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INTRODUCTION

Homeostasis, according Walter Cannon, is the stability of the internal environment which was
coordinated by homeostatic or compensatory process that responded to changes in the internal
environment. Homeostasis refers to a steady state within the body and is necessary for balance to
survive in a changing world. Homeostatic processes occurred quickly in response to stress, rapidly
making adjustments necessary to maintain the internal environment. For example, when a stress occurs
that causes a body function to deviate from its stable range, processes are initiated to restore and
maintain the dynamic balance. When these adjustment processes or compensatory mechanisms are not
adequate, the steady state is threatened and the function becomes disordered. This can lead to a disease
or an abnormal variation in the structure or function of any part of the body.
Stress, as the term goes, is a condition in which the person responds to changes in the normal
balanced state. This is a state of mental or emotional strain which can result to too many disadvantages.
This is also a state produced by a change in the environment that is perceived as challenging,
threatening or damaging to an individuals dynamic balance or equilibrium. It can be good or bad
depending on the situation. The term stress comes from Latin word stringere which means to draw
tight. It was first employed in a biological context by Hans Selye. In 1975, Selye published a model
stating two kinds of stress: eustress and distress. Eustress is a positive stress which enhances the
individuals physical and mental strength. Distress, on the other hand, is a negative stress. It can lead to
physical, mental and emotional illness which may result to serious health problems and eventually can
lead to death of an individual. It can be good or bad depending on the situation. It will be good because
it can trigger the fight or flight response. On one side, it can cause several sicknesses like aging,
decrease in function of the immune system and heart ailments.

Usually, the effects of stress affect the whole person or individual. It may not be felt at once but
it can kill gradually. It can be physical, emotional, intellectual, social and spiritual consequences.
Physically, stress can threaten a persons physiologic homeostasis. Examples are change in appetite,
altered sleep pattern, and altered elimination pattern which could be constipation or diarrhea.
Constipation is a decrease in the frequency of stools that are hard, dry and of smaller volume than
normal. Diarrhea, on the other hand, is an abnormal increase in the frequency and liquidity of the stool.
Emotionally, stress can produce negative or non-constructive feelings like anger, anxiety, burnout and
depression. Intellectually, stress can influence a persons perceptual and ones problem solving abilities.
Socially, stress can alter persons relationships with others. An individual fails to socialize with others,
becomes workaholic and draws attention to self. Spiritually, stress can challenge ones belief and values.

I Stress and Stressors


Stress is a natural phenomenon that occurs when a person is having difficulty dealing with life
situations, problems and goals. It is a state of mental or emotional strain because of many changes.
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Each person operates at a certain level of adaptation and regularly encounters a certain amount of
change. Such change is expected; it contributes to the growth and enhances life. Stressors, however,
can upset this equilibrium. A stressor may be defined as an internal or external event or situation that
creates the potential for physiologic, emotional and behavioral changes in an individual. It can also be
defined as the event or stimulus that causes an individual to experience stress.
II Types of stressors
There are four types of stressors internal, external and situational. Internal stressors originate
within a person. An example of this is a person who has a cancer or who has a feeling of depression. A
cancer patient can be stressed because of severe pains, anxiety and some medical management. Severe
pain is experienced because of abnormal cells that are needed to be replaced. He/she also experienced
anxiety because of impending death that may occur. External stressors originate outside the individual.
This can be a move from another city or pressure from peers. Moving from another city can be hard
because the environment and the neighbors are now different. It is hard to adapt quickly when an
individual is not familiar to the place. Pressure from peers is when an individual needs to cope up with
what his/her friends are doing and their habits like going out after school, drinking or smoking.
Situational stressors, however, occur at unpredictable times or anytime during life. Examples of this
type of stress include death of a family member, marriage or divorce, birth of a child, new job or
illness. Thus, identifying the stressors will make it easier to know how much stress the individual has.
III Different Types of Stress
A. Job stress
Job stress or occupational stress as term says, is the situation wherein an individual is having a
difficulty dealing with co-workers, his/her manager and his/her friend because of certain things. Job is
a specific piece of work required to be done as a duty or for a specific fee. The origin of the term job
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is still not known but the likeliest meaning of the term is piece. It is quite plausible that job of
work, literally piece of work, could have become shortened to job.
1. Causes of Job Stress
The main cause of stress that is most encountered in the workplace is unreasonable demands for
performance. Another will be lack of interpersonal relationship and delayed salary. Demands for
performance, for example sales agents, they need to sell their advertised products in order to have
salary. Based on my interview with Ed Balanoba, real estate sales agent in Ayala Land, he says that It
is hard to earn money and to sell products because nowadays, people dont have enough money and
invest their money wisely. This statement of his is truly applicable in most of our works here in the
Philippines. In a survey conducted, there are four professionals who can be stressful; these are nurses,
teachers, manager and professionals. These people are easily stressed because they are working night
shift or day shift, reprimanding students who are hard-headed, attending several meetings and
operations. Lack of interpersonal relationship with their coworkers can lead to several
misunderstandings. Sometimes, there are certain circumstances that one even shouts at his friends or
co-workers. Some companies delay the salary of their employees because of lack of budget. The
tendency is that the employees tend to become lazy, not giving importance with their work and loss of
interest in their work.
2. Effects of Job Stress
These hassle jobs are really tiring, hence how will an individual identify if he/she has symptoms
of job stress? In the survey that I conducted, only 1 out of 12 persons is not stressed from their work.
This explains that most of the people usually get tired coming home from work. Most of the people
value their work rather than their selves. This also explains that age doesnt affect an individual when it
comes to stress. In the table, it is presented clearly that they are employed to different kinds of jobs,
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different kinds of rules and regulations in their workplace but it is not the reason why they are stressed.
When one feel stressed, his/her body respond by

raising the concentration of stress hormones in

his/her blood. When his/her body continually respond to constant demands or threats, coping
mechanisms stay in overdrive, which can be damaging to health over time. Research shows that
excessive job stress can lead to many long-term health problems including cardiovascular disease,
diabetes, weakened immune function, high blood pressure, musculoskeletal disorders, substance abuse,
depression and anxiety. Stressful working conditions can also impact health indirectly by limiting our
ability or motivation to participate in other health promoting behaviors such as eating well and
exercising. Stress also has a negative effect on the productivity and costs of organizations. Thus, taking
prevention would be a good action to preclude job stress.
S
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60
50
40
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54
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20
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3224
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25
25 2323 2523
24
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Stress Level
Age

Different types of persons with different jobs

Name
Person A
Person B
Person C
Person D
Person E

Job
employee
employee
employee
Businessman
businessman

Name
Person F
Person G
Person H
Person I
Person J

3. Managing Job Stress

Job
Sales agent
Sales agent
Sales agent
Staff nurse
Staff nurse

Controlling job stress can be hard at first but eventually can help an individual all throughout.
First, evaluate the level of job stress. Second, identify job stressors. This can be deadlines, job
insecurity, conflicts with co-workers or poor work environment. Third, write a plan on how he/she will
change his/her thoughts, feelings and behavior. This can be clarifying responsibilities with his/her boss,
avoiding self-criticisms and avoiding caffeine and alcohol that is bad to his/her health and getting
enough rest and exercise. Another way to reduce stress is doing catnaps. Catnaps can be also called
midday naps or powernaps is sleeping between breaks can sharply increase performance. According to
the USA today newspaper, before recent economic recession many employers embraced this concept
and they went as far as to offer powernap rooms. Unfortunately, these napping rooms have now been
transformed into coffee rooms to keep employees awake. This resulted to a study shown by Economic
Policy Institute that US costs $300 billion a year in stress-and-fatigue-related problems. Changes are
being implemented in the US by passing a resolution designating the month of October as National
Work and Family Month.
B. Family Stress
When an individual comes home from work, he/she will expect to be able to relax and spend
time with his/her family. Family plays a central role in the life of an individual and is a major part of
the context of an individuals life. It is within families that people grow, are nurtured, attain a sense of
self, cultivate beliefs and values about life, and progress through lifes development stages. What if
his/her assumptions did not meet his/her expectations? Stress isnt limited to one aspect of life.
Sometimes, believe it or not, the most stressful time is the time when an individual spends it with the
people he/she love the most.
1. Causes and Effects of Family Stress

Stress in families may vary, but the most common factors that affect various groups of families
are usually to financial hardship, infidelity and substance abuse. Financial hardships is the mostly
caused of family stress. It is mainly because the family will continue to struggle to pay for their basic
survival needs. According to Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, financial
hardship increase persons risk of developing problems like depression, anxiety, and compulsive
behaviors. It can lead to marital issues and spousal or child abuse. The family will not have peace in
his/her relationships because these days, all actions need money. Infidelity, on the other hand, can cause
ultimate demise of a family unit. Cheating on their spouses because of lack of love or attention is the
main reason behind this. Cheating can lead mainly to distrust which can lead to serious problems like
annulment or divorce. Some people use mood-altering substances in an attempt to cope with lifes
challenges. Using drugs and drinking alcohols are some examples of substance abuse. People who
abuse substances are unable to identify and implement adaptive behaviors ad use illegally obtained
drugs, prescribed or over-the-counter medications, and alcohol alone or in combination with other
drugs in an ineffective attempt to cope with the pressures, strains and burdens of life. A person who
abuses substances has an inability to make healthy decisions and to solve problems effectively. A
person can sacrifice everything to get he/she wants. They often lose their jobs, steal money from their
family and dont participate in family discussions. This can lead to misunderstanding and also a burden
for a family.
2. Managing Family Stress
This family stress that affect daily life of an individual can be prevented. Identifying family
strengths can ensure stress-free family. This includes identifying the source of stress, managing crises
and conflict in a positive manner, accepting responsibility and the need for change, respecting each
others feelings, thoughts or ideas and encouraging open communication through words and action.
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C. School Stress
School is a building where young people receive education. It is where it all begins. From
cultivating ones mind to the building of ones personality. School comes from a Latin word schola
and originally denoted as leisure but gradually developed to Leisure used for intellectual argument
or education. In some circumstances, though everybody knows it is a place for a great experience, but
it can also be a place for stress.
1. Causes of School Stress
School stress is associated mostly with the youth though there are adults who still study. The
first factor that can contribute to the stress of students is the pressure that is being put on their
shoulders. For instance, the idea of being on top and being excellent in academics or sports is needed to
prove in a family especially if their parents have big names in their old days. They need to take the
steps of what their mother or father did and when they failed to do it, their families will not take them
as their sons or daughters. Another will be the pressure from their teachers. Knowing that they excel in
their academics, teachers will then have expected grades that they must attain. This pressure can make
students really stress. Another factor will be the amount of school work. Since there are schools that
offer English and Chinese curriculums, this can really stress out a number of students. Sometimes same
examination dates will be done by the English and Chinese teachers. This situation can be tiring
because in most cases, there will be assignments to be submitted in those dates. Teachers never thought
that their subject is not the only subject that a student must take and review. Students are now confused
which they will prioritize first and can cause them to have very little time to themselves. This can make
students very hard to get along with his/her family or social life. Worrying about careers they will take
will be another reason to be stress. Choosing careers for themselves should be done in a step by step
procedure. This can be very hard on students since they used to just hang around and depend on their
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parents. Taking courses in college for students is a shock for most of them because they need to decide
on what they will be after how many years. Since this will be the first time that they will do things that
are matured enough, they are not serious about it and just imitate what their friends ought to take.
2. Effects of School Stress
The effect of stress in students is his/her learning capabilities tend to become low because
he/she lacks energy to cope up with the lessons the teacher gives. A student may sleep in the middle of
the class or does not fully participate in the discussion. This can result to a student receiving low grades
in the academic. Another will be a student may become obese. Some students when they are stressed
they eat a lot more because they think that it can boost their energy. This can affect the daily habit of a
student making them eat more than their regular intake of food. Obesity can lead to many serious
problems such as higher blood pressure, heart ailments and diabetes. Students may lead to low selfesteem, impaired body image and depression.
3. Managing School Stress
There are skills on how to help students thrive at school. First, get organized. Make a list of
every assignment that needs to be done. Then, check one by one if it has already been accomplished.
Another will be file things accordingly. Since there are schools offering Chinese and English
curriculums, have a separate folder or file case for both curriculums to avoid wasting time if one has to
search his/her assignments. Second, learn to balance the time. There is time for relaxation and work.
Dont put in your mind that relaxation needs to go first because when you do, no assignments will be
done since laziness is now overpowering ones body and mind. Do assignments and study lectures first
before going out with friends, watch TV or play computer games. This kind of routine can help manage
time accordingly. Lastly, avoid procrastination. Procrastination is evident in most students. When one
teacher says an assignment or a project that can be pass sometime next week or month, the tendency is
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most of the students do it the day before the deadline dates. Students think that procrastination is
helpful because it can help them feel relaxed but actually in the latter part, it will make them feel more
stress because they dont notice the piled home works and projects that need to meet the deadlines.
Thus, do it immediately if he/she have time to avoid cramming just to pass it on the deadline.

SUMMARY
Stress is a state produced by a change in the environment that is perceived as challenging,
threatening or damaging to an individuals dynamic balance or equilibrium. There are two
classifications of stress: eustress and distress. Eustress is a positive stress while distress is a negative
stress. Furthermore, stress has three major types: family-related stress, job-related stress, and school
stress. These three major stresses can affect an individuals perception, relationships and most of all
attitudes towards others. Family-related stress is accompanied by the problems and misunderstandings
between the members of the family and oneself. If one encounters this stress, it is not easy to
recuperate. Job-related stress occurs on an individual which are very workaholic. An individual devotes
his/her time working without giving much importance to his/her health. A student gets stressed because
of assignments, home works or projects. It is can also be dealing with different kinds of people,

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impressing their own parents and dealing with their own responsibilities at a young age can refer to
school stress..

CONCLUSION
The negative effects on health and a cause-and-effect relationship between stress and infectious
diseases and some illnesses can be prevented, controlled and managed through stress management.
Techniques such as relaxation training, exercise and modification of stressful situations are often
included. A healthy lifestyle of an individual can be also a factor to fight stress. Good nutrition has been
suggested as the single most significant factor in determining health status and longevity.

REFERENCES
Books
Aquino G.,(2003). Stress. Psychology 2nd edtion ,p545-555
Kozier, B., Erb, G.,Berman, A., and Snyder, S.(2004). Stress and Coping. Fundamentals of
Nursing 7th edition., p.1013.
Smeltzer, S., and Bare B., (2004). Homeostasis, Stress, and Adaptation. Textbook of Medical
Surgical Nursing., p.80-82
Newspaper
Armour, Stephanie.(2003, December). US workers feel burn of long hours, less leisure. USA
Today, p1
Guzman-Trinidad, C.(2009, January). 31 Steps to a Stress-free 2009. Manila Bulletin, Vol. 133,
p6.
Ocampo, A. (2008, August). Office stress: What It is an Where It Comes From.
Manila Bulletin, Vol. 428, p4.
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Websites
Job Word History. Received from http://www.word-origins.com/definition/job.html
Origin and Terminology. Received from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stress_(biology)

Rainham, D. (2008, June). High School Stress. Received from


http://www.selfgrowth.com/articles/Rainham5.html
Rollins P., (2005,May). What Causes Family Stress?. Received from What
Causes Family Stress? |
eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/about_5040804_causes-familystress.html#ixzz172yRXqO0

School Word History. Received from http://www.wordorigins.com/definition/school.html


Smith M., Jeffe-Gill E., Segal J., (2009 July), Understanding Stress.
http://helpguide.org/mental/stress_signs.html
Interview
Ed Balanoba, Sales Agent of Ayala Land, December 4, 2010, Inquire him in his
cellphone number 09225898469.

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