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Journal of International Council on Electrical Engineering

ISSN: (Print) 2234-8972 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tjee20

Single-tuned Passive Harmonic Filter Design


Considering Variances of Tuning and Quality
Factor
Young-Sik Cho & Hanju Cha
To cite this article: Young-Sik Cho & Hanju Cha (2011) Single-tuned Passive Harmonic Filter
Design Considering Variances of Tuning and Quality Factor, Journal of International Council on
Electrical Engineering, 1:1, 7-13, DOI: 10.5370/JICEE.2011.1.1.007
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.5370/JICEE.2011.1.1.007

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Published online: 10 Sep 2014.

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Journal of International Council on Electrical Engineering Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 7~13, 2011

Single-tuned Passive Harmonic Filter Design Considering Variances of


Tuning and Quality Factor

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Young-Sik Cho* and Hanju Cha


Abstract - This paper presents how to select tuning factor and quality factor in designing of a
single-tuned passive harmonic filter. Tuning factor and quality factor must be considered before a
decision of filter parameters(R, L and C). In literature, the study about these two factors has not
been performed and only empirical values have been used in the passive harmonic filter design so
far. As an empirical value, in cases of 5th and 7th filter, tuning order has been used 4.8th and 6.8th
respectively and quality factor has been used in a range of 30 and 60; therefore, we will propose
how to decide these two factors in this paper. If a single-tuned passive harmonic filter were offtuned, its performance would be deteriorated substantially and resulted in a parallel resonance
between grid inductance and filter capacitance. In order to avoid this side effect from off-tuning,
the filter must be tuned on some preceded order not on the exact order. In other words, total filter
impedance must have reactive impedance on a tuned frequency. In this paper, tuning factor is
derived by using a bode-plot based method and then performance of filter is confirmed as a
harmonic current absorption rate which harmonic source flows through filter; and quality factor is
also derived by using the same method and then the performance is confirmed by the same filter
current absorption rate. Finally, the performance of proposed passive harmonic filter design using
the tuning factor and quality factor is verified by experiment. Experimental results show that the
5th, 7th, 11th and 13th current harmonic distortions meet IEEE-519 requirement.
Keywords: Passive filter, Harmonic, Passive harmonic filter, Tuning factor, Quality factor

1. Introduction
The utility grid voltage is normally assumed to be a pure
sinusoid at a fundamental frequency of 60 Hertz. Applying
a sinusoidal voltage to a linear load produces sinusoidal
current which is also at the same fundamental frequency.
However, applying the sinusoidal voltage to a non-linear
load does not result in a sinusoidal current waveform,
although the current can be identified to be repetitive at the
fundamental frequency. Harmonic currents and voltages are
caused by the interaction of non-linear loads with the utility.
The traditional approach to solve aforementioned harmonic
problem has been done by the use of passive harmonic
filter[1-3]. Currently, Passive harmonic filter application is
used as a common practice and readily available to power
system engineers and designers for reducing harmonic
voltage and current distortion through alternate circuit path
operation. Several IEEE transaction papers have been
written and published which introduce the theory and
implementation of advanced techniques for controlling

Corresponding Author: Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Chungnam


National University, Korea (hjcha@cnu.ac.kr)
*
Dept. of Electricity and Control, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety,
Korea (yscho@kins.re.kr)
Received: May 1, 2010; Accepted: October 16, 2010

harmonic current flow such as magnetic flux compensation,


harmonic current injection, dc ripple injection, series/shunt
active filter systems, and pulse width modulated static var
harmonic compensators. However, practical systems have
not been extensively installed and are not available on the
market yet. It may take more time before these advance
techniques are fully developed and readily available for a
successfully competition with Passive harmonic filter
systems. Passive harmonic filters will be installed in the
industry field and applied alone, or in combination with
transformer phase shifting and/or higher pulse number
rectifier configurations to waveform distortion on the power
system[4]. This paper presents how to select tuning factor
and quality factor in a single-tuned passive harmonic filter
design.

2. Single-Tuned Passive Harmonic Filter


2.1 Passive Harmonic Filter
Passive filters are well understood and represented a
conventional technology as the way to mitigate for
harmonics. These filters, which consist of reactor and
capacitor, typically provide an alternative impedance path

Single-tuned Passive Harmonic Filter Design Considering Variances of Tuning and Quality Factor

for harmonic currents generated by the nonlinear load,


result in the lower harmonic current components in the
utility current. Most passive filters need to be custom
designed in the specific system impedances, the load
current harmonics, the back ground voltage distortion, as
well as interactions with other loads and sources in close
vicinity. Filter design without considering some of the
above identified issues can result in poor performance due
to interactions, and overall system performance may be
poorer than it was prior to filter installation in some cases
[1, 5, 6]. The site specific engineering costs of specifying,
purchasing, installing and commissioning a passive filter
can often be higher than its actual cost.

(a) Circuit

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2.2 Single Tuned Filter


A single tuned filter which is a series RLC circuit tuned
to a single harmonics frequency provides a low harmonic
impedance characteristic generally. Its total impedance is
given by
Z n = Rn + j ( Ln 1/ Cn )

Where, n is the tuned angular frequency(rad/s).


Fig. 1 shows a single-tuned filter circuit and its characteristic
curve.

(1)

At a resonance frequency Ln = 1/ Cn
From (1) Z n = Rn
An ideal single-tuned filter is said to be tuned on the
frequency that makes its inductive and capacitive reactance
to be equal[5]. The quality factor(Q) of filter determines the
sharpness of tuning, and in this respect filters may be either
a high or a low Q type. The filter with low Q is sharply
tuned to one of the lower harmonic frequency, and a typical
value is between a range of 30 and 60. The filter with high
Q typically in the region of 0.5-5.5 has low impedance over
a wide range of frequency. When using to eliminate the
higher-order harmonics it is also referred to as a high-pass
filter. In the case of a tuned filter, Q is defined as the ratio
of the inductance (or capacitance) to resistance at the
resonant frequency[5, 6].
i.e.,

(b) Impedance characteristic

Fig. 1. Impedance characteristic curve versus frequency.

3. Determination of Tuning and Quality Factors


We have to decide two design parameters before the
decisions of R, L and C. They are tuning factor() and
quality factor(Q); these are considering the fact that in
advanced, the resonance phenomenon in frequency caused
by variations of parameter value[7, 8]. In order to express
the filter impedance in terms of and Q, the following
relationships are applied;

= n (1 + )
=

(4)

(5)

L C

The reactance of inductor or capacitor in ohms at the


tuned frequency is
X 0 = n L =

1
L
=
n C
C

(6)

Q=

X0
R

(7)

(2)

C=

1
1
=
n X 0 n RQ

(8)

As shown in Fig. 1, the filter pass band(PB) is defined as


being bounded by the frequencies at which the filter
reactance is equal to its resistance; i.e., the impedance angle
is 45and the magnitude is 2R . Relationship between
the quality factor and pass band can be expressed as
follows:

L=

X0

Q= X /R

Q = n / PB

RQ

Substituting equation (4), (8) and (9) into equation (1)


yields

L = n (1 + )
(3)

(9)

RQ

= (1 + ) RQ

(10)

Young-Sik Cho and Hanju Cha

1
1
=
C (1 + )
n

Z f = R + j ( L

n RQ

RQ
(1 + )

(11)

(2 + )
) = R + j RQ

C
1 +

2+

Z f = R 1 + jQ (
)
1+

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where, hn is ideal tuning order, h is tuning order


considered tuning factor(). From equation (16) and Table
1, we can decide that optimized tuning factor() is -0.0375.

Table 1. Anticipated error


Items

Anticipated errors

Frequency

f : 2%

Inductance(L) variations

L : -10~+20%

Capacitance(C) variations

C : -4.5~+6.5%

(12)

Or, considering that is relatively small as compared


with unity,
Z f R (1 + j 2 Q) = X 0 (Q 1 + j 2 )

(13)

Table 2 shows the tuning order of each harmonic and


they are calculated from equation (16), (17) and considered
the errors of in Table 1.

And
Z f R (1 + 4 2 Q 2 )1/ 2

Table 2. Tuning orders in an applied tuning factor


(14)
Order

5th

7th

9th

11th

3.1 Determination of a Tuning Factor()

Tuning

4.813

6.734

8.663

10.59

The extent of filter detuning from the nominal tuned


frequency is represented by the tuning factor(). This filter
detuning is occurred by various causes as following: (i)
variations in fundamental frequency, (ii) variations in the
filter capacitance and inductance caused by aging or
temperature, and (iii) initial off-tuning caused by
manufacturing tolerances and finite size of tuning steps.
Equation (15) shows the overall detuning in per unit of the
nominal tuned frequency[6-8].

Order

13th

15th

17th

19th

Tuning

12.51

14.44

16.36

18.29

= ( n ) / n

(15)

Moreover, the 2% change of L or C causes the same


detuning as change of 1% system frequency. Therefore
is often expressed as

f 1 L C
+ (
+
)
2 L
f
C

(16)

Equation (17) shows relationship between ideal tuning


order and actual tuning order.
h = hn + ( hn )

(17)

3.2 Current Absorption Rate in an Off-tuned Filter


For the assessment of tuning factor compatibility, we use
the amount of harmonic current absorption rate in filters. If
filters were tuned at harmonic frequency accurately, most
harmonic current flows into filter side. That is, harmonic
current absorption in a 5th filter is about I 5 f / I a =95.7%.
But, if the filter capacitance were increased to +6.5%
compared with designed value, harmonic current absorption
rate would be decreased to 70.17% sharply. The rest 30% of
harmonic current flows out power source, it makes an
adverse effect for adjacent system or equipment. Also, if the
capacitance of filter were decreased to -4.5% compared
with designed value, harmonic current absorption rate
would be decreased to 83.87%. In this case, about 20% of
harmonic current flows out power source, too. If filter
inductance were increased 20% result in off-tuning, current
absorption rate would be 29.49% and filter could not be
functioned. The results of 7th filter case are similar to those
of 5th filter case. Table 3 shows the performances of 5th and
7th filers by filter capacitance and inductance variations.

Single-tuned Passive Harmonic Filter Design Considering Variances of Tuning and Quality Factor

10

3.4 Decision of Quality Factor(Q) by Bode Plot

Table 3. Filter absorption effects


Current(If)

Absorption rate(%)

original

4.785

95.7

XC+5%

3.509

70.17

XC-4.5%

4.194

83.87

XL+20%

1.475

29.49

XL-10%

2.598

51.95

original

4.873

97.46

XC+5%

3.938

78.76

XC-4.5%

4.350

87.00

XL+20%

1.984

39.68

XL-10%

3.244

64.88

Filter

5th
filter

The bode-plot method is used to decide the quality factor


because it provides us a convenient tuning characteristic of
filters. The changes of tuning sharpness by Q variations are
shown in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4, where Fig. 3 shows gain curve
of 5th harmonic filter and 7th harmonic filter in separate use,
and Fig. 4 shows in case of combination 5th and 7th
harmonic filter. As shown from Fig. 3 and Fig. 4, when
quality factor is bigger than 50, filter sharpness is nearly
similar. Therefore, the quality factor is chosen as 50.

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th

7
filter

3.3 Definition of Quality Factor(Q)


The quality factor(Q), which determines the sharpness of
tuning, is related with a scale which shows the degree of
harmonic current absorption quantity. In this respect, all
filters will be one of the high or a low Q type according to
use. Fig. 2 shows the definition and magnitude of quality
factor(Q).
Q=

(a) in case of 5th filter

fr
f
= r , or
f HI f LO 3dB

Q( series LC ) = 0

2Wm n L
1
=
=
Ploss
R
n RC

Q is depended on R; if it wants to high Q, it should get


lower R
Band width is an inverse proportion to Q. Therefore,
the frequency selectivity of filters decided on Q. For
example, high Q has a small BW and can select
frequency precisely.

(a) definition

(b) in case of 7th filter


Fig. 3. Sharpness changes by quality factor(Q).

(b) comparison of magnitude

Fig. 2. Definition and Magnitude of Quality factor(Q).

Fig. 4. Sharpness changes in combination of 5th&7th filters.

Young-Sik Cho and Hanju Cha

11

3.5 Comparison of Current Absorption Rate by Q


To evaluate the filter performance, we used the amount
of harmonic current absorption rate in a filter, when
quality factor is chosen as 5, 10, 30, 50, 70 and 100
respectively. The amount of current absorption rates are
shown in Table 4.
Table 4. Current Harmonic Content after filter installation

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Filter Q5(%) Q10(%) Q30(%) Q50(%) Q70(%) Q100(%)


5th
28.6
51.2
87.28 94.48 97.98 98.66
7th 38.54 64.12 92.90 97.98 98.58 99.38
As shown in Table 4, the harmonic current absorption
rate of a 5th filter, in case of Q=5, is I 5 f / I a =28.26%. In
this case, the filter cannot do its function. In case of Q=10,
the current absorption rate of a 5th filter is I 5 f / I a =51.2%,
in this case, filter can only reaches a half of its capability. In
case of Q=30, the current absorption rate of a 5th filter is
I 5 f / I a =87.28%, about 10% current flows into power
source. In case of Q=50, 70 and 100, the current absorption
rates of a 5th filter are I 5 f / I a = 94.48%, 97.98 and 98.66
respectively. In these cases, most harmonic currents are
absorbed in a filter. These results are similar to in a case of
7th filter. Therefore, the quality factor(Q=50) decided in this
paper is suitable.

(a) Current Waveform

(b) Current Spectrum

Fig. 5. Without filter.


4.2 After 5th Harmonic Filter Installation

The current waveform and its frequency spectrum are


illustrated in Fig. 6(a) and (b), respectively. As shown by
Fig. 6, after 5th harmonic filter installation, the 5th harmonic
content is decreased to 16.5% from 72.6%. This result did
not meet the IEEE-519 limitation. The differences between
actual value and ideal value of circuit parameters may cause
this problem. The system response can be improved by
using a combination of 5th and 7th filter.

4. Experimental Result
(a) Current Waveform
In order to verify the performance of designed filters
considering the tuning and quality factor, the experiment
has been carried out by using the designed filters for a
three-rectifier load. The experimental results are shown in
some separate cases: without filter, only 5th filter
installation, only 7th filter installation and an arrangement of
5th and 7th filter orders as follows:
4.1 Without Filter

(b) Current Spectrum

Fig. 6. After 5th Filter Installation.


4.3 After 7th Harmonic Filter Installation

As In this case, the current waveform and its frequency


spectrum are illustrated in Fig. 7(a) and (b), respectively. As
shown in Fig. 7, the 7th harmonic content is decreased to
4.8% from 61.8%. After 7th harmonic filter installation, the
response can meet the IEEE-519 harmonic requirement.

The case which is not filter, current harmonic content in


all orders was exceeded on IEEE 519 current limits[9].
Without filter, measured the harmonic content of source
current( I s ), current waveform and current spectrum are
below.
Table 5. Current Harmonic Contents without filter

Orders
Before
IEEE 519

Fund.
100%
-

5th
7th
72.6% 61.8%
12%

11th
13th
20.9% 13.2%
5.5%

(a) Current Waveform

(b) Current Spectrum

Fig. 7. After 7th Filter Installation.

Single-tuned Passive Harmonic Filter Design Considering Variances of Tuning and Quality Factor

12

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4.4 Installation of 5th and 7th Filter Combination

The current harmonic contents in this case are shown in


Table 6. Fig. 8(a) and (b) shows the current harmonic
waveform and its frequency spectrum after 5th and 7th
harmonic filter installation, respectively. In this case, the
content of 5th harmonic current is decreased to 7.9% from
16.5%, but 7th harmonic is increased to 11.2% from 4.8%
on the contrary. It means that, the 5th filter in arrangement
has better operation than only 5th filter case, but the 7th filter
in arrangement is slightly reduced in filtering function
when compared with only 7th filter case. Although the
interaction between circuit parameters of 5th and 7th filter in
the arrangement causes their aforementioned results, the
final current harmonic component responses obtained by
the filter combination can meet the IEEE-519 requirement.

respectively. Compared the before and after filter


installation cases, the 5th harmonic was decreased from
72.6% to 7.9%, the 7th harmonic was decreased from 61.8%
to 11.2%, the 11th harmonic decreased from 20.9% to 4.5%
and the 13th harmonic decreased from 13.2% to 2.9%,
respectively. Therefore, the proposed tuning factor and
quality factor decision method for passive harmonic filter
design in this paper has been certified.

Acknowledgment
This work was supported by the Human Resources
Development of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology
Evaluation and Planning(KETEP) grant funded by the
Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No.
20104010100600)

Table 6. Harmonic Content After 5th&7th Filter Combination

Filters
Only 5th
Only 7th
5th+7th
IEEE 519

Fund.
100%
100%
100%
-

5th
7th
16.5% 10.5%
39.9% 4.8%
7.9% 11.2%
12%

11th
13th
6.6%
3.0%
4.9%
2.5%
4.5%
2.9%
5.5%

References
[1]

[2]

[3]

(a) Current Waveform

(b) Current Spectrum

Fig. 8. After Installation 5th and 7th Combination.

[4]

[5]

5. Conclusion
This paper presents how to select tuning factor and
quality factor single-tuned passive harmonic filter design.
In passive filter design, the tuning factor and quality factor
must be taken into account before calculating filter
parameters (R, L and C). In this paper, the tuning orders of
5th and 7th filters have been determined as 4.813th and
6.734th, respectively. And the quality factor (Q) has been
chosen as 50. The designed passive harmonic filter
performance has been verified by experiment and the
experimental results show that 5th, 7th, 11th and 13th
harmonics could meet the IEEE-519 requirements,

[6]

[7]
[8]
[9]

M. E. Habrouk, M. K. Darwish and P. Mehta, Active


Power Filter; A review, IEE Proc. Electr. Power
Appl., Vol. 147, no. 5, pp. 403-413, September 2000.
H. Fujita and H. Akagi, A Practical Approach to
Harmonic Compensation in Power System Series
Connection of Passive and Active Filter, IEEE Trans.
On Industry Applications, Vol. 27, No. 6, pp. 10201025, 1991.
F. Z. Peng, H. Akagi and A. Nabae, A New
Approach to Harmonic Compensation in Power
System A Combined System of Shunt Passive and
Series Active Filter, IEEE Trans. On Industry
Applications, Vol. 27, No. 6, pp. 983-990, 1990.
J. K. Phipps, A Transfer Function Approach to
Harmonic Filter Design, IEEE Industry Applications
Magazine, pp 68-79, March/April 1997.
J. Arrilaga and N. R. Watson, Power System
Harmonics, Second Edition, University of
Canterbury Christchurch, New Zealand, John Wiley
& Sons, pp. 228-237, 2003
Y. S. Cho, Analysis and Design of Passive Harmonic
Filter for a Three-phase Rectifier, KIEE Magazine,
58P-3-13, pp. 316-322, September 2009
R. C. Dugan, Electrical Power Systems Quality,
Second Edition, McGraw-Hill, pp. 264-273, 2002
H. L. Willis, Power System Capacitors, Taylor &
Francis, pp. 389-414, 2005
IEEE Std. 519-1992, IEEE Recommended Practices
and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electrical
Power Systems, pp. 77-80, 1992.

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Young-Sik Cho and Hanju Cha

Young Sik Cho received his B.S.


degree in Electrical Engineering from
Changwon National University and
M.S degree in the same field from
Chungnam National University, Korea
in 1990 and 2009, respectively. He is in
the course of PhD in Electrical
Engineering from Chungnam National University, Deajen
Korea from 2009. He was with KEPCO in Ulchin NPP
from 1992 to 2000. He worked at LG and KESCO From
2000 to 2005 respectively. From 2005 until now, He joined
the department of electricity and control, Korea Institute of
Nuclear Safety, Daejeon, Korea. His research interests are
power quality; power reliability; UPS; harmonic mitigation;
passive harmonic filter; active harmonic filter; hybrid
harmonic filter.

13

Hanju Cha received his B.S. degree in


Electrical Engineering from Seoul
National University, Korea, and M.S
degree in the same field from Pohang
Institute of Science and Technology,
Korea in 1988 and 1990, respectively.
He obtained his PhD in Electrical
Engineering from Texas A&M University, College Station,
Texas in 2004. From 1990 to 2001, he was with LG
Industrial Systems in Anyang, Korea where he was engaged
in the development of power electronics and adjustable
speed drives. In 2005, he joined the Department of
Electrical Engineering, Chungnam National University,
Daejeon, Korea. He worked as a visiting professor in the
United Technology Research Center, Hartford CT, USA in
2009. His research interests are advanced ac/dc, dc/ac, and
ac/ac converters; renewable energy system; power quality;
energy storage system and micro-grids.