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Table of Content

Bil

Content

Page

1.

Abstract

2.

Introduction

3.

Objective

4.

Apparatus

5.

Theory

6.

Procedure

7.

Result and Calculation

9-14

8.

Discussion

15-16

9.

Conclusion

17

10.

Recommendation

18

11.

Reference

19

4-7
8

1.1 Abstract
A solution of sodium hydroxide, a strong base, will be used as the titrant to generate a pH
titration curve for an unknown acid. Measurement of the pH as the titration proceeds is
done by using a pH electrode. The initial acid concentration and the pH at the initial
point, half-equivalence point, and equivalence point will allow the calculation of values
of the Ka for the acid. A plot of pH versus volume of NaOH solution added will be used
to determine the pKa of acid. Two methods of calculations are used to determine the Ka
of the unknown acid which are the initial Ph method and the half-equivalence method.
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From the calculation, by using method 1, the Ka value is 6.383 x 10
while method 2
gives the Ka value of

5.163 x 10

. The unknown acid is determined to be a Potassium

Hydrogen Phthalate (KHP). The percentage error for method 1 is 63.2% while the
percentage error for method 2 is 98.67%. It is proven that method 1 is more accurate.
However, the results for this experiment is not acceptable as it has high percentage error.
1.2 Introduction

An unknown acid with known molarity is used in titration with sodium hydroxide. A titration
is a process in which there is a small increment of a solution of known concentration are
added to a specific volume of a solution of unknown concentration until the stoichiometry for
that reaction is attained. The calculation for the value of

Ka

can be done from the known

quantity of known solution required to complete the titration. The purpose of this titration is
to determine the equivalence point and half-equivalence point of the reaction that can be
obtained from the graph. The equivalence point occurs when the moles of acid in solution
equals to the moles of bases added in the titration, showing that the solution have been
neutralized.

1.3 Objective
To determine the unknown acid by calculating its ionization constant, Ka.

1.4 Apparatus and materials


The materials and apparatus used in this experiment are:
A 250 ml beaker
0.1M sodium hydroxide solution
250 ml of distilled water
10 ml of unknown acid solution
PH electrode
A burrette
10ml volumetric pipette

1.5 Theory
In the titration process, a burette is used to dispense a small, quantifiable increment of
solution of known concentration (Figure 1-a). A typical burette has the smallest calibration
unit of 0.1mL (Figure 1-b), therefore, volume dispense from the burette should be estimated
to the nearest 0.01mL.

Figure 1 : a) Depicts a typical 50-mL burette. b) Indicates smallest calibration unit, 0.1mL, on a typical 50
mL burette.

There are two general methods used to determine the Ka value of a weak acid:
1. Titrating the weak acid with sodium hydroxide
2. Measuring the pH of the weak acid solution

Determination of the Ka value of weak acid by titration with NaOH


A titration curve is formed by plotting the pH of the acid solution against the volume of
NaOH added as shown in Figure 2. The equivalence point of the titration is achieved when all
of the weak acid (HA) has completely reacted with NaOH. On the titration curve, the
equivalence point is read at the middle of the region where the pH increases abruptly. The
half-equivalence point for the titration is achieved when one half of the base needed to
complete to neutralize the acid has been added. The concentration of the acid in the solution,

[HA] is equal to the concentration of its conjugate base,

Figure 2 : Titration curve of weak acid titratd by NaOH


Equivalence point:
11.369.20 11V
=
9.206.52 V 10
2.16 11V
=
2.68 V 10
2.16 V 21.60=29.48 2.68V

4.84 V =51.08
V =10.55 mL

Half equivalence point =

10.55 mL
=5.28 mL
2

6.005.28 5.20 pH
=
5.284.00 pH 4.88
0.72 5.20 pH
=
1.28 pH4.88
0.72 pH 3.51=6.661.28 pH

2 pH =10.17
pH=5.09

In this experiment, a solution whose pH is resistant to impurities is prepared


by titrating the weak acid (HA) with a strong base, NaOH.
Na A
(aq) + H 2 O(l)
NaOH (aq )+ HA (aq)

(Equation 1)

The sudden change in the pH of the solution shows that the titration has reached the
equivalence point. pH in an aqueous solution is related to its hydrogen ion concentration.
+
Symbolically, the hydrogen ion concentration is written as [ H 3 O ]. pH is defined as the
negative of the logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration.
+
pH = - log [ H 3 O ]

(Equation 2)

The quantitative measure of the position of the equilibrium is called the equilibrium constant.
For an acid dissociation, the equilibrium constant is called the acid dissociation constant,
or K a . It is defined as follows:
(Equation 3)
A
(aq)
H 3 O+
(aq)+
HA (aq )+ H 2 O (l)
+
A

H 3 O

K a =

In the case of a weak acid, the actual value of Ka is a small number, indicating that only a
small fraction of the acid is dissociated into ions at any given time. Concentrations of HA and

A in the resulting half-neutralised solution will be equal :


7

(Equation 4)
A

, assume this concentration as

[H A]=

X , so that

[HA ]=

+
A

+
H3O X

H3O

H 3 O

K a=

Taking the negative sign of the logarithm on each side, we can derive :
(Equation 5)
+
H 3 O
log K a=log
p K a= pH
5.09

For equation 5, it indicates that the


the half equivalence point. The

pKa

for the acid is equal to the pH of the solution at

K a of the acid is determined from the p K a value as

follows :
8

K a=10 p K

5.09

10

8.128 x 106

For the second method, initial pH of the weak acid is used to determine its

Ka .

pH of unknown acid = 4.0


H

A(aq)
+
H 3 O(aq)+
HA (aq )+ H 2 O (l)
Initial (M)

0.1

Change (M)

1.0 x 10

+ 1.0 x 10

1.0 x 10

Equilibrium (M)

0.1- 1.0 x 10

1.0 x 10

1.0 x 104

+
A

H 3 O

K a =

[ 1.0 x 104 ] [1.0 x 104 ]


[1.0]

1.0 x 10

10

1.6 Procedure

1
2
3

10ml of unknown acid was taken into the beaker.


200ml of NaOH solution was taken too into the different beaker.
The distilled water were added to the unknown acid so that the pH electrode can sink

4
5
6

into the bottom of the beaker.


The NaOH solution then were poured into the burette to proceed the titration.
The initial pH of the unknown acid was recorded in the table.
2ml of NaOH solution was titrated by using the burette into the beaker that containing

7
8
9

unknown acid and distilled water.


The Ph of the solution was taken.
Steps 6 and 7 were repeated until the pH reading is approximately constant.
The titration were repeated for second trial.

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1.7 Result and Calculation

Volume of NaOH (ml)


0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
10.50
11.00
11.50
12.00
12.50

pH
Titration 1
4.17
4.46
4.71
4.88
5.11
5.22
5.37
5.59
5.81
6.18
10.49
10.76
10.96
11.07
11.17
11.24

Titration 2
4.12
4.44
4.67
4.87
5.06
5.25
5.42
5.62
5.88
6.34
10.29
10.67
10.88
11.03
11.12
11.21

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Method 1 (Titration of weak acid with sodium hydroxide solution)

Titration 1
12
10
8

pH of the solution

6
pH

4
2
0
0

10

12

14

Volume of NaOH (ml)

Equivalence Point
10.50+ 6.18
2

= 8.34 pH

From graph at pH 8.35, the volume of NaOH is 9.50 mL


From calculation the volume of NaOH is
10.508.34
8.346.18

10.00V
V 9.00

V = 9.50 mL
Therefore at equivalence point pH 8.34, the volume of NaOH is 9.50 mL

Half- Equivalence Point


9.50 mL
= 4.75 mL
2
5.22x
x5.11

5.004.75
4.754.00

13

x = 5.19
The pH at half-equivalence point is 5.19 and the volume of NaOH is 4.75 mL

Half- Equivalence Point is Pka


Calculation of acid ionization constant, Ka
pKa = - log Ka
5.19 = -log Ka
Ka = shift log pKa
Ka = shift log -5.19
6
Ka = 6.457 10

12
10
8

pH of the solution

6
ph

4
2
0
0

10

12

14

Volume of NaOH (ml)

Titration 2

Equivalence Point
10.29+ 6.34
2

= 8.32 pH

Calculation for the volume of NaOH

14

10.298.32
8.326.34

V 9.00

10.00V

V = 9.50 mL

Half- Equivalence Point


9.50 mL
2

= 4.75 mL

5.004.75
4.754.00

5.25 y
y 5.06

y = 5.20
The pH at half-equivalence point is 5.20 and the volume of NaOH is 4.75 mL.

Calculation of ionization constant, Ka


pKa = -log Ka
5.20 = -log Ka
Ka = shift log pKa
Ka = shift log 5.20
6.31 10
Ka = [ 6]

Average value of Titration 1 and Titration 2


6.31 106+ 6.457 106
2

= 6.383 10

15

Method 2 (from initial concentration and pH of weak acid)


Titration 1

Initial pH = 4.17

Concentration

+
pH
4.17
=6.761 X 105
H 30 = 10 =10

HA

Initial

0.1 M

Change

5
- 6.761 x 10

(0.1M6.761 x 105 )

Equilibrium

H20

+
H 3 O

5
+ 6.761 x 10

5
+ 6.761 x 10

6.761 x 105

6.761 x 105

+
A

(aq)
(aq)
H 3 O

K a =

[ 6.761 X 105 ]
[0.1]
K a=

[6.761 X 105 ]

K a=4.571 x 10

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Titration 2

Initial pH = 4.12

Concentration

+
pH
4.12
5
H 30 = 10 =10 =7.586 X 10

HA

Initial
Change

Equilibrium

0.1 M
5
- 7.586 x 10

(0.1M7.586 x 105 )

H20

+
H 3 O

5
+ 7.586 x 10

7.586 x 10

5
+ 7.586 x 10

7.586 x 10

+
A

(aq)
(aq)
H 3 O

K a =
17

[ 7.586 x 105 ]
[0.1]
K a =

[7.586 x 105 ]

K a=5.755 x 108

Average ionization constant of weak acid, Ka

Ka=

4.571 x 108 +5.755 x 108


2

Ka=5.163 x 108

pKa = -log Ka
8
pKa = -log 5.163 x 10

pKa = 7.287
1.8 Discussion
The aim of the experiment is to find out the unknown acid by calculating its Ka value
by titration with the standardized sodium hydroxide solution. The unknown acid based on
theory is KHP.

The following of apparatus were set up to do the titration.

Burette
200ml beaker
pH electrode
Retort stand
A titration curve is formed by plotting the pH of the acid solution against the volume

of NaOH added. The equivalence point of the titration is achieved when all of the weak acid
(HA) has completely reacted with NaOH. On the titration curve, the equivalence point is read
at the middle of the region where the pH increases abruptly.
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The half-equivalence point for the titration is achieved when one half of the base
needed to complete to neutralize the acid has been added. The concentration of the acid in the

solution, [HA] is equal to the concentration of its conjugate base,

The sudden change in the pH of the solution shows that the titration has reached the
equivalence point. pH in an aqueous solution is related to its hydrogen ion concentration.
+
Symbolically, the hydrogen ion concentration is written as [ H 3 O ]. pH is defined as the
negative of the logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration.
In the case of a weak acid, the actual value of Ka is a small number, indicating that
only a small fraction of the acid is dissociated into ions at any given time. Concentrations of
HA and

in the resulting half-neutralised solution will be equal.

19

The following ethics and precautions below should be practised :

eliminated the bubble in the burette to get the accurate reading.


Rinse your glassware with distilled water. Dry (at least the outside) with a paper

towel. Return it to the drawer from whence it came.


Avoid too fast a titration rate could cause you to overshoot

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1.9 Conclusion
Based on the experimental data collected, the
6

6.383 x 10

Ka

of unknown acid is from method 1 is


8

. From method 2, the Ka of unkown acid is5.163 x 10 .

The unknown acid used in this experiment is Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate (KHP) ,
6
KHC8H4O4 with theoretical value of Ka is 3.91 10 .

Percentage error can be calculated by;


Percentage error =

TheoriticalE
m
xpieraenlt
Theoritical

100%

Therefore, the percentage error for this experiment is;


a) Percentage error for method 1
3.91 106 6.383 x 106
6
Percentage error =
3.91 10

100% = 63.2%

b) Percentage error for method 2


3.91 106 5.163 x 108
Percentage error =
3.91 106

100% = 98.67%

Therefore experiment is not acceptable because the high value of percentage error.

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1.10 Recommendations

A few recommendations is suggested on the techniques employed during the experiment.


First, in order to prevent the bubbles from appear in the burette, rinse the burette with a few
5ml of aliquots of base before filing.
Also, for future studies, it is recommended to use a different approach. We need to take 2
times reading to avoid the parallax error. And it is to also get the equivalence point more
accurate. Make sure to place your eyes perpendicularly to get the accurate readings.
For measuring the distilled water, more accurate apparatus should be use. Not to forget for
safety precautions, wear your safety goggles. If you spill any acid or base on your clothing,
wash it off immediately with running water.
For the waste disposal, pour the excess NaOH and the buffer solutions down the drain,
followed by plenty of running water. Empty the titrated solutions and the remainder of your
unknown acid or base solution in an inorganic waste containers provided in the fume hood.

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1.11 References

T. Mettler, (n.d.), Titration Solution, retrieved from www.mt.com/titration-solutions

Juniata, (n.d.), Determination of the Ka of a Weak Acid, retrieved from


www.services.juniata.edu/.../labs/.../procedural%20labs/Determination-of-ka-of-aweak-acid

A.C. Clara, (n.d.), Determination of Ka of Weak Acid Lab, retrieved from


http://www.chemistrylabmanual.com/uploads/2/5/6/1/25614215/determiningka.pdf

A. Norbani,. T.M. Ling,

(August 15, 2015). Page 252, retrieved from IPTA

Publications 8th Ed. College Chemistry

Wikipedia,

(March

24,

2016),

Acid-base

Titration,

retrieved

from

https://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/acid-base_reaction

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