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Chemistry Assignment Sheet Ch.

6 Thermochemistry
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In class: Notes for Asst. #47

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Due: Asst. #47 Ch. 6 Problems: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5.
In class: Notes for Asst. #48

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Due: Asst. #48 Ch. 6 Problems: C2, C3, C6, C5, A6.
In class: Notes for Asst. #49

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Due: Asst. #49 Ch. 6 Problems: C4, C7, C8, B1, B2, E1ab.
In class: Notes for Asst. #50

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Due: Asst. #50 Ch. 6 Problems: E2a, D1, D2, D3, D4 .


In class: discuss Specific Heat Capacity Lab

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In class: Specific Heat Capacity Lab

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Due: Specific Heat Capacity Lab Report &


Review Asst. #51 Ch. 6 Problems: A2, A5, A6, C1a, C6, E3, D5, D6.
In class: Sample Problems for Test

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Due: Study Sheet (or Flash Cards) & 10 or more Practice Problems
In class: Test Chapter 6
**Standards are due the day after the test!

Chemistry Ch. 6 Thermochemistry


A. Heat and Work
A1) Calculate E for each of the following cases:
a) q = 51 kj, w = -15 kj
b) q = 100. kj, w = -65 kj
c) q = -65 kj, w = -20. kj
d) In which of these cases does the system do
work on the surroundings?
A2) A gas absorbs 45 kj of heat and does 29 kj of
work. Calculate E.
A3) A system releases 125 kj of heat while 104 kj
of work is done on it. Calculate E.
A4) The volume of an ideal gas is decreased from
5.0 L to 5.0 ml at a constant pressure of 2.0 atm.
Calculate the work associated with this process.
A5) Consider a mixture of air and gasoline vapor
in a cylinder with a piston. The original volume is
40. cm3. If the combustion of this mixture
releases 950. j of energy, to what volume, will the
gases expand against a constant pressure of 650.
torr, if all the energy of combustion is converted
into work to push back the piston?
A6) A balloon filled with 39.1 mol helium has a
volume of 876 L at 0.0oC and 1.00 atm pressure.
The temperature of the balloon is increased to
38.0oC as it expands to a volume of 998 L, the
pressure remaining constant. Calculate the q, w,
and E for the helium in the balloon. (The molar
heat capacity of helium gas is 20.8 j/oCmol.)
B. Properties of Enthalpy
B1) Are the following processes exothermic or
endothermic?
a) When solid KBr is dissolved in water, the
solution gets colder.
b) Natural gas (CH4) is burned in a furnace.
c) When concentrated H2SO4 is added to water,
the solution gets very hot.
d) Water is boiled in a teakettle.
B2) Are the following processes exothermic or
endothermic?
a) the combustion of gasoline in a car engine
b) water condensing on a cold pipe
c) CO2(s) CO2(g) {dry ice sublimating}
d) F2(g) 2 F(g) {breaking of a bond}

B3) For the reaction:


S(s) + O2(g) SO2(g) H = -296 kj/mol
a) How much heat is evolved, when 275 g sulfur
is burned in excess O2?
b) How much heat is evolved, when 25 mol
sulfur is burned in excess O2?
c) How much heat is evolved, when 150. g
sulfur dioxide is produced?
Hint: Do a stoichiometry using H = -296
kj/mol.
B4) The overall reaction in commercial heat
packs can be represented as
4 Fe(s) + 3 O2(g) 2 Fe2O3(s) H = -1652 kj/mol
a) How much heat is released, when 4.00 mol
iron is reacted with excess O2?
b) How much heat is released, when 1.00 mol
Fe2O3 is produced?
c) How much heat is released, when 1.00 g iron
is reacted with excess O2?
d) How much heat is released, when 10.0 g Fe
and
2.00 g O2 are reacted?
C. Calorimetry and Heat Capacity
C1) The specific heat capacity of aluminum is
0.900 j/goC.
a) Calculate the energy needed to raise the
temperature of a 8.50 X102 g block of aluminum
from 22.8oC to 94.6oC.
b) Calculate the molar heat capacity of
aluminum.
C2) The specific heat capacity of silver is 0.24
j/goC.
a) Calculate the energy required to raise the
temperature of 150.0 g Ag from 273 K to 298 K.
b) Calculate the energy required to raise the
temperature of 1.0 mol Ag by 1.0oC (the molar
heat capacity of silver).
c) It takes 1.25 kj of energy to heat a sample of
pure silver from 12.0oC to 15.2oC. Calculate the
mass of the sample of silver.
C3) It takes 78.2 j to raise the temperature of
45.6 g lead by 13.3oC. Calculate the specific
heat capacity and molar heat capacity of lead.

C4) It takes 585 j of energy to raise the


temperature of 125.6 g mercury from 20.0oC to
53.5oC. Calculate the specific heat capacity and
molar heat capacity of mercury.
C5) A 15.0 g sample of nickel metal is heated to
100.0oC and dropped into 55.0 g of water, initially
at 23.0oC. Calculate the final temperature of the
nickel and the water, if the specific heat capacity
of nickel is 0.444 j/goC.
C6) A 150.0 g sample of metal at 75.0oC is added
to 180.0 g of water at 15.0oC. The temperature of
the metal and water go to 18.3 oC. Calculate the
specific heat of the metal.
C7) A 46.2 g sample of copper is heated to 95.4oC
and then placed in a calorimeter containing 75.0 g
water at 19.6oC. The final temperature of the
metal and water is 21.8oC. Calculate the specific
heat of the copper.
C8) A 78.9 g sample of zinc metal is heated to
100.0oC and added to 234 ml of water at 22.0oC.
Calculate the final temperature of the zinc and
water, if the specific heat capacity of zinc is 0.388
j/goC. {Density of water is 1.00 g/ml.}
C9) In a coffee-cup calorimeter, 50.0 ml of 0.100
M AgNO3 and 50.0 ml of 0.100 M HCl are mixed
to yield the following net ionic reaction:
Ag+1(aq) + Cl-1(aq) AgCl(s)
The two solutions were initially at 22.60oC, and
the final temperature is 23.40oC. Calculate the
heat that accompanies this reaction in kj/mol of
AgCl formed. Assume that the combined solution
has a mass of
100.0 g and has a specific heat capacity of 4.18
j/goC.
C10) Consider the dissolution of CaCl2:
CaCl2(s) Ca2+(aq) + 2 Cl-1(aq) H = -81.2 kj/mol
An 11.0 g sample of CaCl2 is dissolved in 125 g
of water, with both substances at 25.0oC.
Calculate the temperature of the solution
assuming no heat is lost to the surroundings and
assuming the solution has a specific heat capacity
of 4.18 j/goC.
C11) Consider the reaction:
2 HCl(aq) + Ba(OH)2(aq) BaCl2(aq) + 2 H2O(l)
H = -118 kj/mol

a) Calculate the heat when 100.0 ml of 0.215 M


HCl is mixed with 300.0 ml of 0.315 M
Ba(OH)2. Assuming that the temperature of
both solutions was initially 25.0oC and that the
final mixture has a mass of 400.0 g and a
specific heat capacity of 4.18 j/goC, calculate
the final temperature of the mixture.
{remember: if H = (-), the final temperature
should be larger than the initial temperature.}
b) Calculate the heat when 45.0 ml of 0.500 M
HCl is mixed with 200.0 ml of 0.500 M
Ba(OH)2. Assuming that the temperature of
both solutions was initially 25.0oC and that the
final mixture has a mass of 245 g and a specific
heat capacity of 4.18 j/goC, calculate the final
temperature of the mixture.
C12) A 0.1946 g sample of quinine (C6H4O2) is
burned in a bomb calorimeter that has a heat
capacity of
1.56 j/goC. The temperature of the calorimeter
increases by 3.2 oC. Calculate the energy of
combustion of quinine per gram and per mole.
D. Hesss Law
D1) Given the following data:
H = -395.2 kj
S(s) + 3/2 O2(g) SO3(g)
2 SO2(g) + O2(g) 2 SO3(g)
H = -198.2 kj
Calculate H for the reaction:
S(s) + O2(g) SO2(g)
D2) Given the following data:
C2H2(g) + 5/2 O2(g) 2 CO2(g) + H2O(l)
H = -1300. kj
C(s) + O2(g) CO2(g)
H = -394 kj
H = -286 kj
H2(g) + 1/2 O2(g) H2O(l)
Calculate H for the reaction:
2 C(s) + H2(g) C2H2(g)
D3) Given the following data:
H = -427 kj
2 O3(g) 3 O2(g)
O2(g) 2 O(g)
H = +495 kj
NO(g) + O3(g) NO2(g) + O2(g) H = -199 kj
Calculate H for the reaction:
NO(g) + O(g) NO2(g)

D4) The bombardier beetle uses and explosive


discharge as a defensive measure. The chemical
reaction involved is the oxidation of hydroquinone
by hydrogen peroxide to produce quinine and
water:
C6H4(OH)2(aq) + H2O2(aq) C6H4O2(aq) + 2 H2O(l)
Given the following data:
C6H4(OH)2(aq) C6H4O2(aq) + H2(g)
H = +177.4 kj
H = -191.2 kj
H2(g) + O2(g) H2O2(aq)
H2(g) + 1/2 O2(g) H2O(g)
H = -241.8 kj
H2O(g) H2O(l)
H = -43.8 kj
Calculate H for the beetles reaction:
C6H4(OH)2(aq) + H2O2(aq) C6H4O2(aq) + 2 H2O(l)
D5) Given the following data:
H = -285.8 kj
H2(g) + 1/2 O2(g) H2O(l)
N2O5(g) + H2O(l) 2 HNO3(l) H = -76.6 kj
1/2 N2(g) + 3/2 O2(g) + 1/2 H2(g) HNO3(l)
H = -174.1 kj
Calculate H for the reaction:
2 N2(g) + 5 O2(g) 2 N2O5(g)
D6) Given the following data:
P4(s) + 6 Cl2(g) 4 PCl3(g)
H = -1225.6 kj
H = -2967.3 kj
P4(s) + 5 O2(g) P4O10(s)
PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) PCl5(g)
H = -84.2 kj
PCl3(g) + 1/2 O2(g) Cl3PO(g) H = -285.7 kj
Calculate H for the reaction:
P4O10(s) + 6 PCl5(g) 10 Cl3PO(g)
E. Standard Enthalpies of Formation
E1) Use the values of Hfo to calculate Ho for
the following reactions.
a) 2 NH3(g) + 3 O2(g) + 2 CH4(g) 2 HCN(g) +
6 H2O(g)
b) Ca3(PO4)2(s) + 3 H2SO4(l) 3 CaSO4(s) +
2 H3PO4(l)
c) NH3(g) + HCl(g) NH4Cl(s)
E2) Use the values of Hfo to calculate Ho for
the following reactions.
a) C2H5OH(l) + 3 O2(g) 2 CO2(g) + 3 H2O(g)
b) SiCl4(l) + 2 H2O(l) SiO2(s) + 4 HCl(aq)
c) MgO(s) + H2O(l) Mg(OH)2(s)

E3) The reusable booster rockets of the space


shuttle use a mixture of aluminum and
ammonium perchlorate as fuel.
3 Al(s) + 3 NH4ClO4(s) Al2O3(s) + AlCl3(s) +
3 NO(g) + 6 H2O(g)
o
Calculate H .

Specific Heat of a Metal (15pts)


Specific heat is a physical characteristic that can be used to identify substances. The specific heat is
the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance one degree celsius.
A calorimeter (an insulated container) is used to reduce heat gained/lost to the environment.
Materials: 2 foam cups (calorimeter), thermometer, Al foil, Unknown metal
Procedure:
1) Half-fill a beaker with tap water and begin heating with a Bunsen burner.
2) Pick an unknown piece of metal. Make sure it is dry and measure the mass of the metal.
Write down its unknown letter. Add the metal to the heating water.
3) Measure the mass of the 2 foam cups (calorimeter).
4) Add about 150 ml of distilled water to the foam cups. Measure the mass of the foam cups
and the water .
5) When the water containing the metal comes to a boil, measure the temperature of the
boiling water. (This will be the temperature of the metal.)
6) Measure the temperature of the water in the foam cups.
7) While the water is boiling, use the crucible tongs and put the metal into the foam cups. Make
sure the metal goes all the way into the water. Cover the cups with Al foil.
8) Record the final temperature of the metal and water.
9) Repeat the experiment.
10)
Quickly do your calculations. Repeat if necessary. Clean up.
Prelab Calculations:
1) Find the mass of the water. Mass of foam cups = 1.23 g
Mass of the foam cups and water = 153.23 g
2) Find the specific heat of the metal.
Mass of metal = 28.9 g, Temperature of the boiling water = 99.34 oC,
Temperature of the water in the foam cups = 19.68 oC,
Temperature of the water and metal in the foam cups = 22.32 oC
Remember the specific heat of water is a constant.
Calculations:
1) Do the prelab calculations to find the specific heat of the metal. (2pts)
2) If both lab trials were good, average your results. Otherwise state which result you are using
and why. What is the metal? What was the letter of the metal? (2pts)
3) What are some other physical characteristics that can be used to help identify the metal? (see
your old class notes) (2pts)
4) What other types of substances could be used in the calorimeter instead of water? (2pts)
Conclusion: State the specific heat. State what the metal is. State the letter of the metal. What
did you learn? Any errors? (2pts)