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BERNOULLI’S PRINCIPLE

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SEGi University

EXPERIMENT 1: BERNOULLIS

PRINCIPLE

Candidates Name: Ahmed Khalid GasmElseed

Student ID: 031773

Group Members Name:

Giethijwok Joshua Otor

scm 030290

Harjendar singh

scm 030698

Ronald Selvam

scm 024241

scm 024052

Date of Submission: 16/10/2015

Abstract

The aim of this experiment is to investigate the validity of the Bernoulli equation when applied to the

steady flow of water in a tapered duct and to measure the flow rate and both static

and total pressure heads in a rigid tube of known geometry for a steady flow rate. The apparatus used

is a venture tube. In this experiment, the pressure difference taken is from all measurement points.

The time to collect 10 L water in the tank was determined. In the end the flow rate, velocity, dynamic

head, and total head were calculated using the readings we got from the experiment and from the data

given.

Introduction

Bernoulli's law indicates that, if an inviscid fluid is flowing along a pipe of varying cross section, then

the pressure is lower at constrictions where the velocity is higher, and higher where the pipe opens out

and the fluid stagnates.

Bernoullis Principle can be demonstrated by the Bernoulli equation. The Bernoulli equation is an

approximate relation between pressure, velocity, and elevation. While the Continuity equation relates

the speed of a fluid that moving through a pipe to the cross sectional area of the pipe. It says that as a

radius of the pipe decreases the speed of fluid flow must increase and vice-versa.

Bernoullis equation for the constant head, h:

2

P1 V1

P V

2 2

g 2 g 2 g

Constant

Allowing friction losses and converting pressure into static gives:

2

h1

Where,

P1 = pressure at cross-section, A1

h1 = pressure head at cross-section, A1

V1 = flow velocity at cross-section, A1

P2 = pressure at cross-section, A2

h2 = pressure head at cross-section, A2

V2 = flow velocity at cross-section, A2

= density of medium

V1

V

h2 2 h f

2g

2g

1. Assembly board

2. Single water pressure gauge

3. Discharge pipe

4. Outlet ball cock

5. Venturi tube with 6 measurement points

6. Compression gland

7. Probe for measuring overall pressure (can be moved axially)

8. Hose connection, water supply

9. Ball cock at water inlet

10. 6-fold water pressure gauge (pressure distribution in venture tube.

Experimental procedure

1. A quick inspection is performed to ensure that the unit is in proper operating

condition.

2. A hose connection is made and the unit is connected to the nearest power supply.

3. The discharge pipe is opened.

4. Set the cap nut (1) of probe compression gland is set so that the slight resistance is felt

on moving probe.

5. Inlet and outlet valves are opened.

6. The pump is switched on and the main cock is slowly opened.

7. Vent valve (2) is opened on the water pressure gauge and the outlet cock is closed

until pressure gauges were flushed.

8. Inlet and outlet cock were simultaneously set, and water level was regulated in

pressure gauges such that neither upper nor lower range limit (UL, LL) is overshot or

undershot.

9. Volumetric flow rate is determined. A stopwatch was used to establish time required

for raising the level in the volumetric tank from 20 to 30 liters.

10. Steps 7, 8 and 9 were repeated for different flow rate.

Results

.

h1

(mmWs)

h2

h3

h4

h5

h6

Time, s

V

m3/s

(10L)

(L/s)

hstat.

220

210

55

155

170

175

htotal

230

230

230

230

230

230

hdyn.

10

20

175

75

60

55

Wmeans

14

19.8

58.6

38.3

34.3

32.8

Wcalc.

0.354

0.514

1.42

0.705

0.470

0.354

hstat.

260

250

75

185

210

215

htotal

275

275

275

275

275

275

hdyn.

15

25

200

90

65

60

Wmeans

17.1

22.1

62.6

42

35.7

34.3

Wcalc.

0.384

0.557

1.54

0.764

0.509

0.384

75.31

0.1195

69.10

0.130

Point, i

A, (mm2)

A, (10-4 m2)

338.6

3.386

233.5

2.335

84.60

0.8460

170.2

1.702

255.2

2.552

338.6

Table 2 Cross Section Area

3.386

0.00012

0.00013

Wcalc. VS h

Wcalc. VS h

Wcalc. VS h

Wcalc.VS h

pressure measurement

pressure measurment

Calculation

Sample: h1 @ 0.00012 m3/s

hdyn =htot h stat

230 - 220 = 10

Wmeans 2 ghdyn.

= 14

Wcalc. =

2 x 9.8 x 10

m/s

volumetric flowrate

area

0.00012

0.000386

= 0.354

Discussion

It was noticeable from graph 1 & 2 that the relationship between the calculated velocity and

static pressure is directly proportional to each other, whenever the pressure increased the flow

rate increased as well as the velocity.

Also from graph 3 &4 it was noticeable that the relationship between the static and dynamic

pressure is inversely proportional, whenever the static pressure decreased the dynamic

increased and vise-versa.

Conclusion

The experiment was conducted to verify the Bernoulli equation, the velocity of the fluid

increased when the fluid flowed from a wider to narrower tube and the velocity decreased in

the opposite case regardless of the type of flow and the pressure difference. As the velocity

for all cases increased the dynamic head values also seemed to increase.

Another comment is that it was noticed that the pressure probe was not moved to calculate

pressure in different measurement points which resulted in a marginal error.

References

[1]Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, 3rd Edition,William S. Janna (1993)

[2]Douglas, J.F.Gasiorek, J.M. and Swaffield, J.A.(1999) Fluid Mechanics, 3rd

edition.Longmans Singapore Publisher, Pg. 99-101

[3] http://www.solution.com.my/pdf/FM24(A4).pdf (accesed on 14/10/2015)

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