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Yarn Twist | Relationship Between Yarn Count and Twist | Principles of Twist

Measuring Methods

Yarn Twist:
In the manufacture of staple fibre yarns, twist is inserted into the fine strand of fibres to hold the
fibres together and impart the desired properties to the twisted yarns. Without twist, the fine
strand of fibres would be very weak and of little practical use. A change in the level of twist also
changes
many
yarn
properties,
such
as
strength
and
softness.

Definition:
Twist may be defined as the spiral disposition of the components of a thread which is usually the
result of relative rotation of the two ends. Twist is generally expressed as the number of turns per
unit length of yarn, e.g. turns per inch (tpi), turns per metre (tpm), etc.

What exactly does twist to a yarn?


1. The twist in a yarn binds the fibres together and helps to keep them in the respective
positions. It thus gives coherence to yarn.
2. Twist gives sufficient strength to the yarn.
3. Twist is also used to bring about novel effects that are prominently visible when the yarn
is converted to fabric. This is achieved primarily by having a combination of yarns with
different twist levels and twist directions in the fabric.

Nature

of

Twist:

Types

of

Twist:

There

are

two

types

of

twist:

real

twist

and

false

twist.

Real
twist:
To insert a real twist into a length of yarn, one end of the yarn should be rotated relative to the
other
end,
as
indicated
in
figure
(a).
Spun yarns usually have real twist, which holds the fibres together in the yarn.
False
twist:
When inserting false twist into a length of yarn, both ends of the yarn are clamped, usually by
rollers, and twist is inserted with a false twister between the clamping points, as indicated in
figure
(b).
If the yarn is not traversing along its axis, the twist will be in opposite directions above and
below the false twister. If the false twister is removed, the opposite twists will cancel out one

another, leaving no real twist in the length of yarn. If the yarn is traversing along its axis, then
the section of the yarn moving away from the false twister would have no net twist, as indicated
in
figure
(b).
False twisting is a very important phenomenon, which has considerable practical implications in
yarn technology.

Figure: Real twisting and false twisting

Twist

Direction:

A twist can be either in Z direction or S direction as indicated in the following figure, depending
on the orientation of the surface fibre in relation to yarn axis.

Fig. : Twist direction


It is worth noting that twist direction affects fabric properties. For example, following Figure
shows two identical twill-weave fabrics with the warp yarn of different twist direction. Fabric A
will be more lustrous than fabric B, because light reflected by fibres in the warp and weft is in
the same direction. Fabric A will be softer while fabric B firmer, because in Fabric B, the surface

fibres on the warp and weft in the region of contact are aligned in the same direction and they
may get stuck inside each other and reduce the mobility of the intersection. Whereas for fabric
A, the surface fibres on the warp and weft in the region of contact are crossed over, and they can
move about easily. The freedom of movement at the yarn intersections is the key for fabric
softness.

Fig. : Effect of twist direction on fabric properties

Self-locking

Effect:

Because of twist in a yarn, the fibres on yarn surface take a roughly helical configuration around
the yarn. When the yarn is under tension, these surface fibres are also under tension. However,
because of the helical configuration, part of the tension is diverted radially, which creates a radial
pressure.
This
is
illustrated
in
the
following
figure.
The radial pressure tends to pack the fibres together, increasing the normal force between them,
and so increasing their frictional resistance to slipping past each other. The more tension is
applied to the yarn, the more it locks together, hence 'self-locking'. An analogy is, when you
wind a string around your arm, as you pull the string along the arm and away from each other,
the
string
bites
deeper
into
the
flesh.
Without twist, there wont be any self-locking effect to prevent fibre slippage. Consequently the
yarn would have no strength.

Relationship Between Yarn Count and Twist:

From

(Where

figure,

twist

angle,

we

d=

yarn

diameter

and

get,

L=

yarn

length)

Also from figure, the height (pitch) of one turn of twist is L. Since the twist level is normally
specified as the number of turns per metre, the twist level in one metre of the yarn would be:

We also know from experience that yarn diameter is also very hard to measure, because textile
yarns by their very nature are soft and squashy. On the other hand, yarn count is normally used as
we have discussed in the first topic of this module. But we can relate yarn diameter to yarn count
using the expression below:

Thus, K is a factor relating twist level to yarn count. The derivation shows that if two yarns have
the same twist factor, they will have the same surface twist angle, regardless of count. Since
surface twist angle is the main factor determining yarn character, then twist factor can be used to
define
the
character
of
a
yarn.
It is worth noting though there are minor errors associated with the use of twist factor for the
following reasons:

The cubic density may be different for different yarns. It is assumed in the above
calculation that this will not change for yarns of the same surface twist angle.

Different fibres with different frictional and other properties will create different yarn
character.

Nevertheless, the relationship we have just derived between twist, twist factor and yarn count is
one of the most important in the study of yarn technology. This relationship is expressed in

different

ways

for

different

yarn

count

systems.

For the tex system:

Please note the unit for twist is also different in the above expressions of twist factor. In addition,
twist factor is also known as twist multiplier, twist alpha, or twist coefficient.

Angle

of

Twist:

The yarn twist angle is the angle between a tangent to the helix formed by a fibre on the yarn
surface and the yarn axis. If the twist multiplier of a cotton yarn is known, the twist angle can be
easily
calculated.

Factors

Affecting

Twist:

The twist introduced in the yarn during spinning depends upon a number of factors, such as
follows:
1. The count of yarn to be spun
2. The quality of cotton used
3. The use to which the yarn is put- is the yarn meant to be used as warp yarn or weft yarn,
knitting yarn or any other yarn?
4. The fineness of the fibre being spun
5. The softness of the fabric into which the yarn is to be converted

The

Distribution

of

Twist

in

Staple

Spun

Yarns:

If someone twists your head, it is your neck that suffers most. That is because the neck is a thin
place and offers little resistance to being twisted. By analogy, if a yarn of varying thickness is
twisted, it is usually the thin spot in the yarn that gets twisted the most. Invariably, yarns spun
from staple fibres (eg. wool, cotton) are not perfectly uniform, and there are thick and thin spots
along the yarn length. This variation in yarn thickness will lead to variation in the twist level
along the yarn length, because twist tends to accumulate in the thin place.
The fact that twist tends to accumulate in the thin spot along the yarn has several important
implications:
1.
It
exacerbates
the
variation
in
yarn
linear
density
While variation in yarn linear density is the fundamental cause of twist variation, concentration
of twist in the thin places will make those places even thinner, exacerbating the problem of yarn
unevenness.
2. It improves the evenness of a fibre assembly during drafting against twist
In the drafting stage of woollen ring spinning, the woollen slubbing is drafted while twist is
inserted into the slubbing (drafting against twist) to control fibres during drafting. Because twist
tends to accumulate in the thin spots, the fibres in thin regions in the slubbing are more difficult
to draft than those in the thick places, which have less twist. As a result, the thick places are
drafted more than the thin places, thus improving the evenness of the drafted material. This is
depicted in following figure.

Figure: 'Drafting against twist' improves evenness


3.
It
has
implication
for
twist
measurements
Because the twist level varies along the yarn length, the twist measured at a short length of yarn
may not reflect the true average twist of the yarn. Standard test procedures should be followed to
measure
the
yarn
twist
accurately.
The relationship between twist and yarn count may be expressed by the following formula:

Where,

is

usually

greater

than

but

less

than

for

Twist

most

yarns.

Contraction:

When a bundle of parallel fibres is twisted, the distance between the two ends of a fibre will
decrease, particularly for fibres near the surface of the twisted bundle. As a result, the overall
length of the twisted bundle is shorter than its length before twist insertion. The reduction in
length
due
to
twist
insertion
is
known
as
twist
contraction.
The following formula is used to calculate the amount of twist contraction:

Where,
Lo
Lf

=
=

original
final

length
length

before
after

twisting
twisting

It should be noted that because of twist contraction and the associated change in length, the count
of a yarn will change slightly when twist in the yarn is changed. Twist contraction increases yarn
count (tex), because the weight of the yarn is distributed over a shorter length. The following
formula can be used

Where,
No
Nf
C

=
=

Measurement

count
count

(tex)
(tex)

before
after
%contraction

of

twisting
twisting

Twist:

Twist measurement is a routine test for yarns. Because of the variation in twist along yarn length,
care should be taken in measuring the twist of staple spun yarns. Some basic principles are
discussed
here.

Sampling

Rules:

The following rules should be observed when measuring yarn twist:


1. Tests should not be limited to a short length of the yarn package.
2. Beware of "operator bias" - tendency to select either thicker or thinner regions. Taking
samples at fixed intervals along the yarn length will reduce the bias.
3. Discard first few metres from package. Being a free end, it could have lost twist.
4. Remove yarn from side of package, not over end. Removing yarn over end will change
the twist level in the yarn.

5. Tension in Yarn during test e.g. For single worsted yarns: 5 + 1 mN/tex

Principles

of

Twist

Measuring

Methods:

The two common methods used in twist measurement are straightened fibre method and
untwist/retwist
method.

(1)

Straightened

Fibre

Method:

This method involves counting of the number of turns required to untwist the yarns until the
surface fibres appear to be straight and parallel to yarn axis. This method is mainly used for ply
and
continuous
filament
yarns.

(2)

Untwist

Retwist

Method:

This is the common method used for staple fibre yarns. It is based on twist contraction (hence
also
known
as
twist
contraction
method).
For this method, it is assumed that the contraction in length, due to insertion of twist, is the same
for both direction of twist (S and Z). Suppose we want to measure the twist level in a yarn with Z
twist, the yarn is first untwisted (by a twist tester), and a counter on the twist tester will record
the number of turns. During untwisting, the yarn would increase in length from its original length
L to a new length L. If the operation is continued, the yarn would have its twist completely
removed first and then twisted up again in S direction. As the yarn gets twisted, its length will
decrease (twist contraction) from L towards its original length L. When its original length is
reached, the total number of turns received by the yarn, as recorded by the counter on the twist
tester, would be equal to twice the twist in the original yarn (with a length of L).
Automatic twist testers are now available, such as the Zweigle automatic twist tester.
Read more: http://textilelearner.blogspot.com/2013/03/yarn-twist-relationship-betweenyarn.html#ixzz43ZtMWtYj

Mechanism of Twist Insertion to the Strand/Yarn

Twist:
Twist is the number of turns about its axis per unit of length of a yarn or other textile strand.
Twist is expressed as turns per inch (tpi), turns per meter (tpm), or turns per centimeter (tpcm). It
is a very essential process in the production of staple yarn, twine, cord and ropes. Twist is
inserted to the staple yarn to hold the constituent fibres together, thus giving enough strength to
the yarn, and also producing a continuous length of yarn. The mechanism of twist insertion to the
strand during ring spinning has been studied. The twisting of the strand occurs not only due to
the rotation of twisting elements, but also due to the winding of yarn on the package. When the
yarn is wound on a stationary cop by gripping and winding the yarn by hand, for every coil of
yarn wind one turn of twist to the yarn is inserted. Now we will discuss about way of twist
insertion to the yarn.

Twist direction

Twist Insertion to the Yarn When the Spindle is Stationary:


We assume that the spindle is stationary and the traveller rotates in the ring frame. Each
revolution of the traveller winds one coil of yarn onto the cop. This is similar to gripping and
winding the yarn on a cop by hand. The yarn will rotate 3600 per coil wind while winding the
yarn onto a stationary cop by hand; hence the winding causes yarn twisting.

Length of yarn wound per revolution of traveller = d

Turns/cm due to winding = 1/d

Where d Winding on diameter of cop or bobbin in cm.


If the yarn is unwound in parallel from the cop, the yarn will retain all the twists present in the
yarn, whereas if the yarn is over-end unwound, unwinding a coil removes one turn of twist. The
unwinding causes twisting. So, the twists inserted into the yarn during winding are removed
during over-end unwinding. The over-end withdrawal may be from any side of the cop. If the
traveller rotates in a clockwise direction to wind the yarn onto the cop, each coil of wind inserts
one turn of Z twist to the yarn. When the same is over-end unwound, every unwinding coil
inserts one turn of twist in an S direction, and so the resultant yarn will not have any twist.

Twist Insertion into the Yarn when the Traveller is


Stationary:
We assume that the traveller is fixed on a stationary ring and that the spindle is rotating at a
constant speed. Every revolution of spindle winds one coil of yarn onto the cop. Here winding
does not cause twisting, and hence the yarn in the cop will not have any twist. But if the yarn is
over-end unwound, every unwinding of a coil of yarn inserts one turn of twist into the yarn.

Turns/cm due to over-end unwinding = 1/d

The direction of twist insertion during over end unwinding depends on direction of yarn winding.
If the spindle rotates in an anticlockwise direction to wind the yarn onto the cop, during over-end
unwinding a Z twist will be inserted into the yarn. But if the same yarn is unwound in parallel,
the
yarn
will
not
receive
any
twist.

Twist Insertion onto the Yarn when both Spindle and


Traveller
rotate
in
Opposite
Direction:
It may be wondered why it should be necessary to rotate the traveller and spindle in the opposite
direction, and also how to rotate the traveller in the opposite direction. This is only to enable the
reader to clearly understand the mechanism of twisting. When both the spindle and traveller
rotate in the opposite direction, each revolution of the spindle and traveller winds one coil each.
The length of yarn wound per min and twist/cm can be calculated.

Length of yarn wound per min = d (NS+NT)

Twist/cm due to winding = - NT/ d (NS+NT) where

NS spindle speed in rpm,

NT traveller speed in rpm.

If the spindle and traveller rotate in clockwise and anticlockwise directions respectively, the
direction of twist insertion due to winding would be S. But during over-end unwinding, the
direction of twist insertion would be Z. + and - signs are used to represent the Z and S twist
directions respectively.

Twist/cm due to over-end unwinding = (NT/ d (NS+NT)) + (NS/ d (NS+NT))

Twist/cm in the yarn after over-end withdrawal = (NS/ d (NS+NT)

Twist Insertion onto the Yarn when the Spindle leads the
Traveller:
In ring spinning, both the spindle and traveller rotate in the same direction. However, the spindle
rotates at a higher speed than the traveller. If both rotate at the same speed, only the twisting of
yarn takes place without winding. Due to the difference in their rotational speeds, the winding of
the yarn takes place on the cop.

Length of yarn wound on the cop per min = d (NS NT)

Due to rotation, both spindle and traveller insert twists onto the yarn. If both the spindle and
traveller rotate in a clockwise direction, a Z twist is inserted to the yarn.

Turns/cm in the yarn = NT/d (NS NT)

The winding rate should be equal to the delivery rate.

Length of yarn delivered (cm/min) = d (NS NT)

Here winding takes place in similar conditions to when the traveller is stationary and the spindle
is rotating; hence winding does not insert any twist onto the yarn. On the other hand, during
over-end unwinding one turn of twist is inserted for every unwound [[*]] of coil.

Turns/cm for unwinding = 1/d

Total twist present in the yarn after over-end unwound = NT/d(NS NT) + 1/d =
NS/d(NS-NT)

Since yarn from the ring cop is normally over-end withdrawn during the winding process, the
spindle speed is taken for calculating the turns/cm in the yarn instead of using traveller speed.
However, turns/cm in the roving is calculated by taking the flyer speed into account. This is due
to
the
parallel
withdrawal
of
roving
during
spinning.

Twist Insertion onto the Strand when Flyer leads Bobbin:


Due to the difference in the speeds of the flyer and the bobbin, the winding of roving takes place
on the bobbin.

Twist/cm due to twisting = NB / d(NF-NB)

Twist/cm due to winding = (NF-NB)/ d(NF-NB)

Twist/cm in the roving = NF / d(NF-NB) where

NF - flyer speed in rpm,

NB - bobbin speed in rpm.

If the roving is unwound in parallel, the roving will have the same amount of twist as in the
bobbin, but if it is over-end withdrawn, it will lose a certain amount of twist during unwinding.

Turns/cm due to over-end withdrawal = - (NF-NB)/ d(NF-NB)

Turns/cm in the roving after over-end withdrawal = NB/d (NF-NB)

Read more: http://textilelearner.blogspot.com/2012/05/mechanism-of-twist-insertionto.html#ixzz43ZtkWZjF

Calculation of Twist, Twist Constant of the Ring Frame

Name of the experiment:

Calculation of twist, twist constant of the ring frame.

Objects:
1. To find out twist per inch of the ring frame.
2. To find out twist constant of the ring frame.

Specification:

Front roller diameter = 1"

Tin cylinder diameter = 10"

Whrave diameter = 1.125"

Twist change pinion = 48T

Gearing diagram:

Figure: gearing diagram for calculating twist and twist constant of ring frame.

Calculation:

Result:
1. TPI= 21
2. Twist constant= 1008

Conclusion:
Ring frame is the final and very important machine for build the yarn onto bobbin in a form
suitable for storage, transportation and processing. It is used to twist the drafted strand to form
yarn of required count and strength. In this practical we calculate twist, twist constant of the ring
frame. By this practical we come to know about the gearing diagram of ring frame. Special
thanks to our teacher and his assistance for helping us.
Read more: http://textilelearner.blogspot.com/2012/02/calculation-of-twist-twist-constantof.html#ixzz43Zu2S8ip

Twist Constant of the Speed Frame / Simplex M/C / Roving Frame Machine |
Calculation of Twist, Twist Constant of the Speed Frame Machine

Name of the experiment: Calculation of twist, twist constant of the speed frame
machine.

Introduction:
Twist is the spiral turns given to a yarn to increase the strength of the yarn. But in speed frame
machine vary small amount of twist is given to the roving to make it able to wound onto a
bobbin. For a fibrous material twist is measured by the parameter twist per inch (TPI), twist per
centimeter or twist per meter (TPM). For the cotton sample twist is measured by TPI.
In speed frame machines twist per unit is varied with the variation of raw material and its
different parameters. This variation of twist is inserted by changing a wheel that is connected
with the main driving shaft named twist change pinion (TCP). And the multiply of TCP and TPI,
present in a machine is called twist constant. This value is applicable for any required twist with
corresponding TCP. So we can find out the required TCP to get a given TPI. The generalize
formulae is as below:

Specification:

Front roller carrier wheel :80T(A)

Twist constant change pinion carrier:30T(B)

Twist constant change pinion:30T(C)

Twist change pinion:28T(D)

Sprocket wheel:34T(E)

Sprocket pinion:36T(F)

Spindle carrier wheel:40T(G)

Spindle wheel:22T(H)

GEARING DIAGRAM:

Fig: Gearing diagram of speed frame

Calculation:

Result:
Twist
Required

per

inch
TCP

TPI

1.56
33

Conclusion:
Speed frame is the first machine which enables the winding of the fibrous material on to a

package. From this machine the fibre gets a circular shape which is very advantageous to be used
in ring spinning. So the importance of this machine is very much. In this experiment we indicate
different gearing diagram of the twist inserting portion; specify it and calculate twist and twist
constant. We found a satisfactory result. So the experiment is a successful one.
Read more: http://textilelearner.blogspot.com/2012/02/twist-constant-of-speed-framesimplex.html#ixzz43ZuF5xU7

Yarn Twist | Twist direction | Types of Twist | Twist Principle

Yarn

Twist:

Twist is the spiral arrangement of the fibres around the axis of the yarn. The twist binds the fibres
together and also contributes to the strength of the yarn. The amount of twist inserted in a yarn
defines the appearance and the strength of the yarn. The number of twists is referred to as turns
per inch.

Yarn twist
There are different definitions given to twist of the yarn. Some of the definitions given are
as follows:
Yarn twist is defined as the spiral deposition of the components of a twist is the measure of the
spiral turns given to a yarn in order to hold the constituent fibres or threads together Skinkle.
When a strand is twisted the component fibres tend to take on a spiral formation, the geometric
perfection of which depends on their original formation Morton.
Twist may be defined as the rotation about the yarn axis of any line drawn on the yarn which was
originally, before twisting parallel to the yarn axis Wool Res. Vol. 3.
Twist may also be defined as thread which is usually the result of relative rotation of the
two
ends.

Twist

direction:

The direction of the twist at each stage of manufacture is indicated by the use of letters S or Z in
accordance
with
the
following
convention:

A single yarn has S twist if, when it is held in the vertical position, the fibres inclined to the axis
of the yarn conform in the direction of the slope to the central portion of the letter S. Similarly
the yarn has Z twist if the fibres inclined to the axis of yarn conform in the direction of slope to
the
central
portion
of
the
letter
Z.
The Amount of Twist: In B.S. 946: 1952 it is stated that the amount of twist in a thread at each
stage of manufacture is denoted by a figure giving the number of turns of twist per unit length at
that stage. It affects the characteristics and properties of a yarn including appearance, behaviour
and
durability.
The amount of twist is an important factor in finished consumer goods. It determines the
appearance as well as the durability and serviceability of a fabric. Fine yarns require more twist
than coarser yarns. Warp yarns, which are used for the length wise threads in a woven fabric, are
given more twist than filling yarn which is used for cross wise threads.
The amount of twist also depends upon the type of the fabric to be woven:
1. Yarns intended for soft surfaced fabric are given slack twist. They are called as soft
twisted yarns.
2. Yarns intended for smooth surfaced fabrics are given optimum twists. Such twisted yarns
contribute strength, smoothness and elasticity.
3. Yarns intended for crepe fabrics are given maximum amount of twists.

Types of Twist

S-twist

Z-twist

Twist Principle
One end will be fixed and another end will be turned this is the twist principle.
Read more: http://textilelearner.blogspot.com/2012/01/yarn-twist-twist-direction-typesof.html#ixzz43ZuS5PIE

Yarn Twist | Twisting Process of Yarn | Mechanism of Twist Insertion to the


Strand

Yarn Twist:
Twisting is a very essential process in the production of staple yarn, twine, cord and ropes. Twist
is inserted to the staple yarn to hold the constituent fibres together, thus giving enough strength
to the yarn, and also producing a continuous length of yarn. The twist in the yarn has a two-fold

effect; firstly the twist increases cohesion between the fibres by increasing the lateral pressure in
the yarn, thus giving enough strength to the yarn. Secondly, twist increases the helical angle of
fibres and prevents the ability to aooly the maximum fibre strength to the yarn. Due to the above
effects, as the twist increases, the yarn strength increases up to a certain level, beyond which the
increase in twist actually decreases the strength of staple yarn. The continuous filament yarn also
requires a small amount of twist in order to avoid the fraying of filaments and to increase
abrasion resistance.

Yarn Twist
However, twisting the continuous filament yarn reduces the strength of the yarn . Yarn is often
ply-twisted in a direction opposite to a single yarn twist to improve evenness, strength,
elongation, bulkiness, lustre and abrasion resistance, and to reduce twist liveliness, hairiness and
variation
in
strength
.
The twisting of fibres strands are carried out on a roving frame, ring frame, rotor spinning and
DREF spinning machines etc. This twisted strand has to be wound on the delivery package in a
certain form for easy withdrawal of these strands in the next process. Since the open end of the
yarn is rotated in the rotor and DREF spinning systems, the delivery package has to be rotated
axially to wind the yarn. The twisting and winding operations are separated in the open-end
spinning . However, this is not possible on a roving frame or a ring frame.
There should be two rotating elements (the spindle and traveller or flyer and bobbin) in order to
twist and wind the strand on the package. The winding rate should be equal to the delivery rate
from the drafting device. As the winding on the diameter of the package varies continuously
throughout the process, the difference in speed between the two elements also has to be varied
continuously. Since the delivery rate is constant, the product of winding on diameter and the
speed difference between the two rotating elements should be kept constant. On a roving frame,
this is achieved by adjusting the bobbin speed continuously and keeping the flyer speed constant,
whereas in ring spinning, only the spindle is rotated at a constant rate and the traveller is dragged
around the ring by the yarn. Due to the frictional force between the ring and traveller, the
required speed difference between the spindle and traveller is automatically adjusted. In both the

ring and roving frame of the short-staple spinning system, the bobbin lead is used. For
calculating twist in the roving, the flyer speed is taken into account, whereas in ring spinning, the
spindle speed is considered .

Twist/cm in the roving = flyer speed in rpm)/ delivery rate in cm/min

Twist/cm in the yarn = spindle speed in rpm/ delivery rate in cm/min

The reasons for the above, and the mechanism of twisting strands on a roving frame and ring
frame are not explained in textbooks or literature. In the present paper, the mechanism of
twisting strands on a roving frame and ring frame is explained.

Mechanism

of

twist

insertion

to

the

strand

Twist insertion to the yarn when the spindle is stationary. We assume that the spindle is
stationary and the traveller rotates in the ring frame. Each revolution of the traveller winds one
coil of yarn onto the cop. This is similar to gripping and winding the yarn on a cop by hand. The
yarn will rotate 3600 per coil wind while winding the yarn onto a stationary cop by hand; hence
the
winding
causes
yarn
twisting.
Length

of

yarn

Turns/cm
Where,

wound

due
d

per
to

Winding

on

revolution

of

winding
diameter

of

traveller
=

cop

or

1/d
bobbin

in

cm.

If the yarn is unwound in parallel from the cop, the yarn will retain all the twists present in the
yarn, whereas if the yarn is over-end unwound, unwinding a coil removes one turn of twist. The
unwinding causes twisting. So, the twists inserted into the yarn during winding are removed
during over-end unwinding. The over-end withdrawal may be from any side of the cop. If the
traveller rotates in a clockwise direction to wind the yarn onto the cop, each coil of wind inserts
one turn of Z twist to the yarn. When the same is over-end unwound, every unwinding coil
inserts one turn of twist in an S direction, and so the resultant yarn will not have any twist.
Twist insertion into the yarn when the traveller is stationary. We assume that the traveller is fixed
on a stationary ring and that the spindle is rotating at a constant speed. Every revolution of
spindle winds one coil of yarn onto the cop. Here winding does not cause twisting, and hence the
yarn in the cop will not have any twist. But if the yarn is over-end unwound, every unwinding of
a coil of yarn inserts one turn of twist into the yarn.
Turns/cm due to over-end unwinding = 1/d
The direction of twist insertion during over end unwinding depends on direction of yarn winding.
If the spindle rotates in an anticlockwise direction to wind the yarn onto the cop, during over-end
unwinding a Z twist will be inserted into the yarn. But if the same yarn is unwound in parallel,
the
yarn
will
not
receive
any
twist.

Twist insertion onto the yarn when both spindle and traveller rotate in opposite direction. It may
be wondered why it should be necessary to rotate the traveller and spindle in the opposite
direction, and also how to rotate the traveller in the opposite direction. This is only to enable the
reader to clearly understand the mechanism of twisting. When both the spindle and traveller
rotate in the opposite direction, each revolution of the spindle and traveller winds one coil each.
The length of yarn wound per min and twist/cm can be calculated.

Length of yarn wound per min = d (NS+NT)

Twist/cm due to winding = - NT/ d (NS+NT)

Where
NS
NT

spindle
traveller

speed
speed

in
in

rpm,
rpm.

If the spindle and traveller rotate in clockwise and anticlockwise directions respectively, the
direction of twist insertion due to winding would be S. But during over-end unwinding, the
direction of twist insertion would be Z. + and - signs are used to represent the Z and S twist
directions respectively.

Twist/cm due to over-end unwinding = (NT/ d (NS+NT)) + (NS/ d (NS+NT))

Twist/cm in the yarn after over-end withdrawal = (NS/ d (NS+NT)

Twist insertion onto the yarn when the spindle leads the traveller. In ring spinning, both the
spindle and traveller rotate in the same direction. However, the spindle rotates at a higher speed
than the traveller. If both rotate at the same speed, only the twisting of yarn takes place without
winding. Due to the difference in their rotational speeds, the winding of the yarn takes place on
the cop.
Length of yarn wound on the cop per min = d (NS NT)
Due to rotation, both spindle and traveller insert twists onto the yarn. If both the spindle and
traveller rotate in a clockwise direction, a Z twist is inserted to the yarn.

Turns/cm in the yarn = NT/d (NS NT)

The winding rate should be equal to the delivery rate.

Length of yarn delivered (cm/min) = d (NS NT)

Here winding takes place in similar conditions to when the traveller is stationary and the spindle
is rotating; hence winding does not insert any twist onto the yarn. On the other hand, during
over-end unwinding one turn of twist is inserted for every unwound of coil.

Turns/cm

for

unwinding

1/d

Total twist present in the yarn after over-end unwound = NT/d(NS NT) + 1/d = NS/d(NSNT)
Since yarn from the ring cop is normally over-end withdrawn during the winding process, the
spindle speed is taken for calculating the turns/cm in the yarn instead of using traveller speed.
However, turns/cm in the roving is calculated by taking the flyer speed into account. This is due
to
the
parallel
withdrawal
of
roving
during
spinning.
Twist insertion onto the strand when flyer leads bobbin. Due to the difference in the speeds of the
flyer and the bobbin, the winding of roving takes place on the bobbin.

Twist/cm due to twisting = NB / d(NF-NB)

Twist/cm due to winding = (NF-NB)/ d(NF-NB)

Twist/cm in the roving = NF / d(NF-NB)

Where,
NF
NB

flyer
bobbin

speed
speed

in
in

rpm,
rpm.

If the roving is unwound in parallel, the roving will have the same amount of twist as in the
bobbin, but if it is over-end withdrawn, it will lose a certain amount of twist during unwinding.

Turns/cm due to over-end withdrawal = - (NF-NB)/ d(NF-NB)

Turns/cm in the roving after over-end withdrawal = NB/d (NF-NB)

Summary and conclusion:

Yarn will rotate 3600 per coil wound while winding yarn onto a stationary cop by hand.
When it is over-end unwound from the cop, all twists present in the yarn are removed.
Hence both winding and over-end unwinding cause twisting, but in opposite directions.

If the yarn is wound onto the cop by feeding the yarn perpendicular to the cop and
rotating it, winding the yarn will not cause any twisting. But if the yarn is over-end
withdrawn, the yarn will receive one turn of twist per coil unwound.

If the flyer leads the bobbin in the roving frame, twisting of the roving takes place due to
both twisting and winding.

Since the yarn from the cop is over-end withdrawn during winding, the spindle speed is
taken for calculating the twist in the yarn, whereas the flyer speed is taken for calculating
the twist in the roving, due to parallel unwinding of the roving during spinning.

The over-end unwinding of yarn helps in getting extra twist to the yarn, and the parallel
unwinding of roving will not introduce any extra twist to the roving. If the roving is overend withdrawn during spinning, every coil unwound will insert one turn of twist onto the
roving. Hence the break draft and the setting of the back roller have to be increased to
facilitate the breakage of the twist present in the roving. Otherwise, undrafting of the
strand will occur during drafting. Hence the roving is normally unwound in parallel from
the bobbin during ring spinning.

Read more: http://textilelearner.blogspot.com/2011/07/yarn-twist-twisting-process-ofyarn_1007.html#ixzz43Zugyuip