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F E B R UA R Y 2 0 16


The Leading Magazine for Pump Users Worldwide

Enhancing security & increasing
uptime with intelligent controls

K A L A M A Z O O R I V E R R E M E D I AT I O N D I V E R T S 5 . 9 B I L L I O N G A L L O N S | 3 Q U E S T I O N S A B O U T U S I N G I oT

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p u mp s a n d s y s te m s . co m | Fe b ru ary 2016

ith 2016 now in full swing, Pumps & Systems is looking toward the future. As
technologies and services continue to evolve with each passing year, our desire is
to keep you up-to-speed with the latest innovations while not neglecting the processes
and concepts that have long guided the pump industry.
In this issue, we focus on smart pumpingmodern, computer-based capabilities that
allow pump users to monitor and control their systems reliably, safely and eciently.
While some believe the pump industry has been behind the times in terms of technology
adoption, many companies are expanding their product and service portfolios to include
smart pumping software and intelligent controls. As end users begin to implement these
new capabilities, they are seeing reduced life-cycle costs, lower energy consumption and
more reliable system operation.
As an example, a German ame retardant manufacturer recently incorporated
frequency converters to control its cooling water pumps and saw a reduction in energy
consumption by 80 percent. Turn to page 34 for full details on how intelligent controls
yielded these signicant energy savings.
On page 30, we continue our coverage of smart pumping with an overview of how
alternative control technologies can handle large volumes of data. You also dont want
to miss 3 Questions to Ask Before IoT Implementation (page 38), which outlines best
practices for Internet of Things adoption on an industrial scale.
While smart pumping may be the future, ensuring that your equipment can withstand
harsh conditions is an age-old problem. On page 24, we help you meet the challenges of
harsh operating environments with coverage of rugged seal technologies (page 24) and
tips for safely incorporating new hydraulic uids in your assembly (page 27).
This month, the Pumps & Systems team will be traveling to Tucson, Arizona, to
participate in the Hydraulic Institute 2016 Annual Conference on Feb. 11-15. We look
forward to seeing many of you there. In the meantime, if you have any questions,
concerns or suggestions, please dont hesitate to let us know. We love hearing from
readers and welcome your feedback.

SENIOR EDITOR, PUMPS DIVISION: Alecia Archibald 205-278-2843
MANAGING EDITOR: Amelia Messamore
MANAGING EDITOR: Martin Reed 205-278-2826
MANAGING EDITOR: Savanna Gray 205-278-2839
Ray Hardee, Jim Elsey

ART DIRECTOR: Melanie Magee
PRINT ADVERTISING TRAFFIC: Lisa Freeman 205-212-9402


NATIONAL SALES MANAGER: Derrell Moody 205-345-0784

Managing Editor, Amelia Messamore
President Engineering, Hidrostal AG
Engineer, Lyondell Chemical Co.
Advanced Sealing International (ASI)
CHRIS CALDWELL, Director of Advanced
Collection Technology, Business Area
Wastewater Solutions, Sulzer Pumps,
JACK CREAMER, Market Segment Manager
Pumping Equipment, Square D by
Schneider Electric
BOB DOMKOWSKI, Business Development
Manager Transport Pumping and
Amusement Markets/Engineering
Consultant, Xylem, Inc., Water Solutions
USA Flygt

WALT ERNDT, VP/GM, Crane Pumps &

JOE EVANS, Ph.D., Customer & Employee
Education, PumpTech, Inc.
LARRY LEWIS, President, Vanton Pump and
Equipment Corp.
WILLIAM LIVOTI, Business Development
Manager/Energy Efciency Specialist,
WEG Electric Corporation
TODD LOUDIN, President/CEO North
American Operations, Flowrox Inc.
MICHAEL MICHAUD, Executive Director,
Hydraulic Institute
JOHN MALINOWSKI, Sr. Product Manager,
AC Motors, Baldor Electric Company, A
Member of the ABB Group
WILLIAM E. NEIS, P.E., President,
Northeast Industrial Sales
LEV NELIK, Ph.D., P.E., APICS, President,
PumpingMachinery, LLC

HENRY PECK, President, Geiger Pump &

Equipment Company
MARIANNE SZCZECH, Director, Global
Marketing and Product Management,
Pump Solutions Group
SCOTT SORENSEN, Oil & Gas Automation
Consultant & Market Developer, Siemens
Industry Sector
ADAM STOLBERG, Executive Director,
Submersible Wastewater Pump
JERRY TURNER, Founder/Senior Advisor,
Pioneer Pump
DOUG VOLDEN, Global Engineering Director,
John Crane
KIRK WILSON, President, Services &
Solutions, Flowserve Corporation
JAMES WONG, Associate Product
Manager Bearing Isolator, Garlock Sealing

Pumps & Systems

is a member of the following organizations:
PUMPS & SYSTEMS (ISSN# 1065-108X) is published monthly by Cahaba Media Group, 1900 28th Avenue So., Suite 200, Birmingham, AL 35209. Periodicals
postage paid at Birmingham, AL, and additional mailing ofces. Subscriptions: Free of charge to qualied industrial pump users. Publisher reserves the
right to determine qualications. Annual subscriptions: US and possessions $48, all other countries $125 US funds (via air mail). Single copies: US and
possessions $5, all other countries $15 US funds (via air mail). Call 630-739-0900 inside or outside the U.S. POSTMASTER: Send changes of address and
form 3579 to Pumps & Systems, P.O. Box 530067, Birmingham, AL 35253. 2016 Cahaba Media Group, Inc. No part of this publication may be reproduced
without the written consent of the publisher. The publisher does not warrant, either expressly or by implication, the factual accuracy of any advertisements,
articles or descriptions herein, nor does the publisher warrant the validity of any views or opinions offered by the authors of said articles or descriptions. The
opinions expressed are those of the individual authors, and do not necessarily represent the opinions of Cahaba Media Group. Cahaba Media Group makes
no representation or warranties regarding the accuracy or appropriateness of the advice or any advertisements contained in this magazine. SUBMISSIONS:
We welcome submissions. Unless otherwise negotiated in writing by the editors, by sending us your submission, you grant Cahaba Media Group, Inc.,
permission by an irrevocable license to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish and adapt your submission in any medium on multiple occasions. You are free
to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be returned. Volume 24, Issue 2.

Februa ry 2 0 1 6 | Pumps & S y st e m s

Mary-Kathryn Baker 205-345-6036
Mark Goins 205-345-6414
Addison Perkins 205-561-2603
Garrick Stone 205-212-9406

Ashley Morris 205-561-2600
Sonya Crocker 205-314-8276

PUBLISHER: Walter B. Evans Jr.

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CONTROLLER: Brandon Whittemore

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This issue

Volume 24 Number 2






12 By Lev Nelik, Ph.D., P.E.

By Jeff Payne,

Pumping Machinery, LLC

PLC-based PACs fill the gap between traditional distributed control

systems and basic programmable logic controllers.


Using Pump Efficiency Monitoring to

Make Faster Decisions



By Martin Hoffmann, Colfax Fluid Handling/


15 By Ray Hardee


Engineered Software, Inc.

A flame retardant manufacturer incorporated

frequency converters to control its cooling water

Troubleshooting a Piping System

First of Two Parts




18 By Jim Elsey

By Jon Hilberg, Accudyne Industries

Summit Pump, Inc.

Precision Flow Systems

Solid Shaft Designs & Cartridge Seals

A well-planned systems approach to predictive

analytics using cloud connectivity can optimize pumping systems.

22 By Mike Pemberton


Pumps & Systems





Intelligent Pumping Continues to Evolve


By Andreas Pehl, EagleBurgmann Germany Gmbh & Co. Kg

One facilitys high-speed centrifugal pumps saw improved performance and efciency after adding custom seals.


By Stephen A. Maloney, Colonial Seal Company
Companies interested in reducing safety hazards and environmental impact should
consider compatibility issues.


Peristaltic Pumps Offer Protection in
Mining Operations
By Tom ODonnell, Abaque, part of PSG

Creative Coupling Design Saves
Downtime at Utility Plant
By Jim Anderson, Coupling Corporation
of America

What to Consider When Upgrading or
Changing Pre-Specied Gaskets
By Mike Shorts, FSA Member & President

Februa ry 2 0 1 6 | Pumps & S y st e m s



Submersible Vertical Turbine Pump

Intake Designs, Common AC SinglePhase Motors


By Duane Hargis, Cornell Pump Co.
& Rich Goethals, BakerCorp

By Hydraulic Institute


Obtain Maximum Bearing Life &
By Mike Pulley, Bartlett Bearing




p u mp sCircle
a n d s y102
s teon
m scard
. co m
ru ary 2016
or |visit


CORAOPOLIS, Penn. (Jan. 5, 2016) Fluid
Sealing International has announced that Rich
Greatti has joined the company as director
of sales and marketing. Greatti brings more
than 30 years of experience in the uid sealing
industry in sales, engineering and business
Rich Greatti
development with a successful track record
that includes international sales, product development as well as
managing a global sales force. He has helped develop several new
sealing products and a successful distribution/direct/OEM network in
the uid sealing industry.


WATERBURY, Conn. (Dec. 11, 2015) Hubbard-Hall Chairman/CFO
Chuck Kellogg has received the prestigious Lifetime Achievement
Award at the annual meeting of the National Association of Chemical
Distributors (NACD). Kellogg was one of the founding members of
NACD in 1971 when he and other CEOs recognized the need for the
chemical distribution industry to adopt best practices and become
overt stewards of the chemical distribution process. Kellogg has
remained active and vocal in the association since its founding.


OAKBROOK TERRACE, Ill. (Dec. 9, 2015) PSG, a Dover company,
has appointed Bob Lauson to general manager for PSG Grand Rapids
(Blackmer). In this role, Lauson will be responsible for leading the
Grand Rapids organization and will report directly to PSG President
Karl Buscher. He will be based out of the PSG Grand Rapids facility
in Grand Rapids, Michigan. Lauson joined PSG from Terra Sonic
International, where he held the position of president.

LOS ANGELES (Dec. 7, 2015)
Water Planet has further
expanded its engineering team
with the addition of Alexander
Severt as mechanical and
design engineer and Jiaran Sun
as research and development engineer. At Water Planet, Severt will
provide modeling, fabrication and design support to the membrane
and system design team. Sun will assist with the development
and commercialization of Water Planets PolyCera polymer and

Februa ry 2 0 1 6 | Pumps & S y st e m s


ROSEMONT, Ill. (Dec. 4, 2015) Heather Green has been promoted
to director of product marketing for Appleton Group, a division of
Emerson. In this role, Green will work with product management, the
engineering team and global sales for the divisions brands Appleton,
O-Z/Gedney and others to achieve success across multiple industries.
She will report directly to Tim Graff, vice president of engineering for
Appleton Group, within the engineering organization. As leader of
the product management team, Green will guide Voice of Customer
research, identify customer value propositions, dene platform
strategy, establish product requirements and improve supporting
overall business processes.

FORT SMITH, Ark. (Nov. 24, 2015) Baldor
Electric Company has appointed Myla Petree to
the newly created position of director strategic
program management. In this role, she and
a recently formed team of project managers
will be responsible for organizing, driving and
Myla Petree
successfully implementing key projects across a
variety of Baldor locations and products. Petree joined Baldor in 2011
as the companys director of quality. Petree has a bachelors degree
in mechanical engineering from the University of Oklahoma and is an
ASQ Certied Manager of Quality/Organizational Excellence.


Singer Valve Inc. has joined forces with Channel Co Ltd. for valve
distribution in Jordan.
Dec. 16, 2015
Des-Case has acquired JLM Systems Limited and its OilMiser product line.
Dec. 10, 2015
The IFH Group Inc. has acquired Bowman Manufacturing Company Inc.
Dec. 7, 2015
Watson-Marlow Fluid Technology Group has acquired Flow Smart Inc.
through its parent company Spirax-Sarco Engineering plc.
Nov. 30, 2015
U.S. Water has acquired A and W Technologies.
Nov. 17, 2015

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p u mp s a n d s y s te m s . co m | Fe b ru ary 2016



STW Resources Holding Corp
Receives Approval for Water
Permit in West Texas

Siemens Joins Notre Dame

to Develop $36 Million
Testing Facility

MIDLAND, Texas (Dec. 16, 2015) STW

Resources Holding Corp., a provider of
pipeline services, water reclamation
and processing management services
including water desalination, has
received approval from the Middle
Pecos Water District for drilling,
production and transportation of the
water on STW Waters MRK lease in
Pecos County. Previously, STW Water
applied for a consolidated drilling
and production permit from the San
Andrs formation to be utilized within
the county and exported out of Pecos
County to surrounding areas in need of
water. The company also has the ability
to submit a request to the water district
for a larger permit once it is determined
by a hydrogeologist that the
formation can withstand an increase
in yield without any negative effects.
Additionally, with several prospective
buyers already in place, STW can
begin selling water immediately. The
company anticipates water sales in the
rst quarter of 2016, as it has already
received a letter of intent from a
customer to purchase water.

ATLANTA (Dec. 9, 2015) Siemens

has announced that it will supply the
University of Notre Dame with the main
motor and variable frequency drive
for its new Turbomachinery Facility.
The facility will be a research and test
facility for advancing the technology
used in gas turbine engines used by the
commercial and military aircraft, power
plant, and the oil and gas industries.
Siemens will provide a 10-megawatt
SINAMICS SM120 variable frequency
drive and a 5-megawatt SIMOTICS
AboveNEMA TEWAC motor.

Xylem Supplies Technology

for Vital Connector Route
in Europe

China Leads World in Privately

Funded Water Investment

LANAYE, Belgium (Dec. 10, 2015)

Xylem has designed a water pumping
solution as part of a complex project to
expand the Lanaye Locks in Belgium, a
vital connector route between Northern
and Southern Europe. Xylems Flygt
pumps and turbines will regulate water
levels in the canal network and harness
energy from excess water in the Albert
Canal. The addition of a fourth Lanaye
lock (225 x 25 meters) will quadruple
the lock systems convoy capacity
from 2,000 to 9,000 tons. The pumping
solution, which includes ve Flygt 500
kilowatt submersible hydroturbines
with a ow of 18 cubic meters per
second, pumps water back into the
Albert canal, maintaining adequate
levels to accommodate canal trafc
during dry weather spells.

KLINGER Holding GmbH Forms

VANCOUVER, Wash. (Dec. 1, 2015)
KLINGER Holding GmbH in Austria has
announced the formation of KLINGER
IGI Inc. as an addition to the groups
industrial gasketing presence in the
U.S. Headquartered in Wilsonville,
Oregon, with an additional location
in Denver, Colorado, the seals and
gasketing manufacturer is a result of
KLINGERs acquisition of IGI.

BOSTON (Dec. 1, 2015) China is rmly

positioned as the global epicenter for
privately nanced water investment.
The combined water infrastructure
build-out across 20 provinces accounts
for more than 50 percent of privately
nanced treatment capacity added
in emerging markets over the last
decade. According to a new report
from Blueeld Research, Chinas
wastewater treatment market has
added more than 20 million cubic
meters per day of capacity from 20132015. The level of annual investment
has surged to more than $5 billion
in 2014. As a result, private rms
now manage about two-thirds of
the countrys wastewater treatment
infrastructure. blueeldresearch.

Massachusetts Water
Resources Authority Moves
Forward with Pump System
Optimization Program
PARSIPPANY, N.J. (Nov. 30, 2015)
Massachusetts Water Resources
Authority (MWRA), which provides
wholesale water and sewer services to
2.5 million people and more than 5,500
large industrial users, conducted an
in-house Pump System Optimization
(PSO) Program in November 2015
as a precursor to a pump system
assessment of all its facilities. The
PSO Program was developed by the
Hydraulic Institute for engineers,
operations, facilities, maintenance
and management personnel to
educate their staff about operating
pump systems more efciently. A.W.
Chesterton Company and WEG Electric
Corp. co-hosted this particular pump
system optimization training course.

Worlds Largest 5-Turbine

Commercial Tidal Installation
Put into Service
Netherlands (Nov. 26 2015) The tidal
power plant in the Dutch Eastern
Scheldt surge barrier has been put
into service. The commissioning for
the largest tidal energy project in the
Netherlands as well as the worlds
largest commercial tidal installation of
ve turbines in an array was performed
by Diederik Samsom, Dutch Labour
Party group chairman.

CENTA and Christie & Grey

Limited Announce Global
Sales Cooperation
AURORA, Ill. (Nov. 16, 2015) The
management teams of CENTA Antriebe
Kirschey GmbH and Christie & Grey
Limited have announced a strategic
global sales cooperation between their
companies. The agreement allows
the two companies to join forces to
engineer and strategically supply
the industrys premium quiet drive
solutionscombining soft mounting
systems, exible couplings and
intermediate drive shaft systems.

To have a news item considered, please send the information to Amelia Messamore,

Februa ry 2 0 1 6 | Pumps & S y st e m s

Q U A L I T Y . S E R V I C E . I N N O V AT I O N . I N T E G R I T Y .

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The Shark 7020 Series Progressing Cavity
Grinder Pumps are ideal for pressure sewer
systems. For commercial and residential
sewage removal with high head requirements,
these pumps have an integral pressure relief
valve. Packages designed for new installations
and retrotting existing systems. Designed,
machined, assembled in the USA. Cast iron,
Cool Run design is fully submersible.
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p u mp s a n d s y s te m s . co m | Fe b ru ary 2016



Efcient Pump
Selection and

FEBRUARY 24, 2016


With more focus on energy efciency these days, building owners

will rely on pump experts to assist in the determination of efcient
pumping solutions. For variable ow systems this poses some
challenges when single and parallel connected variable speed pumps
are evaluated. This webinar will help to answer questions like: How
many pumps should our system use? and How should we sequence
(stage) on additional pumps?
Presenter Reece Robinson has a bachelor of
science degree in mechanical engineering from
California State University Fresno. He has more
than 16 years experience providing variable
speed pumping solutions and energy analysis for
commercial, municipal and industrial applications.

Participants will receive a certicate to submit for CEU credits!

Sign up today for this webinar and the entire series!



January 28, 2016

How to Read a Pump Curve (now available online)

February 24, 2016

Efcient Pump Selection and Control

March 23, 2016

Introduction to Boiler Feed Systems

April 27, 2016

Choose the Right Pump for the Application

May 18, 2016

Vertical Turbine Pumps - Wire-to-Water

June 22, 2016

Dosing Basics

Sponsored by

Februa ry 2 0 1 6 | Pumps & S y st e m s



20th Annual ARC Industry Forum

Industry in Transition: Navigating
the New Age of Innovation
Feb. 8 11, 2016
Renaissance Orlando at SeaWorld
Orlando, Florida
781-471-1175 /
Maintenance Planning &
Feb. 17 19, 2016
San Francisco, California
203-783-1582 / newstandardinstitute.
WQA Convention & Exposition
March 14 17, 2016
Music City Center
Nashville, Tennessee
630-505-0160 /
Offshore Technology Conference
May 2 5, 2016
NRG Park
Houston, Texas
972-952-9494 /

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2016 EASA Convention

June 12 14, 2016
Metro Toronto Convention Centre
Toronto, Ontario
314-993-2220 /
National Fire Protection Association
(NFPA) Conference & Expo
June 13 16, 2016
Mandalay Bay Convention Center
Las Vegas, Nevada
800-344-3555 /




p u mp s a n d s y s te m s . co m | Fe b ru ary 2016

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The Process Heat Exchangers:

Applications & Rules-of-Thumb
Short Course
Feb. 1 2, 2016
HTRI Headquarters
Navasota, Texas


Troubleshooting & repair challenges
By Lev Nelik, Ph.D., P.E.
Pumping Machinery, LLC, P&S Editorial Advisory Board

Using Pump Efciency Monitoring to Make

Faster Decisions

n 2015, I wrote a series

for Pumps & Systems titled
Eciency Monitoring Saves
Plants Millions. I gave readers
a real-world example of the
importance of understanding how
equipment is performing. Below,
I answer a question from a reader
about the eectiveness and speed
of plant monitoring systems.

Letter from a Reader

I enjoyed your four-part series
(Pumps & Systems, July, August,
September and October 2015)
relating the dynamics of what goes
on at the plants in an interesting
real-world dialogue format. You
started the set by introducing
the reader to a pump salesman,
Bob, who visits the water plant
and works with a local plant
maintenance manager, Jim, on
measuring the eciency of his
large pumps. Other people get
involved along the way, and the
amount of savings they discovered
shocked menearly $125,000
for a 3,000-horsepower pump. In
Part 1 of your article series, you
said the entire test was done in
less than a day by a system you
referred to as PREMS, but you
did not describe what it is. We have
plant monitoring systems in our
plant, but they cost millions, and
I doubt that anything, no matter
how simple that may sound, can be
done in a day. Can you elaborate?
Jack Francis
Chemical plant employee
Chicago, Illinois

Februa ry 2 0 1 6 | Pumps & S y st e m s

Neliks Response
Thank you for your question. It
does not surprise me that the
amount of wasted energy seemed
so high to you. Most folks think
more about a piece of machinerys
reliability than about its eciency.
The thought process is, If a pump
fails too often, water spills all over
the plant, and I get home late for
dinner. That is personal. But to
look at a running pump to see 10
percent eciency being wasted,
that is often too abstract.

But the numbers are there

in dollars instead of red ink on
a pump housing. Consider the
3,000-horsepower (hp) pump
in the articles you mentioned.
Multiplying 3,000 hp by 0.746 gives
us 2,238 kilowatts. Multiply that
by 24 hours for 365 days, times
$0.10 per kilowatt-hour, and it
adds up to $2 million. If 10 percent
is wasted, that is $200,000. The
$125,000 in the articles is adjusted
for the pump running less than 100
percent of time.

Figure 1 (above). Live data streaming in. Figure 2 (below). Spectral (FFT) data is taken and
displayed continuously by the PREMS system.


For details of how to measure

eciency, let me do a brief review.
In March 2007, Pumps & Systems
published How Much Energy is
Wasted When Wear Rings Are
Worn to Double Their Initial
Value? Double was picked because
that is the point where most
original equipment manufacturers
(OEMs) recommend replacement
of rings. But such repairs are
costly. Users do not know the worn
dimensions until they pull the
wear rings from the pump.
By measuring eciency
continually, they can pinpoint the
time when the eciency value
drops below the value that justies
the repair and restoration of the
ring clearances to the initial OEM

recommended values. Continuous

monitoring reconstructs the entire
performance curve, because most
pumps do not sit at the same
ow. In response to changes in
the system, the ow changes, and
pressure, power and eciency
change with it.
A dynamic, live reconstruction
of the performance curve does not
require intrusive periodic testing.
Continuous monitoring makes the
performance curve more accurate
and detailed over time. It would
also tell where the plant typically
runssomething that plants
often do not know.
In regard to the pumps
reliability and eciency
measurement system (PREMS)

in Part 1 (Pumps & Systems,

July 2015), the key to a good
technology is accuracy and
simplicity. The PREMS is
essentially a box, similar to a
suitcase, that can be installed
for one pump, monitoring it for a
period of time, and then moved as
needed to another pump.
The system transmits through
a wireless cell gateway (or a
local modem), alleviating any
concerns of interfering with
the plant operational system.
Instrumentation measures
pressure, ow and amps, which the
software converts into a complete
pump performance curve (headcapacity, power and eciency) that
is displayed on the screen.

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p u mp s a n d s y s te m s . co m | Fe b ru ary 2016



Examining the data over time

reveals that the pump operates
mainly in two regions (see Figure
1, page 12). One region is near
the best eciency point, but the
other is much closer to the shuto
head (below minimum continuous
stable ow). The second region is
in the area where internal forces,
pulsations and vibrations are
detrimental to the pump. Vibrations
are measured continually, including
overall values and spectral (Fast
Fourier Transform, or FFT) data
to troubleshoot live. The chart
on Figure 2 (page 12) shows the
rst and second harmonics being
predominant (1X and 2X). What
does it tell us? Email me your
answer from the following choices
for a chance to win a discounted
seat at the next Pump School.

a. Rotor unbalance
b. Misalignment
c. Cavitation
d. Both a and b
e. a, b and c
Using Figure 1, we can compare
the original OEM performance,
shown with solid lines, to actual
performance, shown with multiple
data points outlining the evolving
curves. The system provides standalone data acquisition, combining
instrumentation with software,
to present a real, standard pump
curvelive and continually.
Interpretation of data is simpleit
is on the screen. The dierence in
eciency is calculated continually
and translated into yearly prorated
dollars wasted. Th is data can
help users decide between repair
(yearly energy cost vs. repair cost),

adjustments to the system or no

action (if energy cost is small
relative to the quoted repair cost).
For more information, email
me or visit Pump Video Academy
online at pumpingmachinery.
(modules #10 and #11).
Dr. Nelik (aka Dr. Pump)
is president of Pumping
Machinery, LLC, an Atlantabased rm specializing in pump
consulting, training, equipment
troubleshooting and pump
repairs. Dr. Nelik has 30 years
of experience in pumps and
pumping equipment. He may
be reached at pump-magazine.
com. For more information, visit

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A better understanding of complete system operation
By Ray Hardee
Engineered Software, Inc.

Troubleshooting a Piping System

First of Two Parts

sing the example system

in Figure 1, this series
will focus on the process
elements found in piping systems.
In this example, a process uid
is pumped from a storage tank,
PX-TK-120, through an end suction
pump, PX-PU-120, specied to
pass 800 gallons per minute (gpm)
with 202 feet of head. From the
pump discharge, the 80 F process
uid travels to a heat exchanger,
PX-HX-121, where the uid is
heated to 120 F. Level control
PX-LCV-120 maintains the level
in process vessel PX-PV-122 to 15
feet. The system boundaries are
the tanks PX-TK-120 and PX-VP122. The system contains only one
circuit. Table 1 lists the physical
properties of the process uid.
Less than six months ago, a
piping system model was created
and validated using the installed
plant instrumentation (values are
shown in Figure 1). The dierence
between these values and the
calculated results was less than
2 percent.
The piping drawing shows that
the ow rate through the system
is controlled to maintain the level
in the process vessel PX-PV-122 at
15 feet. The system does not have
an installed ow meter, so we must
determine the system ow rate.
One of the easiest methods
is to use a portable clamp-on
ultrasonic ow meter. If operated
correctly, these devices can provide
accuracy of 1 percent. During
the assessment, the ow meter
indicated a ow rate of 770 gpm.

In a previous column, we
discovered that the ow rate
through a pump can be calculated
by converting the dierential
pressure to head. Using the pump
curve, enter the value for pump
head on the vertical axis and move
horizontally until you intersect the
pump curve. Then move down to
determine the ow rate.

144 Formula 1

(Pin + Patm - P vp ) x


NPSHa = (-2 + 14.7 - 8.8) x


=11.5 ft
Equation 1

Pin = Suction pressure psig

Patm = Atmospheric pressure psia
Pvp = Fluid vapor pressure psig
= Fluid density lb/ft3

Table 1. Physical properties of the process uid used in this example

Temp (F)

Density (lb/ft3)

Viscosity (cP)

Process uid





Process uid






Vapor press (psia)

Table 2. Comparing as observed conditions with cavitation to validated results








Current Operation












* The value position is not on the operators log sheet.

Figure 1. Example system consisting of the items making up the system

along with displayed operating data (Graphics courtesy of the author)

p u mp s a n d s y s te m s . co m | Fe b ru ary 2016



In this example, the dierential

pressure across the pump is 69.2 pounds
per square inch (psi). Using a process
uid density of 48.9 pounds per cubic
foot (lb/ft3), we can determine a pump
head of 203.8 feet.
The manufacturers supplied pump
curve shows that, with a head of 204
feet, the ow rate through the pump
is 770 gpm. The ow rate calculated
through the pump correlates with the
ow rate obtained with the ultrasonic
ow meter.
Now that we have discussed how the
model was validated with the observed
values, we can troubleshoot.
An operator noties the shift
supervisor that pump PX-PU-120
sounds like it is cavitating. Additionally,
the pump discharge pressure gauge is
oscillating, another indication of possible

pump cavitation. Table 2 shows the

systems current operation along with
the validated results.
Table 2 shows that the levels and
pressures at the system boundary tanks
are the same in both conditions, resulting
in the same static head. The pressure at
pump suction pressure PX-PI-120 is -2
pounds per square inch gauge (psig), 2.4
psi less than the validated results. The
pump discharge pressure PX-PI-121 is 67
psi, 2.6 psi less than the validated results.
According to Table 2, the position of
PX-LCV-120 is 78 percent open, greater
than the validated results.
The rst step is to determine if these
conditions are the cause of cavitation.
Using Equation 1, we will determine
the net positive suction head available
(NPSHa) at the pump suction based on the
pressure gauge reading at PX-PI-120.

As indicated in Figure 1, the NPSHa

is 11.5 feet. The pump curve shows that
the net positive suction head required
(NPSHr) is 14.3 feet. As a result, the
NPSHa is greater than the NPSHr,
indicating pump cavitation is occurring.
Because the pump is cavitating, the pump
is probably not operating on its curve.
Part 2 of this series will use the
data discussed here to determine the
cause of cavitation and analyze other
system problems.
Ray Hardee is a principal founder of
Engineered Software, creators of PIPE-FLO
and PUMP-FLO software. At Engineered
Software, he helped develop two training
courses and teaches these courses
internationally. He may be reached at ray.







Circle 115 on card or visit

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p u mp s a n d s y s te m s . co m | Fe b ru ary 2016



Simple solutions for end users
By Jim Elsey
Summit Pump, Inc.

Solid Shaft Designs & Cartridge Seals

his months column

focuses on whether to use
shaft sleeves in overhung
centrifugal pumps (Type OH-1
per American Petroleum Institute
[API] 610 designation). The most
common OH-1 pump type is the
American National Standards
Institute (ANSI) B73.1M. The
practice of using cartridge-type
mechanical seals on solid pump
shafts (in lieu of sleeved shafts)
is not new or radical. While the
benets of building a pump in this
manner are real and measurable in
most instances, a large percentage
of pump owners will not change.

I would estimate that shaft sleeves
have been used on pump shafts for
at least 100 years. My 1919 edition
of Pumping Machinery by Arthur M.
Greene mentions sacricial shaft
liners. I do not know exactly when
the rst pump shaft sleeve was put
into service, but I assume it was
not long after someone adjusted
the packing incorrectly on an
expensive pump.
Shaft sleeves serve multiple
purposes. The most important is to
protect the main pump shaft from
wear caused by packing abrasion,
followed closely by prevention of
erosion and corrosion. In some
pump designs, the sleeve serves
additional purposes. For example,
in some horizontal split-case
pumps, the sleeve also serves
(in conjunction with a threaded
shaft nut) as an adjustable means

Februa ry 2 0 1 6 | Pumps & S y st e m s

to axially locate the impeller on

its respective mechanical and
hydraulic center in the casing.
The sleeve is designed to be the
inexpensive and replaceable part.
It is easier and less expensive to
change a sleeve than the whole
shaft. Users who have packing in
their pump consider the sleeve a
must-have design feature.
In 1905, the mechanical seal
as we know it was invented, but
it was not commonly used until
after World War II. Fifty years
ago, most centrifugal pumps in
industrial and commercial services
still had packed stung boxes.
Pumps with mechanical seals
were uncommon and expensive.
Later in the 1970s, many users
began to use simple mechanical
seals because of safety concerns,
stricter Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) regulations, and the
cost of both lost product and ush
uids. These simple seals were
eventually displaced by component
type mechanical seals. Prudent
pump users continued to use
the existing shaft sleeve designs
because the component seals
were held in place by tightening a
number of set screws. The torqued
set screw points damaged the shaft
sleeve surface. These dog marks
(damaged metal surfaces) from
the set screws were an accepted
negative side eect because of
the shaft sleeves status as an
inexpensive and replaceable part.
In recent years, most pump users
have switched to cartridge-type

mechanical seals. Most present-day

designs will not damage the shaft
or shaft sleeve during installation,
operation and subsequent removal
from service. Even O-ring fretting
of the shaft or shaft sleeve is
eliminated in most new designs.
Figure 1. An example of stiffness ratio
calculations (Graphics courtesy of
the author)

Figure 2. An example of a sleeved pump

shaft design with ample diameter to
maintain a low stiffness ratio



Measure Flow
from Outside
the Pipe
Designed for dirty
or aerated liquids
like wastewater,
slurries, sludge
and liquids with
bubbles or solids
DFM 5.1 Doppler
Flow Meter

The clamp-on ultrasonic sensor installs in

minutes without shutting down flow. Start-up
is easy with the built-in keypad and simple
menu system.

Low-Flow or No-Flow
Pump Protection

DFS 5.1 Doppler

Flow Switch

Works with a clamp-on sensor for pump

protection, flow control and high or low flow
alarms. The LED bargraph displays flow rate
and relay state.

p u mp s a n d s y s te m s . co m | Fe b ru ary 2016

Circle 113 on card or visit

When the American Voluntary Standards

(AVS) pumps and the forerunners of
the modern ANSI pump (B73.1M) were
designed in the late 50s and early 60s,
packed stung boxes were standard. If
these pumps were to be redesigned today,
they would use cartridge-type mechanical
seals, and the design length of the shaft
from the radial bearing to the impeller
would be shorter.
When a packed pump is operating, the
packing acts like an additional line bearing
because of the hydrodynamic properties
of the close clearances between the shaft
sleeve and the packing. Th is consequential
and benecial phenomenon mitigates shaft
deection caused by any unequal radial
forces acting on the impeller.
Without packing around the shaft (for
example, when a seal is used), the shaft
will deect more, especially if the pump
is not operating near the best eciency
point/best operating point (BEP/BOP).
Pump operation at or near shuto (far left
side of the curve) and at runout conditions
(far right side of the curve) away from the
preferred operating region results in shaft
deection, which causes premature bearing
and mechanical seal face wear, shortening
the life of these critical components.
The ability of a shaft to resist deection
is a direct function of the overhung length
and the shaft diameter. Th is is commonly
referred to as the shaft sti ness ratio,
shaft deection ratio, or the L over D ratio
(L 3 / D4). The lower the ratio number, the
better the shaft will resist deection. The
formula for calculating the ratio factor
is based on the simple cantilevered beam
deection formula.
Many of the factors in the beam
deection formula cancel each other out
when applied to an overhung pump shaft.
As a result, the revised formula is simply
the length (L) of the shaft as measured from
the centerline of the radial bearing position
to the centerline of the impeller (take L to
the third power) divided by the diameter
of the shaft in this area (D) to the fourth
power, or L 3 / D4 (see Figure 1).

Flow Measurement
and Control



A smaller shaft diameter results in

a higher sti ness ratio, which is not
a desired attribute. Without delving
into a protracted formula derivation,
the strength of the shaft material is of
little importance, but the modulus of
elasticity (Youngs modulus) does come
into play. Most common shaft materials
share similar ranges for the modulus of
elasticity. If pump shafts are breaking,
the cause is usually cyclic fatigue, not
material strength. So a stronger material
is not the answer, but preventing or
reducing deection is.
When a pump is purposely designed
to incorporate a shaft sleeve, the
original shaft diameter in the packing
and mechanical seal area is typically
machined down to a smaller diameter
of some incremental distance (D) to
accommodate the corresponding sleeve.

Some manufacturers processes design

and machine the shaft dierently. Either
way, the end result is that the shaft has
a smaller diameter on the overhung
portion. The smaller diameter yields
a higher shaft deection ratio, which
means the shaft will deect more for a
given radial force. More deection will
result in deleterious eects on the seal
and bearings.
Note that the presence of the sleeve
does not contribute to the sti ness
factor, no matter how tight the t. The
sleeve is not an integral part of the
shaft and does not become a factor in
the equation.
In the past, most pump shafts
were generously over-designed/sized
to transmit some amount of torque
(horsepower) at some speed range, but
most shafts were not designed for high

side loads (like belt or chain drives) and

cyclic fatigue factors. Current designs
are taking these side load factors more
into consideration.

Current Practices
Many pump owners continue to use old
design shaft sleeves when using new
design cartridge mechanical seals. There
are some good reasons, such as corrosion/
erosion mitigation, for continuing this
practice. In most cases, however, there
is no other reason than that is the
way we have always done it. I would
say that, for a given system (curve) and
the consequential pump operation on
its curve, the pump life would be much
longer if the shaft design was solid versus
sleeved. The pump would be more reliable,
and the mean time between failure and
repair (MTBF/R) would be longer.

Circle 116 on card or visit

Februa ry 2 0 1 6 | Pumps & S y st e m s


In some modern OH-1 pump models,

the incorporation of a shaft sleeve is
by design and is an acceptable practice
because the shaft deection ratio is
already very low as a result of a generous
shaft diameter in the sleeve area. X-17
ANSI pumps (ANSI sizes A105, 110 and
120) are one example (see Figure 2,
page 18).
Many pump manufacturers also
oer solid pump shafts that are made
of dierent materials in the wetted
(sacricial) versus non-wetted areas.
Furthermore, most ANSI pump
manufacturers oer an optional shaft of
larger diameter for given midrange sizes
(for example, MT, or medium-sized shaft
and bearing systems, versus LT, or large
sized, models).
Even with sleeve construction, the
deection ratio between the two models

of dierent shaft diameters is signicant.

The dierence between the smaller (MT)
sleeved shaft and a larger (LT) solid shaft
is dramatic.
ANSI B73.1M has set tolerances for
allowable shaft deection at the stung
box area of the shaft over the allowable
operating range.
Pumps in compliance with this
specication are not allowed more than
0.002 inches of deection. Simply
looking at the L/D ratios is one way
to evaluate the pump, but it is equally
important to calculate the radial loads for
your specic operation and the resultant
shaft deection.

Shaft runout, or total indicator

reading, with a sleeve design is harder to
control because of the added surfaces and
associated tolerances. The allowable shaft
runout on a solid shaft is 0.001 inches
and 0.002 inches for a sleeved shaft. As
a nal design note, any sleeve design
needs to allow for thermal expansion and
Even when we know we should
implement change, some habits are hard
to break.
Are you operating your overhung
pumps with cartridge seals and still
using shaft sleeves? I would like to
hear why.

Jim Elsey is a mechanical engineer who has focused on rotating equipment design and
applications for the military and several large original equipment manufacturers for 43
years. He is the general manager for Summit Pump, Inc., and the principal of MaDDog
Pump Consultants LLC. Elsey may be reached at

Circle 121 on card or visit

p u mp s a n d s y s te m s . co m | Fe b ru ary 2016


Trends & analysis for pumping professionals
By Mike Pemberton

Pumps & Systems Senior Technical Editor

Intelligent Pumping Continues to Evolve

n intelligent pump is
more than a pump; the
product is a combination
of a pump, process instrument(s)
and variable frequency drive
(VFD) with related intelligence
embedded in the microprocessor
motherboard. While variable speed
drives (VSDs)both mechanical
and electronichave been applied
to pumps for decades, the drives
on intelligent pumps were the rst
commercially available VFDs that
used pump protection logic to alert
end users during upset conditions.
Today, several manufacturers oer
intelligent pumps with varying
performance monitoring and
asset protection capabilities. An
intelligent pump also typically
includes standard process control
functions, such as proportionalintegral-derivative control (PID)
and power (kilowatt) consumption
The rst intelligent pump was
introduced near the beginning
of the new millennium. Th is
technology has been instrumental
in changing many facets of the
pump industry. One change has
been the development of a new
understanding that control valves
do not have to be the de facto
ow control device for pump
systems. Embedding pump
intelligence into VFDs also has
led to the view that the pump
along with the instrumentation
and control valvesis a key
component of industrial
automation architecture.

Februa ry 2 0 1 6 | Pumps & S y st e m s

Advantages of
Intelligent Pumping
From a process control standpoint,
the primary dierence between
a VFD and a control valve is that
the VFD electronically changes
motor speed to maintain ow,
pressure, level or temperature at
set-point, while the control valve
mechanically adjusts its opening to
meet process control requirements.
Both approaches maintain process
ow at the required rate but dier
signicantly in how they impact
energy use, equipment reliability
and process control performance.
VFD speed reduction lowers head
(pressure) at the square root of
speed, while ow is reduced at the
cube root of speed. For example,
a small reduction in speed can
result in a moderate head reduction
and large energy reduction. The
reduction in head (pressure) and
the accompanying reduction
in energy usage are primarily
the result of fully opening or
eliminating the control valve.
Standard and intelligent VFDs
provide the same level of energy
savings but can dier signicantly
in the amount of maintenance
savings they provide. Embedded
pump protection can alarm, slow
down or turn o the pump when
the system encounters conditions
such as dead-heading, dry-running
or cavitation.
The introduction of intelligent
VFDs signaled the rise of variable
speed pumping as an alternative
to control valves, especially in

continuous process industries.

For the rst time, end users could
use the electronic platform as a
brain that learns and adapts
pump performance to changing
process conditions. Th is real-time
adaptability plays a critical role in
achieving process sustainability
through uptime, controllability
and reliability improvements. An
intelligent pump oers far more
information about the pumps
performance than was ever readily
available in the past.

Limitations to Adoption
While plant operators and
engineers typically congure
standard VFDs through a keypad
or laptop in the motor control
center (MCC), the PID algorithm
and control logic in the VFD are
infrequently used. Normally, the
control engineers opt for using the
same control functions that found
in the distributed control system
(DCS). The DCS then outputs a
speed signal back to the VFD over
an analog cable (4-20 mA), a step
similar to sending an analog signal
to a valve positioner to change the
percent that it is open or closed.
Digital bus communication can be
used, but the majority of plants
built before the new millennium
use analog signals to communicate
from the DCS to the eld
instruments and valves.
Because the VFD and DCS are
in dierent locations, operators
and engineers are often unable
to congure the intelligent pump


rmware from the DCS. Th is

restriction causes the embedded
pump intelligence in the VFD to
be underutilized.
While this was an issue with
the rst generation of intelligent
pumps, the growth of wireless
communication, the Industrial
Internet of Th ings (IIoT) and cloud
computing have made it possible
to overcome these limitations.
Today, multiple parameters can
be transmitted from the MCC
to the DCS. Access to the pumpprotection logic from the DCS can
lead to more visibility and higher
utilization rates.
An alternate approach
could be to use a third-party
software package with the pump
intelligence and load that program

the availability and utilization

of pump intelligence. The DCS
and related information systems
could be able to both congure
and display multiple capabilities,
including the following:

Alarm and control actions

with data logging, time
stamps and trends

Real-time pump and

system curve visibility with
mechanical eciency

Real-time horsepower and/

or kilowatt consumption and
specic energy

on the DCS. This could make the

intelligent pump compatible with
multiple VFD brands and dierent
voltage ratings. The end user could
purchase the VFD separately from
software package and combine the
two using wired or wireless digital
communication. In this scenario,
the pump intelligence could access
the DCS database as well as receive
data from the VFD. By accessing
data from both control elements,
the level of intelligence could
potentially be expanded.
While intelligent pump
technology has made signicant
advances in asset protection, the
use of wireless communication,
cloud computing and/or thirdparty software oers new
approaches that can increase

Mike Pemberton is the senior

technical editor for Pumps &
Systems. He may be reached at












Power is Linear-Equal Sensitivity

at Both Low and High Loads





No Sensitivity
For Low Loads






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p u mp s a n d s y s te m s . co m | Fe b ru ary 2016



Liquid-Lubricated Double
Seals Increase Stability for
PTA Production
One facility s high-speed centrifugal pumps saw improved
performance and eciency after adding custom seals.

he production of puried terephthalic acid

(PTA) poses unique challenges for centrifugal
pumps. For increased safety and reliability, some
facilities with this process have incorporated
custom-engineered liquid-lubricated double seals. Th is
new technology meets the ever-increasing product
performance requirements of leading PTA producers.
HP reactor feed pumpsin many cases, integrally
geared high-speed centrifugal pumpsplay a vital role
in the purication stage of crude terephthalic acid (TA).
These pumps deliver TA slurry, which contains TA powder
suspended in demineralized water at a high temperature,
into a hydrogenation reactor, where a reaction with
hydrogen removes contaminants from the solution.
PTA is the predominant raw material for production
of high-purity polyester resin, which is widely used in
the production of polyester ber, polyethylene
terephthalate (PET) bottle resin, polyester lm and
engineering plastics.
Operational reliability of the HP reactor feed pumps
is critical for maintaining stable operation of PTA
purication plants, and mechanical seals are among the
most critical pump components because of high-speed
and high-pressure service requirements.
In one particular applicationfor one of the worlds
largest PTA producersthe selected centrifugal pump
was congured as a horizontally mounted, integrally
geared two-stage pump with a single double-ended output

Februa ry 2 0 1 6 | Pumps & S y st e m s

shaft, which operates at a rotational speed of 6,200

revolutions per minute (rpm) with impellers attached on
each end. The two stages are piped up to operate in series
to develop the required head rise, and the rst-stage
discharge feeds the second-stage pump suction. Th is
setup boosts the Stage 2 seal chamber pressure to 80 bar,
or 1,160 pounds per square inch (psi).
The seals for the application were engineered as a
cartridge-design double seal face-to-face arrangement
for Stage 1 and as a tandem oriented face-to-back dual
seal arrangement for Stage 2, which splits the total
dierential pressure between two seals and maintains
suitable pressure velocity (PV) parameter levels. The
seal support system utilizes ush supply to both pump
stages, which helps to protect the product side seals from
plugging with TA slurry.

Technical Challenges
One of the main technical challenges in this application
pertained to the barrier/buer uid. Instead of using
the more common ambient-temperature demineralized
water as a barrier/buer liquid that is usually supplied
from the PTA plant centralized seal-support system, the
facility requested to use plant return water at the normal
temperature of 70 degrees C (158 F), with a maximum
temperature of 80 C (176 F). The potential problem
with using plant return water as barrier/buer liquid
under these conditions is an adverse seal environment

Image 1. Pump in operation (Image and
graphic courtesy of EagleBurgmann)

characterized by inadequate heat dissipation and poor

lubrication of seal faces resulting from a loss of uid lm
from vaporization.
An additional technical challenge was reverse
pressurization of the Stage 2 process side seal during
pump startup and shutdown. During the startup
sequence, this seal is reverse-pressurized by the buer
uid introduced into the seal support system before
the pump main driver is turned on. Under transient
conditions, while the pump is ramping up to full speed
and reaching full discharge pressure, the pressure applied
to the seal is reversed, causing the seal to hang up. The
same problem occurs in opposite order during pump coast
down to shutdown. The original seal design was modied
to incorporate new features to overcome seal hang-up
associated with the secondary seal.
The demanding requirements of this facility required
an application-specic solution. Once the performance
specication had been drawn up, the development and
design stage began. The seal and pump manufacturers
teams met to analyze the operating points in detail.
This provided precise performance calculations and a
computer-aided design for the sliding elements.
The new double seals were based on a special
high-pressure seal from the manufacturers existing
product portfolio. Specically, the team opted for the

ecient high-pressure seal. In contrast to conventional

mechanical seals from the standard range, high-pressure
seals have one important special feature: the seat
rotates on the shaft while the seal facewith its spring
backingis stationary in the housing. This seal concept
provides additional stability at high speeds. At sliding
velocities of 20 meters per second (66 feet per second)
or more, the springs should be stationary so they do not
absorb vibrations and deform.

Optimized Design
Design improvements to the seal technology, including
the use of ultra-high-performance materials, were made
to guarantee stable running across the entire operating
range. While the regular seals use silicon carbide ceramic
material for both seal face and stationary seat, the
stationary seal face for this application was based on the
silicon carbide variant BuKa 30. Th is material has a high
carbon content, making it an ideal solution for media
with poor lubricating properties, such as water. BuKa 30
impresses with its eective emergency running properties
and tolerance to dry running.
The seal was further optimized to guarantee functional
reliability, even in the marginal ranges. A loosely tted
seal face provides additional safety against tipping and
tilting. Another technical feature of the high-pressure
p u mp
m p s a n d s y s te m
mss . co m | Fe b ru ary 2016




seal developed for the PTA application is the

incorporation of high-precision grooves in the seal faces.
The depth and geometry of these grooves were specied
with accuracy. At low pressure, the grooves promote
lift-o of the seal faces by creating a positive pressure
cushion, and they quickly establish a stable operating
state. At high pressure, the grooves have a stabilizing
eect because they prevent the gap from opening further.

Figure 1. Double seal in tandem arrangement. The

yellow parts are rotating, blue are stationary, and
gray shows the shaft and housing.

Field Tested
Combining all these measures resulted in sophisticated
sealing systems in both tandem and back-to-back
versions. These cover the range of applications up to 100
bar (1,450 psi) and 9,000 rpm and ensure functional
reliability. The liquid-lubricated double seals cope with all
operating parameters, and constant sealing performance
is reliable, even when exposed to considerable pressure,
temperature and speed uctuations.
The seals, which are designed as easy-to-t cartridge
systems, were extensively tested and conrmed in
dynamic test runs in the test eld. The new double seals
have also proven their worth in the many integrally
geared pumps that were bought into service in China in
2014 in one of the worlds largest PTA facilities.

Circle 139 on card or visit

Februa ry 2 0 1 6 | Pumps & S y st e m s

Andreas Pehl is technical sales support for mechanical

seal applications at EagleBurgmann
Germany in Wolfratshausen. He joined
EagleBurgmann in 2010. He has a degree in
industrial engineering from the University
of Applied Sciences, Munich. For more
information, visit

Circle 137 on card or visit



Match Hydraulic Fluids

to Seal Lip Material
Companies interested in reducing safety hazards and environmental
impact should consider compatibility issues.

n the sealing industry, compatibility inuences the

ability to form a chemically stable system. Using
the wrong hydraulic uid could result in a violent
reaction that is disastrous for the entire hydraulic
assembly. The x is not simple; it could cost thousands of
dollars in repairs and lost production time. To avoid these
problems, users should ensure that the lip material or
sealing material is compatible with planned media. Any
biodegradable upgrades or media improvements must
also be compatible with the sealing elastomer.
Each year the U.S. uses about 200 million gallons
of hydraulic oils. Of this volume, approximately 165
million gallons are mineral-based uids. These types
of mineral-based oils function at temperatures as low
as -40 C to as high as 150 C with some exceptions.
When choosing the right uid, it is essential to assess
physical and performance properties along with any
original equipment manufacturer (OEM) approvals or
specications. Most uid suppliers should be able to
provide a product data sheet so that the design engineer
can discern the best solution for the application.
Mineral-based uids include specialty re-resistant
hydraulic uids and environmentally friendly,
biodegradable uids. The International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) acknowledges four major groups
of re-resistant hydraulic uids: high-water containing
uids (HFA), invert emulsions (HFB), water glycols (HFC)
and water-free uids including synthetics (HFD).
Along with being re-resistant, the chemical
characteristics of HFA uids are almost identical to that
of plain water. As a result, this type of uid is typically
used in equipment that has been intended for use with

Image 1. It is important to consider how hydraulic uids will affect

the hydraulic seal. (Graphics courtesy of Colonial Seal Company)

water and is subjected to an open ame. HFA uids

are most commonly used in steel mills and coal mines.
However, because these are re-resistant uids and not
re-proof uids, HFA uids can still ignite and burn,
given the right conditions.
HFB uids are made up of emulsions of water caught
in oil with 60/40 oil-to-water composition. Th is type of
uid can sometimes perform to the level of petroleum oil
and oers greater lubrication and corrosion resistance
compared with HFA uids. Its water content also acts as
an extinguisher in case of a re.
The most frequently used re-resistant hydraulic
uid category is water glycols (HFC). While these uids
are comprised of only 35-45 percent water, they also
include unique thickeners that boost viscosity. While
HFC uids can be used to run equipment designed for
oil, severe damage to machine parts can occur due to an
overwhelming environment if the speeds, temperatures
or pressures are not monitored properly.
p u mp s a n d s y s te m s . co m | Fe b ru ary 2016



Variable Speed Controls for Pumps

Provides variable speed control for AC Induction, DC, PMSM and EC motors, 1/50 to 5 HP.
115, 208/230, 400/460 VAC 50/60 Hz 1 and 3 Input.
When a standard off the shelf drive will not meet your needs, KB will work
with you to develop a custom drive solution, Ready to Use Out-of-the-Box.

KB Electronics, Inc.
12095 NW 39th Street, Coral Springs, FL 33065-2516



Designed and
Assembled in USA

Circle 127 on card or visit

Circle 130 on card or visit

Februa ry 2 0 1 6 | Pumps & S y st e m s

HFD uids are classied as synthetic

because they contain neither petroleum
oil nor water. Polyol esters have an
organic makeup that is biodegradable.
HFD uids are also compatible with
system materials and provide exceptional
hydraulic uid performance. However,
HFD uids are more than double the cost
of petroleum oil and are typically only
used when the situation demands re
resistance and biodegradability.
Because governments have become
more vigilant with environmental
regulations, it is increasingly important
to use a more eco-friendly uid. For a
product to be labeled an environmentally
acceptable uid, more than half of it
must decay within 28 days of exposure
to the atmosphere. The uid must be
nontoxic after passing a series of aquatic
toxicity tests on sh. The most common
base for these environmental uids is
vegetable oil (or more specically canola/
rapeseed oil). Although they cannot
be used as a direct replacement, the
lubrication and anti-wear properties will
be comparable to those of petroleum oil.
While eco-friendly uids are becoming
more available, the problem is that none
of the current options can be used as
a direct replacement in hydraulically
powered equipment. There are drawbacks
to using a minimally toxic hydraulic uid.
These uids may be more vulnerable to
oxidation and have a poor performance
record in extreme cold weather, resulting
in coagulation and problems cold
starting. To increase stability and prevent
problems with viscosity, vegetable
oil producers have turned to genetic
engineering to alleviate problems with
biodegradable uids.
If a plant decides to change the
hydraulic uid used in an assembly,
personnel must consider the
compatibility of the replacement uid
with the internal components of the
machinery, ensuring that the seal lip
material is compatible with the chosen
application media. These materials range
from standard nitrile Buna rubber, Viton
and ethylene propylene diene monomer

Table 1. Fire-resistant hydraulic uids and their features







Less than

5 to 50 C

Chemical characteristics are

similar to water.



Less than

5 to 50 C

Because of its water content,

it can act as an extinguisher
should a re occur.



Less than

-20 to 50 C

The most commonly used

hydraulic uid




-20 to 70 C

The chemical makeup is

synthetic, and the uid
contains no water or oil and is
safe for the aquatic ecosystem.

rubber to polytetrauoroethylene
(otherwise known as Teon).
Understanding how a seal material will
interact with various uids is the rst
step to nding the right match.
When choosing hydraulic
oil, consider both viscosity and
temperature. To prevent early internal
component failure, the viscosity grade
must match the operating temperature.
The quality of the hydraulic should not
be a factor; if it is not compatible, a
system failure could result.
If the operating temperature of a
hydraulic system is below the suggested
level for the viscosity grade, the uids
can congeal. Solidied oil will not
ow freely through the system, which
can cause component seizures. The
solidication can cause media to lose
the ability to lubricate the hydraulic
piston and increase the coecient of
friction undergone by the seal lip. The
increased wear and heat will cause the
seal lip to quickly deteriorate.
When switching to an eco-friendly
hydraulic uid, be prepared for
dierent results from the interaction
of the seal lip material and the uid.
Eco-friendly uids can cause a shorter
life for a traditional nitrile seal.
Fluorocarbon is the best material
for users who go this route. Always
check with the uid supplier before
switching. Because biodegradable uids
have a dierent chemistry composition
than petroleum-based uids, the
interaction with the seal lip materials
could be an issue.

In a real-world example, a user

experiencing premature hydraulic
seal failure thought he had been sent
either the wrong seal or the incorrect
seal material. The seal provider

discovered that the user had switched

to a re-resistant hydraulic uid so
that he could create a safer working
environment. No research was done
on how this change would impact
his machinery and its components,
including the seal.
The result was that the ethylene
propylene diene monomer seal was
not compatible with the new uid.
The seal was absorbing the uid at an
accelerated rate, causing the seal lip to
swell. This swelling caused increased
wear on the seal, resulting in decreased
seal life and unacceptable leakage.
Contact your uid or seal supplier for
reference charts. They will have rsthand compatibility knowledge.

Stephen A. Maloney founded Colonial Seal Company in 1994. He retired as a colonel

in the U.S. Marine Corps in 2008. He has a Bachelor of Science in management
and technology from the U.S. Naval Academy and a Master of Science in systems
management from the University of Southern California.

Circle 123 on card or visit

p u mp s a n d s y s te m s . co m | Fe b ru ary 2016





Alternative Technologies
Control Complex Pumping
Processes & Systems
PLC-based PACs ll the gap between traditional distributed control
systems and basic programmable logic controllers.

ecause of the complicated nature of pump

ow and pressure control, industrial plants
have often incorporated control of complex
pumping and related systems using distributed
control systems (DCSs) or expensive specialized
controllers. In the past, many programmable logic
controllers (PLCs) were not up to the task, so engineers
and designers turned to DCSs or similar controllers,
which, in some cases, can lead to higher costs and
complex implementation.
Today, new alternatives allow monitoring and control
of these complex systems with programmable automation
controllers (PACs), saving considerable expense and
simplifying implementation.
The PAC, or PLC-based PAC, lls the gap between the
DCS and basic PLC. It has the hardware and software
required to monitor, control and communicate with these
pumping systems (see Figure 1, page 32).

Advanced Process Control

Complex pumping systems often require advanced
process control (APC), which goes beyond proportionalintegral-derivative (PID) control and can include methods
such as model predictive control, inferential control and
sequential control.
PID is sometimes insucient because the process that
needs to be controlled has a long dead time, is non-linear
or presents other diculties.

Februa ry 2 0 1 6 | Pumps & S y st e m s

Various APC control methods and algorithms are

supported in DCS platforms but not in most PLCs.
PLC-based PACs, on the other hand, can execute many
APC algorithms and typically have some built-in
APC capability.
Some APC methods require complex custom coding, a
programming technique supported by DCS platforms but
not by most PLCs. The PLC-based PAC solves this problem
because it allows users to create custom code, encapsulate
it and integrate it into the overall controller program.
When APC is required, a PLC-based PAC provides many
of the capabilities of a DCS but at a lower cost and with
simpler implementation. Pushing a basic PLC to perform
APC is impossible in some cases, and even high-end
PLCs can require an extraordinary amount of eort to
implement APC.

Interfacing to Instruments
Pumping systems for applications such as custody
transfer often contain a large number of instruments
and analyzers. Typical instrument types include ow,
pressure, temperature and density. Many of these
instruments are multivariable, measuring several
parameters at once. Modern pumping systems often
employ smart instruments with a built-in, two-way
digital data link, rather than simple instruments with
a 4- to 20-milliamps (mA) output proportional to the
measured variable.

Image 1. Each of these smart Coriolis
mass ow meters provides hundreds
of parameters of information related
to measurement, diagnostics and
calibration. A PLC-based PAC is
well-suited to interface with these
instruments and to handle the large
volumes of data they produce. (Images
courtesy of

For example, custody transfer applications often use

mass ow meters because they can precisely measure
the amount of liquids transferred from one owner to
the next regardless of product density. Coriolis meters
measure multiple variables including ow, density and
temperature and are most commonly used to measure
mass ow.
These variables are sent to the control system along
with diagnostic, calibration and other information.
A typical Coriolis meter used in custody transfer will
transmit hundreds of parameters to the control system
over a digital data link, presenting data storage and
handling challenges.
Plants often employ analyzers to measure parameters
related to the chemical composition of oil and other liquid
hydrocarbons. Like smart instruments, analyzers are
usually connected to the control system via a two-way
digital data link and often transmit more than a hundred
parameters to the control system.

Complex pumping systems commonly employ smart

valves. Like smart instruments and analyzers, smart
valves communicate large amounts of data with the
control system over two-way digital data links.
A DCS will have built-in communication capabilities
for a number of the process control protocols used by
smart instruments, smart valves and analyzers. While a
PLC will have more limited communications capabilities,
a PLC-based PAC will have an extensive array of built-in
communication ports and protocols, with the ability to
expand through plug-in communication modules.

Data Handling
Smart instruments, smart valves and analyzers
produce large amounts of data (see Image 1). A DCS
can handle the storage and processing of this data, but
a PLC generally cannot. A PLC-based PAC provides the
needed data capabilities at a lower cost and with simpler
implementation than a DCS.

p u mp s a n d s y s te m s . co m | Fe b ru ary 2016





Image 2. A PLC-based PAC has the capability to accommodate thousands of I/O points of many different types, a feature often required for control
and monitoring of complex pumping systems.

With integrated mass storage devices such as removable

USB drives and microSD cards, PLC-based PACs can
manage large amounts of data locally in the controller.
Custom utilities in the programming software allow
data logging on the memory device and conguration of
the trigger for rate-of-data storage. Data is stored in a
comma-separated variable le format, making it simple to
read and manipulate the information.
Most PLC-based PACs have the option to remove the
memory device from the controller and then download
les directly to a PC or laptop. Built-in Web server
functionality allows access to this data from almost
anywhere using any standard Web browser. Users just
need to type in the Internet Protocol (IP) address of
the PLC-based PAC, and with the proper connectivity
provisions and security considerations, they have instant
access to the data les.

It will easily support thousands of I/O points and have

the program space necessary to handle these more
complex applications.
Another benet of a PLC-based PAC is the tag-based
control environment, which gives the exibility to assign
data typesand by extension, memory allocationas




Structure text language for complex functions

and calculations

Sequential function charts for process control

Integration with smart instruments, smart

analyzers and valves

Lots of I/O

Can store large amounts of data

Reneries and power plants often have thousands of

input/output (I/O) points, many of which are analog
and related to the control and monitoring of pumps and
related systems. A PLC-based PAC can handle many
I/O points, even when the majority of them are analog
(see Image 2). The available memory in a PLC-based
PAC is more comparable to a DCS than a typical PLC.

Advanced data handling

Can handle thousands of analog I/O points

Easy to integrate with higher level

computing systems

Februa ry 2 0 1 6 | Pumps & S y st e m s





Intelligent Pump
Control Reduces Energy
Consumption by 80 Percent
A ame retardant manufacturer incorporated frequency converters
to control its cooling water pumps.

erman company ICL-IP Bitterfeld

GmbH has been producing
phosphorus-based ame retardant
since 1997. Its plant in BitterfeldWolfen employs about 80 people. Many of the
steps in the production processfrom the
phosphorus and chlorine starting materials
to the nal products (phosphate ester)
involve exothermic reactions. Much of the
released heat is led away in water-cooled heat
exchangers. A centralized cooling tower runs
almost continuouslyabout 8,250 hours per
yearto provide the required cooling water.
Water temperature varies seasonally from
19 to 25 degrees C. The ow rate can be as
high as 1,100 cubic meters per hour (m3/h),
resulting in a cooling capacity of up to 6
megawatts (MW).
In 2011, plant managers analyzed
the processes in the cooling tower. They
discovered that the three cooling water
pumps running in parallel ran continuously
against throttle aps, even under partial-load
conditions and reduced thermal loads in the
plant. It resulted in an unfavorable hydraulic
operating point and poor eciency.

Februa ry 2 0 1 6 | Pumps & S y st e m s

Image 1. The three cooling water pumps with a capacity of 360 cubic meters per hour and
maximum delivery head of 52 meters (Images courtesy of Dr. Kurt-Christian Tennstdt)


Thermal utilization of the cooling tower

normally uctuates between 50 and 100
percent as a result of seasonal factors and
varied usage by individual consumers
during normal operations. Average
utilization is about 70 percent.

Energy Eciency a Core Concern

A 2014 company-wide program to improve
energy eciency systematically identied
additional weak points in how energy is
used. For the cooling water pumps, new
motors and speed control with frequency
converters produced signicant savings.
With this foundation, Production
Manager Dr. Jrgen K. Seifert developed a
technical concept for controlling the three
pumps in a way that adapts to the cooling
waters continually changing needs while
eliminating the inecient method of using
throttle aps. Before implementation,
multiple simulations indicated a high
potential for savings with a projected
return on investment (ROI) of two years.
The pump control is central to the
new concept. The system utilizes three
frequency converters and includes cascade
functionality. The 75-kilowatt (kW) IE4+
synchronous reluctance motors achieve an
eciency of 96 percent, an improvement
over previous motors (built in 1996) with
about 90 to 92 percent eciency. They
even run eciently under partial load. As
a result, procurement costs are amortized
in two to three years. Experience in a
previous round of optimizations showed
that converting control over the cooling
tower fans to frequency converters also
achieved signicant savings.

Frequency Converters Replace

Manual Intervention
In the past, the pumps ran at a constant
1,450 liters per minute (l/min). They were
regulated with throttle aps located at
the pump outlet on the discharge side.
This conguration brought the pumps
into the performance curve range where
the drive motors were not overloaded
(counterpressure at the consumer side is
only about 3.5 bar at full hydraulic load).

Image 2. At the main cooling tower, the fourth pump at the far right is a reserve pump
and it is not automatically included in control.

Simple, Reliable
Vapor Recovery? LPG Transfer? Natural Gas Boosting?
The answer is the FLSmidth Ful-Vane rotary vane compressor!
Built robustly for long service life, it has only three moving parts. Combined with low operating speeds
which minimizes wear and vibration, it is designed to not only outlast other compressors, but save you
money on power and maintenance costs.

Suitable for natural gas, are gas, bio gases, LPG vapor, and ammonia refrigeration
Carbon ber vanes last longer than traditional blades
Variable ows with VFD and/or bypass
Single stage to 3000 SCFM, two-stage to 1800 SCFM
Discharge pressures to 250 PSIG
Made in the USA for over 80 years

Find out more at

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p u mp s a n d s y s te m s . co m | Fe b ru ary 2016





While this type of control can destroy energy, it is

usually unavoidable in situations that consist of a xedspeed pump and a system with low counterpressure. In
this case, the throttle aps helped hold the pressure at
a constant 4.8 bar at the pump outlet, regardless of the
actual need for coolant. This achieved a constant power
consumption at the motors of 68 to 75 kW, at which
point each pump was expected to stabilize near its rated
capacity of 360 m3/h.
As an initial energy-saving measure after the analysis,
one or two pumps were switched o during partial-load
operations, such as when consumers (heat exchangers)
were turned o. But this approach is dicult because
the remaining pumps must be monitored continuously
to make sure they do not become overloaded. If loads
suddenly change, engineers must be prepared to
undertake rapid manual interventions.
Frequency converters help solve this problem by
replacing manual, inconsistent on/o control with a
continuous, intelligent adaptation of pump speeds to
the actual need for cooling water. As a result, manual
interventions are no longer needed. The pumps are
synchronized and run continuously in their optimal
range, and pump discharge pressure remains constant.
The cascade feature automatically switches pumps on and
o as requirements change on the consumer side.

Smooth Switch
The facility completed the practical execution of the
upgrade in close contact with the pump supplier. The
manufacturer has long developed intelligent controllers
for cooling water pumps in systems where the need
for cooling water frequently changes, whether due to
uctuating cooling water temperature or because of
varying loads imposed by the process.
Because of this experience, the manufacturer was
able to quickly provide a suitable solution for the plant.
Only rarely have I experienced such a smooth project
execution, Dr. Seifert said about the experience at the
plant. They immediately understood our concept and
executed it with precision.
The upgrade and reconditioning of the three water
pumps was completed within the facilitys one-week
production downtime window. The manufacturer even
recalculated the impellers and replaced them with the
maximum size impellers. The optimized impellers, which
are driven at the optimal speed, allow the pumps to
achieve an eciency of 85.3 percent.
After only one month, the power costs for the cooling
tower were several thousand euros lower than before.
Because of this success, the facility has short-term plans
to convert other pumps with dynamic requirements to
this control concept.


Signicantly reduce energy costs
Convert the entire cooling system within one week
Flexible pump speed with constant discharge
pressure to all consumers
Elimination of valves; no change to cooling
reliability at full load, even if one pump fails

Use frequency converters to control the pumps for
precise adaptation of capacities to current need for
Optimization of impellers in the centrifugal pumps

Energy savings of more than 80 percent
Several thousand euros saved after just one month
Savings in operation of the cooling tower
Efciency of all pumps increased to 85.3 percent

Februa ry 2 0 1 6 | Pumps & S y st e m s

Image 3. The numerous heat exchangers at various locations in the plant

are connected to the main cooling tower with lines of different lengths.
This places elevated demands on the intelligence of the pump controller.
A specic minimum preliminary pressure must be ensured even at the
most distant cooler and in every operating state. Pump output and speed
are displayed on the control panel.

Potential for Savings

In many cases, energy consumption in
such systems plays only a secondary
role and is often neglected. Even at the
Bitterfeld plant, energy costs make up a
comparatively small proportion of overall
production costs. But the new controller
reduced power requirements for cooling by
50 to 60 percent, or about 1,000 megawatthours (MWh) yearly. The investment paid
for itself within one year, faster than
predicted by the simulations. Even when
all three pumps are running under full
load, energy requirements drop from 75
to 37 kW per pump. The energy required
to run the cooling tower now accounts for
a much smaller proportion of the total
energy consumption of the plant. All of
the money that is saved flows directly into
operating results .
The Bitterfeld plant demonstrates the
potential for savings that can be found in
industrial systems with oversized pumps
that were dimensioned and installed years
ago with excess reserves . In this case,
the energy savings totaled more than 80
percent. As prices for frequency converters
drop and the technology becomes more
accessible, the use of intelligent controllers
makes more sense even for higher-output
systems. The question of "How reliable
are the electronics, and what happens
if a frequency converter fails?" is less of
an issue. The technology is mature, and,
because of optimized control, two of the
three pumps at the Bitterfeld plant can
cover a large portion of the plant's needs if
a frequency converter were to fail.

Chemical Process
Oil & Gas Municipal
Food Process Markets
ANSI Process
Centrifugal MUD
Air Operated Double
Diaphragm Pumps

Pinnacle-Flo, Inc.

Circle 131 on card or visit


ecise Chemical Metering

~ C!l

Martin Hoffmann has a master's

degree in industrial engineering and
works as a product manager at the
Radolfzel\location of Colfax Fluid
Handling/Allweiler. He focuses
on energy efficiency and
optimization of operating
costs. He may be reached
at martin.hoffmann
Circle 125 on card or visit

I February






3 Questions to Ask Before

IoT Implementation
A well-planned systems approach to predictive analytics using
cloud connectivity can optimize pumping systems.

he term the Internet of Things (IoT) has grown in

usage, both within the business world and
society as a whole. But for many people,
the concept is unclear. The phrase often
means dierent things to dierent people.
In simple terms, IoT is the concept
of connecting any device with an on/
o switch to the Internet and other
devices. Because of the declining
costs of sensors, connectivity and
processing power, enterprise
adoption of IoT is gaining
signicant momentum.
A recent study by ABI Research
forecasts massive growth in
IoT adoption across industries,
with the number of businessto-business IoT connections
rising to an estimated 5.4 billion
globally by 2020roughly four
times what it is now.
While this vast network of

interconnected devices is often

associated with consumer goods such
as cellphones and automobiles, the
adoption of this concept is spreading to
many industrial arenas, including pumps
and metering technologiesalso known as
the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT).
The integrated sensor technology and network
connectivity aorded by an IIoT architecture can link

Februa ry 2 0 1 6 | Pumps & S y st e m s

Collection and storage

of machine sensing data

of data

cloud-based network

Data analysis

Figure 1. A whole-product solution (Courtesy of Accudyne Industries)


individual pieces of pumping equipment, or an area-wide

group of pumps, to a cloud platform. Such connectivity
provides real-time, password-protected data access to
anyone with an Internet connection from anywhere
in the world. By collecting and migrating this data to
a Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) platform, the user can
perform real-time, historical and predictive analytics.
To deliver a fully connected pump management
system that aords real-time, predictive analytics,
developers must answer three questions about any
proposed IIoT architecture.

1. How smart do the pumps need to be? Industrial

plants must make informed decisions about the type
of hardware that will be requiredfrom sensors and
controllers to protocol-agnostic intelligent gateways
to link each pump, valve or related piece of equipment to
the Internet.


How will the pumps be connected to the Internet

using a cloud platform? Will this platform be developed,
owned and operated in house, or licensed from a third
party such as Google or Microsofts Azure cloud services?
An important consideration related to the choice of cloud
platform centers is the software that will be used to track,
analyze, interpret and report the vast quantities of data
that will be generated. Does the developer plan to package
and provide software via an SaaS oering to clients, or
will the software simply be used as a means to deliver
predictive analytics and reports?


How will the facility keep data secure? With so many

devicesmany with multiple sensors and controllers
streaming data into the cloud, how will developers ensure
that the information remains secure? While many cloud
platforms have robust cybersecurity measures built in,
new threats frequently arise that require additional
levels of protection. Developers must choose the level
of security that makes the most practical and economic
sense for their application. For example, does a single
pump require the same level of security as a larger, more
mission-critical systems control network?
With a common platform in place that addresses
sensing hardware, connectivity and security, the
developer can then shift to managing the assets
individually, as a group or both. At the single pump level,
the IoT concept allows the end user to remotely monitor
pump activity by reviewing the real-time sensor data
streaming into the cloud-based software, which displays
pump readings through a dashboard interface.

If a sensor detects a problem with the pumpfor

example, a diaphragm material that becomes too thin
or a motor that begins to draw a higher amperagea
signal alerts the user on his or her oce computer
or smartphone.
The user can then review all pump information in real
time and assess the cause of and solution to the problem.
The plant can quickly deploy personnel to the pump to
conrm the problem and make the appropriate x before
the pump fails completelya predictive maintenance
solution that keeps costs and time to a minimum while
making more ecient use of personnel.
The IoT concept has led manufacturers to be unsatised
with selling just a single component to the end user.
Instead, they are beginning to take more ownership of
the full system by providing multiple components that
improve the operating eciency of an entire process.
This whole-product concept may have far-reaching
positive implications for both the manufacturer and
the end user. For example, a large tractor manufacturer
several years ago began a program of using sensors to
monitor the operation of its tractors.
The company soon realized that if they were properly
congured, these same sensors could measure moisture
content in the soil. Tying that data into weather forecasts,
the manufacturer could generate reports that help
farmers decide which days of the month are best for
planting a given crop. By embracing the power of the IoT
as a true whole-product solution, the company opened
previously undiscovered business opportunities.
In the same way, the IIoT can oer new opportunities
beyond merely providing smarter pumps. It could enable
better predictive analytics and preventive maintenance
to help end users x pump problems before failures occur.
Also, the IIoTs data analytics and reporting provide
pump manufacturers with more detailed information
about the operation of their systems in the eld, which
could benet product development.
If the reporting suggests common modes of failure
or design aws, manufacturers can proactively make
changes to eliminate these problems and deliver
better-performing pumpsoften before they even hear
a complaint.

Jon Hilberg is global manager of industrial

automation and digital strategy for
Accudyne IndustriesPrecision Flow
Systems. He may be reached at

p u mp s a n d s y s te m s . co m | Fe b ru ary 2016



Peristaltic Pumps Offer Protection in

Mining Operations
This design overcomes the challenges of exploring and extracting valuable resources.
By Tom ODonnell
Abaque, part of PSG

he challenges to creating
a successful mining
digging for gold, cement, coal,
petroleum products or saltare
both daunting and numerous.
Specically, the technological
challenges run a wide gamut:

Material handling: This requires

reliable and highly ecient
equipment that needs minimal
maintenance and can operate
in production areas that require
frequent blasting to free ore.
Processing: Equipment must
deal with crushing and grinding
rock, as well as the leaching and
otation of complex or dicultto-treat ores.
Environmental issues/waste
management: Mine operators
must have systems that will
adequately handle and remove
tailings, waste rocks and leach
piles. They must also control
acid drainage and heavy-metal
releases to prevent damage to
surrounding freshwater and
groundwater supplies.
Water management: Operators
have been working to identify
sources of water supply during
the extraction process to
avoid competing with other
industries (such as agriculture
and manufacturing) for
this precious resource. One

Februa ry 2 0 1 6 | Pumps & S y st e m s

alternative is using saline water

that comes from the ocean or
underground sources. Saline
water, however, can mean a
high wear rate on equipment.
Safety: Only equipment
certied for use in explosive
atmospheres and with
potentially hazardous products
can be reliably and safely used
in mining operations.

Mine operators should consider

positive displacement peristaltic
(hose) pumps as a way to defeat
the challenges inherent in the
exploration and extraction of
the worlds most valuable and
important mined commodities.

The Big Squeeze

The operational characteristics of
peristaltic pumps have remained
basically unchanged for nearly
140 years. The pumps operation
uses alternating contraction and
relaxation of the hose, produced
by the turning of a rotor outtted
with rollers, also called shoes.
The exible hose has smooth
walls. It is attached to the pump
casing and as the shoes compress it,
the uid moves through the hose.
As the hose returns to its resting
shape following the squeeze by
the shoes, it creates an almost full
vacuum that is able to draw the
next amount of uid into the pump
casing through the inlet piping.

Figure 1. An example of an advanced peristaltic pump shows a seal-free design that eliminates
leaks and product contamination, which enables it to handle some of the toughest pumping
applications in the mining industry. (Graphics courtesy of Abaque, part of PSG)

Figure 2. The design and operation of peristaltic pumps enable them to deliver a constant
rate of uid displacement and maintain high volumetric consistency, even after millions of
pumping cycles.

The shoes and hose are protected by a

lubricant that cools the pump casing,
eliminating any temperature spikes
that could be damaging.
The design and operation of
peristaltic pumps enable them
to deliver a constant rate of uid
displacement and maintain high
volumetric consistency, even after
millions of pumping cycles. Other
operational characteristics include the
ability to run dry for extended periods,
self-prime, handle small solids and
abrasives, and oer low-slip product
ow. Peristaltic pumps are also sealfree, which eliminates any leak or
cross-contamination points.
These operational features make
peristaltic pumps ideal for mining
operations that require the transfer
of abrasive or viscous slurries and the
handling of uids that contain large
pieces of particulate matter, such as
rocks or pebbles. The pumps simple
method of operation and ability to
remain volumetrically consistent
enable it to be used in 24/7 operating
cycles, which are common in mining
operations. Most peristaltic pump
models are equipped with reversibleoperation capabilities, which provide
the versatility to pump in both
directions. ATmosphres EXplosibles
(ATEX)-certied and Conformit
Europenne (CE)-certied models
are regulated for use in potentially
explosive or hazardous atmospheres.
There have been signicant
upgrades in the type of hose
materials used. These have been
critical innovations because the hose
is the only component that comes in
contact with the pumped medium.
By choosing the proper hose
material, mine operators can safely
pump a wide range of uids without
the threat of leaks or spills.
Next-generation hose types can
cut down on hose fatigue that can
result in failures. Hose materials
that are incompatible with certain

chemical compounds, susceptible

to cracks during operation or prone
to rupture when handling particleladen uids should not be used. Hose
materials that can eliminate leakage
concerns include:

Natural rubber: Ideal for use with

diluted acids and alcohols, with
excellent abrasion resistance
Ethylene propylene diene monomer:
Possesses a high chemical resistance
to concentrated acids, alcohols
and ketones


Hypalon: Strongly resistant to

chemicals, temperature extremes
and ultraviolet light
Buna-N: Highly wear resistant to
oil products

Tom ODonnell is director of business

development for Abaque and PSG, a
Dover Company. He may be reached
at 215-699-8700 or tom.odonnell@ For more information,


Pump with

With more than 20 years of experience in the most

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Abaque Peristaltic Hose Pumps can handle your
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operate in some of the most demanding environments
including mining, water and wastewater treatment, energy,
chemical process and OEM applications.

Patented Hose Holding System improves reliability

Stronger and lighter rotor design
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Can run dry, self prime, and operate in forward or reverse
Flow rates to 339 gpm, and discharge pressures to 217 psi

For more information, please go to:

Ask Us About Our Engineering Capabilities!

295 DeKalb Pike

North Wales, PA 19454
P: +1 (215) 699-8700
F: +1 (215) 699-0370

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p u mp s a n d s y s te m s . co m | Fe b ru ary 2016



Creative Coupling Design Saves Downtime at

Utility Plant
Some pumps were running with high vibration levels, while the disc couplings were failing
on a regular basis.
By Jim Anderson
Coupling Corporation of America

combined-cycle utility
plant had eight feed
pumps in the heat recovery
steam generator (HRSG), and the
horizontal multi-stage pumps were
driven by 2,500-horsepower (hp)
motors. Some pumps were running
with high vibration levels. Over a
few years, a dozen disc couplings
failed. The cause of the coupling
failures was not a mystery. In each
train, pipe strain in the system
was causing the pump shafts to
move signicantly as the uid
temperatures increased.
The thermal growth was
dierent on each pump. Some had
greater horizontal movement, and
some moved more vertical ly. The
pumps movement was tracked over
long periods of time and plotted
using Permalign equipment.
As an example, one pump had a
maximum horizontal movement
of 0.042 inches with a vertical
maximum movement of 0.015
inches, although the movement
was hardly predictable. At some
points, the pump would grow in the
positive vertical direction, and at
other times, it moved lower than
the starting position.
While correcting the pipe strain
would be ideal, it was not feasible
because of the time and expense.
As a result, the plant operators
looked at potential alternative

Februa ry 2 0 1 6 | Pumps & S y st e m s

solutions that would eliminate the

downtime while minimizing the
investment of time and capital.
The operators discussed a
higher misalignment coupling. In
the current layout, the distance
between shaft ends was 8 inches.
For a typical disc coupling
with an angular misalignment
capability of 0.25 or 0.3 degrees
per disc pack, the total maximum
allowable parallel oset would be
between 0.030 and 0.035 inches.
Considering the misalignment
numbers previously stated, one can
see why couplings were not lasting.

For a coupling to survive this

amount of misalignment at the
current distance between shaft
ends, the angular misalignment
capability per hinge would have
to be at least 0.6 degrees. To allow
for all other non-parallel and axial
misalignment while still providing
some extra margin for error, the
angular misalignment capability
per hinge would have to be closer to
0.7 or 0.8 degrees.
Another strategy was to increase
the distance between the hinge
points of the coupling by a closecoupled design. Hinge points are

Figure 1. A typical exible spacer coupling layout (Graphics courtesy of Coupling Corporation
of America)


Figure 2. A typical close-coupled exible coupling layout

dened as the imaginary plane about

which a exible element (disc pack or
diaphragm pack) bends to accept an
angular misalignment. Normally this
style of coupling would be used when
the shafts of the driving and driven
machines are positioned very close
together. Figure 1 shows a spacer
coupling layout, while Figure 2 shows
a typical close-coupled layout.
In many close-coupled designs,
the exible elements of the coupling
are positioned on the back of the
hubcloser to the machine housing
and further away from the end of the
shaft. This style can be synonymous
with reduced-moment couplings
as well. The result is an increase
in the eective distance between
hinge points of the coupling by
approximately the combined length
of the two shafts, whereas a normal
spacer coupling layout has a distance
between hinge points slightly
shorter than the distance between
shaft ends.
In this particular case, a closecoupled design seemed like a good t
because both shafts were more than
5 inches long, which, combined with
the 8 inches between shaft ends,
would give enough space to allow for
a distance between hinge points of

Figure 3. A combination of spacer and close-coupled

coupling halves

at least 18 inches. At that distance, a

coupling with 0.3 degrees of angular
misalignment capability would
probably work, although 0.4 degrees
would give a larger safety margin.
This strategy seemed like a good
option until one other detail was
discovered: an obstruction on the
pump side that would not allow
the larger diameter of the exible
element to be installed.
Finally, a combination of a spacer
and a close-coupled coupling could
work. Because of the diameter
restriction, a normal hub could be
used, bolted to a spacer center section
with a exible element. On the motor
side, without diameter restriction,
a close-coupled style coupling could
increase the distance between hinge
points (see Figure 3).
With the dimensions of the
shafts, this hybrid coupling layout
could provide about 13 or 14 inches
between the couplings hinge points.
With that much distance, a coupling
with 0.3 degrees of misalignment
could not provide enough extra
misalignment margin to run safely.
So a higher misalignment coupling
would still be needed to meet the
needs of the large thermal growth.
The nal solution came in the form

of a high-misalignment coupling
with 0.5 degrees of misalignment per
hinge. With that amount of exibility,
the coupling can handle about 0.115
inches of parallel oset, which is
enough to have a large safety margin
on the misalignment.
The plant decided to try one
coupling using this style. It was
installed on one of the more
problematic units. After installation,
the vibration issues on that unit
were reduced to normal level. The
only remaining question was how
long the coupling could last running
at those high misalignments. The
rst installation was about ve years
ago, and the coupling is still running
Since the original installation, the
plant has upgraded the remaining
units with the same new coupling,
and the results have been similar.
Jim Anderson is vice president of
Coupling Corporation of America,
which designs and
manufactures highperformance and highmisalignment couplings.
For more information,

p u mp s a n d s y s te m s . co m | Fe b ru ary 2016



What to Consider When Upgrading or Changing

Pre-Specied Gaskets
An important rst step in the process is asking the question Why do I need or want to
change my gaskets?
By Mike Shorts
FSA Member & President

sers at some point in

their gasketing careers
will have to consider
alternative gaskets (styles and/or
manufacturers) to replace those
currently approved and installed at
their facilities.
Before they can evaluate the
gaskets, they must ask, Why
do I need or want to change
my gaskets? The answers will
vary depending on the person,
department, facility and corporate

The application has changed,

and the existing gaskets
no longer work or are not
working as well.
The department or company
is looking to save on its
short-term or long-term
gasket spend.
The service from the gasket
supplier has changed, and
a new supplier is being
considered to better t the
service and support needs.
The application remains the
same, but gaskets seem to
have started to fail sooner
than the historical average.
Someone is looking for longer
service life to improve the
return on investment (ROI).
Environmental regulations
impose new or dierent

Februa ry 2 0 1 6 | Pumps & S y st e m s

past has limited the type of gasket

One individuals specic why
to be used due to allowable load.
may be dierent from anothers
Because products are made on
within the same company, even
dierent equipment using dierent
if they have access to the same
recipes, installation parameters
information. But only once the
why has been established can the can vary enough to require more or
less minimum loading in order to
what to change be considered.
establish a leak-free seal. Changing
One of the rst places to start is
the gasket may make sense,
to cross-reference existing gasket
but additional training might
specications for equivalency
be required to ensure that new
with the replacement candidates.
Compare published typical physical installations are safe.
Next, determine if any
properties information from the
application changes have occurred
manufacturers. Sometimes this
within the system. Perhaps some
comparison can be confusing,
new equipment was installed
because manufacturers do not
that has boosted line pressure or
always publish all of the detailed
information that may be needed for insulating jackets have cooled or
increased the media temperature.
analysis. A quick cross-reference
These changes often are not
can be done by comparing the
amended to the master process
American Society for Testing and
Materials (ASTM) F104 line callout ow chart and are left as a subset
of the original le, making them
numbers associated with each
material (see Figure 1).
Most manufacturers
Figure 1. An example of an ASTM F104 callout number
publish for each of their
(Courtesy of FSA)
products a complete F104
callout number that uses
a specied format for easy
comparison of data.
Additional gasket
parameters, such as
gasket factors, may
exhibit enough dierence
to require changes to
installation procedures.
Perhaps a ange stress
design restriction in the


easy to overlook. Changes in pressure or temperature

can aect gasket performance requirements while still
tting into existing pipe and ange design parameters.
A new gasket, though similar on a technical level, may
look or feel dierent than the gasket currently being
used. These dierences can make some stakeholders
uncomfortable. Training may be required to educate
people on the changes, including why they are necessary
and what to expect with the new product.
To upgrade gaskets, the full operating parameters
of the application or system with original design data
should be compared to the current or new design data.
The Fluid Sealing Association (FSA) has developed a
Gasketed Joint Questionnaire for standard and nonstandard anges as a starting point for collecting
information. Without complete and accurate data,
making a change could increase the risk of an accident.
Fully assess the parameter(s) necessitating the
upgrade: improved service life, temperature/pressure
changes, a process uid change, or a change to operating
conditions. The next step is to narrow down new
available material options.
Review the potential gaskets by their published
data to ensure they meet the current or new design
requirements. It is recommended to review the pressuretemperature graphs for operating safe zones if either
of these conditions has changed over time. Published
data only breaches the surface of the physical and
performance data available. Work with applications
engineers from the manufacturers of the material on the
short list to be able to determine more denitively the
suitability of the product to the application conditions.
Inevitably, someone will need or want to change
from one gasket type/style to another. Determining
why the change is needed is necessary to properly make
the selection of new materials. Once the individual is
satised with the reason for making the change, then it
is important to determine what to change.
The analytical criteria previously provided are meant
to be a starting point for a simple cross-reference or
a complete upgrade. As always, it is recommended to
consult the gasket supplier or manufacturer.
Without the why, the what may not matter.

Circle 135 on card or visit

Next Month: Best practices for safety and reliability

in emission service
We invite your suggestions for article topics as
well as questions on sealing issues so we can
better respond to the needs of the industry.
Please direct your suggestions and questions to

Circle 136 on card or visit

p u mp s a n d s y s te m s . co m | Fe b ru ary 2016



Submersible Vertical Turbine Pump Intake Designs,

Common AC Single-Phase Motors
By Hydraulic Institute

What intake design

considerations are
important for submersible
vertical turbine pumps?
Submersible vertical turbine
pumps can be installed in a wet
pit or closed bottom can as shown
in Figure G.1. Well motor types
are recommended for both wet-pit
type and closed-bottom can type
of below-grade suction intakes in a
rotodynamic pump.
A submersible well-type motor
normally requires a minimum ow
of liquid around the immersed
motor to provide adequate motor
cooling. For many applications,
a shroud is required to ensure
proper cooling ow around the
motor. Sizing of the cooling
shroud for internal ow velocities
must be referred to the pump
manufacturer. The top of the
shroud must include a cover to
restrict downward ow of liquid to
the pump inlet while allowing for
venting air from the shroud. The
conned ow pathway provided by
the motor cooling shroud is very
desirable in developing a uniform
ow to the rst-stage impeller.
The characteristics of the ow
approaching an intake structure
are among the most critical
considerations for the designer.
When determining direction and
distribution of ow at the entrance
to a pump intake structure, the
following must be considered:
Februa ry 2 0 1 6 | Pumps & S y st e m s

the orientation of the structure

relative to the body of supply
whether the structure is
recessed from, ush with
or protrudes beyond the
boundaries of the body of
supply liquid
strength of currents in the body
of supply liquid perpendicular
to the direction of approach to
the pumps
the number of pumps required
and their anticipated operating

For more information on

the design criteria for various
pump intakes, refer to ANSI/HI
9.8 Rotodynamic Pumps for Pump
Intake Design.

What types of alternating

current (AC) singlephase motors are used
in centrifugal pumping
applications, and
what are some typical
Many types of single-phase
motors are used throughout the
commercial and industrial world.
Listed below are a few types of
single-phase AC motors used in certain pumping applications:
Split-phase: A split-phase motor
is a single-phase induction motor
equipped with a main winding and
an auxiliary starting winding. This
type of motor has a switch that
deactivates the starting winding
as the motor comes up to speed.

Figure G.1. Submersible vertical turbine pump (Courtesy of Hydraulic Institute)


Split-phase motors are used in spa, jetted tub

and aboveground pool pump applications. The
motors are usually rated from 1/6 horsepower
(hp) through 1.5 hp.
Capacitor-start: A capacitor-start motor is a
single-phase induction motor equipped with
a main winding and an auxiliary starting
winding with a series capacitor. Th is type
of motor has a switch that deactivates the
starting winding and capacitor as the motor
comes up to speed. They are usually rated from
1/6 to 7.5 hp. Capacitor-start motors are the
most common type of single-phase motors
found on in-ground pool, irrigation and
dewatering pump applications.
Permanent-split capacitor: A
permanent-split capacitor motor is a singlephase induction motor equipped with a
main and an auxiliary starting winding
with a series capacitor. The motor does not
have a switch and both the main and
starting windings are always energized. The
motors are typically rated from 1/2 to 15 hp
and are commonly found in dewatering and
irrigation applications.
Capacitor-start, capacitor-run: A capacitorstart, capacitor-run motor is a single-phase
induction motor equipped with a main and an
auxiliary winding with a series run capacitor.
Both windings and the run capacitor are
permanently energized. In addition, this
motor has a second capacitor called a start
capacitor that is deactivated by a switch as the
motor comes up to speed. This type of motor
is also called a two-value capacitor motor. The
motors are usually rated between 1.5 and 15
hp and are commonly found in dewatering and
irrigation applications.
For more information on centrifugal pumps,
refer to ANSI/HI 1.3 Rotodynamic Centrifugal
Pumps for Design and Application.

HI Pump FAQs is produced by the Hydraulic Institute

as a service to pump users, contractors, distributors, reps
and OEMs. For more information, visit

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Jordan, Knauff & Company is a knowledgeable and

experienced provider of a comprehensive line of
investment banking services to the pump, valve and
Our lines of business include: selling companies,
raising debt and equity capital, and assistance
To learn more about Jordan, Knauff & Company,
contact any member of our Flow Control


Managing Principal

Senior Associate


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p u mp s a n d s y s te m s . co m | Fe b ru ary 2016



Pumping System Diverts 5.9 Billion Gallons of

Water for Kalamazoo River Remediation
The project was nished ahead of schedule and $4 million under budget.
By Duane Hargis, Cornell Pump Company
& Rich Goethals, BakerCorp

or decades, paper mills

along a section of the
Kalamazoo River had
dumped polychlorinated biphenyls
(PCBs) into the waterway. The river
ow then took the contamination
far downstream from the original
source, making a large swath of
southwest Michigan subject to
PCBs are linked to an increased
cancer risk, compromised immune
systems in people and animals,
and impaired memory/cognition.
PCB exposure can occur when
people come into direct contact
with contaminated soil or water or
eat sh from an aected waterway.
While the use of PCBs stopped in
the late 1970s, the contamination
has remained in the river bed and
surrounding area.

The federal Environmental

Protection Agency (EPA), in
conjunction with the Michigan
Department of Environmental
Quality, declared an 80-mile
stretch of the Kalamazoo River
as part of a superfund site in
1990. Superfund sites are polluted
locations requiring a long-term
response to clean up hazardous
material contaminations.
The Comprehensive
Environmental Response,
Compensation, and Liability
Act of 1980 (CERCLA) is a
federal law designed to clean
up sites contaminated with
hazardous substances as well as
broadly dened pollutants or
contaminants, and it gives the EPA
the authority to clean up locations
such as the Kalamazoo River.

Image 1. An aerial view of the Portage Creek project shows

pumps with sound-attenuated enclosures. (Courtesy of
Cornell Pump Company)

Februa ry 2 0 1 6 | Pumps & S y st e m s

As part of that Kalamazoo River

superfund site cleanup, a twoand-a-half mile stretch of Portage
Creek, in the Edison neighborhood
of Kalamazoo, required
remediation for PCBs. During
this process, more than 19,000
cubic yards of PCB-contaminated
soil and sediment were removed.
To facilitate the cleanup, Portage
Creek was dammed and diverted
in sections. The sections furthest
upstream were treated rst so
the contamination could move
downstream, allowing areas
cleaned above the existing
contamination to remain clean.

The Approach
To provide access to the creek
bed and surrounding area, the
creek was diverted in seven


segments over two years. Work

was completed from late March
through mid-October, when risk of
freezing was reduced. The project
also dealt with various ow rates,
depending on rainwater runo.
During the working season, the
pump distributor abated sound
in the neighborhood while still
operating the pumps 24 hours a
day to divert ow and avoid back ll
ooding. Sucient pump capacity
to deal with a strong rain event and
uneven ows was necessary.
The project used three 16-inch
discharge pumps with 18-inch
suction, 16-inch discharge, the
ability to handle a 4.5-inch solid,
ow rates up to 17,800 gallons per
minute (gpm), heads up to 240 feet,
and eciency up to 85 percent.
These pumps were combined with
one 12-inch discharge pump with a
14-inch suction, 12-inch discharge,
the ability to handle a 3-inch solid,
ow rates up to 9,000 gpm, heads
up to 200 feet, and eciency up to
84 percent.
The distributor also used several
on-call 4- and 6-inch discharge
pumps to dewater Portage Creek.
The system bypassed the ow from
upstream around the work site
and back into the creek below the
ongoing mitigation. The pumps
were able to handle signicant solid
sizes because of the unpredictable
nature of items that could be found
in the creek and the amount of
potential plugging solids in the
creek bed. The pumps were driven
o diesel engines and housed in
sound-attenuated packages.

The Process
The remediation portion of the
project began in July 2012.
Working through the summer,
contractors used the pumps
to tackle three sections of
remediation. Pumps were sized to

handle ow rates up to 9,600 gpm.

The four larger pumps dealt with
the main ow, while the smaller
pumps were used as backups and
occasionally addressed areas of
high groundwater seepage.
Spring and summer 2013 were
extraordinarily wet in southwest
Michigan. While the project had
originally been sized for 9,600
gpm, rain ow was pushing
ows to more than 11,300 gpm.
Given the robust nature of 16and 12-inch pumps on-site, the
distributor was able to handle the
increased ow without resorting to
additional equipment.

The Outcome
The remediation project was
completed in September 2013
ahead of schedule and more than
$4 million under budget. The
use of pumps with great uptime
reliability, durability, eciency
and variable ow rate contributed
to those time and cost savings.
The distributors know-how in
managing noise levelswith the
need for continuous operation
and on-call backup for large water
eventsalso contributed to the
projects success.
Overall, more than 19,000 cubic
yards of soil and sediment were
removed through the project.
It is estimated that more than
5.9 billion gallons of water were
bypassed during the eort
enough to ll nearly 9,000
Olympic-size swimming pools.
The mitigation also opened
up an area in Kalamazoo that
had previously been unused
by residents because of fear of
contamination. The Kalamazoo
Nature Centers (KNC) Urban
Nature Park borders the mitigation
site. Dr. Bill Rose, president and
CEO of KNC, headed up eorts
to replant the Urban Nature Park

with native plants, shrubs and

trees. Plantings were selected to
be suitable for local soils and to
provide optimal habitat for native
bird and buttery species. A trail
was cut, connecting the Urban
Nature Park to the Kalamazoo
River Valley Trail, aording
walkers, runners and cyclists access
to miles of recreational activities.
The bypass project is a real win
for Kalamazoo and our community
as a whole, Dr. Rose said. What
once had been a blighted, highly
contaminated industrial site is now
an urban oasis where residents
and visitors can have an easy
encounter with nature. The Urban
Nature Park is now a vibrant and
revitalized part of our city. We
hope it will serve as model for
future projects in urban areas
across the nation.
The senior branch sales
representative for the contractor
in charge of the project
commented, The durability and
reliability of the pumps met
or exceeded our expectations
throughout the project.
The Portage Creek project
was a success. The EPA was able
to use the money saved and
available contractor hours to begin
remediation on other sections of
the superfund site.
Duane Hargis is the Northeast
regional manager for Cornell Pump
Company, a manufacturer of
centrifugal pumps for industrial,
agricultural, mining, oil, gas and
municipal uses. He can be reached
at or
503-653-0330. Rich Goethals
is a senior sales representative
at BakerCorp, a provider of tank,
pump, ltration and shoring
equipment rental solutions. He
may be reached at 708-362-2214

p u mp s a n d s y s te m s . co m | Fe b ru ary 2016



Obtain Maximum Bearing Life & Performance

Achieve pump and motor longevity by providing proper storage, avoiding pre-service damage,
and conducting sound handling and maintenance procedures.
By Mike Pulley
Bartlett Bearing Company

small percentage of
bearings achieve their
application design life, and
in pump and motor applications,
bearings are the most susceptible
components to premature failure.
The cost of a failed pump or motor
add up quickly, but end users can
take several precautions that help
maximize bearing life.
In most cases, the cost of the
equipment repair is less than 8
percent of the overall expense of
the failurewhile downtime costs
usually account for an estimated
90 percent.
Pump users frequently ask
how long certain bearings should
last. The answer depends on the
amount of information that can be
provided at the time the question
is posed. Life calculations can be
run based on furnished application
data, but it is dicult to accurately
predict bearing fatigue.
Bearing life is commonly
measured using an L10 or L10h
calculation, which is a statistical
variation of individual bearing life
that is most often communicated
as life in hours or revolutions.
A bearings L10 life, loosely
interpreted from International
Standards Organization (ISO) and
American Bearing Manufacturers
Association (ABMA) standards, is
based on the lifespan of 90 percent
of a group of identical bearings in
a given application. In a nutshell,

Februa ry 2 0 1 6 | Pumps & S y st e m s

it is a calculation of how long 90

percent of the bearings will last in
that given application.
What makes this equation
impractical for determining
denite bearing life is that it is
based on the load capacity of
the selected bearing, the actual
application loads, the bearing type
(ball or roller) and the rotational
speed (in revolutions per minute
[rpm]) of the application. The L10
life calculation does not consider
temperature, lubrication and
other key factors related to preservice damage that are crucial to
achieving the designed application
bearing life. Proper storage,
treatment, handling, installation
and maintenance are simply
assumed. Predicting bearing
fatigue without consideration of
these variables is problematic. As
a result, an estimated 10 percent
of bearings meet or exceed their
calculated fatigue life.

Limit Pre-Service Damage

Proper storage and handling
can limit pre-service damage to
bearings. Standard bearings are
predominantly produced from
52100 steel, a highly rened
steel material that can be prone
to oxidation. If end users do
not handle bearings like they
do other precision equipment,
the longevity of the bearing can
be compromised. Bearings are

typically packaged at the factory

with a Ferrocote or a thin coat
of preservative oil. Handling
the bearings with bare hands or
wiping o the preservative can
reduce corrosion-resistance. If a
thin coat of preservative or oil is
not re-applied, damage can occur.
Bearings should be kept in an area
free from vibration to avoid false
brinelling, which is a phenomenon
characterized by localized material
wear or damage that occurs as
a result of frictional vibrating
contact between surfaces.
Proper mounting is essential to
bearing life. The correct mounting
methods may include induction
heaters, presses or bearing
mounting impact tool kits.
Figure 1. The graphic shows an example of a
bearing being heated through induction heating.
(Graphics courtesy of the author)


Apply Correct Lubrication

Lubrication issues account for up to
half of all failed bearings. Failures
may result from insucient or
excessive lubrication, improper
lubrication methods, incompatible

lubrication, incorrect viscosity and

contamination. Lubrication separates
contact surfaces, reduces friction and
protects against corrosion. Proper
lubrication can also seal equipment
from the ingress of contaminants
and, in the case of circulating oil,
oer heat displacement.
Many pump applications use
oil for the superior lubricating
properties needed for high speeds.
Oil lubrication serves as a lter and
has additional advantages in terms of
the life of the lubricant. One negative
of using oil is that it can be dicult
to eectively and easily seal. Th is
is where sealing grease is generally
used because it is less burdensome.

There are two options for using grease

with bearings. One option is to use
an enclosed (sealed or shielded)
bearing that is pre- lled with the
appropriate amount of grease by the
manufacturer. Users may also choose
an open bearing that will require
replenishment. The overwhelming
majority of enclosed pre- lled
bearings are ball bearings as opposed
to roller bearings because grease life
is longer with ball bearings.
Because sealed-for-life bearings are
only sealed for the life of the grease,
one might think that an open bearing,
in an application where grease can
be replenished, would survive much
longer. That is not always the case.

Grease Compatibility
= Compatible

= Not Compatible
r iu

Using the appropriate shaft and

housing seat diameters is crucial
to optimal life and performance.
Common ball and roller bearing
applications with a rotating shaft/
rotating inner ring should have an
interference shaft t. In most cases,
standard ball and roller bearings
have a radial internal clearance built
into the bearing. The clearance will
be reduced during installation onto
the bearing journal to accommodate
the interference shaft t and prevent
negative clearance (pre-load). The
slightest oversized or undersized
shaft can shorten bearing life by
more than half. The same is true
for housing ts. End users should
consider referencing shaft and
housing t charts for ball and
cylindrical roller bearings used
in general and electromechanical
repair applications.
The basic shaft and housing ts on
these charts are accurate for general
applications and based on standard
Annular Bearing Engineering
Committee (ABEC) precision grade,
normal operating temperatures
and normal loads. However, for
special applications that may include
high-speed, high-heat, outer ring
rotation or any non-standard design,
check with the original equipment
manufacturer (OEM) to obtain their
tting practices. The OEM designed
the unit, so taking time to research
these specs is important.
Proper storage, handling and
installation can eliminate the cause
of about 30-35 percent of failed
bearings, and appropriate preventive
maintenance can drastically extend
equipment life.

Aluminum Complex
Calcium 12-Hydroxy
Calcium Complex
Lithium 12-Hydroxy
Lithium Complex
Table 1. Adding incompatible greases can result in a rapid reduction of the
grease life, which translates to accelerated bearing failure.

p u mp s a n d s y s te m s . co m | Fe b ru ary 2016



Proper upkeep requires the correct

re-lube intervals, the correct
amount of grease, a compatible
grease and protection against
foreign contaminants.
Some manufacturers may
provide re-greasing interval
charts, which are usually based on
the bearing bore size, operating
speed and bearing type.
A general way to determine how
much grease to replenish is to
multiply the outside diameter of
the bearing in millimeters by the
bearing width in millimeters,
then multiply by 0.005. This will
give you the re-lubrication amount
expressed in grams.
Most of these re-greasing
graphs or charts are based on an
operating temperature of 160

degrees F or below. Depending

on the bearing manufacturer,
suggested re-lube intervals should
be reduced by half for every 25-27
degrees F above an operating
temperature of 160 F.
Additionally, a further reduction
in re-greasing intervals may
be warranted in potentially
contaminated applications
and in vertical applications. If
re-lubrication detail is not known,
it is best to rst check with the
pump or motor manufacturer.
If they cannot provide a
recommendation, contact the
bearing distributor or OEM.
When adding lubrication, rst
determine what grease is in the
equipment, and make sure to add a
compatible grease. All greases are

made of three main components:

a base oil that can be synthetic
or organic, a base thickener, and
any additives used for desired
enhancements. Pay close attention
to the base thickener. Many types
of thickeners are used, including
calcium, clay, sodium, aluminum
complex, lithium and urea
compound (polyurea).

Mike Pulley has 20 years

of experience in the bearing
industry. Most of his career
has been spent on the OEM
side of the business until moving
to distribution in 2014. He is part
of the Product Management Group
at Bartlett Bearing Company.

NEW: Hydraulic Institutes Wastewater

Treatment Plant Pumps Guidebook
This new guide provides the
guidance necessary to select
pump types, pump materials,
and auxiliary components so the
wastewater pumping system
performs effectively, efciently,
and reliably in various plant
operations. Find out whats
inside by visiting the link below.

Attention Pumps & Systems Readers:

Take 15% off your purchase of this guide
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Industry Coverage

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Centrifugal Pumps
Specialty & Other Pumps
Industrial Valves
Pneumatic & Hydraulic Valves
Industrial Automation & Process Control
Electric Motors & Drives
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effective growth strategies. We employ 50
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Visit us at
For more information, contact Liz Clark
at 210.477.8483 or liz.clark@

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Februa ry 2 0 1 6 | Pumps & S y st e m s

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Notable pump technology products selected by the Pumps & Systems editors:
Variable Speed Drive

Pump Control

Borets has introduced its

AXIOM II variable speed drive,
calling it the rst universal
VSD suited for operating
electric submersible pump (ESP)
induction motors, permanent
magnet motors and high-speed
PMMs. The AXIOM II provides
electrical eciency and power
factor performance through a
range of drive loading, especially
when coupled with the Borets
high-eciency PMM. The entire system is on average 15
to 20 percent more electrically ecient than a typical ESP
system dependent on the loading of the motor.
Circle 201 on card or visit

the OSS-100 plug-and-play

system that pumps water,
not oil, from elevator pits,
transformer oil containment
areas and underground vaults.
The Oil Smart OSS-100 System,
when combined with a manual
sump pump, will automatically
pump water without the risk
of pumping oil into the environment. The system alerts
maintenance or building personnel in the event of a high
oil or high water condition. The OSS-100 will control any
pump up to 1 horsepower. It includes dry contacts for
building maintenance.
Circle 204 on card or visit

Screw Pumps

Programmable Relay
Blackmer has announced the

See Water Inc. is oering

global launch of its S Series

screw pumps after appearing
in the North American
market last July. Available
with or without external
timing gears and bearings,
Blackmer S Series pumps are
self-priming double-ended
positive displacement pumps
that are ATEX-certied for use in explosive or dangerous
environments. Blackmers twin and triple screw designs
provide complete axial balancing of the rotating screws,
and their timing technologies eliminate metal-to-metal
contact with the pump.
Circle 202 on card or visit

IDEC Corporation has

released its FL1F SmartRelay,
an upgrade to its FL1E
model. The FL1F SmartRelay
addresses market demand for
a programmable relay with
many of the features found
in micro programmable
logic controllers, and it can
accommodate small- to medium-sized original equipment
manufacturer machine control and other applications.
Maximum congurations are 24 discrete inputs, 20
discrete outputs, eight analog inputs and eight analog
outputs. The FL1F SmartRelay has an improved LCD
operator interface.
Circle 205 on card or visit

Control Panels

Metering Pumps
Val-Matic is

oering control
panels that
provide ecient,
reliable and
service to
buttery, plug and
ball valves that have cylinder actuators. The hydraulic
control panel permits changes to the valve operating
times in order for the valves surge characteristics to be
the same as the piping system. Additionally, the electric
control panel connects with the hydraulic control panel
and pump motor controls to allow for remote monitoring
of valve operation and alarm conditions.
Circle 203 on card or visit

Wanner Engineering
Inc. has released its new
Model P200 Hydra-Cell
Metering Solutions pumps
that feature new gearbox
reducers with ratios from
60:1 to 5:1. They are
designed for a wide range of
processing applications and
for use in manufacturing facilities. Model P200 pumps
feature a multiple-diaphragm design that minimizes
pulsations, producing smooth, linear ow without the
need for expensive pulsation dampeners. Hydra-Cell
Metering Solutions pumps have a sealless design, and
they can run dry without damage to the pump.
Circle 206 on card or visit

To have a product considered for our Products page, please send the information to Martin Reed,

p u mp s a n d s y s te m s . co m | Fe b ru ary 2016


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Stainless Steel
Cyclone Separator
Helps prevent
premature seal failure,
and prolongs seal life,
no moving parts, made
with American 304
stainless steel.

Important Properties of
LobePro Rotary Lobe Pumps
 Low maintenance  Space-saving,
in place wear part
compact design
 Self priming to 25 wet
Pump Capacities up to 2,656 GPM (604 m/hr) with
discharge pressure ratings to 175 psi (12 bar)


To learn more or get a custom quote, email

Made in USA

Circle 142 on card or visit

Tuf-Lok International
*i\ n{n U

Advertiser Name

Page RSC#

ABEL Pump Technology..................26

AE Pumps ........................................ 54
AIGI Environmental Inc. ............... 13
Alignment Supplies, Inc. ................29 .................IFC
BJM Pumps, LLC ............................ 33
Blue-White Industries ....................37
Cornell Pump Company ..................11
Dan Bolen & Associates, LLC .........55
FLSmidth Inc. ................................. 35
Frost & Sullivan ...............................52
Graphite Metallizing Corp. ............47
Greyline Instruments Inc. ..............19
Grundfos. ...........................................1
Hatz Diesel of America, Inc. .............5
Hydraulic Institute..........................52
Industrial Pump & Balance ........... 54
Jordan, Knau & Company............47
KB Electronics, Inc. ........................ 28
Load Controls, Inc. ......................... 23
LobePro ........................................... 54
Magnatex Pumps, Inc. ................... 33
Master Bond Inc. .............................55

Februa ry 2 0 1 6 | Pumps & S y st e m s


Advertiser Name

Circle 147 on card or visit

Page RSC#

Meltric Corporation ........................55

Pinnacle-Flo, Inc. ............................37
ProPump Services .......................... 45
PSG, a Dover company ....................41
PumpWorks Industrial....................17
RuhRPumpen ....................................3
Ruthman Companies ........................7
Salem-Republic ................................21
See Water Inc. ..................................16
Sims Pump Co. .................................17
Summit Pump, Inc.......................... 28
TF Seals ............................................14
Titan Flow Control, Inc. ................. 45
Titan Manufacturing, Inc...............55
Topog-E Gasket............................... 54
Tuf-Lok International .................... 54
Vaughan .........................................IBC
Vertio Pump Company .................55
Vesco .................................................55
WNE................................................. 26
WQA................................................. 20
Xylem, Inc........................................ BC
Zoeller Company. ..............................9


Circle 140 on card or visit


Visit to request more
information from these advertisers.



One Component
Fluorosilicone Adhesive
MasterSil 930

dry start
problems with
Vesconite Hilube

Serving the Pump &

Rotating Equipment, Valve,
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No swell
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Scottsdale, Arizona 85258-5065
(480) 767-9000 Fax (480) 767-0100

+1.204.343.8983 main

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Safety Shutter
(on receptacle)

Rated up to 200A, 75hp

 Connector + Switch in 1 device
 Maximizes Arc Flash Protection
 Minimizes PPE Requirements

Circle 148 on card or visit


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Circle 145 on card or visit

p u mp s a n d s y s te m s . co m | Fe b ru ary 2016



Wall Street Pump & Valve Industry Watch

Figure 1. Stock indices from Jan. 1, 2015, to Dec. 31, 2015

By Jordan, Knauff & Company

he Jordan, Knau &

Company (JKC) Valve Stock
Index was down 24.4 percent
over the last 12 months, while the
broader S&P 500 Index was down
0.7 percent. The JKC Pump Stock
Index also decreased 20.8 percent
for the same time period.1
For the second month in a
row the Institute for Supply
Managements Purchasing
Managers Index (PMI) remained
in contraction territory. The
composite index fell to 48.2
percent from 48.6 percent
in December. New orders
and production were both up
slightly for the month but still
at contraction levels. Exports
increased 3.5 percent to 51 percent
for the month, showing expansion
for the rst time since April. The
index for prices declined again and
has remained below 50 percent for
14 consecutive months.
Driven by easy credit, cheap
gas and pent-up demand, U.S. car
sales posted a record high in 2015.
Approximately 17.5 million cars
and trucks were sold last year,
compared with the previous high
of 17.3 million in 2000. Sales of
light trucks and SUVs increased 13
percent, while sales of passenger
cars decreased 2 percent compared
with 2014. Ford Motor Company
and General Motors both reported

5 percent sales gains, while

Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
reported U.S. sales increases
of 7 percent.
Global inventories for oil
and other liquids increased
in each quarter of 2015,
resulting in a net inventory
build of 1.72 million barrels
per day for the year, the
highest rate since 1996. Led
by production growth in Iraq,
total OPEC crude oil and other
liquids production increased 3
percent to 37.4 million barrels
per day in 2015, according to
the U.S. Energy Information
Administration. This sustained
excess supply over global demand
resulted in lower crude oil prices at
the end of the year with the price
falling below $40 per barrel, the
lowest price since early 2009.
The spot price for Brent
international crude oil averaged
$52 per barrel in 2015, 53 percent
below its level in 2014 and 49
percent below the average price
over the 2010 to 2014 time period.
Spot prices for domestic West
Texas Intermediate crude averaged
$49 per barrel in 2015, also down
53 percent compared with 2014.
U.S. production began to decline in
the second quarter of 2015 because
of lower crude oil prices. Despite
this decline, overall U.S. crude oil

Figure 2. U.S. energy consumption and rig counts

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration

and Baker Hughes Inc.

Februa ry 2 0 1 6 | Pumps & S y st e m s

Source: Capital IQ and JKC research. Local currency converted to USD

using historical spot rates. The JKC Pump and Valve Stock Indices include
a select list of publicly traded companies involved in the pump and valve
industries weighted by market capitalization.

production increased 7 percent

in 2015 over 2014, reaching the
highest level since 1972.
On Wall Street, the Dow
Jones Industrial Average was
down 0.3 percent, the S&P 500
Index decreased 0.3 percent,
and the NASDAQ Composite
fell 0.6 percent for the month
of December. For the full year,
the NASDAQ gained 5.9 percent,
while the Dow and S&P 500
declined 2.3 percent and 0.7
percent, respectively. Concerns
over slowing growth in China
and falling oil prices negatively
impacted investor sentiment.
Consumer spending was strong
during the year, making the
consumer discretionary sector the
largest gainer for the year, which,
along with limited exposure to
the energy sector, benetted the

Figure 3. U.S. PMI and manufacturing shipments

Source: Institute for Supply Management Manufacturing

Report on Business and U.S. Census Bureau

1. The S&P Return
gures are provided
by Capital IQ.

Jordan, Knau
& Company is an
investment bank
based in Chicago,
Illinois, that
provides merger and
acquisition advisory
services to the
pump, valve and
ltration industries.
Please visit for
more information.
Jordan, Knau &
Company is a member

These materials were

prepared for informational
purposes from sources that
are believed to be reliable
but which could change
without notice. Jordan,
Knauff & Company and
Pumps & Systems shall not
in any way be liable for
claims relating to these
materials and makes no
warranties, express or
implied, or representations
as to their accuracy or completeness or for errors or
omissions contained herein.
This information is not
intended to be construed
as tax, legal or investment
advice. These materials do
not constitute an offer to
buy or sell any financial
security or participate in
any investment offering or
deployment of capital.

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