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BPMN1013 PRINCIPLE S OF MANAGEMENT

Introduction
Management skills is the practice of understanding, developing and deploying people
and their skills. Well-implemented skills management should identify the skills that job
roles require, the skills of individual employees, and any gap between the two.
The skills involved can be defined by the organization concerned, or by third party
institutions. They are usually defined in terms of a skills framework, also known as a
competency framework or skills matrix. This consists of a list of skills, and a grading
system, with a definition of what it means to be at particular level for a given skill. [1]
To be most useful, skills management must be an ongoing process, where individuals
assess and update their recorded skill sets regularly. These updates should occur at
least as frequently as employees' regular line manager reviews, and certainly when their
skill sets change. Skills management systems record the results of this process in a
database, and allow analysis of the data, typically to assist with project staffing or hiring
decisions.[2]
To perform management functions and assume multiple roles, managers must be
skilled. Robert Katz identified three managerial skills essential to successful
management: technical, human, and conceptual. [3] Technical skill involves process or
technique knowledge and proficiency. Managers use the processes, techniques and
tools of a specific area. Human skill involves the ability to interact effectively with
people. Managers interact and cooperate with employees. Conceptual skill involves the
formulation of ideas. Managers understand abstract relationships, develop ideas, and
solve problems creatively. Thus, technical skill deals with things, human skill concerns
people, and conceptual skill has to do with ideas.
A manager's level in the organization determines the relative importance of possessing
technical, human, and conceptual skills. Top level managers need conceptual skills that
let them view the organization as a whole. Conceptual skills are used in planning and
dealing with ideas and abstractions. Supervisors need technical skills to manage their

BPMN1013 PRINCIPLE S OF MANAGEMENT


area of specialty. All levels of management need human skills so they can interact and
communicate with other people successfully.
As the pace of change accelerates and diverse technologies converge, new global
industries are being created (for example, telecommunications). Technological change
alters the fundamental structure of firms and calls for new organizational approaches
and management skills.
There are different types of skills in the corporate world. Soft Skills, communication
skills, business writing, corporate presentation, public speaking, sales, marketing,
leadership and managerial skills are few of the skills.

BPMN1013 PRINCIPLE S OF MANAGEMENT


a.) Students are required to identify and describe the managerial skills that highly
needed to operate the business by the manager. Based on the skills provided
below, explain each skill with relevant example(s)in the business perspective.
[Must use different manager as an example for each skil. (At least one example)]
Much like a professional basketball player needs to know how to dribble and shoot a
basketball, or how a home builder understands the process of framing a house,
managers also need to have a specific set of skills in order to effectively perform their
jobs. Managerial skills are what the manager uses to assist the organization in
accomplishing its goals. Specifically, a manager will make use of his or her own abilities,
knowledge base, experiences, and perspectives to increase the productivity of those
with whom they manage.
The toolbox for what a manager needs in order to perform their job effectively, typically,
fall into one of three categories: technical skills, human skills, and conceptual skills.
Both education and experience enable managers to recognize and develop the
personal skills they need to put organizational resources to their best use.To give you a
better understanding of these skills I would suggest some manager and employee who
have implemented these skills in their job.
First and foremost, conceptual skills are demonstrated in general ability to analyze and
diagnose a situation and to distinguish between cause and effect. The level of analytical
ability to envision both the parts and its sum directly translates into a manager's
conceptual skills set. Essentially, a manager's conceptual skills allow him or her to solve
problems in a strategic and calculated fashion. Conceptual skills are becoming
increasingly more important in today's chaotic business environment.Managers are,
continually, being challenged to think conceptually about their organizations to develop
action plans and harness resources to achieve organizational goals. A manager with
good conceptual skills can look at a problem, break it down into manageable pieces,
consider a variety of possible solutions, all before putting it back together again in a
more effective and efficient manner.

BPMN1013 PRINCIPLE S OF MANAGEMENT


While all levels of management benefit from conceptual thinking, upper management
spends the most time within this frame of mind as opposed to thinking more technically
and looking at and working with the detailed elements of a given operation or business
process. Upper management is largely tasked with identifying and drafting a strategy for
the broader operational and competitive approach of an organization.
This strategic planning includes generating organizational values, policies, mission
statements, ethics, procedures, and objectives. Creating this complex mix of concepts
to use as an organizational foundation requires a great number of conceptual skills by
formulating concepts and predicting their effects in an organizational setting.

Figure 1 :Conceptual model


The model offers an example of how conceptual thinking functions in an organizational
setting. Conceptual models are generated and discussed based upon the collection of
various data and stimuli, leading to a tangible, executable model. This is an ongoing
process at all times.
The upper management may use the conceptual skill set most, middle managers and
lower managers must also both understand and participate in the generation of
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company objectives and values. Of particular importance are the ability to communicate
these critical concepts to subordinates and the ability to gather useful information to
convey to upper management so that the concepts can evolve.
Collecting the results of conceptual thinking represent a feedback loop. Conceptual
skills are important in empowering managers in all levels of an organization to observe
the operations of an organization and frame them conceptually as an aspect of that
organization's strategy, objectives, and policies. Conceptual thinking allows for accurate
and timely feedback and organizational adaptability.
Conceptual skills are most important for top managers but still important for middle and
low-level managers as well.Top managers require the best conceptual skills because
their primary responsibilities are planning and organizing. By all accounts, Steve Jobs
was chosen as CEO to transform Apple, and he picked Tim Cook to succeed him later
on, because of his ability to identify new opportunities and mobilize managers and other
resources to take advantage of those opportunities. However in 2009, due to medical
reasons, he delegated his responsibilities to Tim Cook for six months and everything
went smoothly. Perhaps because he had mentored his executive team successfully to
think and decide like him, this indicates that his style has moved to being a TeamManager.
Moreover, formal education and training are important in helping managers develop
conceptual skills. Business training at undergraduate and graduate(MBA) levels
providesmany of the conceptual tools that managers need to perform their roles
effectively. The study of management helps develop the skills that allow managers to
understand the big picture confronting an organization. The ability to focus on the big
picture lets manager see beyond the situation immediately at hand and consider
choices while keeping in mind the organizations long term-goals. Therefore conceptual
skills rated the most to manage a successful management.
Besides that, like conceptual skills, human skills is also highly recommended in
business tactic to create a successful business environment. Human skills are defined
as the ability to understand, alter, lead, and control the behavior of other individuals and
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groups. These interpersonal skills are what a manager will use to work with his or her
employees. Some people are born with good human skills; others must work much
harder at it. Human skills are critical for all managers because they work with people.
Managers with good human skills understand their role inside the manager/employee
relationship and how important things, like trust, cohesion, fairness, empathy, and good
will, are to the overall success of the organization. Human skills help the manager to
communicate, lead, and motivate an employee to work towards a higher level of
productivity.
Modern companies have fewer layers of management, as these companies instead rely
on the delegation of responsibilities and authority to achieve goals. As a result,
businesses often speak of "leading," or guiding, people rather than giving instructions
for every action. Leading people represents a central component of human skills.
Under this definition of management, leadership is actually a subcategory of
management. Management characterizes the process of leading and directing all or part
of an organization, often a business, through the deployment and manipulation of
resources (human, financial, material, intellectual or intangible).
Human skills differentiate a manager from a leader. A manager is simply manipulating
resources to achieve a given objective, while a leader appeals to the human side of
employees to generate creativity and motivation.
These concepts of "manager" and "leader" can be distinguished within a team setting. A
team leader who is unconcerned with team members' needs or who has a personal
agenda that is perceived to be more important than the team's goals may be considered
more of a manager than a leader, with the possible outcome of being estranged from
team members. Conversely, team leaders who are admired and loyally followed are
those who show concern for the team members as individuals with real needs and who
place their team above their own personal agendas.
Realistically, most organizations need leaders who can view their teams analytically and
objectively, evaluating inefficiencies and making unpopular choices. However, it is
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misleading to think that a manager has to be distant from or disliked by subordinates to
execute these responsibilities. Creating a healthy

environment conducive to

development, criticism, and higher degrees of achievement simply requires strong


human skills, particularly in the realm of communication.

Figure 2 :This model provides a theoretical frame for the act of communicating.
As stated in conceptual skills, human skills also can be learned through education and
training, as well as be developed through experience. Organizations increasingly utilize
advanced programs in leadership skills and team leadership as they seek to
capitalizeon the advantages of self-managed teams. To manage personal interactions
effectively, each person in an organization needs to learn how to empathize with other
people in order to understand their view points and the problems they face. One way to
help managers understand their personal strengths and weaknesses is to have their
superiors, peers, and subordinates provide feedback about their job performance.
Thorough and direct feedback allows managers to develop their human skills.
Top managers use conceptual skills while making a decision since it affects the entire
organization. He needs human skills which involve the ability to work well with other
people both individually and in groups. Being chief executives officer he should look for
to motivate the employers of the organization. Human is the most important asset of an
organization and human (interpersonal) skills are regarded as the most important set of
skills for a manager in todays competitive environment. Creating culture, building the
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senior management team, financing road shows and indeed, the delegation itself is
done by Mark Zuckerberg.
In facebook Mark Zuckerberg plays an extensive role in the decision making process. In
the organization he deeply and inextricably involved with every major decision that it
undertakes. He uses to negotiate and help the subordinates and rest of the employees
to produce new ideas and make the final decision. He usually focuses on the
technological side and innovation. He plays quite big interpersonal role in the general
public by giving speeches and talking in the conferences. He uses to give information to
the outsiders through the meetings and speeches conducted by facebook. Besides this
he use to visit certain sessions and interact with other business managers and sign the
business documents. During such interaction he asks the Sheryl Sandberg COO
formerly via president of Google chief of staff for the U.S to assist him and offer some
guidance. In general, Mark Zuckerberg plays extensive role in all informational,
interpersonal and decisional roles in the facebook which allows and makes it to be the
leading social media today.
Technical skills are those skills needed to accomplish a specific task. It is the 'how to'
skill set that allows a manager to complete his or her job. These skills are the
combination of formal education, training, and on-the-job experience. Most employees
expect their managers to have a technical skill set above their own so that, when
needed, an employee can come to their manager to find out how to do something
specific to their individual job.
Robert Katz identifies three critical skill sets for successful management professionals:
technical skills, human skills, and conceptual skills. While these three broad skill
categories encompass a wide spectrum of capabilities, each category represents a
useful bucket for these skills to fall into and describes the way in which these skills
interact with management at various levels.
Of the three skill sets identified by Katz, technical skills are the broadest, most easily
defined category. A technical skill is defined as a learned capacity in just about any
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given field of work, study, or even play. For example, the quarterback of a football team
must know how to plant his feet and how to position his arm for accuracy and distance
in both technical skills. A mechanic, meanwhile, needs to be able to deconstruct and
reconstruct an engine, to employ various machinery (lifts, computer scanning
equipment, etc.), and to install a muffler.
Managers also need a broad range of technical know-how. All industries need
management, and management must exist at various organizational levels. Front-line
managers represent a substantial part of management who must use their technical
skills daily. Front-line managers must communicate up the chain of command while still
speaking the language of the workers who are executing the hands-on components of
the industry. A technical skill for a front-line manager might include a working
understanding of a piece of equipment: the manager must be able to coach the
employee on its operation, as well as communicate to upper managers the basic
functions of the machinery.
In addition to front-line managers, managers in other corporate roles and at higher
levels require critical technical skills. These can include office-based competencies such
as typing, programming, website maintenance, writing, giving presentations, and using
software such as Microsoft Office or Adobe. Office environments require a complex set
of communicative, technological, and data-organization skills in order to optimize
managerial performance.
Successful managers in an organization must therefore learn to use the technological
assets at their disposal, collecting critical information and data to communicate upward
for strategic planning. An example of information management is a mid-level manager in
the automotive industry who is responsible for recognizing global marketing potential.
This individual must be capable of realizing the legal, demographic, social,
technological, and economic considerations of entering a market; the manager will use
effective research and delegation skills and also consolidate the information into a
useful presentation using technological and communicative skills.

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Katz postulates that the higher up in the organization an individual rises, the more
conceptual skills (and fewer technical skills) are necessary. Senior managers need
fewer technical skills because strategic decision-making is inherently more conceptual;
mid- and lower-level skills such as data collection, assessment, and discussion are all
more technical. Even so, all disciplines of management require a broad range of skill
sets for effective business processes to occur. For example, Bill Gates of Microsoft
Corp, launched his career by being a competent programmer. Gates rightfully earned
credit for building one of the fastest-growing and most profitable companies ever
established. Gates also recognized at this point in time that the future of computer
software lay in owning a standard software package to be used on most computers. The
technical skills and unstoppable creative ideas which lead Gates to become a
successful entrepreneur.

Figure 3 :Relative Amount of Time That Managers Spend on the Four Managerial
Tasks.
b.) Write a brief biography of one successful manager of your choice in your own
words. Then, explain how he or she demonstrates ANY THREE (3) managerial

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skills that highlighted in the QUESTION (A) and how this assists them to be
successful in their venture.
1.)STEVE JOBS
His saga is the entrepreneurial creation myth writ large: Steve Jobs cofounded Apple in
his parents garage in 1976, was ousted in 1985, returned to rescue it from near
bankruptcy in 1997, and by the time he died, in October 2011, had built it into the
worlds most valuable company. Along the way he helped to transform seven industries:
personal computing, animated movies, music, phones, tablet computing, retail stores,
and digital publishing. He thus belongs in the pantheon of Americas great innovators,
along with Thomas Edison, Henry Ford, and Walt Disney. None of these men was a
saint, but long after their personalities are forgotten, history will remember how they
applied imagination to technology and business.
This may be the most subtle and easily missed quality of Steve Jobs, yet is possibly the
most important. Documentaries and tribute articles sing praises all day about Jobs, so it
can be easy to forget his humanity. He wasnt perfect. He wasnt magical. Forbes
Contributor, Dave Coursey, even wrote Jobs was busy changing the world and minor
annoyances like peoples feelings didnt fit into his plan. Coursey isnt the first to
acknowledge Jobs struggle with empathy and leadership skills. In fact, in Lets Get One
Thing Straight .Apple Had No Choice But To Oust Steve Jobs, published by Business
Insider, Henry Blodget describes Jobs actions as out-of-control disruptive behavior and
incompetence as the leader of the Mac division. This is why Steve Jobs was stripped of
his operating role at Apple and subsequently departed from the organization.
Keep in mind; these are descriptions of 30-year-old Jobs. Leaping 12 years into the
future, Jobs returned to the company a changed man and went on to pioneer worldchanging technology. His struggle with emotional intelligence was life-long, but it was
his continuous efforts to grow that made him great. Had Jobs not been open to criticism
and able to admit his flaws, he wouldnt have grown to be a better leader. Without

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determination and adaptability to change, Jobs would never have left such an amazing
mark on the world.
In a world full of possibility, one important trait to absorb from Jobs is the ability to focus.
This is part of why his products have become some of the most loved in history. He
picked a need, developed a product and spent every ounce of energy perfecting the
product. He picked technology and made technology his life. His ability to set a goal and
stay committed gave way to tremendous success.
Steve Jobs had a sense of urgency that gave him drive. Many times, he spoke of life
and death; time being one of lifes greatest tools for success. He knew that not grabbing
onto an idea or waiting until its the right time, would never cut it. This is why he sought
innovative solutions and built products before a customer realized they needed it.
Like many innovative game-changers, Jobs wasnt looking to replicate whats already
been done. He didnt like to play the I can do it better game. He played the Im going
to do something completely different game. This thinking is illustrated with the iPad.
Before its introduction into the market, no one would have wanted a cross between a
Smartphone and a computer. But now, it has stolen the hearts of consumers and
revolutionized business operations.
At the 2013 Teen Choice Awards, Ashton Kutcher surprised fans when he channeled
Steve Jobs in a memorable speech. He said everything around us that we call life was
made up by people that are no smarter than you. You can build your own life that other
people can live in. So build a life. Dont live one; build one. This is possibly the most
rewarding mentality for leaders, and Steve Jobs proved that. Leaders who can channel
Jobs ability to continue improving, hone in on their passion, live with a sense of urgency
and see what could be, rather than what is, will go far.

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2.)MARK ZUCKERBERG
Mark Zuckerberg. Billionaires were not born billionaires. They were born like every other
human, but they chose to be exceptional. One of them is Mark Zuckerberg. He born on
May 14, 1984, in White Plains, New York, Mark Zuckerberg co-founded the socialnetworking website Facebook out of his college dorm room. He left Harvard after his
sophomore year to concentrate on the site, the user base of which has grown to more
than 250 million people, making Zuckerberg a billionaire. The birth of Facebook was
recently portrayed in the film The Social Network. Mark is a passionate person. This trait
is really important for an entrepreneur. This is because, if its not for his passion towards
technology, he wouldnt have created Facebook. Secondly, Marks inquisitive also an
important aspect. His inquisitive towards the business what made of him of what he is
today. If its not for the quality then there will no be such interests in business and to
expand it worldwide. The quality is an important aspect for an entrepreneur. Thats the
reason why he dropped out of college and directed his interest towards the webpage
developing. As the result, we have a social network side called, Facebook. Decisive is
an important trait for an entrepreneur. On the other hand, his self-belief trait is a big
encouragement for him to achieve his dream. Moreover, his resourceful trait is an
important aspect of his achievement. His resourcefulness knowledge towards the
technology has created Facebook. The history of Mark Zuckbergs life reveals a story of
a person with drive. By age 12, Zuckerberg created a computer communication method
for his familys computers. They could log in to each others computer electronically and
leave messages. And of course, it took hard work to get into Harvard. And when he
envisioned the potential of Facebook, he dropped out of Harvard and spent all his time
working tirelessly to make his vision a reality.
Zuckerberg seeks guidance from great leaders and when he does he is a sponge in
terms of learning (Forbes). This thirst to learn more is transparent in his relationship
with business leaders like Warren Buffet. In a bloomberg interview, Zuckerberg speaks
openly about his conversations with Steve Jobs where he sought answers on how to
build an effective team and how to keep an organization focused. Like many great
leaders, Zuckerberg has never underestimated the importance of continued growth.
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Interestingly, Zuckerberg has at times been criticized for his lack of public presence or
inability to communicate effectively with the public. Of course, public speaking and
strong communication are crucial aspects of leadership. However, his unending
struggles for growth have paid off. As mentioned by CNET Commentator, Ben Parr, in
The Evolution of Mark Zuckerberg as a Leader, Zuckerbers public speaking style is
now poised, confident and articulate. It may have been a struggle for someone who
started out as a tech guy, but Zuckerberg is now admired for his ability to effectively
speak with his team and with the world.
In summarizing Mark Zuberbergs leadership qualities, Tim Bajarin, President of
Creative Strategies, Inc., said the number one thing weve learned from Zuckerberg is
to take the vision you have, put all your energy into it, and get a lot of smart people
around you to execute on it. Effective leadership methods take time to develop, but as
Mark Zuckerberg has proven, it can be done through hard work.
3.)BILL GATES
In the same way that every truly worthy recipe has a couple of key ingredients that
make it unique and amazing, leaders also tend to have key qualities that enable them to
shine. Such is the case for Bill Gates. Along with Paul Allen, Bill Gates founded what is
now one of the most successful companies in the world, Microsoft. He frequents Forbes
Top 100 lists, recently ranking as the richest person in America. In fact, he previously
appeared on the Worlds Billionaires list by Forbes for 12 consecutive years (CNN). In
addition, hes the recipient of numerous awards including the National Medal of
Technology and Innovation, Mary Woodard Lasker Award for Public Service,
Distinguished Fellow of the British Computer Society, Bower Award for Business
Leadership and more. Hes also become known for his significant role as a
philanthropist. Nobody could deny that Gates has had a significant impact on the world,
and that he is someone worth emulating. Below are some leadership qualities of Bill
Gates.

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After landing billionaire lists several times, it would be easy for Gates to become prideful
or think he knows it all. But hes not that way. In fact, a recent Forbes article highlighted
his efforts to improve on his communication and public speaking skills (Forbes). Gates
is also known for his wisdom in seeking council from others. He often speaks of how
much he has learned from Warren Buffett. Gates once commented that Buffett has a
brilliant way of looking at the world (BBC). Like a sponge, Gates tries to soak in
lessons learned from his mentor in order to become a better leader.
Without a doubt, Bill Gates is a man with vision. It was vision that inspired him to pursue
the creation of a graphical interface that became Microsoft software. Looking back to his
interviews about the development of Microsoft, Gates says he always knew he wanted
to have more than a single product. The company wanted to hire in more software
people and develop a full product line. From the beginning, he recognized potential for
growth and opportunity. His ability to envision goals also reaches into his philanthropic
pursuits. It can be seen in the malaria project he is now pursuing at the Bill & Melinda
Gates Foundation. The goal is to eradicate malaria, and hes laid out a strategy to get
from A to B. His abilities to envision and strategize make it easy for others to follow him.
It would be hard to talk about the life of Bill Gates and not discuss philanthropy and
humanitarianism. Along with Warren Buffet, Bill and Melinda Gates were the founders of
the giving pledge, a pledge taken by some of the worlds wealthiest people to give the
majority of their wealth to philanthropic causes or charitable organizations. Gates once
said I hope you will reflect on what youve done with your talent and energy. I hope you
will judge yourselves not on your professional accomplishments alone, but also on how
well you work to address the worlds deepest inequities, on how well you treat people a
world away who have nothing in common with you but their humanity (Bloomberg
Businessweek). This is the kind of caring and empathy that causes people to stand
behind a leader. He is the type of person who isnt working toward his own goal of
personal gain; he is working to help others grow. This is a key quality that successful
leaders often embody.Anyone who wants to inspire or lead can do so. The key is to not
lose key qualities like a humble attitude, vision, or empathy in the process. Great

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leaders like Bill Gates are successful in staying grounded which enables success. His
qualities and achievements set a great example for rising leaders.
Conclusion
As a conclusion, many people believe that good managers, like good athletes, are born,
not made. Much research has indicated that this belief is generally incorrect, even
though it is true that people are born with different potential and that, to some degree,
heredity plays a role in intelligence. An athlete who is not endowed with natural physical
advantages is not likely to run 100 yards in record time. On the other hand, many
individuals who are so-called natural athletes have not come close to that goal, either.
Most superior athletes have developed their natural endowments into mature skills by
practice, learning, effort, and experience. The same holds true for a good manager.
It takes time, effort, and determination for a supervisor to develop managerial skills.
Supervisors will make mistakes, but people learn from mistakes well as from successes.
By applying the principles discussed in this situation, the supervisor can develop the
skills that make the supervisory job a challenging and satisfying career. With this in
mind, we believe the term enabler more closely defines the new role of the manager.
Clearly, the foundation for success is built when the manager clarifies what is expected
in the way of performance and specifies the behaviors that are acceptable in the work
group. Then the role of the supervisor is to do all those things that enable employees to
be the best they can be. The better the supervisor manages, the better the
departmental results. In addition, the supervisor who manages well becomes capable of
handling larger and more complicated assignments, which could lead to more
responsible and higher-paying possibilities in the organization.

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Reference
1.) Gareth Jones, Jennifer George

(2013), Contemporary Management: Eighth

Edition, United States : McGraw-Hill Higher Education.


2.) Boundless, Conceptual Skills of Successful Managers.
Management,

Boundless

https://www.boundless.com/management/textbooks/boundless-

management-textbook/introduction-to-management-1/additional-roles-and-skillsof-managers-20/conceptual-skills-of-successful-managers-130-7574/ ,
25 November 2014. Web. 01 December 2014 .

3.) Boundless, Human Skills of Successful Managers. Boundless Management,


https://www.boundless.com/users/218886/textbooks/management-a012d15b9fc0-4157-8193-c2f79da681de/introduction-to-management-1/additional-rolesand-skills-of-managers-20/human-skills-of-successful-managers-131-3975/,
25 November 2014. Web. 01 December 2014 .

4.) Boundless, Technical Skills of Successful Managers. Boundless Management,


https://www.boundless.com/management/textbooks/boundless-managementtextbook/introduction-to-management-1/additional-roles-and-skills-of-managers20/technical-skills-of-successful-managers-129-3976/,
25 November 2014. Web. 01 December 2014 .

5.) Oxford Fajar (2011),Oxford Students Dictionary : Second Edition , Selangor :


Oxford Fajar Sdn.Bhd.
6.) Andrew DuBrin (2011), Essentials of Management : Ninth Edition,
United States : Cengage Learning

Enclosure
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Ganggah Devi A/P Murugaya (232084)

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