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What is attitude?
A relatively global and enduring evaluation of an object, issue, person or
action = It is an overall evaluation that expresses how much we like or
dislike an object, issue, person or action.
Attitudes vary along a number of dimensions:
1. Favorability: the degree to which we like or dislike something.
Example: I like Adele a lot, so much
2. Accessibility: how easily and attitude can be remembered.
Example: I can remember my attitude toward Adele
3. Strength/confidence: How strongly we hold an attitude.
Example: I am sure I like Adele
4. Persistence: How long our attitude lasts.
Example: I have liked Adele for a long time and will continue
to like her
5. Resistance: How difficult it is to change an attitude
Example: I will like Adele no matter what anyone says about

ABC model of attitudes


Attitudes are forms based on affect, behaviors and cognitions:

o Affective (emotional) component consists of the persons
feelings towards the object or target or brand (Identify your
favorite soccer team, the emotional would be very important).
When you buy something for another person, you are likely to
thing about the affect, based on your social experiences, a gift
as wedding ring.
o Behavioral (beliefs)_ component consists of the persons
tendency to act regarding the object.
o Cognitive component consists of the thoughts that the person
has about the object, including facts, knowledge, and belief,
Hire processing purchases (as a car).

Which are the most important for consumers: depending on the category
you will look at one attitude or another. People have very different taste
for dogs, attitudes based on affect, the emotional.


When you choose a product as a gift, what kind of products can my friend
happy. We tend to use those unique products. For gift receivers they want
products that they use very day, regular products. When we choose the
product, we always analyze it, we do the cognitive.
Hydronic products (purchase he product for experience), on your affect. In
contract, for utilitarian products it is based on cognitive components. The
price can also play a role. In many situations if you buy an expensive
Central-route processing: The attitude formation and change process
when effort is high
Peripheral-route processing: The attitude formation and change process
when effort is low.

Cognitive foundations of attitudes


Direct or imagined experience, for example you have a test towards

an object. Elaborating on actual experience with a product or
service can help consumers form positive or negative attitudes. For
example: You are likely to form an attitude after a test-driving a new
car or watching a movie preview.

Reasoning by analogy or category: run extensions, brand

extensions. Consumers also form attitudes considering how similar a
product is to other products or to a particular product category. How
would consumers evaluate these extensions toward the normal
o Example: Roots, clothing brand. Popular in Canada. In 2000
this company extent the business extent his area. They
bought 5 airports. They operate their business for 2 months. It
was not successful.
Successful if: you should have a good service providers
team. Your core competencies can be extent to the
other business.
Associations that consumers have maybe can not be
applied to the other business. It is difficult to imagine
(doubt their expertise).
It could be very successful if core business is king of
relate it with the extent one.


Value-driven attitudes: Another way that attitudes are generated is

based on individual values. Eco friendly (aqua finel bottle). The
value that you are insource.
Social identity-based attitudes: The way that consumers view their
own social identities.
Analytical processes of attitude formation: They form attitudes
based on their cognitive responses.

Analytical processes of attitude formation (cognitive


Counterarguments are thoughts that express disagreement with

the message. Less like it to be persuade it.

Support arguments are thought that express agreement with the

message. More likely to form positive attitudes.

Source derogations are thoughts that discount or attack the
message source. This message is lying. Attitudes would be more

Belief discrepancy when a message is different from what
consumers believe.

In which situations you are more likely to make counterarguments and in

which ones support arguments. More likely to have contra arguments if
you do not like the brand. Your mood also it is important, if you are in a
positive mood you are likely to make support arguments.
The Role of







Different facts that they had to do:

Watch political TV programs watch presidents Toyodas speech Watch a
Toyota commercial They evaluate the brand: Brand evaluations
(confidence in Toyota thought listing). They were watching different
political TV programs.
- Group1: Obama
- McClain Speech
- Debate
- None
When a republican watch Obama speech they would contra argue. McCain
they would agree. In debate


How attitudes are influenced?

An attitude change is the cheapest way to change your life

Source factors
Source effects: the same words by different people can have very different
In marketing, source is often a spokesperson in an ad, who might be
expert, famousm attractive or a typical consumer.
What makes a good source?

Source credibility: Extent to which the source is trustworthy, expert

or has status. Whether the message is consistent or inconsistent
with the sources vested interest.

Example: If a student comments that the exam is very easy, is that

credible? Criminals argument is credible?

Sleeper effect: Consumes forget the source of a message more quickly

than they forget the message.

Source attractiveness: A source characteristic that evokes favorable

attitudes if a source is physically attractive, likable, familiar or
similar to ourselves. Physical attractive, it is easy to convince.

Many marketers use celebrity endorsers to persuade. These spokespeople
often are cool musicians, athletes or stars.
One one hand, consumers like these celebrities. On the other hand,
consumers know that they are paid huge amount of money to endorse the
Do you think it is an effective strategy to use celebrity endorsers, and


Message factors

Message content: The case of pampers, which commercial is more

effective in order to the customers pursuing the product. The first
one, mum with her child putting the pumpers in the car. It is not
effective, maybe the girl is not using the product. Wrong message
content, they are not focusing in the baby. The second one, (we did
not watch it). They have to use strong arguments. The are more
persuasive if consumers are exposed to such message after thinking
about what they could have done differently to avoid a purchasing
experience that led to an undesirable outcome.

One-sided vs two-sided message

o One-side message: A marketing message that presents only
positive information.
o Two-sided message: A marketing message that presents both
positive and negative information.
Tips: The typical reputational strategy discusses
relatively minor attributes that may present a problem
of fall short. However, the product has excellent
performance on important attributes. Positive, important
attributes will make these drawbacks negligible. Have to
mention positive attribute. The credibility can be
enhance if we say negative attributes.

Comparative advertising: Refers to a strategy in which a

message compares two or more recognizable brands. There are
indirect comparative messages and direct comparative messages
(they are effective in generating attention and brand awareness and
in positively increasing message processing, attitudes, intentions
and behavior but they DO NOT have higher credibility.

When MAO is high, consumers exert more effort in processing direct

comparative messages and are less likely to confuse the advertised brand
with its competition.
- Apple vs Samsung, charging their mobile. Samsung galaxy 5 has a
long ..
- Mercedes vs Jaguar: The first ad it is from Mercedes, it appears
hens. The second ad it is from Jaguar (#goodtobebad)- the Jaguar
eats the hen, so Mercedes eats Jaguar. The third ad with cats, it
would be a Mercedes ad.


Rational vs. emotional appeals: Which is better, to appeal to the

head (rational appeal), or to appeal to the heart (emotional appeal)?
If it depends, what factors it may depend upon?
o Nature of the product
o Product life cycle

Other factors that may influence behaviors: social pressure, culture,

income level
In conclusion: In general, attitudes are NOT good predictors of behavior.
The attitude-behavior link gets stronger when:
- Level of involvement is high
- The consumer is knowledgeable
- Accessibility of attitudes is high
- Both the attitude and the behaviors are specific
- The consumer is emotionally attached to a brand