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[SEGi University]

[Chemical Engineering Laboratory 2]

SEGi University
EXPERIMENT 1: BERNOULLIS
PRINCIPLE
Candidates Name: Ahmed Khalid GasmElseed
Student ID: 031773
Group Members Name:
Giethijwok Joshua Otor

scm 030290

Harjendar singh

scm 030698

Ronald Selvam

scm 024241

Sivaraj A/L Kunajegar

scm 024052

Oliver prasath A/L Richard scm 023448

Lecturer/ Supervisor: Ms. Yi Shee


Date of Submission: 16/10/2015

Abstract
The aim of this experiment is to investigate the validity of the Bernoulli equation when applied to the
steady flow of water in a tapered duct and to measure the flow rate and both static
and total pressure heads in a rigid tube of known geometry for a steady flow rate. The apparatus used
is a venture tube. In this experiment, the pressure difference taken is from all measurement points.
The time to collect 10 L water in the tank was determined. In the end the flow rate, velocity, dynamic
head, and total head were calculated using the readings we got from the experiment and from the data
given.

Introduction
Bernoulli's law indicates that, if an inviscid fluid is flowing along a pipe of varying cross section, then
the pressure is lower at constrictions where the velocity is higher, and higher where the pipe opens out
and the fluid stagnates.
Bernoullis Principle can be demonstrated by the Bernoulli equation. The Bernoulli equation is an
approximate relation between pressure, velocity, and elevation. While the Continuity equation relates
the speed of a fluid that moving through a pipe to the cross sectional area of the pipe. It says that as a
radius of the pipe decreases the speed of fluid flow must increase and vice-versa.
Bernoullis equation for the constant head, h:
2

P1 V1
P V

2 2
g 2 g 2 g
Constant
Allowing friction losses and converting pressure into static gives:
2

h1

Where,
P1 = pressure at cross-section, A1
h1 = pressure head at cross-section, A1
V1 = flow velocity at cross-section, A1
P2 = pressure at cross-section, A2
h2 = pressure head at cross-section, A2
V2 = flow velocity at cross-section, A2

= density of medium

V1
V
h2 2 h f
2g
2g

hf = pressure loss head

1. Assembly board
2. Single water pressure gauge
3. Discharge pipe
4. Outlet ball cock
5. Venturi tube with 6 measurement points
6. Compression gland
7. Probe for measuring overall pressure (can be moved axially)
8. Hose connection, water supply
9. Ball cock at water inlet
10. 6-fold water pressure gauge (pressure distribution in venture tube.

Experimental procedure
1. A quick inspection is performed to ensure that the unit is in proper operating
condition.
2. A hose connection is made and the unit is connected to the nearest power supply.
3. The discharge pipe is opened.
4. Set the cap nut (1) of probe compression gland is set so that the slight resistance is felt
on moving probe.
5. Inlet and outlet valves are opened.
6. The pump is switched on and the main cock is slowly opened.
7. Vent valve (2) is opened on the water pressure gauge and the outlet cock is closed
until pressure gauges were flushed.
8. Inlet and outlet cock were simultaneously set, and water level was regulated in
pressure gauges such that neither upper nor lower range limit (UL, LL) is overshot or
undershot.
9. Volumetric flow rate is determined. A stopwatch was used to establish time required
for raising the level in the volumetric tank from 20 to 30 liters.
10. Steps 7, 8 and 9 were repeated for different flow rate.

Results
.

h1
(mmWs)

h2

h3

h4

h5

h6

Time, s

(mmWs) (mmWs) (mmWs) (mmWs) (mmWs)

V
m3/s

(10L)
(L/s)

hstat.

220

210

55

155

170

175

htotal

230

230

230

230

230

230

hdyn.

10

20

175

75

60

55

Wmeans

14

19.8

58.6

38.3

34.3

32.8

Wcalc.

0.354

0.514

1.42

0.705

0.470

0.354

hstat.

260

250

75

185

210

215

htotal

275

275

275

275

275

275

hdyn.

15

25

200

90

65

60

Wmeans

17.1

22.1

62.6

42

35.7

34.3

Wcalc.

0.384

0.557

1.54

0.764

0.509

0.384

75.31

0.1195

69.10

0.130

Table 1 Flow Rate and Pressures at all measurement points

Point, i

A, (mm2)

A, (10-4 m2)

338.6

3.386

233.5

2.335

84.60

0.8460

170.2

1.702

255.2

2.552

338.6
Table 2 Cross Section Area

3.386

0.00012

0.00013

Wcalc. VS h

Wcalc. VS h

Graph-1-@ 0.00012 m3/s

Wcalc. VS h

Wcalc.VS h

Graph-2-@ 0.00013 m3/s

pressure measurement

Graph-3-@ 0.00012 m3/s

pressure measurment

Graph-4-@ 0.00013 m3/s

Calculation
Sample: h1 @ 0.00012 m3/s
hdyn =htot h stat
230 - 220 = 10

Wmeans 2 ghdyn.

= 14

Wcalc. =

2 x 9.8 x 10
m/s

volumetric flowrate
area
0.00012
0.000386

= 0.354

Discussion
It was noticeable from graph 1 & 2 that the relationship between the calculated velocity and
static pressure is directly proportional to each other, whenever the pressure increased the flow
rate increased as well as the velocity.
Also from graph 3 &4 it was noticeable that the relationship between the static and dynamic
pressure is inversely proportional, whenever the static pressure decreased the dynamic
increased and vise-versa.

Conclusion
The experiment was conducted to verify the Bernoulli equation, the velocity of the fluid
increased when the fluid flowed from a wider to narrower tube and the velocity decreased in
the opposite case regardless of the type of flow and the pressure difference. As the velocity
for all cases increased the dynamic head values also seemed to increase.
Another comment is that it was noticed that the pressure probe was not moved to calculate
pressure in different measurement points which resulted in a marginal error.

References
[1]Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, 3rd Edition,William S. Janna (1993)
[2]Douglas, J.F.Gasiorek, J.M. and Swaffield, J.A.(1999) Fluid Mechanics, 3rd
edition.Longmans Singapore Publisher, Pg. 99-101
[3] http://www.solution.com.my/pdf/FM24(A4).pdf (accesed on 14/10/2015)