m),

Comp.

3373

22,

king.

2315

etc.

4302

beorn-c.

4754

folc-c.

ge-

agree together.

cwide (m), saying,

woruld-c.

5582

wuldur-c.

etc.

4294, 5 151.

))e6d-c.

cynedom. 4741.
ge-cyssan, to kiss. 3744.
cyst

(m

?)

body (of troops)

See Csedm. 67. 25;

5189.

cwean,

209

5460, 5738; gu6-c. 401,


4660, 51 19; leod-c. 107;

O. Nor. kvendi,

1286;

fifel-c.

5524;

Scc-c.

etc.

196,

Comp.

etc.

6290

T. 197. cwenlic,/efflije.

1074.

See cweSan.

cyme.

eor^-c.

woman, queen.

Dan.kvinde,?<;oman.
folc-c.

1589, etc.
cwide.

bealu-

4092.

cwen

cwic, cwico, quick, living. I ^"j,

wyi:m-c. 2855.

quake. 476.

1588,

to respond. F. F. 12.

c.509; gum-c. 525,1892,

See cwellan.

cwellan,

lileo-

oncweSan,

3694, 5499.

4524;

cwealm.

lit.

1284;

gilp-c.

J)or-c.3962; word-c. 3686,

cyn

cunnian, to prove, tempt, ex-

Comp. gegen-c.

speech.

739;

know, joo, etc.

to

243

Battle of

Brunanburh

Warton, H. E. P.
edit.

1840.

i.

Cod. Exon.

220. 25, 358. 27;

Y 2

ap.

Ixxiii.

Inv.

GLOSSARY.

244

Cross (Vercelli Poetry).

tribution. S.T. 1^8.

70.

aldor-g.1615; lif-g-i687:

See cedsan.

cyst.

woruld-g. 6128.

cy]jan.

See cunnan.

cy^])u

(f),

Comp.

dagian.

1664.

country.

See daeg.

dareS (m), dart. 5689.

O.

Nor. dorr.

3681.

feor-c.

Comp-

deal, proud,

eanilting. 992,
See Cod. Exon. 216. 10,

D.

Dad

332. 21, 404. 22

deed. ^6^, 393, etc.

(f),

Comp. ellen-d. 1 756,1804,


2006, 3343;
wea-d. F. F.

etc.; fyren-d.
lof-d.

48

15.

fordcedla,

fordoer,

destroyer. 1130.

daeg

(m),

Comp.
day.

day.

etc.

396,

etc.

aldor-d.

1440,1518; dea6-d. 376,


ende-d. 1279; fyrn-

etc.;
d.

2907

gear-d.

^ore. 2, 2712,
d.

dawn. F. F. 4.

4530

of

Isen-

Kf-d. 1590,

swylt-d.

win-d. 2128.

day.

d.

4458

4672, 5 1 75;

3248;

5588;

dagian^

to

dseges, by

an-daeges,

(m), part. 1247, 2304,

3469. bedselan,
1446,

143,

1059,1373,2763.
dyrstig,

daring.

5669.

deagan

(pret. deog), to dye.

un-dearninga.

See dyrne.

dea^ (m), death. 322,

Comp. gu3-d. 4491;


d.

etc.

wael-

1395; wundor-d. 6067

dead, dead. 939, etc.


ge-defe, fitting, gentle.

1 1

27,

unbe-

ungedefelice,

etc.

comingly. 4862.

deman,

to deertiy judge.

1378,

6330. ^emendi, judge. 2,6^,

dom

(m), doom, judgment,

glory,

authority,

1794,

power.

1913,

domleas, inglorious.

etc.

to deprive.

?554. S. T. 106,

gedtelan, to deal, part, distribute.

(fare.

2929.

886, 1775,

daily? 3874.
dael

dear,

1704.

ser-d. ere-day, early

253,

A. and

E. 126.

161,

etc.

gedal (n), separation, dis-

denn

(n), den.

5512, 6082.

deofol (m. n.), devil. 1516.

3364,
deog.

etc.

See deagan.

GLOSSARY.
deogol,

dygel, secret, dark.

deep.

deor, dior (n), beast,

lit.

not, as in

deer.

This word apa warrior

to

does

modern usage,

imply reproach, as heajjo1380, 1548

d.

629, 1672,

men

are

Biorn,

1120;

}),

door, gate, S.T. 87.

Comp. eor^-d. 541 7,

5462;

2856.

sse-d.

crew.

E. p. 95.

3025. wil-

5955. O. Nor. at drepa,


Dan. at drsebe. drep (f),
stroke, blow.

dreah.

ge-digan, to escapefrom. 606,

dream (m),

161, 1327, 3315, etc.

disc (m), dish. 5544, 6088.


dogor (m), day. 176, 444,

2184,

etc.

Strictly the half of a na-

tural day, or space of 12

O. Nor. daegur.

dohtor, daughter. 2157, etc.


dol, dollic,/oo/2sA, rash.

962,

1022, 5285.
dolh (m), wound.
d.

dom.

Comp. syn-

See deman,

den, gedon, to do, put, place.

joy.

Comp.

lyy,

199,

gleo-d.

6034;
gum-d.4929;man-d.2533,
etc.

3435; medu-d.4036;
d.

sele-

dreama-leas.

4496.

1705. 3445drefan,

to

trouble,

agitate.

2838, 3475. 3812.


dre5gan, to undergo, act, enjoy.
1

1638.

3183.

See dreogan.

deorc, dark. 322, etc.

hours.

noisy

See A. and

5 16.

draepan, to s/nAe.3495,5753.

sse-d.

1650,

pack,

(n),
1

Comp.mere-

deor, dear, precious. 980, etc.

1215,

lig-d.

5371;

on-drsedan, to dread. 3353.

4684.

Hengest,

fyr-d.

4655,6073; nrS-d.4538;

ge-draeg

deor. 2864.

6133,

4379.

1789, 4183, 4429, 4570,


etc.

(Thus

named Wulf,

Bear;

dor (n

hilde-d.

etc.

Stallion,etc.)
d.

2293,

draca, dragon, drake, serpent.

Ger. Thier,

3902, 4186.

plied

3812.

1023,

diope, deeply. 6 1 3

Dan. Dyr.

88,

ofdon, to doff. 1346.

555. 2719deop,

24.'i

29,

263, 849,

60 1, 1667, 4364,

182,

etc.

dreor, drior (m), gore, clotted

6/00^.898, 974, etc.

Comp.

heoru-d.978,1703. sawuld.

5379;

wsel-d.

3267.

GLOSSARY.

246
dreorig, ^ory. 2838.

heo-

dre5san, gedreosan, to fall,


sJnA:.

to

35

drusian,

13, _53 25.

run,

or

down.

trickle

drifan, to drive.
drifan,

5609.

to-

asunder.

drive

to

driht, gedriht,

gedryht

(f.n.),

company, band. 198, 237,


720,

S.T. 237.

etc.

mago-d. 134;

sibbe-ged.

216,

prince.

Comp.

Comp.

drihtea (m),

779, 1462.
lord,

to

180.5.

ondrysne

an-drysne,

3596

etc.

frea-d. 1596, etc.;

freo-d.

2343

gum-d.

(f?),

also

awful,

3869.

terrific.

ge-dufan,^orfa'e.5394.
))urh-d.

1095.

driht.

grow sad or
gloomy. 2 J Ki^. SeeCsedm.

awe.

3265.

See

dryht, dryhten.

dryrmian,

ru-d. 1875, 3565, etc.

id.

This word ap-

5091.

pears

to

motion

etc.
(f);

upward

and

in the water.

be good, fit for.

to

avail.

both

signify

downward
dugan,

Comp.

gedyfan,

3243.

1057, 1151,

S.T.

14, 180.

virtue,

1 1

83,

dugu^

valour;

also

3289; hleo-d. S.T. 189;

the court, nobility, body of

man

senators or councillors, opp.

(mon)-d. 876, 2463,

2503, 3961,

etc.

788, S. T. 209

726,

1728,

wine-d.

3213,

noble,

dribtlic,

sige-d.

etc.

princely.

i788,F.F.29. dryhtscipe,
deed of valour. 2944.

to

bly.

duru

door,

F. F. 61.

ed.

i.

e.

mortally wound-

to

associate,

hold

converse,

drohto'5

(m),

condition, sojourn. 151 7.

drusian.

dyr.

Hence Engl.

See deor.

dyrne, dearne, dark, secret.

4706.

drohtian,

1447.

See deogol.

din.

drunk,

gate.

dvnian, to resound. 1538, etc.

Comp.

sword-

323,

6330.
(f),

druncen, drunk. g6^, 2938.


heoro-d.

youth.

dugujjum, no-

F. F. 28, 32, etc.

dygel.

drincan, to drink. 1489, etc.

geogu^,

1246, etc.

See dreosan.

548, 2718,
manifest.

etc.

undyrne,

255, etc.

un-

dearninga, openly, without


concealment. 4004, F. F.

GLOSSARY.
undyrn,

45.

morning,

2860.

247

*fen-e. S. T. 81.

See dear.

dyrstig.

elder.

940, 2653

eldest,

E.

Ea

Comp.

eald, old. 144, etc.

water.

(f),

454, 4657.

O. Nor.

O. Sax. aha.

a.

eacan, to increase, eke. eacen,


increased, great. ^gS, 3 246,

3330, 4286,
,

Comp.

etc.

elder,

senior,

(ra),

43,

ealdor,

etc.

prince, iii, 697, etc.

al-

dorleas. 30.
ealgian, to defend. 1597,2413,

etc.

eadig, happy prosperous,rich.

2454,

age.

(f).

3466, 3536,
aldor

731.

521,

chief.

eldo

yldo,

yldra,
yldest,

sige-e.

5304. 5329ealu

(f), ale.

966, 995,

J42,

tir-e.4384. eadiglice,^<7/?-

2062, 3894, 4047.


earn (m), uncle. J766.

pily. 200.

card (m), country, home.

1 1 1,

19; sigor-e.

2626,4693;

eafera, eafora, offspring, son.

cage

See earfo^.
(n),

eye.

egor,

1457, 3537,

ocean.

eg-

(n),

sea,

488, 1030, 1158,

Lat. Bequor; O.
5778.
Nor. oegir. Also a nar-

row

frith

rocks.
i.

surrounded by

See North. Myth,

ehtian^

labour, also energy, vigour.

1072,

Ger. arbeit

arabeit

Goth,

to

devise,

esteem. 347, 2449, 2819,

6327, gcEehtian,

O. Nor.
arbaijjs.

Ohg.

erfi^i

earfo^-

hce, difficultly. 173, 3276,


etc.

earg, sluggish, cowardly, base.

to prize.

earm (m), arm. 1031, 1503,


etc.

earm, earmhc, poor, misera-

3774. gQ^hX\Q,estimation.

ble.

743-

misery.

eal, a//.

1808,

1208,

572,
etc.

5076.

27. 67. 199.

eahtian,

335, 6093.

earfo^, eafo^ (n), difficulty,

3567eagor,

eardian, to in-

habit, occupy.

23. 37. 756, etc.

eafo^.

209, etc.

143, 1307, etc. ealles,

altogether. 2004.

159, etc.

yrmSu

(f),

2523,4014.

earn (m), eagle. 6044.

Nor. Dan. orn.

O.

GLOSSARY.

248
east, east
east.

from

eastan,

the

[43, F. F. 4.

O.

eatol (m), giant. 4154.

Nor.

iotul,

q. iotun

i.

A. S. eoten.

eftsona, soon, e/tsoons. 3529.

ege, egesa (m), terror, dread.

and

557'! 5 72, etc. Ohg.ekiso,

sub voce

North. Myth.

Comp.

O. Sax. egiso.

See Faye,

Hallager and Aasen,

p. 7,

See eagor.

eg.

gled-e.5293;

lig-e.

5544;

egsian, /o

wseter-e. 2524.

ii.

Alvismal,Stroph.3 6, Edda,

inspire

Finn Magnusen,

egesful, egeslic, dreadful,

eawan, eowan,

p. 78.

i.

show, dis-

to

Goth, aglus.
ehtan, to pursue, persecute.

321, 3028.

ea6, y6, easy. 276, 462, etc.

961,

easily.

ySelice, id.

etc.

egle, terrific, pernicious. igy^.

Ger.

ahsala,

achsel.

eaSe,

5850-

eaxl (f), shoulder. 722, 1637,

Ohg.

terror.

3302, 4608, 5642,

terrific.

P^ay. 557, 3480.

etc.

with

1365,

3116.

See eahtian.

ehtian.
el,

a prefix signifying/or^n,

ece, eternal. 216, 2407, etc.

as in el])e6dig. 678, etc.

ecg

eometimes

sword. 971,

edge,

(f),

196, 1613, 2216, 2340,

Comp. bnin-e. 3096;

etc.

heard-e.

2581

styl-e.

3070.
edre.

See

efn, on

level,

.'

behold

1890, 2188,

just, even.

6193.

ofost (f), haste. 518, 777,

2588,

etc.

ofostlic.

6251.

again, back, in turn. 44,

112, 247.

foreign,

no, 1509,1619,

etc.

elxa,

compar.?

See

eald.

ellen (n), vigour, energy, va-

etc.

efstan, to hasten. 2990,

eft,

strange,

1509.
eldo.

See sefnan.

see.

belonging to another

place,

2702,

aedre.

on

alongside. 5798.

efne, lo

ellor,

incorrectly

which

ael,

Lat. alio,

efn, even,

efnan.

written

172,

lour.

6,

Goth,

aljan,

695,

etc.

O. Sax.

ellan,

O. Nor. eUan. Comp. ferhe.

5406; msegen-e, 1323.

elne,
stoutly.

vigorously,
1

boldly,

791, 2198, etc.

ellenlice, id.

4250.

GLOSSARY.
5034.

ellesh\va?r,

elleshwergen,

elsewhere.

elles, else.

See

ende

on ende,

i.

q.

4046

ge-

world, as O. Nor. iormun-

eng, narrow. 2824.

gandr, the serpent that en-

ent (m), giant. 3362, 5428,


entisc,

appertaining

seems to signify earth,

it

endian, to end. 4612.

5541.

circles the earth

to

Sax. irmin.

See D.

North. Myth.
49, etc.

the

eorre.

favourite ornament of the

eorSe

helmet. 612, 2228, 2660,

2879,

431

likeness

of a boar. 612.

eored,

(m

eorod

?),

(m), man, warrior,

earl.

1 ,

etc.

worthy of an
eorlscipe,

4272,

lit.

eorlic, noble,

eorl.

valour.

formation

sword).

3120,

of

in

1921,

4745.

2392,

e.

6090.

set

2543. 6045.
e6.

4304,

Goth, ansts.

etan, to eat. 892, 902.

some

proper names, as Eorman-

5225,

este, gra4337, 6142.


cious. i8g^; estnm kindly

graciously.

and

io-

eotenisc, fabricated

est (m), love, favour.

3458,

etc.

intensitive,

O. Nor.

341, 1526.

(a

1278;

meaning, but used as a

the

yrre.

earth. 185, etc.

595eowan. See eawan.

eormen-, a prefix of doubtful

mere

pp. 31,

or used by eotens or giants

troop,

Lat. legio, turma.


eorl

tim.

See stan.

eorcnan-stan.

See
(f),

i.

eoten (m), giant. 224, 846,

eofor-lic,

M.

104, sqq., 325,327, 759;

1330, 2078, 2092.


boar,

Ohg. O.

men-laf. 4460.

giant.

closure, &g. protector. 860,

eofor (m),

iormun-

grund. 1722,3918; eor-

giantlike,

595^'
coder (m), hedge, fence, en-

eofer,

Eor-

mengyth. In certain cases

on endebyrd-

nesse, in order.

Eorraen-

Eormenred,

burh,

etc.

this prefix,

Eormenric,

as

453, 487,

royal line of

names with

to

el.

(ra), end.

The

ric, etc.

Kent was much attached

277.5173ellor.

249

See ea^.

jjurh-

(m), food,

GLOSSARY.

250
ejjel

(m), native country. 824,

1045,

etc.

4402;

Comp.

eard-e.

fseder-e. S. T. 26,

purify, expiate. 869, 1654.

2357. 3245. 4900.


fsr

193-

danger. 1160, 2 141,

(ro),

Ohg.

2930, 4022.
O. Nor.

Facn

treachery,

(n),

2041.

guile.

uniseceu, guileless.

4143faec (n),

faer (adj . ) , perilous,

fseder (m), father. 378, etc.

Comp.

ar-f.

5238; suhter-

sudden

1480,

3036.

suddenly.

2832,

956,

350.

fara,

Ger. gefahr.

far,

fieringa,

space of time. 4472.

etc.

faemne, damsel, woman. 4074.

3980.
faer.

See faran,

faest,

fast, firm.

gefseder, paternal cousin.

Comp.

etc.

275,

honourable,

ar-f.

2602

2332; suhtor-faedera, S.T.

true.

94, Cod. Exon. 321. 15.

gin-f.

faedrunga

handa-f,
4370;
2584; heah-f. S.T. 288
wis-f. 1256
tir-f. 1S48;

(faedrunge

parent. 4262.

rungo.

Ohg.

}),

fata-

faederen,/)a^erfl/.

{^ge, fated, Lat. moribundus.

2486,

1696,

Ohg. O. Nor.

3058,

etc.

feigi,

un-

undoomed.

fsege,

1150,

4571. Comp. dea6-f. 1704.


joyous,

fain.

faeger, fair, beautiful.

1048,

glad,

2033, 3270.

etc.

1834;
faegere,

unfaeger,

fairly,

1459;
kindly.

3581, 3974.
faehS.
See fah.
fsel,

faithful. S.T. 11.

faelsian, gefaelsian, to cleanse.

abundant

2546,

(n), fastness,

for

2c8, 4656, 5893

tress.

faestraeden, firm, steadfast

1225.

faeste,

/rw/y.

befaestan, to commit.
faet

(n),

Ger.

Comp.
2236
4601

vessel,

Ohg.

5315fat,

gefaeger, grateful ?

blaed-f.

ample,

faesten

2530-

faegen,

2340;

sinc-f.

13

case

vat,

faz,

2235

O.

Nor

fass,

Lat. vas

ban-f.

carcase

drinc-f.

4500,

ma^))um-f. 4801

1248, 2404, 4589

wundor-f. 2328.
faet,

fat,

rich,

stout P

672,

2190, 3504, 3846, 4210,


4484. Ohg. feizt, O. Nor.

GLOSSARY.
feitr.

en-

faeted, fatted,

riched,ornamented,overlaid.

2J1

See

fangan.

2076,4499,4553.5395;

249,

faettum, richly.' ii\^6.

veller.

embrace.

bosom,

(m),

faeSm

372, 378, 1367,

O.

etc.

Sax. fathm, O.Nor. faSmr,


Mt./uthom,

i.

e.

as

much

as

can be embraced. faeSmian,


to

embrace.

Comp.

5298, 6257.

sid-faeSmed, wide-

bosomed

(ship).

fah, fag {m),foe.

Comp.

faeh6 (f),

hostility, feud, quarrel.

218,

274, 308, 923, 944, etc.

f.

fiih,

5990. Comp.wael-

4061.
fag, variegated, coloured,

Comp.

Ohg. veh.

ban-f.

1564; bl6d-f. 4127; brun-

5223;

5146;

gryre-f.

f.

f.

sinc-f.

645

2576;

dreor-f.

974;

621, 1993, etc.;

gold-f.

2892;

swat-f.

wael-f.

searo-f.

336;

stan-

2226,

2260; wvrm-

3400.

fiimig,

ve-

(m), fare,

faer

course. Journey

Comp.

f5r

(n),

6012.

ad-f,

feran, geferan, to go. 53,

513,

2785,

Comp.

etc.

4515,

geond-f. S. T. 5,

01.

ferian, geferian, to

bear.

671, 2313,

6205, 6217;

to

2446.

aet-f.,of-f.^o

3 17

3342.

r,

vey away.

achieve.

bear

off.

oS-f., ^0 con-

4288.

fering

(f), travel, journeying.

S.T.

264.

stained. 615, 844, 898, etc.

f.

66.

hicle.

id.

mere-f.

faer (n.''), ship,

nearo-f. 4624.

faehSo.''

1008.

convey,

iy6, etc.

hostile. I

Comp.

610, 3839.
also

fara, /arer, tra-

etc.

1627

f5n.

faran, gefaran, to go, fare.

to

gefea.yoy. 1129, 5474.


fean, to rejoice. 218,

tamper with.
Sax. fandon.

try,

4592.

O.

ge-

659,

etc.

feald, fold.

Comp.

anfeald,

simple, single. 517.


feallan,

to fall.

1549, etc.

befeallan, to fall

off,

also

be bereft of by falling

{in

tempt,

See waro6.

3836.

fea./ew. 2167, 2828.

to

/oamy. 441, 3822.

ge-fandian,

faro6 (m), shore. 56, 1164,

battle).

fyUan,

s%-

2256, 4504.

gefyllan,

5303. 5405-

to

fell,

fyl (0.

fall, slaughter, death.

2670^

GLOSSARY.

252
5817,

shower (of ar-

etc.

Comp.

rows. 6230.
wael-f.

559;

250, 3427.
dun,

fallow,

fealo,

Engl.

hra-f.

fee.

feohleas, not to

be atoned

for with money.

4873-

yellow.

feohtan, to fight,

gefeohtan,

gain

1735' 1837, 2068, 3904.

to

Comp.

fyht

Ohg. aphal-

grey. 4336.

gra

dapple

seppel-f.

O. Nor. apal-grar

195O' 4559. 4775'

O. Sax. fiond;

etc.

Ohg.

fiand

blonden-f. grizzly haired.

feor, far.

Goth,

728, 865, etc.

much, many. 72, 821,

etc.

Ger. viel

O. Nor.

Goth,

tance, withdraw.
firrjan

filu

feorh

fiol.

fel {n),fell, skin.

4183.

fen (n),fen, mud. 208, 1532,

1645,

etc.

2954, 43
fangan ?
feoh (n),

3^5'

8,

faihu

dis-

soul.

F. F.

147,

Comp.

etc.

38; geo-

go-f.

1078,

5321;

widan

feore,

throughout

t6

From

all time. 187 i, 4033.


feorm {i),food, Yii.farm. or-

money. 41,

feorme, without sustenance,

4680.

cattle,

945.

to

314. Ohg.

life,

883,

freolic-f.

fengel (m), prince, king. 280^,

vieh

also feor-

O. Sax. ferrian.

(m),

314,

183,

afar.
;

ran, to remove

fode.
fela,

fer

2684.

.''

288, 510, etc.

from

feorran,

Dan. at

Ohg.

gefeor

iyr, farther.

rear. T391.
;

ori-

73, 84, 219, etc.


fairra,

Ger. fern,

fedan, afedan^ to bring forth,

at fseda

Like

word was

ginally a participle.

3193,3586,3750; gamol-f.
1 220, etc. wunden-f.2804.

O. Nor.

etc.

O. Nor.

Engl, fiend.

freond, this

fahs

Comp.

fax, mane.

to,

etc.

157, 1922.

Goth, fijands; Ohg. fiant;

feax, fex (n), head of hair.

give birth

4 1 03

(f), id.

71
(n),

feond (m),/oe. 203, 289,

Dan. abildgraa.

3298,
O. Nor.

gefeoht

918,

feohte

feasceaft, poor, destitute. 13,

etc.

(m),

fight.

by fight.

Goth.

etc.

Ohg.

fihu

Dan.

fae,

Ger.
cattle.

destitute ?

4759

formen-

leas,/oorf/es5.55 16; gefeor-

mian,

to eat up, feed.

1493.

GLOSSARY.
feran, geferan, geferian.

See

monstrum, deemon

See Edda

far an.

ferh, ferh5, ferS (m), mind,

heart, spirit,

life.

^336.

2295.

Comp.

first

word

of this

6 1 6, 1 5 1

derivation)

etc.

6334,

collen-f. bold

(The

rit.

2o:i

of spi-

component

the V6lu-sp4

infestus.

220.

p.

iii.

In

said

it is

KJ611 ferr austan,

koma munu Muspells

um

log ly^ir

en Loki

styrir

fara./?/f-megir
is

of

unknown

sarig-f. sad-

meS

freka

beim er

allir

brAiSir

minded. 5718; swiS-f ener-

Byleists

getic.

A ship fares from the east,

348,990, 1656,

etc.;

for.

wide-f. widely (both as to

come

time and place),/roi afar,

people over the sea

a;<'rwjore.i4o8,i879,2448.

Muspell's

will

but Loki will steer


the monster kin will go

fetel

(m

?), belt,

sword-knot ?

3130. O. Nor.

fetill.

4387-

2659.

2853.

4987,

Comp. gum-f. 2807

etc.

fe^e,

on foot. 1944, 3956, 5688,


active, agile?
(f),

3092, 5698.

monster, sprite. 209,

So Cod. Exon.

321. 8 and p. 517.


the Eider

dor,

Inv.

cross (Verc. Poet.),


fifel-wseg.
p.

of

473,
See A. and E.
1.

147. Boet. Metres, edit.

Fox,
In

fifel-.

p. 113, fifel-stream.

Spec. Glossarii

Magnusen

explains

Finn
fifl

by

the brother

seems connected with

word

the O. Nor. fimbul, a

of doubtful signification,

but

denoting

evidently

something vast or famous.

Comp. O. Nor.
with A. S.

feather. 6229.

S. T. 87.

is

of Byleist on their course.

Fifel

fe6a, body of men, Lat. turma.

fifel (n),

with the wolf;

with them

fetian,gefetian,^o/efc^.2625,

feSer

all

filhan,

fimm,/t?,

fif.

commit,

to

though

in

Beow.

deposit,
it

seems

to signify to fall in, Lat.

rush

incidere,

2567.

Goth,

felhan, O.

O. Nor.

in.

2405,

filhan,

Ohg.

Sax. bifelhan,

fela, to hide, bury.

setfilhan, to fall on, assail'?

1941.
findan, to Jind. 13, etc.

on-

GLOSSARY.

254

iindan, to discover, find out.

94, etc.

Comp.ea^-finde,

See fon.

finger.

See

fir.

See

first.

fisc
f.

flor

Comp. hrcn-

mere-f.

102.

4840.

flan (f), arrow.

2870, 3492,

4731

4868, 6230.

/ee.15 15,1644, 4539, etc.


S. T. 256.
Comp. oferover.

5043.

Comp.

gu^-f.

to fly
flier.

5049;

strange people.

1292.

sige-f.

folde (f), earth. 193, etc.

his lord. 2209, S. T. 108.

fleogan, fleon, befleon, to fly,

&6ga,

fleotan.

folgian, to follow, as a vassal

See fleogan.

fleon,

See

folc (n), people, folk. 146, etc.


selfylc,

fltpsc (n), flesh.

fleam.

(m), floor. 1454, 2636.

flota.

fyrst,

without

2198, 2262.

See fleogan.

floga.

(m),fish.

1085

1039;

flod (n), flood, river. 83, etc.

fyr.

See fyren.

firen.

unflitme,

contention.

easily to be found. 276.

overcome.

to

ofer-flitan,

lyft-f.

4619; uht-

folm

(f),

Comp.

hand.

etc.

319,

beadu-f.

1984

gearo-f. 4176.
fon, gefon, fangan, to take,
seize.

882, 3078,

etc.

be-

fon, to seize, surround, en-

^55 13; wid-f.4681.5652.

velope.

2594, 2906,

etc.

fleam

on-f. to receive. 104,

1381

(m), flight.

geflyman,

etc.

1696;

flight.

to

2007,

put

fliht

to

(m.?),

3535-

flight-

fleotan, to float.
flota, ship.

1089, 3822.

426, 441, 594,

608. Comp. waeg-f. 3818.


flet

(n),coMr^/ia//.957,2o54,

2077, 2176,

Ohg.

flazzi,

O. Nor.

etc.

fletti,

836. Ohg.

geflit (n), contest.

1734. Comp.sund-f.1019;

wiS-f. <o seise. 1524;

ymb-f.

to

5376

])urh-f.

trate.

Comp.

clasp

round.

to

pene-

feng

3013.

clasp, clutch.

1 1

inwit-f.

(m):

60, 3532.

2898;

fser-

befongen.4022. finger (m),


/ffl^er.

fondian.
for.

flet.

fiitan, to contend.

flizan.

S. T. 6.

O. Sax.

etc.;

1525, 1534, 3015.

See fundian.

See faran.

foran, beforan, before. 1973,

2829, 2920.
ford {m),ford. 1140, 5911-

GLOSSARY.
fore, for, on account of, Lat.
prje,
fix,

273, 918

as a pre-

15 12, 5927.

unforht. fearless. 579,892.

forma,/r5^ 1 485,4562,5 1 40.

forS, forth.

etc.

588,

90,

forjjan, because.

1362.

(m), foot. 1004,

1494,

fracod,

useless.

bad,

3155.

O. Nor. fracki, res rejectade gladio.

See

ge-frsege.

1797,

fraetwian, ge-

adorn. 152,

to

T92, 1988.

547, 587,

Ohg.

Goth, frauja,
O. Sax.

ferhS-f.

love,

lif-f.

2058.

freo, beloved.

freolic, joyous, free,

See freogan.
(f ),

peace, asylum. 379,

Comp.

fen-f.

3131.

daring

Comp.

2296; guS-f.4819;

2343.

liberal.

1234, 1286, F. F. 38.

5105,

fretan, to devour. 3

6220.

etc.

1706.
1

67, 602

Ger. fressen.
to

hear

of,

ask. 4, 141, 148,

390,

etc.

frinan, frignan,

freca,

3418,
loving,

friend; {reondMc, friendly.

fro,

32

freod

frijon.

peace ?

2196,

perilous. 1782, 2213, 2722,

warrior.

6334. Goth,

1048,

3873.

etc.

freogan, freon, to love. 1900,

etc.

free, frecn, daring, audacious,

2760,

etc.

3868.

freo^o

Comp.

froho.

agend-f. 3770
sin-f.

357' 4890^

freond.

fram, from./rom. 221, etc.


frea, lord. 54,

effect, be

202,27 1,333,

4946. freond (m),

frinan.

martial equipment. 74, 434,

frsetwian,

perform,

to

expedient. 6,

(f),

fraetu (f), ornament, treasure,

etc.

fremman, gefrem-

fremian,

fremu

etc.

4567,

Ohg. framadi

O. Sax. fremithi.

man,

6005.

1923, 2069, etc.


frefrian, gefrefrian. Seefrofer.

S. T. 102.

3222.

furpar, further. 513, 1527,

nea

frecne, boldly, audaciously.

fremde./ore/j'w, strange.^ 387,

5244forst (m), frost.

fot

sweord-f.

207 1;

scyld-f.

2940; wig-f. 2428, 4985.

greatly, pre-. 1943.

forht, fearful.

hilde-(hild-)f.44i6, 4721;

gefrsege,
etc.

heard

of.

109,

mine gefraege, as I

have heard, friclan,

demand. 5105.
Z 2

to ask,

GLOSSARY.

2:)6

in years, sage,

fr(3d, strickefi

experienced.

563,

2737, 3452,

etc.

2617,
infrod,

aged, feeble. 3752,

4889;

unfrod, young. 5635.


frofer (f),

comfort. 14,

373,1 260,
to comfort.

27,

2670.

Comp.

3630

si^-f.

unfrom. 4382.

framm

O. Nor.

Dan. frem.

fruma, beginning, chief 4608,

Comp.

S. T. 182.

O.

2279, 3643.

Sax. fundon.
fur))um,

just, first,

fur))on,

652,

2852,

934,

3418, 4023.

See

furj)ur.

forS.

prompt, ready, has-

tening.

2486, 2955, 3614,

3836,

etc.

Comp.

1514;

ut-f.

483

fuslic,

65

hin-f.
wsel-f.

ready, de-

gu^-f. martial lead-

parting. 469, 2852, 5229.

^g; hilde-f.3360,5291,

gefysian, to hasten, excite.

4 86
1

er,

dced-f.

msegeii-

tend (towards), hasten,

to

fus, eager,

from, forth. 5106.

Comp.

fundian, gefundian, fondian,

even.

from, strenuous, resolute. 41,


etc.

etc.

2915.

desire.

gefrefrian,

etc.

2550,
f.

5662;

land-f. 61; leod-f.

42665

ord-f, 53

wig-f.

ffumsceaft,

^332. 4514beginjiing,

origin.

89,

182.

5874, F.F. 9.
ful (n),CMjo.i235,

2054,

See

See

See

sel-fylc.

full.

feallan.
folc.

ful,

Comp. medo-f.i 253,2034;


2509, 4816.
fill.

(f), glut. 1 1

28, etc.

wist-f.

fyllan,

2040.

afyllan, to

fuUisstan.

fyl

Comp.

6278;

5087;

(jn), aid, support.

1400,

wsel-f.

2243,5157.

army. 469, 2637,

(f),

3012,3058,5229,5739.
fyren,

firen

(f).

crime,

28, 203, 274, etc.

firina.

Icestan.

Comp.

hea))u-f 5037,

fyren, on fire. F. F. 73.

fairina

1472.

See

bgel-f

fyrd

1242.

4007,

4561. 5476fyr (n),fire. 372, etc.

1261,2034,

O. Sax.

etc.

sele-f.

fultum

fyl.

fyr, fir (m), 7nan. 182,

fugol (m), bird, fowl. 442,

fullj/?Z.

1265, 4607, 5116.


fyl, fyllan.

Ohg.,

O.

sin.

Goth.
Sax.

fyrenum, wickedly.

3493. 4874-

GLOSSARY.
fyrgen

(n), mountain.

2723,

Goth, fairguni.

etc.

25/

1576, 2868, 4912, 5880,

Hence the last syllable

etc.

tyrn,o/o/rf.2907, 4252, 55 15.

in nightingale,

fyrst (m), space of time. 153,

song;

O. Nor.

269, etc,

frest,

6097.
galga, gallows. 2558, 48S3,

frestr.

See witan.

fyrwit.

galdor(m),

sound, enchantment.

5873-

gefyrj>rian, to fur-

fyr})rian,

ther, accelerate.

ge-fysian.

See

5561.

gamen, gomen

Ohg. kaman; O.Sax.

etc.

fus.

mirth,

(n),

game. 1713, 2325,

joke,

gaman.

Comp.

heal-g.

2136.

Gad

(m), lack. 1325, 1903.

Goth, gaidv.

See A. and

E. p. 160.

gaedehng

5227, 5891.
linc

Ohg. kadu-

O. Sax. gaduHng.

set-gseder e, together. d^^y, etc.;

to-g. id.

ongeador,

5253
id.

geador,

987, 1675,

gijest,

gan, gangan,

gegan,

id.,

633, etc.;

to go.

also to gain, ac-

quire, happen.

1791, 2559,

2929, 3075, 3696, 4823,

5065,6162. agan. 2473

5911; o^-g. 5860; ymb-

See galan.
gest, giest, gist, gyst

(m), guest, stranger. 204,

Comp,

1992,

etc.

172,

2280,

ellor-g.

ellen-g.

3209,

etc.,

stranger - guest

1619, 2702,
S-

Dan. gammel, O.

Sax. gamalon, senescere.

in-gan. 778; ofer-g. 2820,

3195gselan.

old.

O. Nor.

I5. 535. etc.


garaall,

companion.

(m),

gomel,

gamel,

gamol,

etc.

feSe-

3956; gifre-g. 5113;

inwit-g.

5333

nr6-g.

5391; sele-g. 3094;


g. 2666, 3994.

wsel-

galan, agalan, gselan, to sing.

g.

244. Besides the usual

preterite, code,

we

find in

Beowulf gong and gang,


also

the less usual one,

gengde. 2806, 2829. gang


(m), course. 1940,

2812.

begong,

begang (m),

2787,

bigong,

course, haunt'?

729, 1724, 2999, etc.

gang. 3103.
perishable,

23

Lat.

in-

u6-genge,
caducus.

GLOSSARY.

258
4253.

angenga, solitary

(being).

332, 902;

gyrian,

in-g.

3557; SEe-g. ship. 3769,


3821 sceadu-g. 141 o.
ganot (m), gannet,fulica ma;

rina.

Ohg.

etc.

ker,

4066

626,

dart.

O. Sax.

Comp.

g6r, 0. Nor. geir.

bon-g.

frum-g.

As

prince, chief. 5704.

gar

prefix,
like,

signifies u-ar-

as in Gar-Dene.

i.

garsecg (m), ocean. 97, 1034,


1079,

etc.

356, 2536,
ellor-g.

on-gean.

etc.

Comp.

1619, 2702.

See

See gegen.

s-g. 3797.
yore.

geara, of yore.

Ohg.

etc.

1761, 4131.
geit{n), gate, aperture. Corap.

ben-g. 2246.

See geata.

geatolic.

geatu, getaw
military

(f),

apparatus,

equipment. I353>

4713,6167. Comp. eored-

5724;

^"^"^^-S- 65.5:

gu^-geataw

getaw. 5265

gu796
wig getaw.
;

ge&\.oY\c, ornate, ele-

gant ?

2806,

621,

435,

gegen, against, opposite. 739

gegnum, towards,
;

against.

gegnum-for. 2813

5322

geanes,

25,535,2272
Goth, gards

gart, O. Sax. gard

O. Nor. garSr, Dan. gaard


Corap. middan-g.

gearwe,

6229.

ongean, against. 1367

geard (m), inclosure, court

2280,

Comp.

2272,

ungeara, recently? i868.

house, yard.

gearu

1209.

provision.

geare, readily, well. 536,

633

(n), year,

76,

ungeara, un-

3128, 4314.

3604. Corap. horn-g. 164;

etc.

99 2

(i), gear,

741.

setgaedere.

geap, curved, arched. 1677,

gear

expectedly.

g-

gast (m), ghost, sprite. 266,

geador.

mo,

prepare.

to

fe6er-g.

3727.

gar (m), javelin,

gegyn^-an,

55' 243, etc.

u-orld

151, 1013.
gearo, geara, ready, prepared.

id.

to-

3006,

1336,

3089.

gegnunga,

wholly,

totally.

5734geh'80, gioh^oi

(f), affliction.

4527. 5578, 6181.


A. and E p. 97.
gen, gena, yet,

s/i7/.

See

-4146,

4305. 57 ".etc. >a-gena,


id.

167, 1473, 6178, etc.

GLOSSARY.
See gio.

geo.

ge5c

gif, if.

succour. 357, 1221,

(f),

geoc, strong. 1535.

See

geofon

geolo,

729, 1035,

ye//ojt'.

geomor,

880, 5213.

mod-g. 5781. geomorlic.


geomrian. 2240.

4879.
geond,

through,

1684,

over.

151,

Comp.

44, 5627.

hea))0-

geom,desirous, diligent.^ 560.

Comp. 16f-g. 6347. georne,


readily, willingly. 132, etc.

geosceaft

.''

2472, 2536.

5761.

Comp. beag-

gold-g. 5297;

5792-

'^il-g-

461

gift {f), gift.

Comp.

feoh-g. 41, 2055.

2182.

gifee, ^/teAi. 604,

ungife^e. 5835.

gifan,

to

give

of-

leave.

up,

320J.
rapacious.

ravenojts,

2250,2558. Couip.heorug.

3000.

gigant (m), giant.

2 26, 3

29,

3385-

geotan, angeotan, begeotan,


to

{{), gift,

sweord-g.

2208;

gifre^

g- F. F. 3.

29, etc.

sinc-g. 2028, 2688,

etc.;

etc.

geong, ging, young, recent.

geofa

gifa, donor.

g.

Comp.

sad. 98, etc.

forgifan,

Comp. ma^})um-g.

grace.

2606;

youth. 133, etc.

(f),

gifn,

5748.

O. Sax. geban.

etc,

etc.

34, 716, 2044, 3043,

id.

gifan.

(n), ocea7i.

geogu

550. 909,

gifan, gyfan, to give,

agifan, aetgifan,

3^>72, 5342.

geofa.

250

pour, shed over, over-

See gyldan.

gildan.

gilp (m), boast, vaunt, pride..

1663,

whelm. 2 141, 2297, 2587,

1284,

1355,

3384,

Comp.

dol-g. 1022; gilp-

etc.

gicel (m), drop.


in icicle,
gid,

gyd

i.

e.

(n),

3217, as

icle

song,

recital,

speech. 304, 1741, 2135,


etc.

word-g.

gyddian,

sing,

2240, 2324,

6325.

say, recite.

to

1264.

giellan, g>^llan, to shriek, yell.

S.T. 257; to chirp. T.Y. 10.

1740; gylpan,

hlseden.
boast.

is-gicel.

gim (m),

etc.

tu

177, 41 16.

^e/n.

415

Comp.

searo-g. 2318, 5491.


gin, ginfsest, spacious, ample.

937, 3106, S.T. 103.


See geong.

ging.

on-ginnan,
take.

to

begin,

201, 822,

etc.

under-

GLOSSARY.

260

gi6,ge6,i6,m, formerly, of old

2957. 5036. 491O' 5854on-gitan,

to

understand, per-

28,622,2867,2972,

ceive.

begitan, to beget, ac-

etc.

forgitau, to

4490.

quire.

forget. 3506.

understanding

glsed, glad. 116,

pleasing,

S.T. 134;

God, God. 26,

god, good. Goth, goth, Ohg.

Comp.

got.

goodness. 2372.

acceptable.

gold

gleaw, skilful, clever. S. T.

4614, 4659,

4031,

2227,

gombe

gleo (m), glee, mirth. 4216,

4518,

gleoman.

2324. S.T. 273.


glidan, to glide. 1034,

See gamol.

gomel.

See gamen.

4152

242, 3002.

grsedig, greedy.

hungry

gredags,

Ohg. gratag
gradag

Comp.

3et-g.

O.

2543.

grseg, grey. 665, 673, etc.

graeghama,

graes (n), grass. 3767.

glitinian, to glitter, sparkle.

20

"he

etc.

glitena^ swa

Nor.

O.

gramum,_^erce/y.852.

sparing.

gnorn, gnjTn
tribulation.

(m), sorrow,

3554,

to grieve,

5310.
mourn.

54, where

See gripan.

greot (m), dust,

Ohg.

.3864.

see note,

grap.

avaricious,

cruel,

fierce,

1534, 1559, 2072,

Comp. 8efen-g.4

glofi.

gnornian,

cricket. F. F. 10.

grom,

hostile.

glof (m), glove. 4177.

gne^,

gram,

So Vercel. Poetry,

steorra."

Sax.

O. Nor. gradugr.

toglidan, to glide or fall

p.

O.

21.

tribute.

of. 4967.

5509.

etc.

etc.

(f),

Goth,

etc.

6034.

614,

gylden, golden. 94, 2046,

gomen.

279.
fire.

(n),

Sax. gambra.

ness, pleasure. 740.

gled (m), gleed,

god

gold,

(n),

pre-

er-g.

2122.

glaedrae, ^/fld-

Goth.

etc.

Guth, Ohg. Got.

eminently good,

1730, etc.;

to be-

6338.

andgit (n),

glsedian, to gladden; glsedlic,

2239; begnornian,
wail,

Nor.
greotan,
to

grioz,

grit.

6315.

O. Sax.

O.

griot.
to

weep. 2689. Scot.

greet,

Goth,

gretan.

GLOSSARY
O. Sax. griotan, O. Nor.
grata, Dan.

at grsede,

Sw.

to greet, touch, assail.

339, 700, 1232, 1254, etc.


grim, grim, fierce, cruel. 204.
242, 3002, etc.

Comp.

6074.
1100.

grimlic,
hea|)o-g.

heoro-g.

5375;

3132, 3698; nrS-g. 388;


searo-g.

grimme,

1192.

fiercely, cruelly. 60 1 7,6

grimman,

rage.

to

62

617,

(f),

closed helmet. 674.

O. Nor. grima,

Comp.

sis.

larva, cas-

bere-g. 797,

for-grindan, to grind to dust,


crush, destroy. 852,

4659,

gripan, to gripe, grasp. 3006,

5007. Comp. for-g. 4695;


5035.

gripe (m),

gripe, grasp. 1480,

3534. 5033-

3037;

grap (m),
1

g.

i.

Comp.

faer-

nr5-g. 1956.
q. gripe.

88

[,

Comp. feond-

14, etc.

1276;

2300,

mund-g. 766,

1510, etc.;

hilde-g.

2896.

grapiarij to grasp, clutch.

3137. 4176.

grom.

2902, 4207
gryn,

gym

sse-g.

133.

snare.

(n), gin,

1864, 4242.

gryre (m), horror, terror. 6^^.

Comp.

773, etc.

faer-g.

350; wig-g. 2572. gryrelic.

2886, 3048, 4278.

guma,

7?ja.

Comp.

147, etc.

driht-g. retainer, follower.

gu5

(f),

war,

254, 401,

gyd.

See

78

1,

3301, etc.

battle.

39, 115,

etc.

gid.

ongyldan, to pay, requite.


21, 2507, 3087, etc. F. F.
79, 8a.

5347-

wit5-g.

Comp.

eormen-g. 1722; mere-g.

gyldan, agyldan, forgyldan,

4104, 5203.

g.

grund (m), ground, bottom,

198,2466,

4506.

grime

grovvan, to grow. 3441.

abyss, iiii, etc.

at grata,

gretan,

201

See gram.

gyWen.

See gold,
See

gj'llan.

gyman, <o

giellan.

heed, carefor.

2,

S^^>

3525' 4894- forgyman.fo


neglect.

gyrdan,

3506.

to gird.

4078, 4162,

F. F. 27.

gyrian, gegyrwan, to prepare,


adorn. 76, 400, etc.
gv'stra,

y ester- 2672.

gyt, yet.

1893;

2259. 2517.

Jja-gyt,
etc.

gytsian, to covet. 3502.

id.

GLOSSARY.

262

2740.

haetS (f), Aea/A.

H.
Habban,

hsebban,

have.

to

Comp. bord-

etc.

159,

Goth.

hai)>i.

hsebbende. 5782

lind-h.

hcepen, heathen. 360, etc.


hafela,

heafola,

poet,

heafod^ head.

Gr.

for

Ke(f>aXfj.

495,2808; rond-h.1726;

896, 1348, 2245,

searo-h. 480.

2748, 2847, 2901, 3046,

hold,

to

forhabban,

refrain.

5211; wi^-h.

2306,

to withstand.

1548.

3232. 3275. 3564, 5352.


5387. Cod. Exon. p. 3 I

state, condition,

cha-

of

gefegun,

leohte

33.

had (m),

2658,

\>e

hselendes heafelan

Jjses

racter, hood, as in childhood,

lixte. in the light rejoiced,

etc.

which from the Saviour's

2598, 2674, 4393.


hador (m), sereneness. 832;
serene.

998

renely.

3147.

hadre,

hsefta, thrall, captive.

2918.

1580.

(la), bachelor, young

serving man.

head gleam' a.

lb. p. 178.

to J>am

wage gesag,

14.

)ja

heafelan onhylde.

hceft (m), haft, handle.

haegsteald

se-

3782,F.F.8i.

[^Guth-

/ac] then to the wall sank,

his

head

The

inclined.

prose original of which

he

is

his heafod to Ipara

J)a

Ohg. hagastalt, Ger. hage-

wage onhylde.

stolz.

of St. Guthlac, p. 86. edit.

hsel (n), omen.

414.

O. Nor.

heill.

heel.

See

hsele (m),

man. 1442, 3296,

hsele^ (m), man, hero, ivar-

103, 383, etc.

helid,

O. Sax.

See

Ohg.

heh=S.

hal.

hsest, hasty, vehement, ardent.

2674.

shall shine.

2283,

sq.,

and note,

3636, 6213.

hgelo.

Cod.

Exon.

238. 15. heafelan hxa6:

their ^the blesseds'^ heads

hal.

be-hselan, to conceal. 833.

rior.

Goodwin).
p.

(See Life

Leg.

St.

And.

A. and E. 11 43,
p. 127.

woldon

Eeninga ellen-rofe on

|>ani

hyse beorSre heafolan gescenan

would at once the

ivar-fam'd

on

the

bright

youth's head do injury.

take beorSre to be an error

GLOSSARY.
for

beorhtan

the

dat.

seems used for the gen.

MS.

p. 252.)

fela,

skin,

by K. (Beow,

3012; graeg-hama, cricket.

as a gloss over the

Ohg.

word

hiufela, hie-

mala, gena.

covering.

F. F. 10;

hc-homa, car-

1628, 2018, 3512,

case.

etc.; &cir-\\^m, bright-clad,

See hebban.

a-hafen.

heals.

ham, horn, hama (m),

heofulan stands

cited

fronti.

See

hals.

Comp. flaeschoma. 314c; fyrd-hom.

gescenan =: gesce^jjan } In

i.

263

3794-

ham

hafenian, to raise. 3 151.

hafoc (m), hawk. 4520.

(m), home.

248, 390,

1439, etc.

haga, hedge, enclosure, camp?

hamer, homer (m), hammer.

anhaga, a

2575. 5651hand, bond (f), hand. 649,

5777' 5913solitary.

to enclose,

engage with (in

an enclosed

The

gehegan,

4725.

855.

place).''

allusion

is

either to

the enclosed space in which

13 16,

hangan.

See hon.

har, hoar. 1779, 2618, 2834,

the public assembly (jjing)

etc.

was

hser, hair.

held, or to the holm-

gang,

or

so called

duel,

from the enclosed spot on

was fought,

which

it

ginally

on a holm, or small

island, as that

mund

ori-

between Ed-

Ironside and Cnut,

in this country.

So

unhar, baM.

9,

from

(m), heat. 1799, 5204.

joromzse. 13 7, 168,

hatan, to

call, to

named. 5605,

began. Leg. St. And. 524,

5197-

hight.

352, etc.

be called or
etc.

haten,

205,

532,

hatian, to hate. 4627, 4924.

etc.

hatan, gehatan, to command,

called,

whole, sound. 606, etc.

haelo

hat, hot. 1702, etc., also hat

me|)el

hal,

idel-hende,

etc.

empty-handed. 4169.

(f),

health,

safety.

311. 2438, 4827, 5440.

unhaelo. 241.

768, etc.

halig. holy.

hata, hater.
h.

Comp.

daed-

hater of (noble) deeds.

552.
hattres.

See hettan.
See

attor.

heaf (n), inland sea or lake.

GLOSSARY.

264
4947

more

especially

334,

2690;

connected with the

h.

sea,

hke those

of Pomerania.

The term

is

particularly

applicable

to

Comp.

etc.

such great waters as are

fyr-h.

2228;

bealo-h.

615;

nitS-h.

iren-

4826;

regn-h.657; scur-h. 2070.


ahyrdan,

to harden.

2924.

Malar

hearg (m),fane, temple. 353,

lake.

Ger. hafF, Dan. hav,

3531. Ohg.haruc,O.Nor.

ocean,

Sw.

the

See note

haf.

heafod

head. 95,

(n),

Comp.

eofor-h.

431

etc.

gif-h.

1680;

raeodu-h. 972, 1280, S.T.

112.

maintain, govern. 114, etc.

behealdan, to behold, observe.

640, 993,

healdan,

due?

for-

etc.

restrain, sub-

to

half,

side.

1604,

3133,

ete.

Comp. famig-

441,3822; wunden-h.
healsian, to beseech,

See hynan.

heap (m),

ti-oop,

675, 805,
h.

cut,

heiv down,slaughter.

S.T.99.

en.

6136.

heajjo,

a prefix, apparently

signifying war, but lapsing


into a

mere

intensitive. 78,

etc.

etc.

band, heap.

Comp. wig-

heave. 13 17,

raise,

2584, 6038.

S.T. 210. ahafen,

raise*/.

257, 2220.

hedan,

gehedan,

to

heed.

ge-hegan.

See haga.

hel (f), hell, in the Christian


sense, but

originally the

goddess of the dead. 203,

958.

heard, hard, bold,

3600, 3729, 5902.


ahebban, to

1014? 5387.

implore. 4270.

hean.

wan, to

hebban,

heals (m), neck. 126, 2395,

601.

to

hew 1368, 1605. forhea-

heajju, heajjo (n), ocean, main.

^-jz^i.

(f),

2195' 3355-

h.

harp. 178, etc.

ge-heaj)erian, to confine, strait-

healdan, gehealdan, to hold,

healf

(f),

heawan, geheawan,

heal, heall (f), hall. 136, 156,

Comp.

(m), anger, ruggedness.

1536, 3788.

hearpe

1.

heah, high. 95, etc.

etc.

horgr.

hearm

on 1.49.37.

fierce, cruel.

328,361,610. See North.

GLOSSARY.
Myth.

II,

pp.

i.

31,

etc.

cover.

conceal,

to

helm (m),

833.

covering,

helm, protector,

helmet. 366, 689, 748, 81 2,

Comp. ban-h.

etc.

F. F. 60

4967

shield.

grim-h. helm

with a visor.
h.

674

gu6-

heajjo-steap h.

4312; niht-h.3583; scaduh.

1304.

ofer-helmiarij to

See helan.

helm.

(f),

help.

5097heoru (m), sword. igyS. Used


also as a prefix, signifying

warlike, bloody, cruel,

etc.

her, here. 757, etc.

1107, 3109,

heaven. 103, 366, etc.


?),

blood.

clotted

1702, 2609, 2850,4282.


heolster (n

?),

cave,

hiding-

place. 15 15.

herge, here (m), army, armed

O.

Nor. hiorr.

Ao/y.

5822; scip-h. 491, 5864.


herian, to praise. 367, etc.

hetan,

to

286,

hate.

hetende,

hate.

3660; hete (m),

hating.

955.

3480

lic,

Comp.

mor]jor-h.

hateful, malicious.

2538.

unhiore. 4818,/erce, mon-

ungeheur,

Ger.

See hyge.

hicgende, hige.

evil spirits,

2749. unhyre. 4247;

strous.

1358,
flot-h.

hettende, enemies. 6000.

See hyrde.

from

Comp.

2214; wig-h. 4246. hete-

heor (m), hinge. 2002.

heore, free

6-5,

129,
etc.

ecg-h.

heonan, hence. 510.

heorde.

O. Sax.

heorS (m), hearth. ^28, 2 165,

2500,

(n

hiuri,

heru, O. Nor. hiorr.

force.

heolfer

Ohg.

hairus,

mon-

Goth.

strous, cic. 978, etc.

539heofen, heofon (m), heofene


(f),

4566,

stearc-h.

helpan, to help. 4670,

etc.

rum-h. 3602,

3368;

4227

heoS (m?), daisP 813.

overshadow. 2733.

help

Comp. bli8-h. 3608; grorah.

behelan,

helan,

26'

Ohg. ungahiuri.

hild

war,

(f),

629, 799,

conflict.

hilt (n), hilt. 77,

3233,
ally

etc.

605,

etc.

2048, 3152,

This word usu-

appears in the plural.

heorot, heort (m), hari. 2742.

Comp.

heorte

den-h. 2048. hiited.5963.

(f), heart.

453

2, etc.

A a

fetel-h.

3130; hro-

GLOSSARY.

26f>

hin- thither, away.

Used ge-

nerally as a prefix. 15 14.

liindema, hindmost, Zost 41 05

5028.
lament,

to

bewail.

See heore.

overhang. 2835.

hleor (n), cheek. 613, 138I;

Comp.

etc.

4259^

hlceden,_;?//erf

lofty themes.

(m),

gilp-

hleoS, hli6 (n), retreat, mountain pass, lurking-place, hill.

hlsest

740.

104.

mound, harrow,

etc.

Goth, hlaiw, Ohg.

hleo,

O. Sax.
;

hlea,

leia,

Engl, low, as

in

Ludlow, Scot, law, as

in

Harlaw, Wardlaw, Ne-

therl. loo, as in Beverloo,

Comp.

3789, 6294.
h.

2244, 4582, 4813.

Fris. hli

on-

lots,

hh'tme. 6243.

with vaunt or

(n), load, last.

viount.

draw

hleotan, to

hladan, to load. 1795, 3798,

nses-h.

fen-

mist-h. 1425;

1645;

2858; stan-h.2822;

wulf-h. 2720.

(m),

hleojjor

sound,

voice.

3962, S. T. 212.
])rian, to

to-hlidanj

hleo-

cry aloud. F.F. 2.

rend asunder.

to

2002.
hlifian,

to

tower.

rise,

163,

3603, 3801, 5602.

etc.

hlaford (m), lord. 540.

hla-

hleahtor.

See ahlihhan.

ahleapan, to

leap up. 2788.

See hleotan.

noise.

uht-hlem. 4019;

1465.

laughter.

See hleonian.

See hleo^.

hlud, loud. 178. hliide, loudly.

5081. from hlemman,

make a

laugh.

(m),

1226, 6033.
hlinian.
hli.

hlem (ni),^M2M/^.44o8,469i,
sound,

to

hleahtor

hleapan, to leap, run. 1733.

Ger. laufen.

a-hlihhan (pret. ahloh and


ahlog),

fordleas. 5863.

hleat.

S.T. 189.

etc.

2076.

6275.
un-hiore.

O.

1828,

hleonian, hlinian, to lean, recline,

hiofan,

hlaew

refuge. 863, 1586, 1803,

to

Comp.
wael-h.

5931hleo (m), shade, protection,

S.T. 211.
lilutan,

to

bow

doivn,

sink,

4760.
hlyn, gehlyn (m), noise, din.

1227, F.F. 57.

hljTiian,

hlynnan, hlynsian,

to

make

GLOSSARY.
a noise, roar. 1545, 2244,

5099, F. F. II.

267

holm (m),

hnsegan, genhntegan, v.

a. to

sea. 96,

465, 485,

Comp. weg-h. 439.

etc.

holt (n), holt, forest, icood,

bend, subdue, soothe. 2552,

lignum. 2743, 4669, 5190,

2641, 2882, 5825. Goth,

etc.

hnaivjan

formed from

v.

Comp. sesc-h. 665;

n. hnigan, to bow, incline

hom.

(See Rask, pp. 112, 113);

homer.

Ohg. O.

Goth, hneivan.

See ham.

See hamer.

hon, hangan,

Sax. hnigan, O.Nor. hniga.

behangan,

hnah, hneaw, base, mean,

Comp.

niggardly.

inferior,

unhneaw.

3863.

1909,
S. T.

Goth,

280.

147,

1359,

gensegan, to hum-

hnaivs.

bIe,quell2SS2,^8ji,44.iS.
hnitan,
horn),

{with

strike

to

but,

rush

the

against.

Comp.heoro-

hoc'ihtfhooked.
h.

v. a.

to hang.

hang with.

to

helm-behongen.
hangian,

6269.

v. n.

4886.
bond.

hopu

See hand.
mound,

(ra }),

heap.

Ohg. hufo Netherl. hoop,


;

agger.

Comp. fen-h. 1532;


This

of places, and thence of

2880.

persons, as Wallop,

be-hofan, to need. 5288.

WaU-hope, Trollope,

See hyge.

on-hohsnian,

This word

most probably an error

of the scribe

may be
hosp,

possibly

it

a derivation from

or

O. Sax.

hose,

contumely ?
hold.

See hyldan.

holinga, vainly, without cause.

2156.

i.

e.

i.

e.

Troll-hope; Stanhope, Le.


reproach

to

with? 3892.
is

the

is

termination in such names

hof (ra), court, palace. 6^ 0, etc.

hogian.

to

hang. 2730, 3329, 4177,

mor-h. 904.

2659, 5082.

fyr-

gen-h. 2791; gar-h.3673.

Stan-hope
i.

is

e.

Blenkinsop,

Blenking's hope.

still

It

extant in the old

phrase cock a hoop.

hord

(m),

hoard,

938, 1778,
beah-h.

etc.

792,

treasure.

Cornp.

847, 5645

bre5st-h.Aear^3442,5J77;

word-h.524,S.T.2; w\Tmh.

4447.

A a 2

GLOSSARY.

268
horn

horn,

(n),

pinnacle,

cresset? 164, 141 2, 2742,

Comp. gu5-

etc. F. F. 7.

h.

2868

1853. Goth. Ohg. hansa

hence Ger. hans,

Hanstown

Engl.

as

in

anal,

with goose and gans.

Cod. Exon.

3. 32.

hrsew

hrea (n),

(m),

corpse. 559, 2432, 3 181,

Goth, hraiv;

F. F. 68.

Ohg. O. Sax. hreo.


hraegl (n), rail (as in night-

garment. 912, etc.

rail),

Comp.

beado-h.

fyrd-h.

3058;

sail.

1108;
mere-h.

See hra.

hraS, quick

454,

Hence our com-

par. railier.

hra^dlice, id.

717. 1930-

hream (m),

earth. 1549,

hruse

(f),

4486, 4547,

etc.

hre5h, hreow, reow, rough,

3132,

iioi, 2619.

Comp.

etc.

bl6d-h.

3442; gu5-h. 115;


r. 1262. hreow (m),

waelca/a-

mity. 4265.

hreo^a, protection, defence ?

word

of

unknown

deriva-

tion

and uncertain mean-

ing.

Comp. bord-h. 4412.

It

occurs also in the

fol-

lowing placeSj and always,


as

here,

combination

in

pp. 184. 26, [87. 30, 192.

hra{>e, quickly.

etc.

exultation.

hremig, ex-

248, 3768, 41 14.

hrefn, hraefn (m), rat-en. 3606,

4887, 6041. F. F. 69.


hremig.

See hream.

hreosan,

to fall, 7~ush.

Cod. Exon. 42. 19

23;

(where
da)
celli

cry,

2608, 4716.
ulting.

hryre

with bord or scyld: Csedm.

3815.

hraew.

wig-h. 3242.

See hrefn.

hrsefen.

to

whence

5517.

cruel, rugged,

ho^imaijcloudydarkness? ^goj.

hra,

behroren.

off,

Comp. lecd-h. 4064,477 1

company, multitude.

(f),

behreosan,

etc.

(m), fall, ruin. 3364, etc.

hors (n), horse. 2803.

hos

2865,

lack by falling

also

it is

written hrea-

Leg. St. And. (VerPoetry)

256.

See

Kemble's Beowulf,

i.

244, and A. and E. p. 1 00.


on-hreran.

See hror.

hreS (m), fierceness. 5143.


Comp. gu8-h. 1642. hreS,
hreSig, fierce, proud. ^i^^,

2153,

5160. Comp. sige-h. 188,

GLOSSARY.
3198. 5505-

rel^e, fierce.

(m),

bosom.

breast,

984, 2306, 2690,

(tn), ring, collar.

30TI,

2187,

ban-h.

3138.

hringan,
or

ring

650,
etc.

4513,

Comp.
a

huru, at
Lat.

etc.

hrind (m), rind, bark. 2731.

hring

hu, hoiv. 5, 333, etc.

hund (m),

etc.

hrinan, to touch. 1449, 'Q^^'

3035,

O.

hrysian, to shake. 458.

Sax. hrisian.

244. 1544. etc.


hre})er

269

vertebra.
to

set in

circle.

660.

dog, hound. 2741.

least,

however, but,

366, 1342,

saltern.

1728,2934.
hus(n),AoM5e.232,etc.

Comp.

ban-h. carcnse. 5 009, 62 85


nicor-h. 2827.
hilS (f), spoil, booty. 248.

hwser, where, gehwser, every,

hringed, formed of or in

everywhere. 49, 1 05 7, 4063

rings.

ohwser,

hroden, gehroden, adorned,


beset P

614,

995,

Comp.

2307.

2048,

beag-h.

1251; gold-h. 1232,1285,


etc. S.T.

3900,
26.

205. F. F.

Apparently from a

verb hreo^an no longer

(ra),

8ti, 1677^

roof.

Comp.

inwit-r.

6238.

hron (m), whale. 20, 1085.


hror, strenuous, bold, active.

53, 3262;
90.
1

unhror. F. F.

onhreran,

to

excite.

(m

?),

comfort, solace,

hrycg (m), back,


hryre.

parti-

used at the beginning

Our nearest

of sentences.

approximation to
lo! well!

D. G.

iv.

448

ay,

it is

1889.

I,

pp.

See

450.

eager.

3206, 41 11,

Comp.

fyrd-h. 3 2 86, 4945

ridge.

See hreosan.

etc.
;

gold-h. 6140. hwettan, to


whet, sharpen. 413, 985.
hwsejjer, whether.

^2g,26-^2;

ieghvfx\>er, both.

1633

hw8e})re,

tamen. 1784,

4348, 4887.
See hreosan.

benefit.

hruse.

cle

^80; ge-

hwsejjer, either, each.i

103, etc.

hro)?er

34-jg,

hwsete, hwate, bold, active,

extant,

hrof

anywhere.

5732hwset, an exclamatory

yet,

73

Lat.

etc. S.T. 75.

hwanon, whence. 520.


947.

hwealf (m), vault, arch.i 156.

4034.

Aa3

Ohg. geuuelbe

GLOSSARY.

270
Ger. gewolbe

O. Nor.

hyge, hige (m), mind, dis-

hvolf.

position, ^^g, etc.

hwene,

somewhat.

little,

hwon,

5392.
liwon.

id.

lyt-

id.

408.

gehogian,

Lat. pa-

21; forhicgan,

go, wander.

turn,

110, i97j etc.


h.

4588;

Comp.

and-h.

re-

1268, 3981, 4097.


hicgean,fo be mindful. F.F.

bweorfan, gehweorfan, hwyrto

hogian,

intend,

solve.

rum.

fan,

to

874;

to disdain.

oferhigian, oferho-

gian,ic/.4679,5525. bealo-

set-

hycgen^Q, meditating harm

100;

5123; heard-h. 793, 1602

geond-h. 4039, S.T. 219;

swiS-h. 1842, 2036; wis-

ymbe-h. 4582, F. F. 67.

h.

edhwyrft (m), return, re-

hygd, gehygd (m), mind,

time to time. 329.

See

hwettan.
hwil

hwyrftura,

2566.

lapse.

from

(f),

lawsete.

5426

4462.

})anc-h.

4096 breost-g.
5628; mod-g. 47T; ofer-

thought.

3485, 3525; wonhyd


(wonhygd). 872. O. Nor.

h.

while, space of time.

31,211,295,2995. Comp.
orleg-h.
dsg-h. 5445;

vanhyggia, inconsiderantia.

4008, 4845, 5814;

ge-

1450; grom-h. 3502; ni6-

sceap-h. fated time.

52

h.

sige-h.

hwilum,

5413.

sometimes, at times. 352,

997, 1732, 6080,

etc.

liwinan, to utter a shrill sound,


whine. S. T. 256.

anhydig. 5327;

6311;

bealo-h.

))rist-h.

hyht (m), hope. 360.


hyldan, to bend, incline. 1^80.
gehyld, disposed, inclined.

hyldo

hwit, white. 2900, F. F. 78.

6104.

hwon.

1345. 4141. 5989-

See hwene.

hwyder, whither. 328.

7, etc.

to hide.

2748, 4463, 5526,

586, 758,

hynan,

4627.

gehwylc, every. 16 14.

hydan, gehydan,

(f),

favour.
liold,

well-disposed, faithful. ^^g,

hwylc, which, some one. 1 890


seghwylc, every one. 1

5612.

wonhydig. Cod. Exon. 95.


14. Csedm. TOO. 2^.

896,

etc.

to

hynjju

disgrace.
J

190.

etc.

injure,
(f),

oppress.
injury,

334, 559, 954,


.^), shame.

hean (n

GLOSSARY.
4373; hean, miser able,vile.
2553. etc.
hyran, gehyran,

to hear, obey.

See heard,

See heore.

ment,

orna-

(f),

machina.

munitio,

55^7' 5968, 6309, F. F.

Ohg.

41.

garusti, instru-

mentum, munitio.

recruit.

Goth. inwinds,0. Sax.

iren,

isem

(n),

iron.

666,

Goth,

etc.

Ohg. isem, O. Sax.

isarn, Ger. eisen.


is (n), ice.

icy.

65

literally,

2270,3221.

and equivalent to

bihongen

hrim-gicelum,

hung about

isern.

isig,

of a ship, no doubt

ivith

Cod. Exon. 307.

hyrtan, to hearten, animate,

ini-

inuuid.

eisarn,

4503. Ohg.hrustjan,Ger.
hyrst

(n), guile,

1502, 1666, 2206,

^553' 2228,

etc.

hyrstian, to ornament. 1349,

r listen,

inwit, inwid

etc.

in shepherd, etc., guardian.

un-hyre.

See gio.

quity.

hyrde, heorde (m), herd, as

1224, 1505,

of old, formerly 4910,

io, iu,

5854.

20, 75, etc.

a-hyrdan.

271

icicles.
r.

See iren.

5179.
L.

hyse, hysse (m), youth. 2438,


'

F. F. 96.

La, lof indeed/ 3404, 5720.

hy^ {r),hithe,haven.62,3833.

lac(n),^i/if,q^mn^.86,3i 72,

3730. 374- Comp. s^-1.


I.

3253. 3308.

lege, eke, also ? 2 2 1 9.

lacan, to sport, play. 5657,

5689.

bably an error.

dance, leap.

ides, woman,

Zfirfy. 1

O. Sax.

etc.
in,

A very

doubtful reading,most pro-

245, 2 15 j,

2604, S. T. 223.

in, inne,

119,

innan,

1289,

in,

within. 2,

etc.

innan-

weard. 1987, 20C0.


inne.

786

.'^

O. Nor.

at lege,

to

leika,

lac, gelac,

game, play. 2084, 2340.

idis.

inn (n), dwelling, lodging,


inn.

Dan.

Goth, laikan,

See gesellan.

Comp.

beadu-1.

heaj)0-l.

1172, 3952. for-

3126;

lacan, to play false, betray.

1811.
ladu, gelad

pounds.

and
See

their
liSan.

com-

GLOSSARY.

272

laedan, gelEedan, to lead, conduct.

74,

to mislead.
Ifefan, to

493 1

forlsedan,

etc.

4084.

laf (f), relic, legacy,

leaving, a poetic terra for a

sword; an ancient sword


forged by Weland, or by
grants of old, being re-

garded as a precious

le-

gacy or present. 913, 1595,

Comp.

etc.

eormen-1.

ende-1.

4460

2172,2200;
Isene, poor,
lit.

5618;
wea-1.

yrfe-l.

381c;

1136.

fS-l.

lean.

transitory, vile,

O.

3249, 4672.

See

laes, less.

less.

))y-laes,

laesest,

the

least.

4698.
laestan, gelcestan, to

perform,

accomplish, avail. 47, 1053,

Exon. 407.
slow, late.

one

lata,

5330.

lacus.
lah.

See

abate.

96,

5323,

lihan.

land (n), land. 61, 448, etc.

Comp.

4657;

ea-1.

el-1.

foreign land, as in el})e6dig.

603

T.

long,

long.

etc.

31,

Comp. andlang, andlong,


lasting?

livelong,

4237,

long of

thee,

through,

or

Comp.
to

1733.

etc,

because

of,

2757,4306. geleuge,

appertaining. 5457.

lan-

langa^

gian. to long for J

(m), longing. 2,'/6^. lengan,

long

lenge,

hildefight,

it,

(time).

269,907,1952; longsum,

Comp.

5175.

morgen-1. 578c.

to

^8g, 1945

167

leng compar. longer.

leave,

forlaetan,
I

was
vras

it

e.

long, tedious. 268,

to let,

forsake.

i.

long,

it

to prolong, extend. S.T. 1 99;

457. 3 T.

I,

slow

alsetan,

leave,

599.3265. Obg. O. Sax.


lagu, O. Nor. logr, Lat.

to

coward. 5684.
Isetan,

423, 483,

tvater.

Cod.

fuUaestan,

etc.

aid, support.

Iset,

5438.

lagu (m),

thee.

1629,

Isefan.

as in the old phrase,

lar.

t,

ge-lafian, to lave.

5383.5869; gelang,

85, etc.

979

23 7

3223.

See

lang,

Sax. lehni.
Iseran.

3248;
laf.

leave.

to

onlsetan, to relax,

let go.

2361, 4620,

leave.

oflaetan,

386,

niht-long.

etc.

1060

lar (f), doctrine, instruction,


lore.

544,

2444,

3905.

GLOSSARY.

273

Comp.fre5nd-l.4744. he-

following compounds

ran, gelseran, to teach,

dorleas. 30,

fise.

arf-

834,562,3449,6150.

last (m), track, footstep.

1686, etc.
1.

1697;

1.

4567

Comp.

feorh-

3269;

fe^e-1.
;

264,

wrjec-1.

la^, hostile, hateful,

fot-

loath.

166, etc.; foe. 884, 1026,

1686, etc.;
lapu

labile.

invitation.

(f),

with money.

4873

See licgan.

leg, lig {m), flame, fire. 166.

Comp.

feorh-1.

5592.

lemian, to lame, oppress. 1814.

Ohg.
O.

lajjian,

Nor. lada.

See lang.

lengian.

Ie5d (m),

lord,

687, 702,

chief.

etc.;

people. 47, 387, 455, etc.

Ger.

leute,

Ohg.

leodi, O. Sax. liud.

ge-leafa, belief, faith, geleaf-

scipe,

nes

({), faith,

rely.

credence. ^g6.

gelyfan, to

trust,

885, 1221, 1259,

a-leah.

etc.

See leogan.
or-

leahtre, sinless, blameless.

leod-

4400,
it

seems

equivalent to ]>e6d, as leod-

cyning. 107, 3896.


dear,

beloved. 61, etc,

leoflic, id., precious.

3622;

unleof, odious. 5719.

leogan, ale5gan, gele5gan, lo

3776.
lean. 3 sing. Ij^h^, pret. log,
to blame.

leudi,

community.

5495. As a prefix

leof,

leahtor (m), crime, sin.

543,

leode plur.

leaf (n), leqf. 194.

alyfan,

feor-

men-1. 5516.

Comp.

lajjon,

ladon, O. Sax.

3172.

2389; ne5d-l.
2644; from la))ian, to inGoth,

dream-1. 3445

leger (n), bed. 2019, 6078.

freond-l.

vite.

al-

fe5h-l. not to be atoned for

lecgan, alecgan.

2709.
lit.

5772

1.

3178; dom-

408,1729, 2101,

3627. belean,

id.

lean (n), reward.

229, etc.

Comp.ende-l.3389; hondreward. 2765, 421


leas, false, leasing.

^0

5686

leoht

(n),

adj.

1.

the

Comp.
waer-l.

S.T. 19.
light.

light,

S. T. 145.

1.

511.

leas, void of, less, as in

160, 506, 4636,

loga, belier.

treow-l.

1027.

1.3086,4195. leanian,

lie, belie.

etc.

831;

T839.

190,

bright,

Comp.

etc.

ready.
aefen-

morgen-l. 12 13,

GLOSSARY.

274
leom

(n), limb, branch. 194.

leoraa, beam, ray, light. 190,

Comp.

627, ^291, etc.


8eled-l.

6241

3050;

bryne-1.

hilde-1.

2291;

F.F.

beado-1.

"4616;
swurd-1.

leosan,

to learn.

4662.

forle5san,

to

beleosan,

2150. 2945.
leo^

Ohg.

liod

Comp.

1576;

lig.

lid

Goth.

hinder,

let,

relax.

eofor-l.

happen, befal.

61

442,

etc.

swin-

etc.

on"-

2706.

licnes (f), likeness.

licgean, licgan, to

lie.

113 7,

alicgan, gelic-

gan, to cease. 2087, 3061,

4433. 5764.

etc.

215^' 395O' 4085,

favour,

list (f), craft,

249,

lecgan,

benefit.

1566.

Ii6 (n),

beverage, wine. 3969.

meek, gentle. 2444,

6346.
li'San, to

go, be conveyed, nali})ende.447.

f/^fflfe.

brim-1.

1141;

Corap. sund-1.

y^-1. 399-

way,

path.

1283,3712.

Comp.

heajJO-1.

3600,5902; mere-1. 515;


WEeg-1. 6297.
760

Se-1.

452;

4395. 6033. 6273.

4306.

lixan, to shine. 626, etc.

cease from.

1673,1707,

etc.

cunning, listum,

lida, ship.

lician, to please.

linnan. to lose. 2960, 4878.

alecgan, to lay, lay down,


6"/,

^^,

a shield made of that wood.

Ii6, soft,

gelic, like.

1936,

2916, 2939.

limpan, alimpan, gelimpan,

craftily.

form. 906,

2910.

etc.

leg.

onlihan, pret. lah, to

lind (f), lime, linden-tree, also

O. Nor.

unlifigende, not

941, 1492, 2621,

See

lihan,

lis {{),

to

Comp.

lie,

14, 199, 1893, 1913, etc.

1257, etc.

member,

3784.

Ohg.

(n), body,

1.

S. T. 24.

to

1142, 3063.
lie

live.

lioS.

li^r.

letan,

lib-

ban, leofian, lifgan, to

gu'5-

4912.

sorh-1.

limb. 3014,
;

etc.

O. Nor.

(m. n.),

lis

li)jus

2323,

gryre-1.

3048

1.

leo8,

195,

5775.

Comp.

letid.

song.

(n),

etc.

32,

life.

5809.

lose

be deprived.

to

li^an.

edwit-1.

(n),

lif

living.

71.

leomian,

See

lida.

Comp.

ladu

1142,

(f),

3978.

brim-1. 2107; ea-1.

GLOSSARY.
453

2283, 2319;

5^-1-

gelad (n),

y^-1. 461.

id.

2825. Comp. fen-g. 2722.


lid-man, seaman. 3251.

locian, to look

look on. 3313.

S. T. 146, 199.

logon.

lif.

air.

(f),

See geleafa.
3830,

2755,

See lean,

lyh^.

lyt,

ge-16me, frequently.

to

blame.

See

lytel,

lust.

few. 3500,

little,

3859,4307,5665.

1 1 2 2.

See lang.

losian, to escape.

lyft

lystan.

See lean.

longsum.

See

ly-

1,

3591-

a-lysan, to loose. 3264.

See leogan.

loga.

24 1, 331

5656, 6079.

(m), praise. 48, 3076,

lof

stan, to desire.

a-lyfan, gelyfan.

t5-16cian, to

lustum, on luste,

241.

joyfully.

lybban.

See lucan,

loca.

2/5

unlytel,

not a few. 1000, 1670.

2789, 4130,

lyt-hwon, somewhat, a

little.

408.

4199.
lucan, geliican, to lock, close.

3014,

belucan,

etc.

2269, 3545

unlock. 524, S. T. 2;

M.

id.

onlucan,

to

to-

lucan, to lay open. 1566.

Ma, more. 1012.


madm. See ma^Jjum.
maeg (m), kinsman,

son.

499,

locen, locked, closed. 3014,

940, 1478, 2162, 3927,

3784. Comp. houd-1. 649,

etc.

106. loca, case, enclosure.

Comp.

fsederen-m.

Comp. ban-1. carcase. 1488,

2530 fre5-m. S. T. 107


heafod-m. 1180, 4308;

1640

wine-m. 131.

burh-1. 3860.

lufu, lufe (f),

/ot-e.

3460, 3912.

Comp. eard-l.1388; heah1.

3912;

wif-1.

mod-l.

3650;
O. Sax.

luDgar, pernix, celer.


gre,

forthicith,

lun-

quickly.

1862, 3264, 4610, 5480.


lust (m), Joy, pleasure.

1203.

tribe. 9,

mseg^

(f),

49, 150, etc. S.T.

3. m3eg^(f),ffia/rfen.i853,

2571,

msegen

4137.

lunger, swift. 4334.

etc.

(n),

power. 313,

main,
etc.

might,

ofer-m.

5827.
msel

(n),

time,

637, 1819,

hour.

etc.

underu-m 2860.

380,

Comp,

GLOSSARY.

276
msel

image, figure, sword.

(n),

Comp. broden (brogden)m. drawn

3338;

stcord.

3236,

graeg-m.

5357;

sword

adorned

hring-m.
icith

rings.

4080

dend

?)

3047, 3133,
scea^en (scea-

wun-

-m. 3882;

gemEenan,

cele-

to

commemorate,

brate,

parent. 2786, 4696.

etc.

See gemunan.

ge-man.

man,

man. 50, 100,

manna,

re-

proach, lament. 1718,2139,

signifymg

1159.5532- Comp. fym- 5515; gleo-m. 2324,

6096

iu-m.

lid-m. 3251;

gemet-m. 5059;
sonally, as Ger.

2349,

common, general.
Ger. gemein^

etc.

Goth, gamains, Ohg. gi-

Comp.

meini.

4281.

mre,
205,

hand-g.

Ger. handgemein.

great,
etc.

renoivned.

Comp.

heaj)0-m.

war -famed. 5596. mserSo


glory,

(f),

renoicn.

1012, 1322,

etc.

821,

Comp.

ellen-m.1660,2946.

Com-

par. mara. 272,1 040, 1 5

2710; Superl.
etc.

o,

maest. 389,

mcer{)um, nobly, gal-

lantly.

502

1,

gemceran,

to

maest (m), mast. 71, 3801^

3814.
maet,

little,

2096.

fully.

man(n),wickedness,crime. 220,
1
1

Ger., Ohg., O.

30, etc.

Nor. mein, as in meineid

moderate. 2914.
son, kins-

O. Sax. men.

ge-mang.
manian,

See gemong.

to exhort, instigate.

monige, monition,

4120.
sign.

3201.

manig, monig, many.

146 1

9, 150,
(f),

mul-

S.T. III.

See man.

manna.
mara.

mengo

etc.

titude.

See maere.

ma})elian.

See

mejjel.

madm

treasure, present. 72,

776,

maga, mago, youth,

man. 50,

manlice, man-

etc.

ma^jjum, ma}jm,

enlarge. S. T. 85.

sae-m.

Also imper-

663, 5900,

2207, .2303, 4527, 6289,

3572,

600,

vassal.

S.T. III.
ge-maene,

etc.

though usually

id.

S.T. 273; gum-m. 2061;

den-m. 3066.
maenan,

man. 134,381,591,1891,

etc.,

S. T. 7,

Goth, maijjms,
me|)om.

O.

(m),
81,

134.

Sax.

Comp. dryht-m.

GLOSSARY.
567S; gold-m.4820; hord-

m. 2400;

sinc-m. 4392;

wundor-m. 4352.

madm

ma^jjum,

med

277

on-medla,
horse,

(in),

reward. 4275,

(f), 7nee(l,

4298.
/jnc/e.

etcS.T.

probably gelding, palfrey ?

138, 1212,

3739' 38C0, 4338. Mhg.


meidem, which seems to

Nor. micidur.

signify stallion, gelding, and

strong.

powerful,

mearc, mere

mark, boun-

(f ),

ge-

dary. 206, 2700, etc.

mearc,

Comp.

gemyrc
fot-g.

424;

(n),

6077

land-

mark, note.

to

etc. S.

904, 2532,

id.

2728.

mil-g.

mearcian,

raearh {vn), horse.

1838,

T. 85.

7i5i73j.

Ohg. marah.

etc.

O. Nor. mar,

O. Engl.

mark.

mearh ( ra.n

?),

marroio. 47 5 8.

See murnan.

mearn.

gemeltan,

meltan,

etc.

Gr. fid\aipa, Goth, meki,

O. Sax.

raaki,

O.

Xor.mjekir. Comp.beadu-

m. 2912;

hceft-m.

hilde-m. 441

3220,

2918;

necklace,

O.

2403.

Sa.v.

meugan, mengian,

(m), mingling, mul-

titude.

3290.

meodu

(m), meadoic. 1852,

3291.

meowle, damsel. 5854.


mere. See mearc.
mark,

(m),

4869.
mere (m),
1695,

Goth.marei

etc.

Ohg.

See morgen.

to

wrsec-m 4748.

sea.

O.Sax.meri; O.Nor. mar.

metan,

2265,

(r),sea;

Geat-m. 986, 1662; hilde-

967

object.

lake,

rnere,

1714,

to meet.

m.1603; oret-m.669,732,

ge-

mong

metan,

50.

to mingle.

2903, 3191.

1701,

Comp.

mecg, msecg (m),

collar.

meni, O.

Nor. men.

mergen.

1.

melt,

to

799, 22^5,

etc.

mene (m),

mercels

mece {m), falchion. 1 135,


hairus,

betrayer.

informer,

destroy 6y /re.

39'54.

g.

Ohg. medu, O.

F. F. 78.

melda,

10,

111.

4802.

palfrey.
ineagol,

5844.

medu, meodu (m), mead.

gemet

See mot.

measure. 1032, etc.


(n),

that

which

i.-i

meet, measure, means. 499,

Bb

GLOSSARY.

278

1562, 5750; gemet, meet,


convenient, ordinary. 1379,

misser

(n),

ungemetCj
5059, 6107
ungemetes, immeasurably,

mist (m),

immediately. 3589, 4832,

mod

7?n'5^

309,

missiri.

1425; mistig,

misty. 326.
(n),

mood, mind, courage.

99, etc. Goth, mod.s,

5436, 545-

metod (m)j

half-year.

O. Nor.

3001.

Ohg.

creator, 220, etc.

mot, O. Sax. mod, O.Nor.

metodsceaft,5'orfA>c/.2364,

modr, Ger. muth. Comp.

5623.

an-m. F. F. 23
bolgenm. 1422; deov-m. beloved,
;

mejie, iceary.

Comp. hige-m.

4875, 5810; s<E-m. 655.


mejjel

(ra),

harangue, place

for haranguing public


,

as-

sembly. 478, 2169, 3756.

Goth,

majjl,

Ohg. O. Sax.

but ferocious ? F. F. 46

m. 4094, 6028

geomor-

galg-m. 2558;

glsed-m.

3574; gu.tS-m.6i 7; hreohm. 4270, 4581 sarig-m.


;

rangue,

5876; sti^-m.5125; swiSm. 3252; wsefre-m. 2305;

Sax. mahliau.

yne-m.

mahal.

ha-

majjelian, to

speak. 577, etc.


Goth, majjljan, Ohg. O.

micel, great. 134, 1009, etc.


raid, with. 82, etc.;

middan-

werig-m.

3090

1692,

modig,

1456.

proud. 630, etc. S. T. 74;


modiglic, id. 630.

mid-, as in middangeard,

modor, mother. 2521,

etc.

on

xao\diQ{i), mould, earth.

Goth,

mid-earth. 1013, etc.

middan. 5404; to-middes,

6273
miht

etc.

etc.

might, power. 1404,

mihtig, mighty.

muld.

middel. 5658.

(f),

1 1

20,

eelmihtig, almighty.

184; fore-rn. 1943.


mil (f), 7nile. 2728.
milts

(f),

mercy,

5835; miide,

kindness.

kind, liberal,

munificent. 2348, etc.

missan, to miss. 4869.

mulda, Ohg. molta, Dan.

mona, moon. 189,

ge-mong
titude.

monig.
monige.

etc.

(m), collection, mul-

3290.
See manig.
See manian.

mor (m), moor.

207, etc.

morgen, mergen, morn (m),


morning, morrow. 2 5 8, 973

1134, 1678, 4892.

GLOSSARY.
morS, mor)>or (m), murder,

moot, meeting.

(n),

Comp.hand-g.3 05 6,4699;
torn-g. 2284.

35.

p.

niynan, myndgian.

mot, may, must. 889.

metan,

to

meet, find. 1506, 15 19, etc.

See

{of a river, cave, etc.).

Ra*k.

homicide. 272, 1789, etc.

ge-mot

271>

See ge-

munan.
myrc, murky, dark. 2814.

See mearc.

ge-myrc.

myrS

mirlh. 1624.

(f),

gemeting (m), 4006.


ge-munan,
536,
mind.

have

onmunan,

1466,

1528,

etc.

(m), design, intenopinion.

tion,

to

mind, intend. 1322,

in

myne

^0 ?T-

mvnan,

5273.

1428,

341, 5138.

gemyndig, mindful. 1231,


myndgian, gemvnd-

etc.

gian,

remind.

to

4120, 4891.

2215,

weorSraynd

(n), dignity. 16, etc.

inynd

ge-

remembrance.

(n),

6024; mynelic, memorable.

mund

T-V

S.

See beran.

murnan,

mourn, lament,

bewail.

etc.

without

or

sorrou'.

nacho,

Ger. nac'nen, O.Sax. naco,

Comp.

O. Nor. nockvi.
hring-n. 3728.

naked. 1082, 4538.


Goth, naqvaths, Ohg. na-

nacod,

O. Nor. nakr and

chat,

nakinn.
n?efne, nefne, unless, except.

2it6.

506,

5302

nymj)e,

nemne,
id.

id.

1567.

1171,11 86,

etc.

See hnjegan.

1974.
neenig, not any, none. 3

6, etc.

uses (m), ness, as in Sheer-

un-

ness.Orfordness, etc., head-

repug-

903,

(m), mouth (0/ an ani-

mal). 4163.

3SH. Ohg.

3797'

land,

2724.
1

mu^

139, etc.

naca, boat, bark. 433, 596,

to

bemurnan,

1818, 2158.

murnlice,

nance

nsegel (m), nail, Lat. unguis.

be anxious. 99, 273, 2775,

2889,

no, not.

ge-njegan.

mundbora.
to

Na,

nsefre, never.

hand. 477, etc.

(f),

N.

remember. 361,

to

etc.

muj)a, mouth

promontory.

Comp.

se-n.

2721,
451,

146.

nses ne, not. F. F. 7.


naiads, nalles, nealles, not. 85,

B b 2

GLOSSARY.

>80

2041. 4999, 5185, F. F.

visit.

58.

gen.

name. 692,

iiaina,

nan,

benemnan,
lish. 1

nem-

etc.

name. 733,

to

Comp. beod-g. 691 343


,

133,

c6i,

genehost, di-

niehsta,

1593.
nearest,

241 1,5015, S.T. 253.

See genoge,

ge-neahhe.

See

nealles.

849,

nearwe,

5182;

2823,

straitly.

1957; genearwian^^o^^ress,

See neotan.

sunn, 1766, 2410, 3928,

4347' 4419ge-negan, to address, salute

See A. and E.

p.

T48.

nemnan,

See neah.

benemnan.

to

save.

149, 1658.

ge-nesan,

net (n),
n.

be saved, sur-

to

Comp.

net.

See

breost-

3100; here-n, 3110;

hring-n. 3783, 5502; inwit-n. 4340; searo-n. 816.


to dare, ven-

1080,

1024,

1781,

Goth, nanjjjan, Ohg.

etc.

nendjan, O. Sax. na|)ian,

Comp. hearo-n. 4690.


nicor

nicer,

(m), nicker,

water-demon
1

nixe,

154,

monster.

or

1695,

2827,

Ohg. nichus, Ger.

2859.

O. Nor. nikr, Nor-

weg.nok, Swed. neck. See

nama.

nemne.

precipitous.

generian,

nerian,

848,

ge-nehost.

neod.

niwel,

2826, 4478.

ture.

nefa, nepheio, grandson, suna

3871.

neowel,

ne^an^ gene^an,

reduce to straits. 2881.

ge-neat.

42^S. ge-

nyttian, to enjoy ? 6085.

2063, 3959,
4786, 4844. F.F. 95.

nalaes.

closely,

vive, recover.

iiearo, narrow, strait, oppressive.

enjoyrnent.

Tiiot,

forthwith.

rectly

nylista,
last.

7iear. 1

be-

heor^-g. 528, 3165, etc.

See witan.

etc.

4784. geneat (ra),ew/oyer.

ne, not, nor. ico, 1025, etc.

2352,

2439

pub-

199, 61 31.

neah, nean,

to enjoy.

neotan, to deprive. 1364,

nan, no, none. 1610, etc.


niit.

neotan,

etc.

to declare,

gov.

230, 251, etc.

See naefne.

See nyd.

neosian, niosian, neosan, to

North. Mythol.
20,

iii.

i.

246,

158, 198, 199.

nigen, nine.

154.

ii.

,^

GLOSSARY.
niht

231,

night.

(f).

Comp.

etc.

nihtes,

sin-n. 325.

by night. 848, 4530, etc.

niman, animan, geniman,


887,

take.

to deprive of.

to

beninian,

etc.

for-

3777.

niraan, to take away, de-

98 1,

stroy.

niot.

nipende,

cloudy, misty. 1098, 1302.

niwe, new. 595,


wian,

1, etc.

See neowel.

niwel.
ni?i

geni-

etc.

renew. 261

to

from
nose

nor)>an,

the north. 1099.

naze, promontory,

(f),

headland. 3789, 5599.


nil,

now. 756,

id.

209

nu-J)a,

1319.
(f), need, distress.

etc.

Ger. noth,

Comp.sund-n.4710;

ge-nip (n), mist, cloud. 20 5,

5608;

7Won. 3204.

388, 1200,

See neotan.

2724,

.''),

nurS, north. 1720;

nvd, neod

19, etc.

See neosian.

niosian.

non (m

281

})rea-

573, 1668; genydan.


2014. 5353- jrea-nydla.

n.

445-

See

nymjje.

nsefne.

nyt(f),q^ce,rf^y.993.

Comp.

sundor-n.i339; nyt,useful.

(m), man. 2015, 4436.

m'6{m), enmity, malice, grudge,

1592; unnyt. 830, 63


nyt

Comp.

(f), notch.

17.

sceaft-

war. 37^0, 3S8, 558, 850,

n. shaft-notch, the notch in

Ger.neid,Goth.nei6s,

a bow in ichich the arrow

etc.

Ohg.

nid.

Comp.

bealo-n.

is

3520,4799.5422;
956 here-n. 4939; heten. 307
inwit-n. 3720,
3898; searu-n.i 168,2405,

ge-nyttod.

etc.

wse]-n.

Mhg.

6228.

laid.

D. G.

faer-n.

nuz,

See also

444.

iii.

Ziemann, IMittelhochdeutsches Worterbuch, p. 282.

See nectan.

170, 4136,

O.

geni})la,
enemy.
5992.
Comp.feorh-g.i942,3c84,

Of, of, from.,

5859. ferh-g. 5754.

ofer (m), shore, bank. 2746.

ni})er,

niofjor,

down.

nether,

73, etc.

Ger. ufer.
ofcTj over, upon. 792,

^7^5' 5392-

without?

no, no, not. 738, etc.

ge-noge, enough. 497

off.

6 1 99.

geneahhe,irf//y.i5 70.

4810;

of,

1374;

concerning. ^ii^Jr'^.

ofost, ofostlic.

Bb

i6c8;

against.

See

efstan.

GLOSSARY.

282
oft,

often.

oftor.

7.

3162;

oftost.

6m

3331.
(m), rust, mould; omig',

rusty.

5519, 6090.

ombeht, ombiht (m),

officer,

servant.

579, 677, 135 1.


Goth, andbabts, Obg. am-

pabt, O.Sax. ambaht; Ger.

amt, service,

to hasten.

618,361

1.

to begin, undertake,

to open.

or, a prefix

7,

3102, etc.

Netherl. oorlog.

oru^j ore (m), breath. 5107,

o'SJ)aet, till

intensity.

that. 17, etc.

etc.

571,

or.

etc.

(f),

coat,

tunic.

Goth.

paida,

Ohg.

pheit,

O. Sax.

peda.

Comp. here-p.4508.
Comp.

pa^ {va),path, way.

denoting priva-

seems to denote

it

O. Sax. orleg,

P.

tion=without,-Iess. Inor-

an-p. lonely way. 2824.

Comp.

plega, play.

lind-p.

2151, 4085.

817.

(m), bowl, disk.

R.

5514,

Rad.

6087.
orcen

(m), 7no)ister. 225


where we should probably
;

read orcenas.

See

2657, 4008, 4805,

O. Nor. orlog, Dan. orlog,

Pad

S.T.98, F.F. 22.

oretta,

urlac,

6106.

front. ^^1,1

ord.

Ohg.

openian,

3381,4806. ord(xQ), point,

ore

o^e,

or (m), beg inning, origin. 208"/

}anc

2087

o^er, other, second. 444, 1 309,

attempt. 201, 494.

open, open. 4535

orleg (n) toarfare, battle,fate.

o^, until. 4790, 6130, etc.

ongendj again. 172.


ongirman,

107.

5671-

office.

on, in, into, on. 54, 80, etc.


onettan,

See A. and E.

S. T. 83.
p.

warrior,

ge-rad.

See

rsed.

ge-rsecan, to reach, attain, acquire.

1 1

17, 1499,

5923.

rsed (m), counsel. 347, etc.

or.

3068, 5070.

See ridan,

champion.

In Comp.

oret-. 669, 732, 967.

on-

orettan, to gain by contest.

report? 4059; with ece,


death.

2407.

O. Sax.
resolved,

rsld.

Ohg. rat,
Comp. an-r.

steadfast.

3062.

GLOSSARY,
3154. rgedan,
rule.

to cotinsel,

4119, 5709.

14,

Cotop. sele-reedende. 102,

As

2696.
rseden

(i)=:ship or ness.

Comp.

woruld-r.

wi^er-r.

607

(n), delibera-

Ohg.

skill? 1751.

O. Sax. giradi.

garati,

4844,

gu=5-r.

3159, 4702,

hea|>o-r.

etc.;

1119,2099;
3043;
etc.

1056,

hilde-r.

hond-r. 4150;
wsel-r.

605;

msegen-r.

1652, 4208,

wind-gersest, wind-

rushed. 4904.
rsesan, to rw^A.

reai (n) spoil .garment


,

earm-r.

807;
fian,

2393

wael-r.

2414.

rea-

rob, spoil.

to

etc.

5540,

Comp.

hea)jo-r.

bereafian, to

bereave. ^^86.

whence

2429,

[bereofan],

berofen,

bereft.

4905' 5855-

Comp. wudu-r. 6280;

(m), rush, onset. 605.

Comp.

See hra.

ra])e.

rec (m), reek, smoke. 6292.

See arisan.

a-rjeran.
raes

2289

(m), adversary ?

gerad

1 .

tion,

a termination

283

rsesan, ge-

5373,5671.

raeswa, chieftain, prince. 120,

53 '5-

reccan, to recount. 183, 4192,

4219, 4226.
reced (m.n.),

//owse.

625,

Cod. Exon.296.7. O.Sax.

Comp. eor^-

racud (m).

r.5431; heal-r.136, 3966;


horn-r.1412; win-r.1433,
1991.

rand, rond, shield. 468, 657,

intensity

or

1368,1 7 26, etc. Ohg. rant,

prorsus.

657, 1544.

O. Nor. rond.

Sax.

Iviii.

See Rask,

Comp.

bord-r.

5112; geolo-r. 880; hilder.

etc.

" Con he sidne reced."

regn-, ren-, a prefix denoting

etc.

p.

wsel-

2489; hond-r. 5212;

2583; wig-r. 5339;


rond-haebbende. 1726.
sid-r.

rap (m), rope.


wave-rope,

Comp.
i.

e. ice.

rasian, to explore ?

weg-r.

3224.

4556

an error for reafod

or

excess,

regini,

as

blind, stone-blind ;
)jiof,

Lat.

O.

regini-

regin-

arch-thief.

ge-regnian,

to

adorn. 1558.

reoc, rugged, cruel. 244.

See rowan,

reon.

reord

(f),

voice.

5103, S. T.

208.

reordian, to speak,

relate.

6043.

reordian, gereordian, to take

GLOSSARY

284
repast, feast.

S. T. 186.

3581.

reotan, to shed tears. 2756.

Ohg.

(f), rest,

etc.

r.

sefen-r.

weel-r.

1J85;

2487.

flet-r.

r.

2222

sele-

24[,etc.

5796.

37^9See

Comp.

346, 626,
937,

cyne-r. S. T.

80. ricsian, rixian, to rule.

290, 4420.
ricone,
^

forthwith,

quickly.

ridan. to ride, hang (on a gallows).

474, 1715, 3771,


rad
4882, 4906, 5789.

19;
r.

Comp.

bron-r.

2863; swan-

402.

etc.

Comp.

ej>el-r.

291,

4402

5209^ 6004; land-

5765;

word-r. 5256.

uuriht, evil.

2512; on riht,

r.

justli/. 3 1

set rihte, id.

3319; sefter r. 4226.


rim (m. n.), gerim (n), number.

Ol^g- O- Sax. rin-

guis).

a-risan, to arise. 803,

Comp.

dseg-r.

dogor-g. 5449

1650

scilling-r.

1307,

arteran, to rear, raise,

3411^5958.

exalt.

See ^ce.

rodor (m), firmament. 625,

2756,

O. Sax. radur.

etc.

rofj/amerf. 1369, etc. O.Sax.

Comp. beado-r.

rof, ruof.

6301

brego-r.

ellen-r.

riht (n), right, justice.

folc-r.

1384.

S8e-r.

5755-

rixian.

segl-r.

745,

nan, fluere defluere (san-

etc.

5958-

(tn), road.

hea|)o-r.

4923; bere- 2356; hilder. 2618, 6263;


mago-r.
1464,

rice (n), realm.

etc.

168 x,

gu-r.

rinnan, to run (as a fluid).

lire^.

rice, powerful, rich.

etc.

Comp. beado-

etc.

1445,

296,

restan, to rest. 278, 3591,

repe.

to

rinc (m), man, ivarrior. 804,

couch. 245, 1 498,

Comp.

2508

geriman,

number. iiS.

riozan.

See hreoh.

reow.
rest

unrira. 2480,

5241, 6014.

685,

3855

721,

etc.;

gu6-r. 1220; hea]jo-r. 767,

1732,

hige-r.

etc.

413

sige-r. 1243.

See

be-rofen.

rond.
rot

reaf.

See rand.
rote,

(f),

strings.

of seven
O. Frank,

lyre

4905.

chrotta, Ohg.hrotta,
rotte,

Mhg.

Welsh, crwth, Engl,

crowd.

GLOSSARY.
unrot, sad. 6288.

rot, gay.

r6\van, to rmv.

reon, 1029,

285

(m.

siv

sea.

f.),

1018,

457, 663,

etc.

1083, seems either an er-

Sicc.

ror or a contraction for

seed, sated. 4C)66,

pret.

reowon.

5439.

on-S9ege, busy, not

rum, capacious, roomy. 561,


etc.

See sacan.

geruxnVic, commodious,

4960.

idle. 4159,
concur with

I fully

K. (Beow.

ii.,

note on

1.

rum, amply? 5374.


geryman, to make room,

4148),

clear, yield up.

corresponding to the O.

278.

989, 2177,

3954. 5959. 6168.


run (f), runic chm-acter, mystery, council.

346, 2654,

Goth., Ohg., O.

3394.

Sax. runa.

Comp. beadu-

r.ioo6; hel-runa, sorce/rr.

328.

Ohg-. helli-runo.

ge-ryman.

5299. Ohg. gerisan, convenire

Nor.

risDj congruus.

O.

Sax. gerisan, decree.

seigr, slow,

(m.

f.),

883

etc.

good, happy.

sel,

lum (salum),

on-

sacan, to deny, resist. 3889,


5901. Goth, sacan, Ohg.

O. Sax, sacan.

gesaca.

adversary. 3551.

saec (f),

in happiness,

happy; vron-

sselig,

unhappy. 210.
salig.

Ohg. O.

Comp.

sella (for selra), 294,


etc.

S.T. 218, F.

sel,

2029,

F. 79.

Superl. selest. 518.

See

ge-stelan.

sal.

s2i\d{n),mansion.2^6j^. Goth.

strife.

310, 1205, 1372,

sali)?va

3241.

sacu, gesacu

Mhg.

(f), id.

294,

on s-

joyful. 1218, 1291, 2345,

2648.

gesajlan, to be-

152, 1784, 2504.

Sax.
to contend.

moment, oc-

349, 1725, 2399.

s.

Sacan,

time,

1249, 2021, 2275,

casion.

3226,

sei

See sigan.

ge-Scegan.
Seel

Dan.

See seon.

to-ssegon.

Seel,

becoming.

assuming the

existence of an A.S. stege,

fal.

See nim.

ge-rysne, fitting,

in

(f),

selde.

Ohg.

salida,

See D. G.

iii.

3479. 4935-

andsaca, de-

nier, apostate.

1577, 3369.

s*lig.

2079,4356.

sgemra, worse, inferior. 1910,

sadol (m),

s(/e?/e.

427.

See

ssel.

GLOSSARY.

286
Super!,

5752.

siemest.

S.T. 252.
2876,

Sax scapan, O. Nor. skapa.

Goth, sains.

gesceap (n), fate, decree,

ssne, slow, sluggish.


S. T.

136.

Mhg.

seine,

See

sseta.
sal, ssel

O. Nor. seinn.

(m), rope. 38 6.
1

lan, gesEtlan, to bind^

457=3838'552i;
to unbind, relax.

664, 780.

0/set-

lie- s. 1

ful.

63 5

5485

poet,

2158.

decreta divina

sare,

sarlic, sarig,

(f),

soul.

etc.

leas, soulless.

281

37

r,

sawol7,

6059.

scacan, to go, depart. 2253,


^tc.

being.

See scadan.
scaraigan,

to

be

ashamed. 2057, 5692.


scapan, sceapan, to appoint,
decree, shape, create. 157,

lif-g. living

3910, 6120; mcel-

5467

scaru.

won-s. misery.

See sceran.

scajja, sceaj)a, destroyer, spoiler,-

robber. 8, 551,

Comp.
s.

See sceadan.

scamian,

frum-s. beginning of

4122;
;

1606, 1708,

scadu.

O. Sax. metodi- giscapu,

240.

scadan.

etc.

cre-

(f),

3249. (m) creature.

3505

g.

2277, 3^'.

scop,

80,

things. 89; metod-s.

4S85.
sawol

gesceaft

sceaft,

sad, sorrotvful.i 68S, 4224,

saw],

7roir]Tf]S.

sar, sore, paiii-

2507,

sorely.

Comp.

6tc.

Comp. for'b-g. future state?

wound, sore.

95 J'

rable creature. 2'jo'j Scjrp-

pend. Creator. 212.

ation.

etc.

sang.

pain,

afato constituta sunt.

creta,

Comp. earm-sceapen, mise-

sand (m), sand, shore. 431,

(f),

^04,

mine creata, prcecepta, de-

somne, geador-sets. id. 987.

^579'

tie.

983.

samod, samod-setgcedere,

sar

creation, creature. ^2,

sse-

onscelan,

596, 3796, 3838,


See singan.

5133, 6160, S. T. 272.


O. Sax. giscapu, quee a nu-

sittan.

together.

195,5819. Goth, scapan,


Ohg. scafan, scafon, O.

962;

feond-s.

gii^-s.

4625

1536;

leod-s.

s.

1428, 1479,

3610.

5670;

attor-s.

11

dol-

12;

hearm-s.

4193; man^tc.

syn-s.

1418,1607; uht-s. 4534;


wald-s. 2810; j)e6d-s.45 45

$i^.

sce^Jjan, to scathe.

GLOSSARY.
scene

hurt, spoil. 492, 2070, etc.


sceajjen

injury,

(f),

E. p. 93.

gescad

3115,

^^^

-^^ '^'^^

(n), dif-

ference.^^!, scadu.sceadu
shadoiv.

1304, 1410,

sceaft {m),shaft,ar7-ow.62 2S.

Comp.

here-s.

675

wael-

801. F. F. 12.

sceaft, gesceaft.

man,

(m),

warrior,

Goth, skalks, Ohg.

I.

scale, scalh;

Comp.

O. Sax.

scale.

beor-s. 2485.

sharp,

acute.

Comp.

beadu-s.

hea))o-s.

5650.

hond-s. glove. 4158.

5401

money, treasure. 193,

S.T.185. Goth.skatts,

O. Sax.

Comp.

sceorp (n), garment.


here-s. F. F.

90

hilde-s.

sceotan, gesceotan, to shoot.

3493, 4628
shoot

{one)

ofsceotan, to

by

accident ?

4870. sce5tend {m), archer,

warrior. 141

2056,

1,

shear, cut, cleave, separate,


score.

2S79, 30 ST, 3883,


5939, S.T. 185. scani(f),
division, share. Comp.folcs.

146; gu6-s.243o. scear

(m), share, portion,

Comp.gif-

wit-s. artifice, guile.

sceawian, to behold. 265,414,

judge, decide. 3883.

s.

scat.

scyran (scyrian

761.

etc.
sceajja.

sceft.

ser-

sceran, gesceran, scirian, to

581.

sceat (m), part, region, divi-

etc.

Comp.

skor, Ger. schuh.

2312.

See scapan.

sceapan.

sion,

Goth,

skohs, Ohg. scuoh,O.Nor.

4316.

See scapan.

serving-man. 1841, 1883,

scearp,

1204.
sceo, sci5 (m), shoe.

gescod, brass-shod. 5548.

1419.

361

libation.

scendan, to shend, disgrace.

divide,

to

overwhelm

3 '79> 3779-

scealc

skink,

scencan, to pour,

serve {ivith wine). 996.

scadan,

decide,

s.

(ra),

3965.

hin-t.

3882.
sceadan,

(f),

287

sceawere, spy. 510.

See
See

ad-

shards

to reduce to

Netherl. scerven.

sceaft.

O. Nor. skinna.

to

?)

(an earthen vessel). 1542.

scaj^a.

seen, mounting of a

scerwan^

in-

4949.

sword?

wen be

Ifscer-

the true reading,

and not scerpen, as

in the

GLOSSARY.

288
Leg.

St.

And. 105

Poetry),

mean

it

may

(Verc.

possibly

that, in the general

tumult, the ale (or mead,

was

as in Leg. St. And.)

the vessels contain-

spilt,

ing

being reduced to

it

See A. and

mere shards.

E. pp. xxxvi. and 133.

See

sce^jjan.

329, 1305, 1410, 5132,


S. T. 271.

scrud {n), garment, Yit.shrovd.

Corap.beadu-s.910,53

Comp.

scua, shadow.

322.
scucca, devil, evil spirit. 1882.

M.

See D.

1840, 6254. bescufan,


1

86.

Comp.

371.

scin (n ?), phantom. 1882.

wid - scofen,

sciuan, to shine. 648,

1876.

815,

See sceo.

(See Rask,

scione, sceone, scyne, sheen,

613,

fair.

Ger.

6025.

schon, Goth, skauni, Ohg.

scir^ bright, clear,

etc.

S. T. 208.

p. 79).

scyld

scyldig,

guilt;

condemned, forfeit.

guilty,

2680, 4128, 6135.

company.
attendants.

2638, 3931.
sc5p.

>

scyndan,

See scapan.

scrsef (n), den, cavern.

Comp.

scribe, ordain.

to

shield,

send forth, hasten.

See scione.

scyran.

See scapan.

See sceran.

sealm (m), psalm, song. 49

eor6-s. 4446, 6084.


gescrifan,

to

scyppend.

to

3321.

1840,5133. O.Nor. skynda, Dan. skynde.


scvne.

scyppend.

scyldan,

etc.

shoal,

(f),

comp. scour-. 2070.

scyld (m), shield. 581, 656,

protect.

Comp. hond-s.

scrifan,

debt,

(f),

sciir-, in

pure. 650,

See sceo.

ge-scod.
scolu

tcide - spread.

scur (m), shower. 6224.

skoni.
acip (n), ship. 70, etc.

996,

id.

436.

ut-s.

sculan, Lat. debere. 2C, etc.

1217.
sci5.

954.

p.

sciifan, to shove, thrust forth.

scaj^a.

scilling (m), sA///iH^. S.T.

13.

dea^-s.

pre-

1963, 5142.

sealo, sallow, dusky. F. F. 70.


sealt, salt, adj.

3983.

iorscx\ian,to proscribe. 213.

searo, searu (n), military gear,

scrifan, to go, come, wander.

ambush, snare. 480, 503,

GLOSSARY.
663,

651,

435, 661
ningly.

guS

5.

2206.

inwit-s.

searwum,

Comp.

etc.

5229

fvrd-s. 469,

artistically, cun-

2080, 5521.
ensnare,

rian,

to

vent.

324.

Sy-

circum-

besyrwan,

to

machinate, ensnare. 1430,

1888.

sword or

3095,5800.
Ohg. sabs, O. Nor. sax.
A:/? //<?.

Comp.

wsel-5. 5400.
See seo6an.

secan,

secean,

seek. 377,

403,

to

socn

etc.

3558.

secg (m), man, warrior. 16S,


etc.

secgan, gesecgan, asecgan,

to

say, speak. loi, 1552, 693,


etc.

gesegen

tradition.

(f),

mod-s.

6123.

geselda,

one sitting on the same seat.

3972.
seld, seldan, rare, seldom.

4063

strange,

lic,

rare.

2856,

4178,4225,6069. O.Sax.
sele (m), hall. 102,

163,652,
Ohg. Mbg. sal, O.
Sax. seli, O. Nor. salr.
Comp. beah-s. 2358; beor-

etc.

968, 988, 2192, 5263

etc.

1538,4629;

eor6-s. 481

5023; gest-

s.

1992

1,

gold-s.

1434,

2510,3282,4172; gut5-s.
890,4284; heah-s. 1298;
hring-s.4024, 567 2,6098
lirof-s.

3034;

niS-s.

3030;

win-s. 1394, 1547, 4903.

58, 1015, etc.

ge-sel (m), comrade.


gasello,Ger. gesell.

Ohg.
Comp.

bond-g. 2966.

softe.

See

sella for selra.

segen, segn (m), ensign, ban-

sellan, gesellan, to give.

2046, 2412,

ner. 94,

Comp.

etc.

eofer-beafod-s. en-

sign representing a boar's


head. 43

ge-segen.

See

See secgan.
ScSl.

diyht-s. 974,

segl (m), sail. 2863, 3816.

sSl.

504,

selb'c (seldb'c), syl-

self, sylf, self.

Comp.

362, 703,

id.

See

saying,

1743.

sefa, i2c?.98,56i,etc.

seft.

medu-s.

s.

gesecan,

(f), visit, visitation.

422,

Comp.

seld (n), seat. 336.

seldlic.

seax (m.f.n.), a short curved

seaS.

281)

1349,

etc.

ssel.

Comp.

235,

inne-

gesellan, to give in possession. 3737.


semninga, suddenly.

1293,

3284. 3539.
sendan,onsendan, /osecf. 26.
C c

GLOSSARY.

290

forsen-

90, 770, 908, etc.

se6c,c^.32 10,5473. Comp.


ellen-s.
s.

644

450 1,5567;

feorh-

lic-s.

105.

sess (m?), seat. 5427, 5506.

to oppress,

hang, or weigh heavily. 324,

From seom

609, 5527.

vSee
sib,

sibb

O. Sax.

geond-se5n,

O. Nor.

or

6166;

3305
842
;

on-s.

look

sui~vey.

look

to

ofer-s.

to

over,

behold.

to

to-s. to look on.

(t6-sa2gon. 2849.

on.

2849.

and ge-

segon, for -sawon^ 6068.)

syn

sight

(T),

to-syne, to

beseen.62g8; gesfrie,seen,

2225, 2515. si5n,

visible.

spectacle.
s.

1995.

Comp. wmidorans}Ti (f), coun-

s.

Obg.

sibbia,
sifi.

Comp. dryht-

sib, sibb (f), peace.

etc.

2333,

Comp.

sid, wide, ample. 2,00,

sigan,

gesigan,

sink,

619,

loiv.

5311.
1772.

984,

1243, 1292, 2047. Goth,

Ohg.

sigis,

sigu, O. Sax.

1578.

sigr.

sige-

sigel (n), sun, also necklace,

sinew, nerve. 1639.

Ohg. senwa.
seo^an, to seethe,

collar,

jewel for the neck,

Lat. monile, bulla. 2318,

seowian, to sew. 816,

3990.

1, etc.

descend,

sige, sigor (m), victory.

leas.

(f),

45

2056,

495, i860,

5660.

fri^u-s.

to

gescegan, to lay

O. Nor.

seonu

311, 779,

4038.

sigi,

5537,

sibbi,

affinity;

4142.

tenance, appearance, spectacle.

kinship.

kin,

(f),

seon, geseon, to 566.448,678,

through

sittan.

settan.

1462, 1902.

(seam), a burthen.

etc.

here-s.

O. Nor. sess (m).

jjOi.

hea))0-s.

seomian, siomian,

5072

heoro-s.

3027; 16060-5.3014,3784;

dan, to banish. 1812.

2404. 3936. 5491. 6308.

boil.

See Rask,

382,

Comp. ma^))um-s. 5508.


sin, sin.

p. 93.

serce, syrce (f), sark, shirt,

See syn.

sin-, a prefix

458, 673, 2226.


O. Nor. serkr, Dan. saerk.

Lat. con-,

Comp.

tual,

tunic.

beadu-s.

5503

denoting ever,

eternal, also union. Gr. ai>p,

singal, perpe-

incessant.

310,

etc.

GLOSSARY.
singala, singales, incessantly.

382, 2274.

336,

2 19, etc.

Comp.

si^ (m), journey, voyage, en-

fortune.

terprise,

sine (n), treasure, money.

sine.

291

62,

O. Sax.

gled-s.

62

1749, 2560, 2955, 3593,


also

etc.

occasion.

time,

1437, 1485, 2409. Comp.

405 1

singan, asingan, to sing. 651,

997, 23 23, etc. sang, song

cear-s. 4783
eft-s. 2669,
3786,5560; ellor-s.4S93;

(m),sowp'.i8o,ete.S.T.i35.

gryre-3.2928;

See seoc.

sioe.

wil-s.

4723. See note.


See seomian.

siole^, seal.

siomian.

See seon.

sion.

261, etc. besittan, ^0 ie^e/,

s.

to

2910,5864;

for-

weigh down, oppress ?

3538;

of-s.

437

/o7 o?z.3o94;

tende,

1198

sitter,

sit-

reside// 1.

Comp.

flet-s.

heal-s.

4035, 5728; ymb-

s.

18,

3580, 4049;

132, etc.

seat. TO,

setl (n),

2082, 2468,

etc.

Comp.heah-s.2178; hildes.

2082

sseta,

meodu-s.

10.

inhahitant, reside/it.

Comp.ende-s. one stationed


at

Me ec? (of Jutland). 4S7.

etc.
si^, since, after;

441.

(m),

slsep

i486,

etc.

2506,

sleep.

3489sleac, slack, slothful.

slean,

to

strike,

4381.

slay.

847, 922, 1367, etc.

217,

ge-

slean, to gain by striking

or battle. 5985, S.

90

of-s.

1153'

to

3334'

T. 77,

slay,

kill.

slyht

etc.

geslyht (n), confict.

(f),

4787. Comp.hond-s.5851,

5937;

to

appease. 93, 188,

slea\v,5/oji'.

etc.

1300,

etc.

slctpan, to sleep,

gesettan, asettan,

655' ^3?>^> 3396;

si^})an, after

1213,

since.

settan,
set,

1,

(m), journey. 406,

si^fret

1375'

132, 3658.

sij)ian, to

Conip. for-s. 3104.

etc.

cumbere, omit. 1372,5050;

682,

1445, 162

go, journey.

that,

on-s. to care about.

2302;

4573- gesi5(m).57,i7ir,
259S. Comp.driht-g.F.F.

ofer-s. to sit over, Lat. in-

ymb-s.

se-s.

vvr<ec-s.

84; wil-g. 45.

sittan, gesittan, to sit, recline.

s?<;TOMrf.

w?el-s.

F.F. 57.

unsleaw, no/ slow,

ready, prompt. 5

C C 2

GLOSSARY.

292
slitan, to slit, tear.
sli(5,

slipper]/,

solu

1487.

hard, cruel.

it.

370,4787. Goth,
See A. and E.

sleideis.

158.

p.

slyht, geslyht. j

smiS

817, etc.

Comp. wundor-s. 3366.


besmiSian,

to forge.

See singan.

song.

sorrow, care,

(f),

4646

carefor.

afflic-

Comp.bygei666,

inwit-s.

go J,

5or?-o?iyZ.

sorrow,

to

etc.

sorhfid,

028, 25 60, etc.

sorbleas, secure. 3348.

ham-

s6S, s661ic, sooth, true. 1069,

mer, beaten {gold). S. T.

etc.;

184.

to

See sny^ian.

soSlice, truly.

so^e,

in

551.

1184.

sooth.

so^fdest, upright, Just. ^6^^

snel, snellic, quick, keen.

5934,

spanan, onspanan, pret. onspeon, to allure. 5430.

1384.
snotor, snotorlic,

sagacious.

383, 407, 837, 1656,

Ccmp.
in plur,
;

etc.

6305. snyt-

fore-s.

tru (i), sagacity.

3472

243,

etc.

1504.

1554.

smset, tvroi/ght by the

snsed.

609.

soil.

3477. sorgian,

smith.

(ro),

149^

s.

See smiS,

smset.

mud,

soon, forthwith.

tion. 2'^g, etc.

slog.

(f),

sona,

sorb

silken, id. 2298.

3416

345 7

and

unsnyttru.

snyttrum, wisely,

discreetly. 1749,

sniide, quickly.

1S88.

i8i2,

etc.

snyrian, to hasten. 809.

snf^ian, to cut

besny^ian'

s^ed

Ohg.
Comp.

{i)i speed, success.

spuot, O.Sax.spod.

here-s. 129; wig-s. 1398.

on sped,

diligently, briefly.

1750spel (n), narrative, as in godspel, gospel.

1751, 4225,

5788, S. T.

no.

Comp.

wea-s, 2634.

on-speon.

See spanan.

to cut off, deprive {of life).

spiwan. to vomit. 4614.

5841. sii^^{xn), particle.

spor (n), spur.

Comp.
particle.

6cn.
softe,

syn-nsed,

minute

soft;

Comp. band-

1976.

spowan, to speed, thrive.^ 70

1490.

See secan.

6045.

unsofte,

4287. Compar.

s.

seft.

3314,

5492.

sprecan, gesprecan, to speak.

688,

etc.

sprsec

(f),

speech.

GLOSSARY.
Comp.
s.

1522; gilp-

3ofen-s.

An

2.

Comp.

spreot (m), sprit, pole.


eofer-s. boar-spear.

2879.

gespringan,

springan,

36, 1773, 318

eorcan-stan.
p.

be

1,

milk-white opal, otherwise


called

on-s. to

s.

Comp. run-

runic (or secret)

many.

This

writes

second

the

pis,

quam

combination

ter

nification

is

exact sig-

far

from

as, ar-stafas, honour,

clear,

mercy.

639, 769, 920; ende-staef,


end.

3510;

facen-stafas,

(m), place, stead. 2963.

gestaelan,
blish.

place,

2685. Ohg.

stellan
staelan,

to

stealthily.

esta-

staljan,

See the entire

vocatur."

pra.

standan,astandan,gestandi:n,

Edda

Seem., edit. Stockh. 137.


23. 139-33. 213.18, 238.

etc.
at.

big-s. to stand by.


for-s.

to

dan. 5

a-t-

787:

6c86
2117,

i"-s- to

pene-

ymbe-gestan-

88.

gestapan,

stapan,

protect.

Ohg. O.

Nor. iarknasteinn,

662,

standan, to stand

4964.

O.

prop-

passage in Grimm, ut su-

31030903;

Comp. eorcnan-3.

neque un-

quod etiam orphanus

trate. ;iocg;

precious stone. 2420.

la-

Romani

alibi visus est,

approach

Stan (m), stone. 645, 1779,

2S22.

iraperatoris est,

steal,

Sax. stelan, O. Nor. stela.

Magnus

orphanus est

stellian.

O. Sax.

to

Albertus
:

to stand. 63,

treachery. 2041.
stael

adorned

it

qui in corona

component of some abstract nouns, in which


its

which was so

that

the royal crown of Ger-

letter

or character. 3394.

word forms

orphanus, pupillus,
weise,

precious

spring asunder. 1639.


s/f7^.

appear?

to

Mhg.

(m),

it

egg-shaped,

the

to

or forth.

2247;

Grimm (D.^I.

167) says, "

aetspringan, to spring out

staef

old gloss explains

margarita and topazion by

J966.

spring.

21*:^

walk. 1527,
eetstapan,

step,

to

2807, 4568.
to

approach.

1495. stapa, stepper, striker.

Comp.

ha'^-s.

2740,

mearc-s. 2c6, 2700.


stapol (m), fore-court. 18-6.

c c 3

GLOSSARY.

294

O. Nor. stopuU, or

i.

q.

stepel, toiver ?

3.S82, 5098, 5181.

stapul (m), pillar. 5430.

in-gesteald.

on-sta-

etc.

on.

See

vicarius,

Comp.

eaxl-g.

Ohg.

defensor.

who

one

4806.

in-gesteald

s.

3280.

See steap.

stepan, gestepan.

stigan^ astigan, gestigan, to

mount.

stands at the lord's sAo/-

go, proceed,

der, henchman.

456,1269, 1357,

26^6, ;^4.'^2;

fyrd-g.5739; hand (bond)


-g-

4344. 5186;

3950

nyd-g.

lind-g.

769.

steap, steep, high, lofty. 450,

1857, 2822^
hea]jo-s.

pan,

Comp.

etc.

2494, 43

gestepan,

ste-

exalt,

to

support? 3438, 4776.


stearc,

rugged,

stiff,

strong.

bsel-s.

(f),

61 85

burh-

1852.

608, 5653.

stille, still.

stincan, to emit
scent.

stiS, stiff, rigid.

stod.

(m),

seat,

Comp.

stefn (m), prow, stem. 429.

O. Sax. staran, O. Nor.


stafn,

Dan. stavn.

a proioed ship.

stefna,

Comp. bun-

den-s.3824; hringed-s.64,
2 266,3 799; wunden -s.445

3070.

4729,4767;

S.T.

chair,

brego-s.

gum-s. 3908

2169; wic-s. 4915, 5207;


wong-s. 5565.

to

See standan.

heah-s.

mej)el-s.

an odour,

4565.

S.T.245;

stig

p/e.646,2 823,4433.

S.-4522; folc-s. 152, 2930;

575

429,

etc.

Comp. medo-s. path to the


mead hall? or for meodu r

stol

4566, 5097.
stede (m), stead, place. i'974.

Comp.

(n),

steng (m), stake. Comp.wsel-

stellan.

stello,

on-stellan, to establish, cause.

chattels? 2314.

5585.

comrade.

ge-stealla,

Goth.

stibna, O. Sax. stemna.

starian, to stare, gaze. 1997,

297J, 3211,
rian, to gaze

stefn (f), voice, spirit, energy'?

stool.

4398,

eljel-s.4732,

gif-s.
;

33 8, 4643;
j>e6den-s.

27.

storm (m), siorw. 2 2 67, 6 2 25.


styrman,

to

storm,

rage.

.5097-

stow

(f), place. 2017, 2749,


2760. Comp.wsel-s.4108,

5960.
strael

(m), arrow. 3496, 6 2 25.

GLOSSARY.
Cornp. here-s. 2874.
street

styl (m), steel.

road. 645,

street,

(f),

1837.3272- Comp. lagus.

483

mere-s. 1032.

(f),

strengo

strength. 2545,

Corap.

m?egen-s.

3071.

5350

stream (m), stream, 430,


brim-s. 3825

etc.

gor-s. 1*030; eg (egor)

1158; fyrgen

ea-s.

(firgen) -s.

2723. 4263; lagu-s. 599.


stregdan, to strew. 4864.
streng (m), string. 6225.
strengel

(m), prince,

king.

6222.
strengo.

See gestrynan.
to

spoil,

desolate.

6139, 6244.
ge-strynan, to get, ^a/n. 5589.

gestreon

acquisition,

(f),

treasure. ^S>^^,j^oS 1,6^1;^.

Comp.

to

j^r-g.

977.
re-

excite,

stir,

5673, F.F. 37See storm,

styrman.

suhter (m), kin. 2332, S. T.


94-

634,

3518, 4457;

502,

one.

etc.

sund (n

sound.

sea,

?),

1029,

452,

swimming,

etc.

Lat.

43

also

natatio.

421, 1019, 1039, 2876.

on sunde,
ge-sund,

afloat.

sound,

perity,

(f),

3240.
641,

safe.

3260; ansund,
gesynto

See Strang,

streonan.
strudan,

styrian,

1975, 3070.

to besteam.

sum, some, some

mere-s. 1070.

Comp,

be-styman,

proacli, taunt. 1749, 2753,

Strang, streng, strong. 267,

395' 1.583. etc.

295

id.

2004.

health, pros-

on gesyntum,/?ro.?-

perously. 3742.

asunder,

sundor,

1339. 4836sunne (f), sun. 1 89,

sunu (m), son. 694,

separate.

etc.

etc.

su^, south. I J 20; svdSau,froui


the south. 12 17,

3936.
See swelan.

eald-g.2766,2921; eorl-g.

be-swaelan.

448 1; heah-g.4j93; hord-

swses, dear, ovm. 57, 1045,

g.

3803, 6175; ma})m-g.

3866; sinc-g.
\>e6d-g. 87,

stund

(f),

189,2456;

2440.

short space of time.

Ger. stunde.
times.

285

r.

stundura, at

etc.

swseslxe, pleasantly.

6169.
swe))er, whichever. F. F. 54.

swa-hw8ej>er. 1376.

See swelan.
swan (m), swan. 402.

swaloS.

GLOSSARY.

296

swaYian, to sweep, for-swapan,


to

sweep away. 959, 5621.

See sweart.

swart.

swelgan,

id.

swat (m), blood. 2226, 2576,

to swallow, devout;-

1490, 1568, 6292

2249, 4^^7'

for-s.

Also for

swellan. 6292.

5109, 5380, 5884, 5925.

swellan, to swell. 5419.

Comp.hea))o-s.2924,3 216.

sweltan,

3340. s\\atig,bloody.^i ^2.


swajju

4203, 58S4.

(f), tj-ace.

Comp.
sweartj

337, 4356, 6281,

black.

F. F. 70.

sweofot (m),

slay.

Conjug.

like

1,

sleep.

swebban,

3166, 4579.
put to sleep,
1363.

to

1204,

beb-

ban. SeeRask,pp. 75. 87.


aswefian,

id.

1138.

morgen-s.

swogan,

See swelan.

sweorcan,gesweorcan,^oo?ar/(;-

to

suuercan.

dark. 3538.

swurd

sweord,
87 8,
s.

258.

send forth a

4314; wig-s. 2982.


See sweran.

1138.
sweotol.

See swutol.

swei'ian, to swear. 169, 949,


etc.

sweord (m), swearing.

gan.

aidsuart,

swegel (n) heaven, firmament.


,

1216,1724,
Sax.

60, etc. O.

swelan, to burn, be inflamed.

swalo^, sweolo^

a6-s. 4134.

Obg.

Ger. eidschwur.

andswarian and andswaru

5713 perhaps belong

here,

swe^rian,' to cease, abate, also

suigli.

5419. beswselan,

sword.

sweord.

Comp.

(n),

082, etc. Comp.guS-

sound. 6282. O. Sax. suo-

for-

sweorcan, to darken, make

sweet (m), shoal, multitude.

sweg (m), sound, noise. 179,


1292, etc. Comp. benc-s,
2326;

etc.

See swingan.

sweoloS.

O. Sax.

swefan, to sleep. 238, 141


etc.

etc.

en.become dark.^^y 8,3 5 83

See swefan.

swebban.

1789,

See swincan.

swencan.

sweng.

swat-s. 5884.

swart, swarf, dark,

die.

to

swylt (m), death. 2514,

2C?.

6075.

(ra), heat,

appease.

145, 1807, 2217,

5397swican, geswican, to deceive,

burning, fire. 1568, 2235.

give place, escape.

Ger. schwiile.

3053, 5162. 5355.

2925,

swk

GLOSSARY.
Com p.

(m), escape.

be strong

lic-s.

^937-

swift, swift.

Compar. swigra,

swutol.sweotol, iaH//"w/,/oarf.

swyn

2577,

silent.

The

1964.

seems wanting.

swimman.

180, 285, etc.


swylc,

such,

as.

145,

etc.

in

like

See swymman.

swylce,

(n), swine.

manner. 226, 1845.

etc.

2227,

The swine was

a favourite crest of the old

emblem

of Freya.

Taciti Ger. xlv,

and

See
s.

v.

eofer.

so

also,

See sweltan.

swylt.

swymman,

Germanic warriors, being


the

overcome. 564,

swiSe, strongly, very.

etc.

1999, etc.; unswiSe. 5 150.


swogende. See sweg.

silent.

positive

ofer-s. tu excel

3403,

45

swigian, to be

swin,

in strength,

on-swifan, to turn. 51 12.

5777.
more

297

ofer-s.

swim. 3252

to

4723.

syl {i),siU. 1555.

See

syllic.

seld.

syrabel (n), feast. 162, 238,

swincan, to

toil.

make

can, to

o^S. swenoppress.

toil,

'

J954. 2741, 3024, etc.

swingan,

to

swinge.

swing,

sweng (m),

132, etc.

symble, ever, always. 4891,

S.T. 263.

syn

(f),5Jrt.

1420. 1607, 1954,

synnig, sinful. 2762

blow. 4761, 5365, 5924.

unsynnig, innocent. 4 85

geswing

unsynnum.

4520.

feorh-s.

5155;
3045,3184; heteheaJ?o-s.

heoro-s.
s.

(n), swing, dash.

Corap.

1700.

4972;

stroke,

227, S. T. 21

49. syngian,

to sin.

syn-.

4874.
See sin-,

See gesund.

ge-synto.

See

syrce.

4452.

swinsian, to sound, resound.


I

etc.

serce.

syrwan,besyrwan,syran. See
searo.

2.

swiS, swyS, strong. 348, 385,


etc.

Goth,

suith.

swinjjs,

Comp.

O. Sax.

J;ry6-s.

262,

Tacen

(n), sign, token.

1477. swiSre (hand),r/^/i/

(hand). 4202.

Ohg.

swi^an,

to

67

I,

etc.

285,

Goth, taikns,

zeichan,

O.

Sax.

GLOSSARY.

298
,

tekan.O.Nor.takn. Comp.

Comp.

luf-t.

1953-

3730.

tsecau, getcecan, to teach, in-

63

dicate.

403

un-toele, blameless.

ge-tcese,

easy,

Comp.

3734-

tidig, timely, lasting.

io6g,

193, etc. tellan, to count,

til,

Comp.

etc.

ater-t.

2923.

See

vate.

teogde,

teah), ^roi'irfe. 86, etc.

to

come, go. 2107, 2669, etc.;


ateon,

to

come, approach.

geteon,

^537'

(a sword).

draw

to

3095, 5214;

cause.

2093,

withhold.

take from,

304^, 4972;

to

4337,

ofteon,

4580, 5046.

to

10,

})urh-te6n,

carry through, accom-

plish.

2285. Teohhian, ge-

teohhian,

decree,

to

prepare, culti-

3651.

Comp.

folc-t.

1682

progeny. 5868.

one

who

injures.

848

leas, inglorious.

1690.

tir-

ge-ti5ian, to grant, consent.

4558See teogan.

toga.

tov\i\.,iright,clear.Ci'^

liea)?o-t.

5C99

Comp.

wuldor-t.

2276.
torn

anger,

(m),

affliction.

t.

Comp.

lig-

3890.

to^ (m),

^oo//j.

Comp. blcdig-

4170.

(m

?), tent,

French
t.

grievance,

297,1670, 2284;

also adj. 4265.

trsef

one

leads.

1907,

to build.

(m), glory. 3312, 4384.

who draws or

toga,

(f),

till,

90 1, 2441,

tirfost, glorious.

t.

738,

te5hhe

ap-

tir

2605.

point.

ge-teona,

?i'e//. 1

620, 6299.

draw, tug

teode for

(pret.

lang-tidig,

3420.

timbrian,betimbrian,

til.

teogan, teon, to

to

tela,

tilian, to

ge-tenge, heavy. 5510.

973.

Ohg.

good, well-disposed. 122,

etc.

teare (m), tear. 3749, 6056.

give,

Comp.

long-lasting.

3551, 3877.

tan (m), twig.

tela.

morgan -t.

Ger. zeitig, Netherl.

zitig,

comfortable.

talian, to tell, account.

23,

tid {i),time,hour,\it.tide.^4.^.

tijdig.

calculate.

1 1

2645.

la^-g,

tref.

jmvilion.

O.

Comp. hearg-

353-

tredan, treddian,

to tread, go.

GLOSSARY.
2709, 3291, 3767; 1455,
1488. trod {{), track. 1 6g I.

trem (m}), footstep. 5044.


treow (n), tree. Conip. galgt-

truwian,

2334.

treowian,

trust, confirtn.

to

1343, 2194,

treow

2337^ 3o'j\, etc.


(f),/a/V/t.

2148.

turf (f), turf.

Comp.

ej)el-t.

5895.

4407,4773

morning, daivn. 252,

(f),

4019. 4534.5513- Goth,


Ohg. uohta, O. Sax.

uht,

uhta, O. Nor. otta,

umbor (n), child. O. Engl.


ympe ? 92, 2378. This
word seems to be of similar

formation to lambor,

etc.
The phrase
umbor wesende ( = cniht

824.

halor,

tusc (m), tush. 3026.


ge-twcC'fan,

getwgGman,

to se-

weseude,

750) exactly

1.

parate, part, cut off from.

corresponds

963,940, 1940, 2871,

lowing passages from the

From

twa,

be-tweonum,

etc.

to

bettveen

from

Sceaf

viz.

Ethelw.

The phrase be
tweonum = betweo-

" Ipse Scef

ssem

recenspwer."

num

ScEm, between the seas,

2599,

tico

seas.iyzi,

tvdre (m), progeny, untydre,

monstrous progeny. 222.

6164.

of

111. 3.

valde

W.Malmesb.
E.H.S. "Iste
appulsus

So also Simeon DuThe word occurs


once in Codex. Exon.335.
9. " umbor yce^ J)a. ser
adl numeS." He the chillus."

nelm.

5686.

on-tyhtan, to

edit.

fol-

navi, sine remige, pueru-

etc.

tydder, tyder, tender, effeminate.

p.173,
Sceaf

the

speaking

chroniclers,

tn-o.

twa, two.

not bcticeen

to tar.

ufor, higher.

ufera, late, after.

uhte

{of soldiers). 1849.

getruwian,

from tyrwian,

3005.

company, body

trywe, getrywe, treowe, true,


faithful.

turf,

tyrwyd (tyrwod }),tarred.c^g^

Ufan, above, from above. 665,

tram, frm. 2742.


?),

See

tyrf.

U.

5873.
See trywe.

trecwe.

ge-trum (n

290

iynpel, instigate.

dren

then

increases,

ere

GLOSSARY.

300

{more quickly than) disease


takes them.

under, under, during, among.

427, 625, 797, 1480,

etc.

unnan,geunnan, to give,grani.

upright.

uplang,

137.

1523

upriht. id.

4191.
ut, out.

1079,1331; utan, on-

utan, without.

552,

weecnan.

See wican.

wsed

gewsed

(f),

etc.

etc.;

2305, 2666, 4831.

wgege

outward. 1526, 4583.

W.

onwacan,

spring from.

4499, 4543.

Comp.

ealu-w. 966, 995,

4047

li^-w. 3969.

be-w8egned.

See wican,

wacan,

See wegan.
(n), cup.

O.

Sax. uuegi.

woe. 369.

wac.

78; here-

heaJ)o-w.

w. 3 798.
waefre, wavering, wandering.

30 II; utweard.utanweard,

Wa,

vest,

Comp.

g.28S8; guS-g.459,5228,

weg.

round

(n),

weed. 589.

dress,

about.

utan-ymb,

hre6st-g.2426,433o; eorl-

698, 1010, 1925, 3326.


up, uppe, up.

waed (n),
313902 1, J 096, 1166.

1785,
ford.

See wegan.

wsel (n), slaughter, the fallen

wake,

to

2,1 19, 223,

in battle, corpse,

goo,

ijo, 250,

275, etc.

See weallan.

2535. 3925' 4563; S. T.


wacian, wseccan, to

wa?lm.

watch, keep guard. 1324,

weepen ^j, weapon. 77, 505,

9.

1420,

etc.

cean^

to

weccan, wec-

awaken,

excite.

4098, 5700, 6040, 6279;


to-weccan,

wacnian,

to

5889; onwake up. F. F.

id.

Comp.

etc.

sige-w. 1612.

bewsepned,

armed,

male

(sex).

W8er.

2573.
See warian.

weestm (m) fruit,form, growth.


2708. Comp.here-w.135 8.

19.

wadan, gewadan,

to go,

lit.

to

wade;

Lat. vadere. 446,

1432,

5315.

to

See wegan,

wsen.

enter,

onwadan,

invade.

1835.

]>urh-w. to transfix, pierce.

WEEter (n), water. 187, etc.

wag

(m), wall. 1994, 3328.

wald

{ui), for est, wood. 28x0.


waldan and its derivatives.

See wealdan.

GLOSSARY.
wan, won, dark-hued, swart.
1306, 1409, 2752, etc.
wandrian, to wander. F.F. 69.

wang, wong (m),


1

field, plain.

86,456,etc. Comp.freocSo-

w. 5910

301

wealcan, to
rolling.

roll,

gewealc

(n),

932.

wealdan, gewealdan, waldan,

command. 59, 889,


wealdend (m),

to rule,

1407,

etc.

ruler.

33, 368, etc.

5 '69,

grund-w. 2996,
5533 ; raeodu-w.

walda,///?/5rA^y.63 8, 1

3291;

sje-w.

etc. geweald(m.n.),j^ow.'er.

3933.

wanian, gewanian,

to

wane,

fade, pass awai/. 95 8, 267 8

wanigean,

3218.

to

be-

wail? 1579. From wana,


wanting, deficient;

whence

the privative prefix wan-,

Al-

86 1

onweald (m),

158, etc.

command. 2og^. anwealda,


sole ruler.

geweal-

2j48.

den, subjected. 3468.


weall

(ra),

ranrpart,

wall,

mound.

frequently, like the Ger.

463, 658, 1148,


1547, etc. Comp. bordeard-w.
w. shield. 5952

un-, imparting a

245 2 eor6-w.59o6, 6171;

O. Nor.

Sw. Dan. vanbad sense

to the word.
warsi,inhabitant.

SEC- w.3 853 ;

Comp.burg-

S.T. 182; land-w. 463 iv

\v.

scyld- W.5

3 4,

6227.
weallan, to

icell,

boil.

1035,

66, etc.

Comp.

2511, 2534, 2720, 4543.

heoro-weallende.

Sj5^-

wser

waelm,

warian,

to hold, keep, occupy.

(f),

covenant, custody.

54, 2205, 6210.

Comp.

frio^u-w. 2196, 4554.

waro^ (m),

shore. 473,

3934.

See faroS.
wast.

(f),jffly.

w. 17 13.

Comp. gomenSee A. and E.

ivoe, calamity.

851, etc.

wylm

(m), boiling,

fury, fervour. 1036, 3390,

3533, etc. Comp. breostw. 3758; brim-w. 2993;


cear-w.

569, 4138; fyr-w. 5335;


hea)50-w.i65,563o; holm-

W.4814; Sce-w.792; sorhw.

8 13, 3990.

weard (m), warden, keepc

p. 116.

wea,

1 1

bryne-w. 4642

See witan.

wa))ol, wandering. F. F. 14.

wajju

1096,

299, 384,

guard. 464,^"/

bat-w.

Dd

J , etc.

3804;

Comp.

eor5--.v.

GLOSSARY.

302

Comp. freoSu-w. peace-

4658; e}>el-w.i237,34o8,
4426; gold--w.6i45; ^^^
fod-w. 5811;
hord-w.

weaver, conciliatrix. 3888,

2098, 3708, 4576, etc.;

1398.

hy^-w.

weave.

3785

3833
ren

land-w,

(regen)

-w.

1544; sele-w. 1338; swegel-w.i2i6; yrfe-w.4897,

weard

5455.

guard. 644.
sea-guard.
life-guard.

weardian,

weccan.

wed

gewiof

From

weder

(n), weather, tempest.

Comp. eg-w.
ferh-w.
488
6x6
or-w.

Ger. wetter,

guard.

6245,

to

See wacan.

1097,2276.

(f),

web.

(n),

wefan,

(n), pledge. 5989.

ward,

rvithout

S. T. II.

storm. 2754.
tiri,

Ohg. wetar,
ge wider

(n),

Ohg. giwi-

Ger. gewitter.

wegan, gewegan,

move,

to

to

guard, keep,

wage,

inhabit. 211;

1947, 2479,

2419' 3559> 3867, 4792


4919, 5402, 6023. setwe-

4335' 6tc. " }>one wudu


wearda^
nemus incolit
:

(Phoenix)."

Cod. Exon.

bear.

307

gan, to bear aivay. 2401

weg(m),M?ay.534.

Comp

feor-w. y^; fold-w.

203. 16.

wearh (m),

convey,

wolf,

an accursed

or proscribed person. O.
Nor. vargr. Comp. heorow. sanguinary wolf. 2538.

1736
3271; forS-w. 5243. on
w. away. 1531, 2769, etc
wsen (m), wagon. 6260

wyrgen (f),she-wolf. Comp.

wseg (m), wave. 439,2884


3224, 3818, 6256. be

gnmd-w. 3041.

wsegnian, to

wearn

(f), denial,

prohibition,

warning. y 38. unwearnum,


unawares. 1487. forwyr-

uan, to deny, refuse, fore-

warn. 862, 2288.


v\eaxan, geweaxan, to wax,

^row. 15, 133, 3426, 3486.

web

(n),

"webbe

web, tapestry. 1994.


(f ) ,

female weaver.

offer.

2390

sweord-w. 4497.
wel, well. 375, etc.

Some

times almost an expleti^'e

UkeGer.woA/. 1 753. \<'ela


wealth. Corap.Eer-w.5488

burh-w. 6191
hord-w
4677; maj)8um-w. 5493
;

welig, wealthy. 5207.

wen

(f),

hope,

expectation.

GLOSSARY.
wena, hopeful

772, etc.

orwena,

wenan,

3 134.

2008,

hopeless.

to hope, ex-

pect. 317, etc.

wendan and

See windan.

affliction.

(n),

lourk,

149, 583, 914,

33i7 3447tmth

weorcum,

Comp.

difficulty. 2,2?! 1.

3362

8er-g.

fate, destiny. 915,

959, 1149, 1473. etc.


weorSe,
wyr^e, weorSlic,

beado-w.

ivorthy.

Comp. fyrd-w. 2637.


worth, price.

w^eoi^

(n),

4986.

weorfiian,

honour, decorate. 505, 667,

2081,

weor))ung

etc,

honour,

3932,

breost-w. 5001

etc.;

fyrn-g. 4561;

5776; land-g. 1880; nihtw. 1659; m-g. 1370.


weorcan, w}Tcan, wyrcean,
gewyrcean,

to work,

make,

40, 139, 185, etc.

effect.

S, T. 146.

bewyrcan,

to

encompass. 6^0^. gewyrht

Comp.

(n), deed, desert.

eald-g.

5307. weorce, sad,

grievous. 2841.

to

to cast.

recover?

5944; forweorpan,
way. 5736;

to cast

ofer-w.

to

overthrow. 3090.

weorod.

settle.

to

hord-w.

hring-w. 6027

1908
wig-w.
;

354.

weorSmynd, weor8-

mynt

(n), honour, dignity.

16, 130, 2377, etc.

weotian and

derivatives.

its

See vdtian.
wepan,

to weep, cry.

wop

(m),

outcry, whoop. 257, 1575,

6283.

wer (m), man.

o, etc.

Lat.

be,

become,

3997. wyr^{i), that which

scir-w.

996.

werhSo.

See werig.

werian, bewerian, to defend.


1,

v?ergan,

12, 374, 462, 3201,

Comp.

wered, sweet.

481, 91

See werod.

ge-weorJ)an,

5988

(f),

Comp.
ham-w.

reward.

vir.

weorpan, gewyrpan,

3066,5157;

geweor-

gewur})ian, to esteem,

)>ian,

4587; ellen-w.1326,1920,
guS-g. 1360, 1967, 3654;
hand-g. ^66^
hea]jo-vr.

742,

1727, 3809, 6304, F. F.


74.

geweorc

vreorc,

is to be,

weor^ful,
derivatives.

its

303

1086, i88i,

id.

etc.

S. T. 244.

werig, weary, exhausted. 1

62

1692, 3593, etc. Comp.


dea6-w. 4256; fyl-w. 1929;

D d 2

GLOSSARY.

304

gu^-w, 3176. gewergad,


wearied. 5697.

weiig, accursed. 266, 3499.

werhSo, wergSo
nation. 1

werod^ weorod

dam-

(n), host, muletc.

eorl-w. 5779; flet-

w. 957

inn-w. household.

wif

either used in the

is

ing

a plur. signify-

women

the

of Fin's

court.

wig, wih (m)j temple,

idol.

Goth, veihs, Ohg.

354.

O. Sax. wih.

S. T. 223.

weste,

1282, 1990, etc. Comp.


mere-w. 3042. At 1. 2320
fern., or is

523, 586,

titude. 120,

Comp.

(f),

82.

wif (n), woman, wife. 1234,

waste,

wig (m)^ war,

battle.

desert.

4903.

(n), desert.

2534,

47 1 7.
wiga,wigend (m), warrior.

wic (n), habitation. 25 1,1646,

863, 1262, 4664, F. F.

2255, ^^^' Olig' ^it> OSax. wic. Comp. deat5-w.

19. Comp. sesc-w. 4090


bym-w. 5828
gar-w.

westen

4585^ 493-

Comp.

etc.

46, 130,

fet5e-w.

wican, gewican, to fail, give

527S' 5341. 5614; guSw. 4230; lind-w. 5199;

wac,

rand-w.2600,3590. scyld-

lirea-w. 2432.

2555;
way.

5148, 5251.

waclic, weak, soft

wsecnan,

unwac-

mighty.

vast,

lic,

to

desist,

6278.
cease

(n),

635,

horse.

etc.

474, 578,
O. Sax. uuigg,

O. Nor. vigg.

wicing (m), viking, pirate. S.T.

96,120; from O. Nor. vie,


creek.
in,

The

vikings lurked

or issued from, creeks

along the coast, whence


their

to

war, do

Comp.

5012.

lust-

w. 1203.
wiht (f), creature, being, wight,

from. 171.

wicg

wigan,

w. 581.
battle.

name.

wid, wide, far. i6S4,iy^g, etc.


wide,tt-j(ie/y.i59,538,i53o.

aught. 241,3 16,347,1087,

Comp.

etc.

eel-w.

o^viht, aught.
wil.

See

3004

3640, 4856.

vdlla.

wild, wild. 2864.


willa, will.
etc.

1257, 1274^ 1325,

willan,onwillan,ro/Mw-

tarily, spontaneously.

4603,5171;
2376,
will.

3426.

642,

3482,

to-willan,

etc.

willan,

jrf.

to

Lat. velle

GLOSSARY.
wilnian,

desire.

to

379;

30.')

wine (m), friend, man. 60,

gov. gen. wil-, as a prefix,

131,

welcome. 45, 437, 782, etc.

uuini,

willum, cheerfully, Lat.

ven.

li-

See wyn.

win

(n),

ivine,

H33.

1547.

ge-win, win
strife.

w. 3624

war,

conflict,

385, 1601, 2128,

gu-w.5463;

etc.

2872,

y=S-g.

to contend,

war. 227, 267, 291, 305,

gewinna,

F. F. 22.

adversary.

Corap.

3556.

windig, windy. 1148,

windan, gewindan, to wind,

eet-w.

etc.

289; be-w.

to entwine, encircle, whirl.

2066, 2927, 6097, 6283;

on-w.

to

wendan,
ed-w.

unwind.
to

turn,

to return.

3224.

3482

565

to avert, pervert.

5195.

edwende

turn, reverse.

wunden,

wire. 2066,

.''),

on-

384,

(f?), re-

3553, 4383-

twined,

twisted.

601, 2390, 2768, 6037.

4817.

Ohg.wiara,wiera, obryzum.
wiscan, to wish. 3212, 4471.
1

-^
o
hee
witan.

wisfaest. J

wisian, to direct. 422, 590,

wisa,

Comp.

guide.

brim-w.

here-w. 6032

wheel about. 43 o

to escape from.

w.

wir (n

etc.

etc.

1530, 2242,

See web.

ge-wiofu.

>

wind (m), wind. 440, 1099,

curl, roll,

296, 1036, 2260,

wisdom.

ealdor-g. 5799.

etc.;

495

A. S. S. reckoned by winters).

4815. winnan,

etc.; giitS-

mseg-"^.

gold-

etc.;

winter (m), winter, year (the

3566. Comp.fyrn-g.33 82;

etc.

frea-w. 864,

wineleas. 3332, 5^'9-

etc.

(n),

Comp.

w. 2346, 29^6,

1312, 1394,

O. Sax.

etc.

O. Nor. vinr, Dan.

4703, 4S49,

benter. 3646.

win, joy.

298,

2133.

523.

5852;
hilde-w.

'^\SQ (f), wise,

man-

ner.

3735.
WIS, wise, 2640,
lie,

wist

certain.

etc.

gewis-

2704.

{i) .refection,

repast 256,
.

1472, 3474.
ge-wit (n ?), entrails. 5756.

Mhg.

geweide, Ger. ein-

geweide.
witan, gewitan, to know. 365,

498, 582,

etc.

(n),

sense,

wit,

D d 3

wit, gewit
intellect.

GLOSSARY.

306
1

fyrwit (n),

83. 5399-

curiosity,

inquisitiveness.

470. 3975. 55^^- Ohg.


O. Sax. firiuuit,

w. 2668
wlenco

gold-w. 3766.

(f),

pride. 681, etc.

wlitan, to look. 3149, 3189,

geond-w.

firauuiz,

etc.

Ger. vorwitz. wita, weota,

over,

scan.

councillor, counsellor. 537,

(m),

aspect,

561,

Comp.

fyrn-

beauty.

186,

wlitig,

beautiful.

witig, gewittig, sage. 1375,

31 13, 6179.

ne witan),
to

nytan (for

pret. nat, not

know. 554, 1366,

etc.

wisdom, wisdom, yo^. wisisest,

sagacious. 12^16. set-

witan, witan, oSwitan, to


reproach.

upbraid,

2304,

5475. 5983ge-'witan, to go, depart. 5

84, etc. (has a pleonastic


dat. of the person).

for6-g.

away,

to

die.

Comp.

go forth, pass
425, 2962.

witian, weotian, to prescribe,


decree.

3877,

bewitian,
tend,

F. F.

beweotian,

53.
to

take care of. 2275,

2861, 3597, 4431.


ge-witnian, to punish. 6138.

wi, against, towards, opposite,from. 227, 291, 311,

350, 736,

etc.

wiSer, adverse. 5899? 6071.

wlanc, wlonc, proud, exulting.

668, 687, etc. Comp.a^se-

wlite

countenance,

nin-w. 2654.

etc.

w. 4252;

to look all

5535.

etc.;

506,

3329.

andwlita, /ace. 1382. Ger.


antlitz.

wlatian, to behold,

gaze

3837;

on.

in-wlatian,

to look in.

4454.
woh, crooked. 5646.
wolcen (n), cloud. 15, 1306,
etc.,

F. F. 14.

worn (m),

sjwt, stain, horror.

3498, 6138.
won. See wan.

wong.

See wang.

wonhyd.

See hyge.

wonsceaft.

See

sceaft.

wop.

See wepan.

word

(n),

etc.

word, speech. 59,

Comp. beot-w.

threat,

promise. ^01.^; geleafnes-

w. watch-word. .^g6; gilpw. vaunt. 1355; e]>el-w.

formal

speech.

478;

))onc-

w. S. T. 276; ])ryS-w.
strong ivord.

big,

290.

worn (n), multitude, number,


many things. 533, 1744,
etc., S.

worna

T. 20.
fela,

wom-fela,

very

many

or

GLOSSARY.

30:

much. 1064, 3571, 4011,

6148. Comp.gym-w. wiVy

5078.

vengeance.

worold, worulcl

world.

(f),

wrecca,
warrior,

2289.

2281,

4242.

wanderer,
lit.

exile,

wretch. 1800,

(m ?), street. 3948.


worSmynd. See weor^e.

Ohg. hrechio, wreh

wracu.

Sax. wrekki, O. Nor. reckr,

wrsec.

>
J

wrset

(f),

Avor|)ig

See wrecan.

Mhg.

ornament, curious

342. 4817, 5535,

things.

61 12.

curious,

wrsetlic,

1786,

tcondrous.

artistic,

2982, 33C4,

wrfet-

etc.

Comp.

wrasn, chain, bond.

142

lice.

1421,

1324,

S. T. 19.

wraj>u

also (m), foe.

hostile,

643,

Comp.

1,

etc.,

wrajjum, wra])-

6116.

support, stay. ^y ^6.

(f),

lif-w.

1946, 5746.

wrecan, awrecan,

to

recite,

relate.

1750, 2135. 3452,

4223,

etc.

i.

q.

wrecan, gewrecan,
punish.

214,

to

See wriSan.

writan,

to

3381;

engrave.

write,

for\^Titan, to score.

5403exchange.

(f),

gewrixle

(n),

dum

id.

5930.
2613.

wrixlan, to conlT^rse.

737. 1752.
wnj)an,wreo))an,^o 6/(/.i933,

3400,5957. Comp. handwri8e


3878.

gewri))en.

(f ?), wreath.

Comp. beah-

w. 4041.

wroht

(f),

accusation, crime,

strife.

to avenge,

From wregan,

850, 2517,
etc.

Comp.
banish.

219,3843,8.7.95; Jjeodw. 2561. wracu (f), misery, woe.

O.

wridian, to bud, flourish. ^^S6.

reccan.

wreck,

2671, 2683,
for-w.

50.

wrixlan, to exchange; wor-

frea-w. 2096.

wra^,

recke.

wreoSan.

wrixl

tum, curiously. 3067.

F. F.

5219,

2279,

Comp. nyd-w.

388.

wrsec

(f),

ment,

exile.

682,

punish-

4662,

4564, 4938, 5819.


to

accuse.

etc.

wudu

(m), wood, meton. for

a ship,

spear.

438, 601,

801, 2836, 3842.


bcel-w.
shield.

harp,

6216;
2490;

rote.

Comp.
bord-w.

gomen-w.

2134, 4222;

gu"5-w. spear.

F. F. 11

GLOSSARY.

308
heal-\v.

2639;

flooring.

Comp.

Ger. wonne.

e^el-

hord-w.

holt-w. 2743, 4669; mae-

w. 4979, 5762

gen-w. 477; s-w. 457;


sund-w. 42 I 3817; jjraec-

lyft4533 lif-^^- 4201


w. 6079; symbel-w. 3569.
wynsum, winsome,pleasant.

\v. 2496.
wuldur (n), glory. 33, 368,

etc.

wylf, she wolf. Ger.wolfin,

Comp.

Ohg.vvulpa.wulpin.

brim-wWf. 3016, 3202.

wund

1228,3842; wynleas,yoy1646, 2836.

wyrcan.

wyrd.

See weorc.
See geweorjjan.

wyrdan, awyrdan,

wound. 2230,5056,

6221.

wyrgen.

vfwadiywounded. 1135,2154.
etc.

Comp. feorh-w. mor-

tally

wounded. 4505.

wundor

(n),

to corrupt.

destroy, injure. 2 2^0, 2678,

Comp. feorh-w. 4760.

(f),

etc.

less.

wulf (m), wolf. 2720, 6046.

See wearh.
See weorc.

ge-wyrht.

wyrm

worm, serpent,

(m),

dragon. 1777, 1786, etc.

wonder, miracle.

for-wyman.

See wearn.

Comp.

ge-wyrpan.

See weorpan.

1546, 1685, etc.

hond-w. hand-wrought won-

wyrs, worse. 1055, 5930:

5530; nrS-w. 2735;


searo-w. 1844; wom-w.

reg. compar. of yfel.

(l^-

wundorlic,

3498.
drous.

2884.

won-

wundrum,

wondrously. 2909.

wunian,

ge-wurbian.

2732.
wyr^e. See weorSe.

etc.

"1
<--

>

wort (as in

root,

(f),

colewort,motherwort,etc.).

to inhabit, frequent.

44, 574, ,2261,

wurSlic.

wyrt

ir-

oee weoTOe.

Yfel, evil

also yfel (n), evil.

4194, S. T. 104.

wutun

(uton), let us. 5290.

yldan, to delay. 1483, 447

wylf.

See wulf.

yldo(f),a5re.43,3536. yldas

wylm.

See weallan.

wyn

joy, pleasure. 2164,

(f),

3437, etc. Ohg. wunna,


wunni, O. Sax. wunnia,

i.

(m. plur.), men. 154, 302,

1214,

etc.

See

ylf (m), elf. 224.


ral

vlfe

is

eald.

If the plu-

correct,

this

GLOSSARY.
word would seem

be

to

some gentile
Dene, Romane.

declined like

nouns, as

Or

(See Rask, p. 41.)

it

148,

where,

there,

\>xr,

718.
3'^75'

ylfe

error

examples of

elbe

for

ylfa.

ymb, ymbe, about. 443, 067.


Ohg. O. Sax. umbi, Gr.
1

dfi(f)\,

yrfe

Lat. ambi-.

21 10,

yrfe-weard

3810, 6094.

(m), heir. 4897.

yman,

on-y. to

1447;

enter.

to

135
run or rush in.

to-y.

to

run

to.

3634.
yrre (m), anger. 1427, 1456,
also angry, 1543^

3068, 3154, etc.; eorre,


id.

2898. yrringa, angrily.

3'35. 5921ywan, to show, display. 5660.


(f), wave, billow. 91, 399,
426, 46 1, etc. Comp.flod-

y.io88; lig-y.5338; waeter-y.

4477.

f^aji, to over-

flow, boil up in waves. 846.

ySe.

until.

]>e,

See ea^,

))ah,

when,

of, allow,

pret.

\>egon,

plur.

of

))icgan.

J)anc

(m), thanks, 1S6 1,^^61,


to ))ance, gratuitously.

etc.

460,

to

))ancian,

dank,

is

thank-

Ger.

j)anc, like

etc.

used in the sin-

gular.
)>anon, thence. 222, 247, etc.
))eah, though.

744, etc. Ger.

doch. swa-)3eah,ye^I949.
l^earf

(f),

849,

tieed,

2504,

fyren-Jj.

want.
etc.

28.

405,

Comp.

|)earfian,

to

need, pret. j^orfte. 317, etc.


]>ear\e,violently, greatly.

mos. 359,
then,

be-

approve

to

J>Bes

1 1

24.

])eaw (m), custom, usage, Lat.

D.
Da,

to

etc.

1433,

cause ? 481

763.

4190;

because,

therefore,

so,

admit. 5919.

be-yrnan,

to run.

run through,

see

edit.

Bohn.
));S,

))afian,

See earm.

yrmjju.

= g\i

\>xr

Orosiu?,

to

Lat. adeo. 14, etc.

inheritance.

(n),

1599,
"^her

if.

^'or

5 '39-

Gloss,

(f).

72, 142,

also

etc.,

a feminine, and

ail

|iii-gyt,

etc.

172,

moreover. 93.

may be

Mhg.

309

etc.

))eawuni,

according to usage, becomsi7ice.

lO't,

ingly,

4295, S. T. 24.

GLOSSARY.

310
Jjeccan, to deck, cover.

03

6022.

2465, 2505,

(m),

]>ega.

])e5d (f), people, nation. 1

thane,

servant.

246,

minister,

Ohg.

etc.

dekan, O. Sax. jjegan, Mbg.

Comp.

degen.

2620;

heal-]?.

aldor-]>.

286, 1443;

44

sige-}).

race.

291

Comp.

etc.

wer-jj.AMwan

1802. Used as a pre-

fix tbis

word seems a mere


as

intensitive,

in

Jieod-

Scyldingas. 2042. peoden

magu-J). 591, 820, 2815,

(m), king, prince. 68, 259,

ombiht-}).i35i; sele-

etc. el|je6dig,/orei^n.678.

etc.;

3592.

))eiiian, to serve,

minister.

1125,2187,5465;

p.

be])enian, id.
))egu

and its

3646, 4077.
compounds. See

Comp.

plank, Jloor.

976, 2482; buruhF. F. 6

benc-J).
}).

(m),

ge-bobt.

thief.

4445.

See

jjencan.

|)eon,ge]?e6n,on))e6n,?o thrive,

/oMWsA.16,50, 1 805, 5665,

jjicgan.
\>elu (J),

2210.

Jjeodenleas.
)jeof

^encan, aj)encan, gejjencan,

6109, S. T. 28, 34.


See jjystru.

))eoster.

jjicgan,

J)icgean,

pret.

|>ah,

plur. Jjegon, to touch, par-

to

take of, receive, eat, drink.

think, consider, intend. ^8^,

1131, 1241, 1261, 1476,

))encean,

pret.

716, 901,

etc.

])ohte,

Jjanc, )jonc

gejjonc (n), thought.

(ra),

4653. Comp.fore-]j.2i24;
bete-)?.

curious thought, de-

or-}),

vice.
id.

955;

inwit-]).i502;

817, 4180;

1554;

3462.

searo-)).

m5d-ge))onc.

afjjunca.

sure, annoyance,

displea-

009. ge-

J)oht (ni), thought. 5

7, etc.

2025, 2033,

(f),

gift.

4358;
sinc-j).

5760.

j^egn.

beab-}).

234, 1239,

to seem, appear. 742,


1

688,

etc.

1379,
Goth, jjugkjan,

Ohg. dunkjan,O.Sax.J)un4070.

jjengill,

6,

})incan, jjincean, pret. ))iibte,

\>enge\{vn.), king, prince. -^o 18.

See

Comp.

beor-j).

kian.

O. Nor.

T.

))iggian, su-

mere,gustare(potvm). ]>egu

jjenden, while. 59, 114, etc.

penian.

etc., S.

O. Sax.

132.

of|)incan, to take

J)ing (n), thing, matter.

856, 1055, 1587.

ill.

823,

ge))ing

GLOSSARY.
(n), public assembly/;

also

311
space of time. 108,

J)rah (f),

compact, condition, council.

etc.,

802, 1423, 2175. gejjun-

earfof5-Jj.

gen,

we] - ge))ungen,

nourable,
trious.

honoured,

hoillus-

1252, 3858.

))in-

gian, ge))ingian, to bargain,

harangue,

settle, discourse,

meditate. 315, 945, 1299,

3678, 3691, 3881.


toll,

Sw. tall.

Stvedish pine. P. Sylves-

\>.

6281.

tris.

It

would seem

being unacquainted

that,

with the tree, the A. S.


paraphrast has retained

its

O.Nor. denomination, giving

an A. S. form.

it

))rea, \>reag (f), evil,

It

(m), body of men, band.

J)reat

Comp.

4803.

8,

to protect.

to

endure,

O. Nor.

Dan. taale, Scot, thole.


when, than.

759. 2216, etc.

See

4271.

jjr6wian,^0 5M^e/*. 3

83,3447,
5204. Hence Engl, throe.

\>ryra

4,

Sax.
1

mass.

Jjreki.

6196.

majesty,

3841, S. T. 100.

hige-j).

stout,

683. ))rym-

2496

strong.

violently.

476.

1318. Comp. m6d-)).3 867.


\x'y^X\c,strong,valiant .80^

325^. 573'-

J'O'^um, tu-

multuously. 992.

make a thundering

noise, rattle. 2,8 xy.

2496.

Comp.

O.

ecg-}).

196; mod-};. 775; searo-

g.

power,

(m),

fame.

})unian, to

Jjearf.

JTsec (f), gejjraec (n), vigour,

energy,

for-

up-J).

J)ry6o (f), body, band, forct.

gejjolian,

suffer. 174, etc.

{jorfte.

2173

3829. gejjring (n) throng,


rush.

J)rymmum,

J)ola,

24.

Comp.

5758, 59 '3\>.

both of

jjon, jjonne, then,

})ringan, to press on, throng.

Comp.

and abundance.

iren-{).

666.

lic,

inflammability

Comp.

358.

)>e6d-J).

funeral piles, on account

})olian,

calamity.

573, 1668, 5759.

was, no doubt, used for

its

Comp.

178.

572,

))reatian, to threaten.

Norw.
Comp.Swio-

O.Nor.jJoU,

\>o],pine.

S. T.

From

)>unor, thunder.

ge-J)uren, beaten, as with a

hammer. 2575.
verb })yran

From

J)urh, through.

$39, 55 7>

etc.

GLOSSARY.

312

ge-))Wjere, united, in harmony.

2464, 4644. Comp. mon]>.

kind.

6345.

]>y'htig, doughti/, stout, valiant.

Ger.

tiichtig.

ge-))yld (f.n.), patience. 2795.

ge]>y\dnm, patiently. 3415\>y\e

(m), orator. 2335, 2917.

))yrl

adj. pierced.

(n), hole;

F. F. 91.
])yrs

(m), giant. 856.

jjyslic,

SMcA

jjystru

(n.

175,

etc.

like.

5267.

plur.),

darkness.

}>eoster,

rfarX-.

4653))ywan^ to reprove, urge. 3659.

GLOSSARIAL INDEX
OF PERSONS MEXTIOKTED IN BEOWULF.

Abel. 217.

Beowulf, the Goth. 391, 692,

^Ifhere, a kinsman of Wiglaf.

5201.

etc.

Breca, Breoca, a prince of

..^schere, a favourite counsellor of HKOtfHgar slain

by

Grendel's mother. 265

the Brondings,

swimming.

2663, 4251.

1017,

1171,

C.

Beanstan, father of Breca,

Beowulf s competitor in
swimming match. 1052.
prince

con-

S. T. 51.

B.

Beowulf,

who

tended with Beowulf in

D.
Dseghrefn, a warrior of the

the

of

Cain. 214, 2527.

Hugas

slain

by Beowulf.

Scylding race, ancestor of

4996.

Hrothgar. 35, 106.


The name

E.

of Beowulf I

am

inclined to regard as a contraction of Beadowulf, O. Nor.


ulfr.

Bo^-

Compare Beadohild (Cod.

Exon. 377. 23.) with Bo^vildr


of the Yolund. Saga ; though in
the original

poem

of Beowulf

may probably have been


or Bavr (Beaw.), as

it

it

Biar

and grandson of Ongentheow. 4750, 4764, 4774.

4778.

Eanmund,

a son of Ohthere.

5216.
Ecglaf, father of Hunferth.

appears

in the Northern genealogies,


and owe it Saxonized form to

the paraphrast.

Eadgils, a son of Ohthere,

Hrothgar's orator. 1003.

Ecgtheow, Beowulf s
532,

E e

etc.

father.

GLOSSARIAL INDEX

314

Saxo

Ecgwela, a Danish prince.

(p. 163.

edit.

Muller)

informs us that King Wermund

3424Ela, a son of Healfdene

had a residence

and

at Jellinge, near

Veile, in the S. E. of Jutland,

brother of Hrothgar. 124.


Eofor, a Gothic warrior

which

who

would seem was

it

in-

cluded in the kingdom of An-

slew Ongentheow. 4966,

geln.

5920, 5978, 5986.


Eomer, grandson of Offa

Grendel, a pernicious being


slain

(Uffi).

by Beowulf. 205, 254,

3925.
Eormenric,king of the Hreth-

305' 393. etc.


Guthlaf, an associate of Hen-

See Index

gest and Oslaf in the in-

Goths. 2406.
to

The Scop or Gleeman's

Tale.

sion
.

of Friesland,

F.

H.

Fin, a prince of the

North

Frisians. 2140, 2166, etc.,

Fitela (Sinfiotli), son of Sigehis sister Signi.

(See North. Mythol.


92.)

i.

p.

2183,

father

etc.,

of

Fin.

S.T. 55.

Freaware, daughter of Hroth-

gar and Wealhtheow, married to Ingeld. 4048.

Froda, a king of the Heathobards,

gelac's queen.

3862,3967.

father

of

brother of Hygelac. 4859,

4865, 4958. 5842-

Halga (Helgi), a brother of


Hrothgar. 122.

1763, 1783.

Folcwalda, a prince of the


Frisians,

Hsereth, father of Hygd,.Hy-

Hsethcyn, aking of the Goths,

S.T. 55.

mund by

2301^

F.F. 33.

Ingeld.

See Index to The

Hama.

Scop or Gleeman's Tale.


Healfdene, father of Hrothgar.

13, 2142.

Heardred, aking of the Goths,


son

of

Hygelac.

4410,

4739. 4766.
Heatholaf, a chieftain slain

by Ecgtheow. 924.

4055-

G.

Hemming, a son of Offa. 2 1 86,

Garmund ( Wermund), a king

3927Hengest, a Jutish chieftain in

of Anglen, father of Offa.

3928.

the service of the Danes.

'

OF PERSONS IN BEOWULF.
2170, 2186, 3927, F. F.

31;

Hrethric, a son of Hrothgar.

2382, 3676.

34-

Whether

with, or

identical

only a namesake

the

of,

Jutish king of Kent,

first

uncer-

is

Hrothgar, a king ofthe Danes.


121, 128,

etc., S.

Hfothmund,

T. 91.

a son of Hroth-

tain.

gar. 2382.

Heorogar, Heregar, a brother


of

Hrothgar.

121,

939,

4323-

Hrothulf, a cousin of Hrothgar, apparently associated

with him

Heoroweard, a son of Heorogar. 4328.

became

Herebald, a brother of Hygelac. 4859, 4917.

Heremod, a Danish

though

it

would

seem that they afterwards


enemies.

2038,

2366, S. T. 91.
Hunferth, Hrothgar's orator,

prince.

a Danish Thyrsites. 1002,

Hereric, an uncle of Heard-

Hygd, daughter of Hsereth,

1806, 3423.

red.

2335. 2980, 3620.

4419.

and queen,

Hildeburh, daughter of Hoce.

2146, 2232.

Who her other relations were


is

not apparent from the con-

and

2.

i.

of Hygelac,

of OfFa.

3857,3967,
435i> 4727Hygelac, a king of the Goths

and uncle of Beowulf. 39 1

text.

527,
Hnsef, a prince of the

associated

with

H okings,
Hengest

in the first expedition

Friesland.

S. T. 59, F. F. 80.

4734,

I.

Incge. 5147.
Ingeld, a son of Froda, prince

Hoce, father of Hildeburh.


2157-

of the Heathobards. 4055,

4135. S.T. 97.

Hraedla (qu. Hrethel

?),

913.

O.

Hrethel, a king of the Goths,


father

4409,

5909-

to

2233,

2143,

690,

4860. 5821, 5878,5896,

of

Hygelac.

754,

Oflfa (Uffi), a

king of Angeln.

3699, 4389, 4705, 4852.

3903. 39'9' S.T. 71, 75.

4940.

77. 90-

E e 2

GLOSSARIAL INDEX.

316

Ohthere, a son of Ongen-

W.

theow. 5857.
Onela, a son of Ongentheow.

Wselse (Volsungr), father of

5226, 5856.

Ongentheow,

Sigemund. 1798.

Wealhtheow,

a king of the

Swedes, a Scylfing. 3940,

Hrothgar's

queen. 1229, 2329, 2434,

4353-

4941, 4965, 5840, 5849,


5894, 5914, 5964. S. T.

Weland (Volundr),
mous smith. 914.

64.

Weohstan, Weoxstan, father

Oslaf or Ordlaf, a chieftain

the fa-

of Wiglaf. 5198, 5220.

with Hengest

Wiglaf, a kinsman and friend

and Guthlaf in the inva-

of Beowulf. 5197, 5255,

2301,

5316, 5805, 6144.


Withergyld, a chief or prince

associated

sion of Friesland.

F.F. 33.

of the Heathobards. 4109,

S.
Scef, ancestor of the Scyl-

Scyld,

son

of

Scef,

from

whom

the Scylding race

derives

its

name.

7.

37. 5

Sigemund (Sigmundr), son


of Waelsing. 1754, 1758,

1773Swerting, an uncle of Hygelac.

2410.

S. T. 249.

Wulf,

dings. 7.

son

Gothic

of

Wonred,

chieftain.

5922,

5935. 5978Wulfgar, a Wendish chief

in

Hrothgar's service. 701,


725.

Y.
Yrmenlafj^schere's brother.
26^2.

GLOSSARIAL INDEX
OF FOLKS, COUNTRIES AND PLACES MENTIONED

Brondingas. 1047, S. T. 51.


Thorkelin (Ind. ad Beow.)

3633

IN

BEOWULF.

Scyldingas. 464,

748, 1830, 2221,

etc.

supposes the Brondings' land


to be tlie
in

I), in

E.

Brandey mentioned

Saemund's Edda (Helga-kv.

which the editor of the

Earna-nses. 6055.

See Jutes.

Eotenas.

Copenhagen edition recognises


the

isle

of Briinno,

lying off

the coast of W. Gothland in the


Cattegat.

Brosingas? 2403.

Finna land. 1165.


Not
in

D.
Danes.

Finland, but the Fins^

land; for how could Beowulf,

swimming match with

his

Breca, be borne by the sea to

Dene. 489, 512,


1222, 2185, 4107, S. T.

72; Denige.313,547,706;

Gar-Dene (armed or war-

Finland

The

following extract

may, however, afford a solution


to the difficulty

Fins')

name

is

be found in the
like Danes).

" Their (the

probably

still

district of

to

Fin-

1,3717,4982;
Hring-D. (adorned with

ved (Finwood), between Goth-

rings or bracelets). 233,

derable and

2563,3542; East-D. 789,


North-D.
1236, 1661

has, therefore,

land and Smaland.

far

now

This incon-

despised race

anciently been

more widely

spread,

and

KuUen (the
Norway from

reached along the

1571; Se-D. S. T. 58;


Suth-D. 931, 3996, S.T.
118; West-D. 771, 3161,

chain separating

Sweden) down to the Sound,


and eastward over the present

E e 3

GLOSSARIAL INDEX

318

Finland." Petersen,
Historie

Franks.

Danmarka

Hedenold.

p. 36.

i.

Francnan.

2424

asanom.sing. 8661207,1356..
2386, 2409. See G6tan,in Index
to The Sc6p or Gleeman's Tale.

Froncas. 5816, S. T. 49,

Gifthas, Gefthas. 4981, S.T.

See Index to The

137.

Scop or Gleeman's
Friesland.

Of

Tale.

Freslond. 4694

Fresna-land. 5823

Fres-

Frisians.
2

19

1,

Frysas.

2144,

2418, 5816; Fry-

Gefthas

p.

been regarded as

identi-

cal with the Gepidse (Frocop.

They were

FTiiraiSes).

a Gothic

people, and, like their brethren,

and were

finally

extinguished

by the Lombards.

G.

Geatas (Goth. GauO. Nor. Gautar). 392,

tos,

"The

spread themselves far and wide,

senas. 2212.

Goths.

Ettmiiller

says:

33)

Gefths have, with great probability,

wsel.2144; Frysland.2257.

the

(Beow.

416, 526, 730,

etc., S.

W^amfr.
Gibbon,

cc. 23,

D.

See also

and F.

vol.

iv.

edit. 40.

T.

117; S^-G. 3704, 3976;


Geotan. 891
Wederas.

See Paul.

27."

H.
Heathobeardan. 407

i,

408

455, 687, 8jo,

The Gautar

4140,

which anciently comprised

almost the whole south of Sweden. (Gautland,A.S.Geatland.)

See

The

Biom

Haldorsen, Lex.

s.

v.

Wederas is
derived from the Weder-mearc,
the territory inhabited by them,
appellation of

30 called probably from

its

prox-

imity to the Wetter lake, which


divides E.

from

T. 100.

etc.

(A. S. Geatas)

are the Goths of Swedish Gothland,

S.

W.

Gothland.

Ettm aller identifies these with


" Bardi bellicosissimi" of

the

Helmold, a remnant, perhaps,


of the Langobards left in their
ancient settlement on the Elbe j

the prefix heal>o signifying tear


or warlike.

This being their

locahty, which I

am

inclined to

doubt, their expedition to Heorot (4070, sqq., S.T. 95, sqq.)

must have been by sea, and the


"wicinga cynn" (S.T. 96),
no doubt, has reference to them.
line

In The ScOp or Gleeman's Tale


(117) Swedes and Goths are

mentioned together "midSwe:

om

and mid Geatum."

Geata, as well as Geat,

Note.
is

used

Heatho-raemas. 1042, S. T.
128.

The people of Raumerige


(now Romerige)

to the

N. E. of

OF FOLKS, ETC. IN BEOWULF.


Christiania, as Ettmiiller with

p. 100)

great probability supposes.

arii is

which

of Hrothgar.

See also Introd. p. xxv.

p. 18.

The Htetware and

note.

Fri-

sians were allies.

Heort, Heorot, the palatial

abode of

king'

presumed

to

Hrothgar,
be

in

Hrefna-wudu.
Hrefnes-holt. }

the

north of Jutland. 157,335,


954, etc., S. T. 99.

Where traces of the name still


exist, as in

common denomina-

EttmuUer,Sc6pes vldsidh.

fates.

race, of

was Wealhtheow, the consort

ring (which

concludes that Chattuthe

tion of the Batavi and Canine-

Helmingas. 1245.

An unknown

319

the town of Hior-

Thorkelin would

derive from Heoi't-thing), also

Hirtshals on the coast, near the

The

place in

where liiethcyn

58430;862.
W.
fell

Gothland
in a battle

with Ongentheow.

Hreosna-beorh, a mountain
in

W.

Gothland. 4948.

Hrethmen, the inhabitants of


Jutland. 894.
Jutland

Skagerack.

is

by Wulfstan called

Gotland (see iElfred's Orosius,

Hetware,

Hsetware.

4715,

5824, S. T. 6-].
The Chatuarii of Strabo.
From these sprung the Ratavi
" Omnium harum gentium virtute praecipui Batavi

tum

non mul-

ex ripa, sed insulam Rheni

Bohn,

edit.

p. 252), also

The

territory of the Rei'5-Gotar

comprised at one period the vast


tract

of country between the

Gulf of Finland and the Vistula,


or even the Oder. See

dam

in

mestica in eas sedes transgressus, in quibus pars


perii fierent."

Romani im-

Tac. Ger. xxix.

See also ejusd. Histor. IV. 12.


15.

At a

later period the

Cha-

appear seated between the


Rhine and the Maas. From the

tuarii

Index of Folks,

Che-

Sc6p

Hrones-nses, a ness or pro-

montory on the coast of


W.Gothland. 5603, 6264.
Hugas, a people bordering
on Friesland. 4998, 5820.

Germania, subacti Caninefates,


rusci," Zeuss (Die Deutschen,

" Gotan"

etc., in

or Gleeman's Tale.

passage of Velleius (II. 105),


" Intrata protinus (a Tiberio)

Attuarii, Bructeri, recepti

isles

were denominated Ey-Gotaland.

amnis colunt. Chattornm quonpopulus, et seditione do-

ReiS-

gotaland ; while the Danish

Ingwina?, an appellation of
the

Danes,

but

whence

GLOSSARIAL INDEX.

320

derived does not appear.

2092, 2642.
^ujtes
1

77

Jotar)

Jutlanders.

1809, 2148, 2180,

1,

2286,-2894.
Though now
Danes,

the

Jutes,

as a separate people,

as

and were

Gothic settlers in Jutland,

while the Danes (Dene) were

an invading nation. Thus Henwas a Jute, and Healfdene,


lord, a Dane. The Eotenas

gest

(Jotnar) were apparently a

still

4936,

25, 4417, 5200, etc.

Sweden.

4755,

4983-

those

in

probably the descendants of ear-

his

Sweonas.

5885,5908,5995; Sweo))e6d. 5836


Scylfingas,
Swi5-rice,

regarded

early times, were distinguished

lier

Swedes.

W.
Waegmundingas,

the

race

from which Beowulf and

Wiglaf were

descended.

5208, 5620.
Wselsingas (Volsungar) .1758.

Waras

Probably an

927.

error for Wsernas.

See Goths.

earlier

(Finnish) race, out of

Wederas.

whom

the Gothic conquerors

Weder-mearc, the country

made

their

trolls

and

giants.

Both J6ti (plur. J6tar) and iotunn (plur. iotnar) are rendered
in A. S. by eoten (plur. eotenas).

From the Ynglinga-Saga, c. 5,


we learn that previous to the
time of Skiold, the seat of the

Danish kings was in Reitgothland (Jutland), but by him was


transferred to Lethra in Seeland,

of

which

he

was

the

Weder-Goths, pro-

s.

Scede-land,

Sceden-ig,

Skane

or
;

the

Sconeg of Wulfstan (Oros.


252); Scandia or Scan-

name
it

to,

the Wetter lake. 602.

Wendlas, the Wends or Vandals. 702, S. T.

119.

Wioingas (Mere). 5834, S.T.


61.

Wylfingas, Wulfingas, a Go-

lity

Scania

its

from, or imparting

whose

thic race, but

founder.

p.

of the

bably deriving

loca-

seems unknown. 926,

946, S. T. 60.
Their name

is said

to be de-

rived from Hildebrand, the re-

nowned champion

of Dieterich

(Theodric) of Berne (Verona),


zia insula. 38,

3376.
See Danes.

who

Scyldingas.
Scylfingas.

See Swedes.

densage, pp. 107, 233 et passim.

See

bore wolves in his shield.

W. Grimm,

Deutsche Hel-

GLOSSARIAL INDEX
OF PERSONS MENTIONED IN THE SCOP OR GLEEMAN^S TALE

AND THE FIGHT AT FINNESBURG.

Lombard king
Germany and Pannonia.

.'Egelmund, a
in

Becca. 39, 23

236.

Of .Egelmund Paulus Diaconus

B.

Beadeca. 225.

(I. 14) savs

Achonis

filius,

lingorum

Agilmundus,

ex prosapia Yng-

(al.

Gungincorum),

i.

Billing. 52.

Breoca.

See Index to Beo-

wulf, V. Breca.

primus Longobardorum rex, a


Bulgaribus interfectus
vit

regna-

Cselic. 42.

annos XXXIII.

Casere. 41, 154.


--Elfwine. 142.

This

is

573, of

and F.

whom

iv. c.

see Gibbon,

D.

14.

Hun. Ger.

Etzel. 37, 246.

other than Olaf, Frid lev's son,


see Saxo,

lib.

VI, Grii-

Suhm, cc. 12 15, and Petersen, Danmarks Historic i He-

ter's

i.

pp. 169, sqq.

Alexandreas. 3

of Alboin. 150, 198, 235.

Ealhhild,

This, I imagine, can be no

denold,

Myr-

gings. 187.

Eaha. F. F. 30.

Alewih. 72.

whom

Eadgils^ a prince of the

Eadwine, Audoin, the father

-Etla, Attila the

of

E.

Alboin, the celebrated

king of the Lombards, ob. A. D.

Ohg.

Alahilt, the

daughter of Eadwine (Audoin), king of the

Lom-

bards, and wife of Eadgils.


10, 195.

She went apparently, attendtended by our Gleeman, on a

GLOSSARIAL INDEX OF PERSONS

322

mission of peace, to the court


of Hermanric.

and Giuki of the Scandinavian


traditions.

Elsa. 235.

Gislhere, son of Gibich. 248.

Emerca, the Hereling, the

Guthhere (Giinther.Gunnar),

Imbrecke of the Heldens.,

a son of Gibich, married to

and brother of Fridla (Fri-

W. Grimm,

See

tele).

Deutsche Heldensage,

48

et

p.

Brynhild. 133. See North.

Mythol. pp. 99, sqq.


Guthhere. F. F. 37.
Guthlaf. F.F. 33. 66.

passim. 227.

Eormanric, Ermanric. 16, 38,

H.

177, 224, Beow. 2406.


For the story of

this

re-

nowned conqueror, the Gothic


with

Alexander,

its

all

Beow.

2301.

Hagena, the Nor. Havgni or


Hogni. 43.
This

ana-

is

the

Hagen

of the lay

chronisms and inconsistences,

of Gudrun, and not to be con-

referred, besides

founded with him of the Ni-

the~reader

is

The Northern
make him to have been

the original sources, to Bishop

belungen N6t.

Miiller's Sagabibliothek, Bd.

writers

ii,

and the Deutsche Heldensage

W. Grimm,

his story in

tonic and Scandinavian authori.

p. 238, edit. Miiller; in

ties,

the chief particulars of this

celebrated

hero

of

Northern

song.

Snorra-Edda,

edit.

Rask, pp. 1 63, 1 64; also in Saxo,

Suhm's

Historie, or Grater's translation,


i.

p.

245.

Hama (Heime, Hamdir), son


F.
of

Fin Folcwalding. See Index


to Beowulf.

See Emerca.

Fridla. 227.

G.
Garulf. F. F. 36, 63.

See North. Mythol.

106

Car-

Brosinga mene.

108.

250,

i.

pp.

262.

Beow. 2401.
Heathoric. 233.

Helm.akingoftheWulfings.

Gefwulf. 54.

king of the Burgun-

60.

Henden, a king of the Gloms.

dians. 40.

The Gibich

Gudrun by Jonakur, and

slayer of Ermanric.
ries off the

Freotheric. 249.

Gifica, a

See

a petty king in Jutland.

where may be
found, collected from the Teu-

of

of the German,

44.

IN THE SCOP

OR GLEEMAN'S TALE.

The Norsk HcHn, the son of


Hiarrand or Hiiirward, a Nor-

wegian prince, at

first

M.
Meaca, a king of the Myr-

the friend

of Hogni, though they after-

wards slew each other in single

combat, on account of Hilldr,

gings. 47.
Mearchealf, a king of the

Hundings. 48.

who by her

Hogni' s daughter,

them every
when they renewed their

O.

incantations raised
night,

contest,

which

is

to continue

till

Ragnarokr, or the great dark-

when

ness,

323

Offa.

Seelndexto

Ongendtheow.

Beowulf.

See Index to Beo-

Ordlaf.

the heavenly bodies

are to be extinguished.

Hengest. See Index to Beo-

wulf, V. Oslaf.

Oswine, a king of the Eowas.


53-

^yulf.

R.

Hethca. 225.

Rsedhere. 247.

Hlithe. 234.

Hnaef.

See Index to Beo-

Rondhere. 247.
Rumstan. 248.

wulf.

Holen, a king of the Wrosns.


68.

Saeferth,

Hringweald, a king of the


Herefaran. 69.

In the Fight at Finnesburg

Hrothgar.

See Index to

Hrothwulf.

Beowulf.

Hun,

a king of the Hetware.

he

is

called Sigeferth, lord of

the Secgan.

Sceafa, a king of the

Lom-

bards. 66.

67.

The name of Hun was not


among the old Fri-

unfrequent
sians.

king of the Sycgas.

63, F. F. 30, 48.

See Outzen, Glossarium,

P- 4.36.

Sceafthere,

king of the

Ymbers. 65.
Scilling, a scop or

gleeman,

associated with the author

Hungar. 236.
Hwala. 29.
I.

of the

poem. 207.

Seafola. 232.

Secca. 231.

Incgentheow. 234.

Sifeca. 233.

Ingeld. See Index to Beowulf.

Sigeferth.

See

Saeferth.

GLOSSARIAL INDEX.

324

Sigehere, a king of the Sea-

Wald, a king of the Woing.


61.

Danes. 58.

Witta, a king of the Swsefs.

T.

Theodric, the son of Clovis.


49. 232.
For his story

45-

Withergield.
in connection

with Chochilagus, the Hygelac


of Beowulf, see Greg. Turon.
lib. III.

Wod,

a king of the Thurin-

gians. 62.

Wudga

Thyle, a king of theRondings.

See Index to

Beowulf.

(Wittich). 250, 262.

Wittich and Heime are mentioned as comrades in Alphart,

U.

Unwene. 230.

W.
Wada,
46.

a king of the Helsings.

in the Rabenschlacht,

and other

poems. SeeW. Grimm Heldens.


p. 20.

Wulfhere. 239.

Wyrmhere. 239.

GLOSSARIAL INDEX
op kolks and countkies mentioned

the

ix

.s("6p

ok

glebman's tale.

E.

iEnenas. 124.

Amothingas. 173.

Eatul, Italy. 141.

Lappenberg supposes these


to be the Otliingi of Jomandes,

who

are described as dwelling

in caves

hewn out

of the rocks,

and one of the most savage Scanin

Engle, Ongle, Angeln. 15,


yi, 89, 123.

places

Anciently the territory be-

Sweden, where many

tween the Saxons and Jutes,

dinavian races.

them

Ebreas, Hebrews. 167.

Egj^tas. 168.

such caves

Suhm

still exist.

whence the Angles came


tain.

B.
Baningas. 39.
Brondingas. See Index to

Beda, Hist. Eccl.

to BriI. 15.

Eolas. 174.

Eowas. 53.
Probably the people of the

Beowulf.

Swedish

Burgendas, the Burgundians


of History. 40, 131.

of Oeland in the

isle

Baltic, the

Eowland of Ohthere.

See Oros.

p. 252.

Ex-Syringas. 166.
Creacas, the Greeks of the

Lower Empire. 41, 153.

F.
Fifel-dor. 87.

Apparently the Eider so de-

D.

Deane. 127.

Dene.

See Index to Beo-

wulf, V. Danes.

signated,

its

ancient name, Egi-

dota(Agidora, Egdora, Egidur),


of which Eider
traction,

is

being,

merely a con-

no doubt, an

GLOSSARIAL INDEX OF FOLKS, ETC.

:m

and

segir), terror,

H^lethas.

See Glos-

dor, door, gate.

sary, V. fifel.

H6rSar),the people of Horthaland in Norway. 163.

Finnas, the people of Fin-

Hselsingas. 46.

60.

These, a Scandinavian people,

Fresna cyn, Frisians. 56. See

Index to Beowulf,

have

fors

Franks.

137.

49,

left traces

of their exist-

ence in Helsingborg opposite


Helsingor (Elsinore), Helsing-

v. Fri-

sians.

Froncas,

Ett-

Harothas (O. Nor.

miiller

Finnis,Fins.42,i53. Scride-

mark.

H.
Read with

of Agis

compound

analogous

(A. S. ege, O.Nor.

Helsingland.

Finland,

in

The last-mentioned, over which

See Index to Beowulf.

Wada

Frumtingas. 138.

probably held sway,

lies

N. E. of Sweden, about

in the

Gefle.

Frvsas, Frisians. 137.

Hsetwere. See Index to Beo-

Hetware.

wulf, V.

Haethnas.

See Index to Beo-

Geatas.
wulf,

of the

Goths.

V.

The inhabitants
Norwegian HeiS-

mork. 163.
Heatho-bardan.^ See Index

Gefflegas. 122.

Lappenberg, with great probe

bability, supposes these to

the people of Gefle, to the north

Heatho-rsemas.

to

Heorot.

wulf.

Here-faran.

Beo-

Dan. Hallands-

of Upsala.

farer. 69.

Gefthas.

See Index to Beo-

Glommas. 44,

land,

139-

Probably the dwellers on the

banks of the Glommen, a river


of Norway, rising in the
tains S. E. of

moun-

Gotan, Goths. 38, 179, 220

116.
wulf,

Hreth-G.

See Index to Beor.

inhabitants of the pre-

Hrethmen.

now

softened to Halland ?

Herelingas. 226.

The Harlings of the German


Heldensage, whose locality was
on the banks of the Rhine:
" Est Alsatise castellum voca-

Trondhjem.

East-G. 228;

The

sent Swedish province of Har-

wulf, V. Gifthas.

bulo Brisach, de quo omnis adjacens pagus appellatur Brisach-

gowe, quod fertur olim fuisse


illorum qui Harlungi diceban-

IN
tiir."

37

p.

See
et

THE SCOP OR GLEEMAN'S TALE.


W. Grimm,

Heldens.

passim.

327

are inclined to place in Jutland,

where
names (Hundborg,

in the diocese of Aalborg,

many

Hocingas. 59.

local

Hundsland,

These derive their name from


Hoce, the father of Hildeburh.
See Beowulf. 2157.

etc.) still bear tes-

timony of their ancient occupiers.

Lappenberg

supposes

them

to have dwelt in

Biarme-

land, or the country about the

Holm-rycas. 43.
Their locality

is

unknown;

Dwina,

in the

White

sea, their

the most probable conjecture

name sometimes

seems that which assigns them

that of the Biarmelandcrs.

to

some of the small

islands
I.

lying off the coast of Jutland.

Hredas= Hrethas.i.e.HrethGotan

Idumingas, probably a Lettish race. 176.

241.

Hreth-Gotan.

occurring with

See Gotan,

and Index to Beowulf,

v.

Indeas. 167.
Israhelas. 165.
Istas,

Hrethmen.

Esthonians. 175.

Hronas. 127.
In these Ettmiiller
to

recognise

the

is

inclined

ArochLranni (Arochi Rannii) of

Jornandes, who, according to


Zeuss, were

seated

either

iu

the south of Norway, or in the


islands of the Belt.

Leonas. i6i.

or

Grannii,

Lappenberg

These are the Afvwvot, according to Ptolemy the inhabitants of the middle of Scandinavia, the

Liothida of Jor-

See Zeuss, pp. 503,

nandes.
.S06.

would identify them with the


people of Ranriki in the N.
of Sweden.

It

W.

Lidwicingas. 161.

The Bretons

seems probable

that their habitation was in

W.

a.

see Sax. Chron.

885, where " butan Lid-wi-

rendered by Florence

Gothland, as Bepwulf s grave-

cingum"

mound was on

of Worcester absque Armori-

Hrones-nses.

cano regno.

Hunas, Huns. 37, 115.

words

Ilundingas. 48, 164.


land, a temtorj- which the editors of the

Copenhagen edition

Edda

(T.

And

a.

918, the

" suSan of Lid -wic-

cum," he renders by de pruvin-

IVobably the people of Hund-

of Saemund's

is

ii.

p.

86)

cia quee

A.

Lidwiccum

S. appellation

dicitur.

The

has evidently

been made out of the British

name

of Armorica, Llydaw.

F f 2

GLOSSARIAL INDEX OF FOLKS, ETC.

328

These Ettm idler supposes to

Longbeardas. 66, 162.

The

Lombards,

anciently

dwelling on the banks of the

At a later period we
them in Pannonia, whence

Elbe.
find

under Alboin they invaded Italy.


See Tacit. Germ.
ii.

edit. Gerlach.

pp. 226, sqq.

be the Rygir, or inhabitants of

Rogaland, on the Bukkefiord


in

May

Norway.

they not be

the inhabitants of the

Riigen

isle

of

.'

Rum-Walas,

Roman-

e.

i.

foreigners. 140.

The Germanic

M.

the

Mofdingas. 171.

subjects

nations called

the

of

Empire,

perhaps indiscriminately, A. S.

Moidas, Medes. 169.

Wealas

Myrgingas, Ohg. Maurunga,

even at the present day, called

Morunga.

8, 47, 86,

170,

The people

Wealh). Italy

is,

by the Germans Welschland,


i.

172, 194.

(sing.

e.

Walischland.

Hence our

Welsh, the British inhabitants


of the old ^Mau-

rimganiaorNordalbingia.

From

by the Germanic

so called

in-

vaders.

we have
" Quarta ut hora noctis Nortmannorum est patria, quae et

Scottas, Scots. 159.

Dania ab antiquis, cujus ad

Seaxe, Saxons. 125.

frontem Albes vel patria Albis,

Secgan.

the Geogr. Raven,

Maurungani acertissime antiquis

s.

See Sycgas.

Sercingas,the people of Serk-

dicebatur, in qua patria Albis,

per multos annos, Francorum


linea remorata est."

By "Fran-

corum linea" the Mer6wings


are, no doubt, meant.

o.
Onsrle.

See

land, or Saracens,

name
tion

whose

a corrupt deriva-

is

from shark, the

east.

Seringas. 152.
Lappenberg

These

Ens:le.

conjec-

tures to be the Seres, on the

Caspian

Peohtas, Picts. 159.


Persas, Persians. 169.

sea,

duction of

noted for the pro-

silk.

Swaefe, the

North Sweven

on the Lower Elbe. 45,


R.

89, 123.

Rondingas. 50.

Rugas. 139.

Ptolemy
01

"AyyiXoi.

calls

them

^ovr)fiot

IN
Ssveas
t

THE SCOP OR GLEEMAN'S TALE.

O. Nor. Sviar. 64,


See Index to Beo-

17.

seems to have been in Mecklenburg.

Wala-rice, the Eastern em-

wulf, V. Swedes.
Swedes, inhabiting the central part

329

only of modern Sweden.

They were probably separated

pire

158.

Wenlas, the Wendla leod of

(Wendlas

Beowulf. 702,

from the Goths (Geatas) by the


is,

no doubt, the correct

^Millar lake.

reading).

Sweord-weras. 126.
The Suardones of
between

the

Tacitus,

Trave and

19.

the

Oder ? Zeuss considers them


and the later Heruli as one and

Wernas.

See Wsernas.

Wicinga-cyn. 96.
Wilna. The capital of Lithua-

the same people.

Secgan.

Sycgas,

They were probably a remnant of the VandaU or Wends.

125,

63,

nia.?

157.

Winedas,

F. F. 48.

Wends.

T.

Vinedi

the

or

121.

Throwendas, the Throwends

Under the name of Vindland

or Thronds, O. Nor. prsen-

(A. S. Weonodland) was at one

dir,

the people of Thrond-

time comprised the whole coastland from the She, or Schlei,

hjem or Drontheim. 130.


Thyringas, the North Thuringians, apparently on the

south bank of the Elbe.


62, 129.

by Sleswig, to the mouth of the


Vistula.

Wiolane. 1^7.

Wistla-wudu, the wood or


forest of the Vistula. 243.

These, at a later period, were

conquered by, and incorporated

With-Myrgingas. 238.

Woingas. See Index to Beo-

with the Saxons.

wulf, V. Wioingas.

Thyringas (East). 174.

Wrosnas, the people of Ost-

W.

Rosn and West-Rosn

Wsernas, Wernas. 52, 119.


The Varini, Verini (Varnavi

Pomerania

Lappenberg

in

68.
and Ettmiiller

may

of Helmold) on the Elbe, whose

surmise that the Wrosns

name

be the Scandinavian race from

is

known

to us by the

" Leges Angliorum


norutn."

Their

et

Wen-

earlier

scat

which the Russians derive their


name, and who

first

became

GLOSSARIAL INDEX.

:m)
known

in the

ninth century.

See ZeusSj pp. 547

Wulfingas.

566.

Femem.

They were, perhaps,

a remnant

See Index to

of the Ambrones,
whose name, as Suhm surmises,

may

Beowialf, v. Wylfingas.

the coast of Sleswig, and pro-

Y.

bably also in Amerland, a part

Ymbras. 65.
In these Lappenberg recognises the

Amron, a small
German Ocean off

yet exist in

island in the

Imbers of the

isle

of

of the territory of Oldenburg.

Ytas, Jutes. 54,

ERRATUM.
P. :i8. col. 2.

1.

39. /or

Brondings read Banings.

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Beowulf
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The Anglo-Saxon poems of
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