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TABLE OF CONTENT

NO.

CONTENTS

PAGE NUMBER

1.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

2.

SUMMARY

3.

INTRODUCTION

4.

OBJECTIVES

5.

THEORY

6.

PROCEDURE

7.

APPARATUS

8.

RESULTS

11

CALCULATION

12

10.

DISCUSSIONS

13

11.

CONCLUSIONS

14

12.

RECOMMENDATION

15

13.

REFERENCES

16

14.

APPENDICES

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1. SUMMARY
This experiment was carried out to study the viscosity and density of liquids. There are
two types of liquid which is distilled water and cooking oil. There are two parts in this
experiment which is part 1 and part 2. In part 1, it is conducted to identify the viscosity of the
liquid while part 2 is to identify the relation of liquid density with different temperature.
The technique used in part A is by using bead which is inserted into the pycnometer filled
with different type of liquid. The time taken for bead to travel between two points in a measuring
cylinder was recorded. Then, the viscosity was calculated using Stokes Law. The viscosity of
cooking oil is 0.3144 kg/ms while the viscosity for distilled water is 0.0276 kg/ms.
Next, the technique used in part B is by immersing the pycnometer into the water bath.
But first, before immersing the pycnometer filled with cooking oil or distilled water, the weight
of the pycnometer is taken. The pycnometer that was filled with cooking oil or distilled water
was immersed in water bath which is fixed with 40 C temperature. After immersing part, the
weight of pycnometer is taken again to record the change of weight. As a result, it is proven the
density of cooking oil and distilled water was decreasing. This experiment is successfully
conducted.

2. INTRODUCTION
This experiment entitled properties of liquid had two parameter being tested. The properties
are viscosity of liquid and density of liquid. This experiment is to compare the effect of different
type of liquid which are distilled water and cooking oil on its viscosity and density. We can
experiment the properties in order to know how viscosity works and effect of density of fluid
towards different temperature. The main apparatus used in this experiment were distilled water,
cooking oil, pycnometer, clamp and stand, pipette, water bath and weight scale.
The result should be oil is more viscous compare to distilled water. But in our experiment it
is vice versa. It should be that, oil is more viscous than distilled water. Thats mean is harder for
the bead to pass through the fluid from neck to the bottom of the pycnometer. For the experiment
of density, it can be clearly seen that the density of distilled water is higher than cooking oil
according to the weight of pycnometer at different temperature that has been recorded.
The viscosity of both fluids is measured by calculating the velocity of bead from the neck to
the bottom of the pycnometer. While, the density of both fluids are calculated by using the
difference in weight of liquid at different temperature that is room temperature and 40o c.

3. OBJECTIVES
1.

To analyze the effect of temperature and buoyancy on the properties of liquids. The
experiment will show that density will be affected by temperature.

2.

To determine the viscosity and density of liquids. The viscosity can be determine by
calculating the velocity of the bead to pass through the cooking oil and distilled water from
neck to the bottom of the pycnometer.

3.

To compare the theoretical values of viscosity of liquids with data obtained from the
experiment. The result obtain will calculate by using a specific formula to determine the
viscosity and density of cooking oil and distilled water. Next, the calculations will be
compared to the real value that is obtained from the experiment.

4.

THEORY
As said by Andrew Zimmerman Jones, viscosity is a measurement of how resistant a

fluid is to attempts to move through it. A fluid with a low viscosity is said to be "thin," while a
high viscosity fluid is said to be "thick." It is easier to move through a low viscosity fluid (like
water) than a high viscosity fluid (like honey) (1).
Viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or
tensile stress. The shear resistance in a fluid is caused by inter molecular friction exerted when
layers of fluid attempt to slide by one another (2).
The force exerted, F is directly proportional to area, A and speed, u but inversely
proportional to fluid separation, y. This relationship is referring to the dynamic viscosity.
Dynamic viscosity is known by the Greek symbol , eta.It is sometimes also referred to as shear
viscosity. Dynamic viscosity is obtained by reformulating Law. The SI unit is pascal-second
[Pa.s] or millipascal-second [mPa.s] is 1 Pa.s equal to 1000 mPa.s. Other commonly used units
are poise [P] or centipoise [cP] that is 1 P equal to 100 cP (3).
The kinematic viscosity means a measure of the time required for a fixed amount of fluid
to flow through a capillary tube under the force of gravity (4). The theoretical value for viscosity
of oil is 0.057 kg/ms while water is 0.01 kg/ms (5).From Stokes law we can determine the
viscosity by finding the product of velocity and density.
Vt = (dg / 18) / (s - ) .. Equation 1
Where:

d = diameter of sphere (m)


g = acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s)
= viscosity of fluid
s = density of sphere (kg/m)
= density of fluid (kg/m)

Density is defined as the ratio between mass and volume or mass per unit volume. It is a
measure of how much stuff an object has in a unit volume (cubic meter or cubic centimeter).
Mass is the measure of how much stuff an object contains and volume is the measure of how
much space an object occupies in three dimensional space (6). The formula is
...Equation 2
Where:

= density (kg/m3)
m = mass (kg)
V = volume (m3)

Gases always have lower density than the condensation phases. Most materials have a lower
density of the liquid state compare the solid state but this is not always true. Water has a higher
density in the liquid state than the solid state, so ice cubes float on the surface of water. The
density for cooking oil is 918 kg/m3 while water is 1000 kg/m3.
A temperature is an objective comparative measure of hot or cold. It is measured by
a thermometer, which may work through the bulk behavior of a thermometric material, detection
of thermal radiation, or particle kinetic energy. Many physical processes are affected by
temperature, such as physical properties of material including the phase (solid, liquid, gaseous or
plasma), density, solubility, pressure,

electrical,

rate

and

extent

to

which chemical

reactions occur, the amount and properties of thermal radiation emitted from the surface of an
object and speed of sound is a function of the square root of the absolute temperature (7).
Temperature is related to the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules within the
substance. For gases, the volume is directly proportional to temperature by the equation PV=nRT
(8). Higher temperature means molecules move faster and further, creating more space (void).

Figure 1: Density of pure water cited from Wikipedia, Water Density


From the table above, the density of water at 25C and compare that to a higher temperature,
80C. The density decreases from 997.047 to 971.8 as it is heated. When the water is heated,
there is greater kinetic energy of the molecules and there are also more vibrations of the water
molecules. These mean that each water takes up more space as the temperature increases.
Liquid water and solid water have the same network of bonds. Liquid water at 25C is so
rapidly breaking bonds between H2O units and reforming them that extra water molecules get
trapped inside the water lattice. This is the reason why liquid water is denser than solid
water. The bonds in water break more slowly as temperature decreases and the structure tend to
trap fewer extra water molecules. At low temperature, more of the water has the same lattice as
ice (8).

5.

PROCEDURE
a) Determination viscosity of liquid
1. The bead was weight and diameter of the beads was measured by using vernier
scale.
2. The pycnometer was filled with distilled water until it has reached neck of the
cell.
3. The bath was switched on to circulate water inside the water bath. The
pycnometer was submerged inside the water bath. The temperature was set to be
at 40o c according to the experiment and waited for 10 minutes to stabilize the
temperature inside pycnometer tube.
4. The bead was inserted into the top of the pycnometer tube.
5. The stopwatch was started when the bead passes the top mark on the column and
stopped when the ball passes the bottom mark. The time taken was recorded.
6. Steps 2 to 5 were repeated using cooking oil.
b) Determination density of liquid
1. Empty pycnometer was weighted.
2. The pycnometer was filled with distilled water and weighted again.
3. The bath was switched on to circulate water inside the water bath. The
pycnometer was submerged inside the water bath. The temperature was set to be
at 40o c according to the experiment and waited for 10 minutes to stabilize the
temperature inside pycnometer tube.
4. The pycnometer was removed from the water bath after 10 minutes and weighted
again.
5. Steps 2 to 4 were repeated using cooking oil.

6. APPARATUS

Figure 1: Water bath

Figure 3: Retort stand with clamp

Figure 2: Pycnometer

Figure 4: Weighing balance

Figure 5: Stop watch

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7. RESULTS
PART A: VISCOSITY OF FLUID.
Diameter of bead

: 2.096 mm

Mass of bead

: 0.02 g

Fluid

Height of ball

Time for ball to fall

Velocity (m/s)

bearing fall (m)

(s)

Cooking Oil

0.123

0.0246

Distilled Water

0.123

0.45

0.2733

PART B: DENSITY OF FLUID AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES.


Condition

Mass (g)

CLEAN AND DRY PYCNOMETER

37.47

PYCNOMETER AND COOKING OIL

67.49

PYCNOMETER AND COOKING OIL AFTER BEING HEATED

67.45

PYCNOMETER AND DISTILLED WATER

70.2

PYCNOMETER AND DISTILLED WATER AFTER BEING HEATED

70.02

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8. CALCULATION
PART A: VISCOSITY OF LIQUIDS
Using equation 2, calculate density of bead:
bead = mass / volume of bead
= 0.02 x 10-3 / 4.8214 x 10-9
= 4148.179 kg/m

Using equation 1, calculate the viscosity of cooking oil:


= dg (s- ) / 18v
cooking oil = (2.096 x 10-3) x 9.81 x (4148.179 918) / 18 x 0.0246
= 0.3144 kg/ms

Percentage of error=

Real valueTheoretical value


x 100
Theoretical value

Percentage of error = [(0.3144 0.057) / 0.057] x 100%


= 451.56%

Calculate the viscosity for distilled water:


distilled water = (2.096 x 10-3) x 9.81 x (4148.179 1000) / 18 x 0.2733
= 0.0276 kg/ms
Percentage of error = [(0.0276 0.01) / 0.01] x 100%
= 175.80%
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9. DISCUSSION
PART A: VISCOSITY OF FLUID
The objective of this experiment is to determine the viscosity of liquids. There were two
different liquid that were used in this experiment which were cooking oil and distilled water. To
determine the viscosity of the liquid, the time taken for the bead to fall from the top neck to the
bottom of the pycnometer was measured. From this experiment, the viscosity of the cooking oil
and distilled water was 0.3144 kg/ms and 0.0276 kg/ms respectively. Meanwhile, the theoretical
viscosity of the cooking oil is 0.057 kg/ms and distilled water is 0.01 kg/ms. The result was
much more different with the theoretical value due to several error that have been identified
during the experiment. First of all, there is an error where the bubble is present inside the
pycnometer filled with oil. Besides that, there is a human error involving the time recording
when the bead fall down to the bottom.
Temperature has different effects on viscosity of liquids which is a decrease in
temperature causes the viscosity of a liquid to rise (Abtahi, 2000). When the temperature rose,
the force of attraction between the particles became weaker, leaving the larger spaces between
them. This decreased the resistance of the fluid flowing, resulting in a decreased of the viscosity.
PART B: DENSITY OF LIQUIDS AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE
This experiment was conducted to identify the density of the liquids at different
temperature. The experiment was started by weighing the pycnometer filled with distilled water
and cooking oil. The initial mass of pycnometer filled with distilled water was 70.2 g while for
cooking oil was 67.49 g. After that, the pycnometer was submerged into 40c of water bath for
10 minutes so that the pycnometer and the water bath achieve equilibrium. The pycnometer was
weight again to see the different in the mass after the heating process. The final mass of
pycnometer filled with distilled water and cooking oil is 70.02 g and 67.45 g respectively. The
change in mass was 0.18 g for distilled water and 0.04g for cooking oil.
Density is the ratio of mass to volume while the volume varies with temperature.
Generally, as temperature increases, the volume also increases due to thermal expansion which
resulting in a decrease in density. It was observed that, the change in temperature would affect
the density of the liquid.
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10. CONCLUSION
To identify the density and viscosity of the liquids, sample of cooking oil and distilled
water were prepared. The properties of the samples have been studied. It shows that when the
temperature increased, the density and the viscosity decreased. It is also shows that the cooking
oil is more viscous than water. Density is inversely proportional to temperature. For both liquid,
the density decreased after being heated. This is due to the expanding of the volume due to
thermal expansion. While for the viscosity, when the temperature rise, the force of attraction
between particles became weaker. This decreased the resistance of the fluid flowing, resulting in
a decreased of the viscosity.

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11. RECOMMENDATION
This experiment was to study on the properties of liquids which is the density and the
viscosity of the liquids. In this experiment, there were a lot of factors that cause an error. One of
it is, inaccurate time taken for the bead to fall to the bottom of the pycnometer. The time taken
should have been repeated at least three times in order to get the average reading. The student
must ensure that there is no air bubbles inside the pycnometer since it will affect the accurate
reading. Besides that, the electronic balance should always be re-zero to get the ideal reading of
mass of the pycnometer that filled with different types of liquid.

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REFERENCES
Internet:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

http://butane.chem.uiuc.edu/pshapley/GenChem1/L21/2.html
http://www.school-for-champions.com/science/density_factors.htm#.ViDN_yvl-0V
http://physics.about.com/od/physicsutoz/g/Viscosity.htm
http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/dynamic-absolute-kinematic-viscosity-d_412.html
http://www.viscopedia.com/basics/types-of-viscosity/#c2719
http://www.slideshare.net/idctechnologies/hv-circuit-breaker-operating-mechanisms-

hydraulic-systems-38999133
7. http://physics.info/viscosity/
8. http://study.com/academy/lesson/density-definition-formula-practice-problems.html
9. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temperature
10. http://butane.chem.uiuc.edu/pshapley/GenChem1/L21/2.html
Journal:
1. Abtahi, M. (2000). Experimental Reservoir Engineering.
Book:
1. Basic Petroleum Engineering Laboratory Manual.

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APPENDIX

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