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Journal of Ethnopharmacology 179 (2016) 208233

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Journal of Ethnopharmacology
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jep

Investigation of traditional medicinal oral knowledge of Sarban Hills,


Abbottabad, KP, Pakistan
Farhana Ijaz a, Zafar Iqbal a,n, Inayat Ur Rahman a, Jan Alam a, Shujaul Mulk Khan b,
Ghulam Mujtaba Shah a, Khalid Khan a, Aftab Afzal a
a
b

Department of Botany, Hazara University Mansehra, Pakistan


Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan

art ic l e i nf o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:
Received 8 September 2015
Received in revised form
22 December 2015
Accepted 24 December 2015
Available online 29 December 2015

Ethno pharmacological relevance: Ethno medicinal traditional knowledge regarding the uses of indigenous medicinal plants for treating various human infectious diseases is totally in hold of the elder
community members. The young generation is not much aware about such vital traditional medicinal
practices.
Aim of study: To document, accumulate and widely disseminate the massive indigenous knowledge of
century's practiced therapeutic uses of medicinal plants by the local people living in this area.
Materials and methods: A total of 134 local inhabitants (78 male and 56 female) were interviewed
through questionnaire method. The data obtained were quantitatively analyzed through the use value,
delity level index and relative frequency citation. Plants specimen were preserved and mounted on
herbarium sheets and labeled, cataloged and deposited with voucher numbers in Hazara University
Herbarium, Mansehra, Pakistan (HUP).
Results: 74 plant species belonging to 70 genera and 42 families were documented in the current study.
These medicinal plant species are used commonly as an ethno medicine against 56 various diseases such
as digestive disorder, cough, pain and skin diseases etc. Herbaceous plant species were the dominant
among plants studied which were 57% of the total plants, followed by shrubs (23%) and trees (20%).
Asteraceae was the leading family among collected medicinal plant species (10.81%). Maximum medicinal plant species were used for treatment of digestive disorders (9.09%) and cough (7.44%). Most widely
part used is leaf (27.9%), followed by fruit (13.5%) and seed (13.5%) for the treatment of different ailments
by the traditional healers. The medicinal plant species with greater use values were Berberis lycium (0.91)
and Cannabis sativa (0.81). The medicinal plant species with maximum delity level were Ziziphus jujuba
(100%) and Lonicera caprifolium (92.31%) whereas the medicinal with most relative frequency citation
were B. lycium (0.313), Ziziphus nummularia (0.276). The comparative result reveals that 36% of medicinal
plant species were reported for the rst time from Abbottabad regarding their uses, whereas 26% of plant
species were reported with different medicinal uses. Brugmansia suaveolens and Allium grifthianum
were recorded for the rst time from Pakistan as well as from other countries across the globe for
currently reported medicinal uses.
Conclusion: The current study revealed the importance to document and launch list of all possible plants
that are used in ethno medicinal practices in the study area. Future antimicrobial, antivirals, and pharmacological studies are required to ratify the efcacy and safety of the medicinal plants species.
& 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:
Ethno medicine
Jaccard index
Used value
Abbottabad
Pakistan

1. Introduction
Ethno botany is the study of the interactions between plants

Corresponding author.
E-mail addresses: fbotany@yahoo.com (F. Ijaz), drzafar.hu@yahoo.com (Z. Iqbal),
hajibotanist@outlook.com (I.U. Rahman), janalamkuh@yahoo.com (J. Alam),
shuja60@gmail.com (S.M. Khan), gmujtabashah72@yahoo.com (G.M. Shah),
khalidkhan.botanist@gmail.com (K. Khan), aftabafzalkiani@yahoo.com (A. Afzal).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.12.050
0378-8741/& 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

and people over time and space. Consequently, plants are essential
to the functioning of all social societies and to the operation of all
ecosystems (Smita et al., 2012). Use of plants by men is as ancient
as the creation of human life on earth. Plants were rst used for
the persistence of food shelter and medicine. Therefore, human
race is mostly dependent on plants and their needs increased day
by day. For the welfare of humans, wild plants have constantly
been used for their important qualities (Ali et al., 2003; Ali, 2003).
In the developing countries therapeutic plants are silent used for

F. Ijaz et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 179 (2016) 208233

health care. However with the passage of time the accessibility of


wild plants are exaggerated because wild plants are vanished by
their actual habitat and exchanged with the cultivated plants
(Buitron, 1999). Owing to the great rate of manmade medicines
and inaccessibility of medicinal health care services in many urban
areas, the inhabitants are assured to depend on medicinal plants.
Between 35,000 and 70,000 plant species are charity in traditional
medicines to treat different diseases (Lewington, 1990). About 70
80% of the world inhabitants still use traditional medicine (Pei,
2001). Ali (2008) and Ali and Qaiser (1986) reported that 1572
genera and 5521 species have been found in Pakistan, generally
restricted to the hilly regions.
In Pakistan, the eld of ethnobotany has been introduced recently as compared to other countries but in recent years a lot of
work has been done in this eld by many researchers in different
areas of Pakistan (Haq and Hussain, 1993; Hussain and Khaliq,
1996; Khan, 1998; Shinwari and Khan, 1999, 2000; Gilani et al.,
2001; Matin et al., 2001; Qureshi, 2002; Hussain, 2003; Shinwari
and Gilani, 2003; Ahmad, 2004; Hamayun et al., 2005; Muhammad et al., 2005; Qureshi et al., 2006; Sher and Hussain, 2007;
Qureshi et al., 2008; Sher and Hussain, 2009; Qureshi et al., 2009;
Abbasi et al., 2010a,b; Khan and Khan, 2011; Hazrat et al., 2011;
Noor and Kalsoom, 2011; Khan, 2012; G.M. Shah et al., 2013; N.A.

209

Shah et al., 2013; Ishtiaq et al., 2014; Khattak et al., 2015; K.U. Khan
et al., 2015; S.M. Khan, 2015) but no information and documentation is done especially on Sarban Hills, Abbottabad.
As inhabitants of the area are mainly using traditional means to
cure diseases and this asset of indigenous knowledge is transferring from generation to generation only through verbal means of
communication. So this research was an effort to document and
preserve this folk asset, to explore the ethno medicinal knowledge
of the study area, to enlist the indigenous medicinal plants used by
local people for common day ailments, to create the awareness
among the local community about the protection of native medicinal ora and to collect medicinal plants of the area for proper
identication and future references.

2. Materials and methods


Present study was carried out from February 2012 to September 2013. During this period the area was visited twice a month for
collection of data relevant to economically important plants and
biodiversity. The study was conducted in three stages.

Fig. 1. Map of the study area. (A) Abbottabad, (B) Sarban Hills, (C) and (D). View of Abbottabad from Sarban Hills.

210

F. Ijaz et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 179 (2016) 208233

Fig. 2. Some collected medicinal plants from the study area. (A) Brugmansia suaveolens, (B) Punica granatum, (C) Clematis grata, (D) Indigofera heterantha, (E) Rydingia limbata,
(F) Lantana camara, (G) Lonicera caprifolium, (H) Jasminum humile, (I) Justicia adhatoda, (J) Oxalis corniculata, (K) Cyperus rotundus and (L) Geranium spp.

2.1. Study area


The study area was Sarban Hills which are located in the Abbottabad, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan (Fig. 1). It covers the area
of about 179,653.5 km2 area lies geographically within between
3409N latitude and 7313E longitude at an altitude of 4120 feet
(1260 m) and 110 km north of the Capital Islamabad, 130 km from
Rawalpindi and 150 km northeast of Peshawar having a total population of 881,666 (IUCN, 2004). Kashmir lies to the east of the
city. Two distinct mountains range the border of District i.e. Sarban
Mountains and Habiba Mountain. The study area includes the localities Kehal, Khung, Nogakhai, Selhad and Kotha Qabar.
2.2. Field trips and data collection
Field work was carried out in order to investigate the traditionally using plants, ecological and oristic studies of various
parts of Sarban hill in different seasons. Field trips were arranged
according to owering and fruiting seasons of the plants. The eld

work included interviews, observations and collection of various


plant species and their photography (Fig. 2). Collection number
was given to each plant specimen and eld data like vernacular
name, habit, parts used, medicinal importance and other relevant
information was noted in the eld note book.
Interviews were conducted to the local inhabitants, the herbalists Hakims (local physicians of the eastern system of medicine) and Pansaries (medicinal plants sellers in the local markets).
Questions concerning the utility of different plants, plant part
used, route of administration, economic or market value were
asked through questionnaire.
Total 134 local inhabitants (78 male and 56 female) were interviewed through questionnaire, 37 interviewers under age of
2040 out of which 22 were male and 15 female, 55 under age of
4160 (31 male and 24 female), 25 interviewers were under age of
6170 (15 male and 10 female) and 17 were of above 70 age out of
them 10 were male and 7 female (Fig. 4). Grade et al. (2009) and
Dilshad et al. (2008) reported that the information gathered
through interviews helps in the documentation of valid traditional

F. Ijaz et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 179 (2016) 208233

211

Fig. 3. Collected medicinal plants with voucher number.

knowledge and uses as a reference for scientic research.

the bottom.

2.3. Herbarium work


2.4. Plant identication
Collected plant specimens were systematically tagged, pressed,
dried and mounted on herbarium sheets (Fig. 3). For this purpose,
specimens were kept in presser for two weeks at room temperature. After 12 h the blotting papers were changed. This practice
was repeated for 48 h. The specimens were poisoned in solution of
mercuric chloride and absolute alcohol (2 g mercuric chloride,
dissolved in 1000 ml absolute alcohol) and mounted on the standard sized herbarium sheets (11.5  17.5 in.2). The data noted in
the eld note book during eld survey was transferred to the label
and pasted on the respective herbarium sheet on the right side at

The Plant Taxonomists Dr. Ghulam Mujtaba Shah and Dr. Jan
Alam identied the herbarium specimens and conrmed with the
help of available taxonomic literature (Ali and Nasir, 19702002;
Ali and Qaiser, 1986). Medicinal plant species were also photographed at the time of collection (in live form) as shown in Fig. 2
and in preserved form after allotment of voucher number (Fig. 3).
Mounted specimens were deposited in the Herbarium of Hazara
University Mansehra, Pakistan (HUP) and voucher number was
allotted to all specimens after identication (Table 1).

2.5. Market assessment

Fig. 4. No. of local informants interviewed.

Economic, commercial and medicinal value of indigenous


plants utilized in the study area has been enquired in the market
of Abbottabad and Mansehra. In this regard, a questionnaire was
adopted to interview the local plant collectors and medicinal
plants sellers in the local markets. Marketing chain for the economic plants collectors and people involved in medicinal plants
trade was investigated. Based on these surveys, a list of medicinal
plants was prepared with emphasis on plant market availability
status, collection methods and local prices of these plants. The
available literature on the market survey was also collected and
made a review from it to compare it with the present ndings.

212

Table 1
Medicinal plants with voucher number, vernacular and family name, habit, part uses, medicinal uses, UV, RFC and FL.
Botanical Name

Vernacular
Name

Voucher No. Family Name

Habit Part Used

Medicinal Uses

UV

RFCs

Acacia modesta Wall.

Phulai

HUP-3809

Fabaceae

Gum

Tonic use for back pain,


dysentery

0.45 0.179

41.67 24

Achyranthes aspera L.

Kutri

HUP-3834

Amaranthaceae

Whole plant

Cough, asthma, kidney problem

0.73 0.142

26.32

Adiantum capillus-veneris L.

Fern

HUP-3744

Adiantaceae

Fronds

Bronchial disorder, fever, cough,


diuretic, cold

0.49 0.179

12.50 24

Albizia lebbek (L.) Benth.

Siris

HUP-3742

Fabaceae

Wood bark

Abdominal caner, cough, inammation, eye problems, respiratory disorder

0.25 0.134

27.78

18

Allium grifthianum Boiss.

Jangle piaz

HUP-3768

Alliaceae

Whole plant

Colic, vomiting

0.54 0.157

33.33

21

FL

Ui,
FCs &
Iu

Medicinal uses from literature

19
F. Ijaz et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 179 (2016) 208233

Ganihar

HUP-3865

Amaranthaceae

Leaf

Eye sight problems, diuretic

0.60 0.201

48.15

27

Anagallis arvensis L.

Bili buti

HUP-3782

Primulaceae

Whole plant

Inammatory, eye problems

0.28 0.082

36.36

11

Artemisia absinthium L.

Chaw

HUP-3825

Asteraceae

Leaves

Carminative, cold, fever

0.44 0.127

23.53

17

Baccharoides anthelmintica (L.) Moench


(syn. Vernonia anthelmintica (L.)
Willd.)

Kalijeeri

HUP-3872

Asteraceae

Seeds

Headache, Ear and teeth pain,


falling hairs

0.58 0.149

15.00 20

Bauhinia variegata L.

Kachnar, kalyar

HUP-3827

Fabaceae

Root

Fatness, diabetes, astringent, leprosy, ulcer, skin problems

0.27 0.112

40.00

15

Berberis lycium Royle

Sumbal

HUP-3758

Berberidaceae

Root bark

Blood purier, wound healing

0.91 0.313

88.10

42

F. Ijaz et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 179 (2016) 208233

Amaranthus viridis L.

213

214

Table 1 (continued )
Botanical Name

Vernacular
Name

Habit Part Used

Medicinal Uses

UV

RFCs

Brugmansia suaveolens (Humb. & Bonpl.ex Shaitani ganti/


Willd.) Bercht. & J. Presl
Bel Boti

HUP-3875

Solanaceae

Leaves

Pain, arthritis, rheumatism, narcotic, skin, diarrhea, eye sight

0.42 0.149

15.00 20

Cannabis sativa L.

Bhang

HUP-3831

Cannabinaceae

Leave

Indigestion, liver, stomach


inammation

0.81 0.261

31.43 35

Carissa spinarum L. (syn. Carissa opaca


Stapf.ex Haines)

Granda

HUP-3818

Apocynaceae

Leaves

Hormonal disorder , digestive


problems

0.25 0.104

57.14

14

Cissampelos pariera L.

Ghore sumi

HUP-3811

Menispermaceae H

Leaves

Diabetes, skin problems, fever,


blood purier

0.53 0.067

22.22

Clematis grata Wall.

Granda

HUP-3788

Rannunculaceae

Roots

Boils, worms, skin infections

0.36 0.112

46.67

15

Commelina benghalensis L.

Angalara

HUP-3835

Commelinaceae

Leaves

Diuretic, laxative, swelling of


skin

0.40 0.097

23.08

13

FL

Ui,
FCs &
Iu

Medicinal uses from literature

F. Ijaz et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 179 (2016) 208233

Voucher No. Family Name

Lounri

HUP-3828

Rosaceae

Fruit

Stomache, skin infections, diarrhea, cough, malarial infection

0.44 0.172

21.74

23

Cyperus rotundus L.

Muther

HUP-3849

Cyperaceae

Leave, seeds

Respiratory infection, edible,


nutritional deciency

0.49 0.127

52.94

17

Dalbergia sissoo DC.

Tahli

HUP-3726

Fabaceae

Leave, wood

Dandruff, expectorant, timber

0.70 0.201

33.33

27

Debregeasia saeneb (Forssk.) Hepper & J.R. Chengal


I. Wood

HUP-3783

Urticaceae

Fruit

Jaundice, antifungal, diarrhea

0.68 0.209

21.43 28

Dicliptera bupleuroides Nees

HUP-3728

Acanthaceae

Arial part

Tonic , cold, fever, cough, sore


throat, blood purier

0.53 0.119

18.75

Not-known

F. Ijaz et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 179 (2016) 208233

Cotoneaster microphyllus Wall. ex Lindl.

16

215

216

Table 1 (continued )
Vernacular
Name

Voucher No. Family Name

Habit Part Used

Medicinal Uses

UV

Diospyros kaki L.f.

Bara amlook

HUP-3822

Ebenaceae

Ripe fruit

Laxative, pain

0.45 0.127

82.35

17

Duchesnea indica (Jacks.) Focke

Jangle
strawberry

HUP-3833

Rosaceae

Fruit

Diarrhea, nerve tonic, laxative,

0.41

22.22

18

Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin &


Clemants (syn. Chenopodium ambrosioides L.)

Baljawain

HUP-3736

Chenopodiaceae

Seeds

Abdominal problems, headache

0.63 0.254

35.29 34

Eucalyptus globulus Labill

Gond

HUP-3738

Myrtaceae

Leave, trunks

Kill germs in wounds, fuel

0.52 0.187

28.00 25

Ficus carica L.

Anjeer

HUP-3808

Moraceae

Fruit

Foot-ache, laxative

0.78 0.209

75.00 28

HUP-3863

Moraceae

Stem

Tonic for blood , asthma

0.48 0.164

77.27 22

Ficus sarmentosa Buch.-Ham. ex Sm. (syn. Doda bail


Ficus foveolata (Wall. ex Miq.) Miq.)

RFCs

0.134

FL

Ui,
FCs &
Iu

Medicinal uses from literature

F. Ijaz et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 179 (2016) 208233

Botanical Name

Chota phool

HUP-3864

Asteraceae

Leaves

Leaves use as salad in some


cases, fever

0.60 0.201

85.19

Galium aparine L.

Kochan

HUP-3819

Rubiaceae

Whole plant

Diuretic, use in complains of


kidney and bladder

0.43 0.179

62.50 24

Geranium mascatense Boiss.

Bhanda

HUP-3789

Gereniaceae

Whole plant

Diuretic, gastro intestinal, diarrhea, ulcer

0.77 0.224

26.67 30

Glandularia canadensis (L.) Small

Neeli buti

HUP-3867

Verbenaceae

Flower

Eye diseases, cold, stomach problems, diuretic

0.46 0.112

26.67

15

Grewia optiva J.R.Drumm. ex Burret

Tambar

HUP-3881

Malvaceae

Fruit

Blood level, stomach problem,


joints pain, women problem

0.42 0.104

21.43

14

Gymnosporia royleana Wall. ex M.A. Lawson (syn. Maytenus royleana (Wall. ex


M.A. Lawson) Cufod.)

Garanda

HUP-3755

Celastraceae

Bark

Wounds, headache, cough

0.41

42.11

19

0.142

27

F. Ijaz et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 179 (2016) 208233

Galinsoga parviora Cav.

217

218

Table 1 (continued )
Vernacular
Name

Voucher No. Family Name

Habit Part Used

Medicinal Uses

UV

RFCs

Hedera nepalensis K. Koch

Arbam bal

HUP-3852

Araliaceae

Leaves

Diabetes, rheumatism, fever

0.44 0.142

31.58

19

Himalaiella heteromalla (D.Don) RaabStraube

Gajar mula

HUP-3761

Asteraceae

Root

Ulcer, carminative, wound


healing

0.49 0.127

29.41

17

Incarvillea emodi (Royle ex.Lindl.)


Chatterjee

Kaur

HUP-3765

Bignoniaceae

Whole plant

Febrifuge, asthma, cough, abdomin pain

0.68 0.187

40.00 25

Indigofera heterantha Brandis

Kainthi

HUP-3842

Fabaceae

Root, leaves,
branches

Scabies, stomach problems

0.62 0.172

34.78 23

Ipomoea hederaceae Jacq.

Kala dana

HUP-3805

Convolvulaceae

Seeds

Purgative, use as tonic, as diure- 0.71 0.216


tic and to expel intestinal worms

13.79 29

Jasminum humile L.

Peli chambeli

HUP-3732

Oleaceae

Flower, root
juice

Ornamental, owers tonic for


heart, root juice to remove ring
worms

52.63

0.46 0.142

FL

Ui,
FCs &
Iu

19

Medicinal uses from literature

F. Ijaz et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 179 (2016) 208233

Botanical Name

White chambeli

HUP-3857

Oleaceae

Whole plant

Ornamental, diuretic, owers in


headache, skin diseases

0.51

0.201

22.22

27

Justicia adhatoda L.

Bahker

HUP-3778

Acanthaceae

Whole plant

Cough, asthma and indigestion

0.41

0.119

18.75

16

Lamium amplexicaule L.

Bushka

HUP-3734

Lamiaceae

Leaves

Fever reducing, laxative

0.49 0.157

66.67

21

Lantana camara L.

Panch phul

HUP-3807

Verbenaceae

Whole plant

Diphoratic , carminative,
antiseptic

0.46 0.172

39.13

23

Lathyrus aphaca L.

Kukar bhang

HUP-3754

Fabaceae

Seed

Wound healing , tonic

0.31 0.067

77.78

F. Ijaz et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 179 (2016) 208233

Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton

219

220

Table 1 (continued )
Vernacular
Name

Voucher No. Family Name

Habit Part Used

Medicinal Uses

UV

RFCs

Lepidium virginicum L.

Halun

HUP-3817

Brassicaceae

Seeds

Abdominal pain, arthritis, respiratory problem, asthma

0.51

0.119

37.50

16

Lonicera caprifolium L.

Phut

HUP-3876

Caprifoliaceae

Seeds

Diuretic, kidney infection

0.42 0.097

92.31

13

Malva parviora L.

Sonchal

HUP-3733

Malvaceae

Leaves

Constipation, bronchial disorder

0.52 0.127

41.18

17

Malva sylvestris L.

Saunchal

HUP-3802

Malvaceae

Whole plant

Cooling agent, emollient, fungal,


asthma, inammation, stomach
pain

0.63 0.194

11.54 26

Medicago sativa L.

Singi

HUP-3745

Fabaceae

Leaves

Women problems, digestion

0.71 0.209

57.14

28

Melia azedarach L.

Dreik

HUP-3871

Meliaceae

Whole plant

Anti-lice, blood purier , gas


trouble in cattles

0.33 0.060

25.00

FL

Ui,
FCs &
Iu

Medicinal uses from literature

F. Ijaz et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 179 (2016) 208233

Botanical Name

Shamokai

HUP-3785

Lamiaceae

Whole plant

Carminative, stimulant,
headache

0.51

0.104

57.14

14

Myrsine africana L.

Khukan

HUP-3730

Primulaceae

Leave,fruit

Intestinal worms, purify blood,


colic,

0.48 0.067

11.11

Origanum vulgare L.

Ban ajwain

HUP-3826

Lamiaceae

Whole plant

Use as tonic, carminative, colic,


stomach pain, antispasmodic

0.59 0.142

15.79

19

Oxalis corniculata L.

Kati buti

HUP-3760

Oxalidaceae

Whole plant

Mouth taste, indigestion, bladder 0.38 0.164


inammation

22.73 22

Persicaria capitata (Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don)


H.Gross

Not-known

HUP-3829

Polygonaceae

Aerial part

Fever , diarrhea, urinary tract


infection

15.38

0.41

0.097

F. Ijaz et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 179 (2016) 208233

Micromeria biora (Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don)


Benth.

13

221

222

Table 1 (continued )
Vernacular
Name

Voucher No. Family Name

Habit Part Used

Medicinal Uses

UV

RFCs

Pimpinella stewartii Nasir

Patli saunf

HUP-3743

Apiaceae

Seeds

Carminative , digestion problems 0.30 0.097

76.92

13

Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

Chirr

HUP-3740

Pinaceae

Bark extract

Inammatory, pain

0.59 0.104

35.71

14

Polygonum plebeium R.Br.

Rani phal

HUP-3774

Polygonaceae

Whole plant

Cough, sedative, pain

0.41

35.00 20

Portulaca oleracea L.

Lunak

HUP-3748

Portulacaceae

Leaves

Kidney treatment, abdomen


pain, diabetes, asthma

0.36 0.142

Punica granatum L.

Daruna

HUP-3813

Lythracaeae

Fruit, tonic

Heart palpitation, blood pressure 0.41

Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don

Batang

HUP-3810

Rosaceae

Fruit

Laxative , conjunctivitis, colon


cancer, diarrhea

0.149

FL

Ui,
FCs &
Iu

57.89

19

0.157

61.90

21

0.24 0.067

88.89

Medicinal uses from literature

F. Ijaz et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 179 (2016) 208233

Botanical Name

Khatimar

HUP-3777

Polygonaceae

Roots

Bone fracture, arthritis

0.52 0.179

25.00 24

Rydingia limbata (Benth.) Scheen & V.A.


Albert

Koi booi

HUP-3759

Lamiaceae

Whole plant

Mouth gums and throat


problems

0.72 0.246

36.36 33

Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.

Kandyara

HUP-3725

Asteraceae

Seeds

Liver diseases

0.41

0.134

38.89

18

Sisymbrium irio L.

Khub kalan

HUP-3776

Brassicaceae

Whole plant

Expectorant, febrifuge

0.35 0.097

46.15

13

Sonchus asper (L.) Hill

Dodak

HUP-3729

Asteraceae

Shoot

Wound healing, fungal problem,

0.69 0.082

72.73

11

F. Ijaz et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 179 (2016) 208233

Rumex hastatus D.Don

223

224

Table 1 (continued )
Vernacular
Name

Voucher No. Family Name

Habit Part Used

Medicinal Uses

UV

RFCs

Tagetes minuta L.

Satbarga

HUP-5853

Asteraceae

Leaves

Cough, stomach problems

0.73 0.224

23.33 30

Urtica pilulifera L.

Bichu booti

HUP-3800

Urticaceae

Roots

Inammation, diabetes,
rheumatism

0.27 0.082

45.45

11

Verbascum thapsus L.

Gider tabaco

HUP-3839

Scrophulariaceae H

Leaves

Diarrhea, antiseptic

0.51

0.119

56.25

16

Vitex negundo L.

Marwani

HUP-3846

Lamiaceae

Leave, seeds

Gas trouble and cholera,


rheumatism

0.42 0.142

26.32

19

Xanthium strumarium L.

Katula

HUP-3862

Asteraceae

Leaves

Malarial fever, carminative

0.21

81.82

11

Ziziphus jujuba Mill.

Shingle

HUP-3821

Rhamnaceae

Fruit

Laxative

0.25 0.060 100.00

0.082

FL

Ui,
FCs &
Iu

Medicinal uses from literature

F. Ijaz et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 179 (2016) 208233

Botanical Name

Ziziphus nummularia (Burm. f.) Wight &


Arn.

Bair

HUP-3722

Rhamnaceae

Leaves

Scabies, carminative, sedative

0.80 0.276

24.32

37

F. Ijaz et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 179 (2016) 208233

Abbreviations of plant habit: H Herb, S Shrub, T Tree.


( ) Similar use, ( ) Dissimilar use and ( ) Use not reported.
1 G.M. Shah et al. (2013) and N.A. Shah et al. (2013); 2 Shah et al. (2012); 3 Gilani et al. (2001); 4 Gilani et al. (2006); 5 Qureshi et al. (2008); 6 Abbasi et al. (2010a); 7Butt et al. (2015); 8 Abbasi et al. (2013); 9 Afzal
et al. (2009); 10 Kayani et al. (2015); 11 Abbasi et al. (2010b); 12 Ahmad et al. (2009); 13 Akhter et al. (2013); 14 Ahmad et al. (2015); 15Saqib et al. (2014); 16 Kosalge and Fursule (2009); 17Vitalini et al. (2009);
18 Sargn et al. (2013); 19 Asase and Kadera (2014); 20 Khan et al. (2004); 21 Estomba et al. (2006).

225

226

F. Ijaz et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 179 (2016) 208233

2.6. Data analysis


The data collected during eldwork was analyzed through used
value (UVi), relative frequency citations (RFCs) and delity level
(FL%). The data was checked and compared with the available
literature through Jaccard index (JI %).
2.6.1. Used value (UVi)
To know about medicinal importance of individual plants used
values (UVi) were applied to give a quantitative form of its relative
importance to the informants neutrally (Phillips et al., 1994). This
quantitative study evaluates the relative importance of each
medicinal species based on relative use among informants. Use
value was determined using the following formula:

UVi=

Fig. 5. Life form of plants used for ethno medicinal practices.

Ui
Ni

Ui is the number of use reports cited by each informant for a


given plant species.
Ni is the total number of informants interviewed for a given
plant species.
2.6.2. Relative Frequency of Citations (RFCs)
Relative Frequency of Citations was used to calculate the local
importance of each species by using the formula (Tardo and Pardo-De-Santayana, 2008).

RFCs=

FCs
N

FCs is the number of informants who mentioned the use of the


species.
N is the total number of informants of the study. (In this study,
N 134).
2.6.3. Fidelity level (FL%)
The delity level (FL) is the percentage of informants claiming
the use of a certain plant for the same major purpose and this was
calculated according to the following formula (Alexiades, 1996):
Ip

FL (%)= I u 100
Fig. 6. Collection of ethno medicinal plants of Sarban Hills.

Ip is the number of informants who suggested the use of a plant


species for a particular disease.

Fig. 7. No. of medicinal plant species and genera belonging to different families.

F. Ijaz et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 179 (2016) 208233

227

Fig. 8. No. of plant species used for various diseases.

Iu is the total number of informants who mentioned the same


plant for any disease.
2.6.4. Jaccard index (JI)
Jaccard index (JI) is calculated by comparison of previously
published studies from regional and other areas as well as at
global countries by analyzing the percentages of quoted species
and their medicinal uses by using the following formula:

JI = c

100
a+bc

where a is the number of species of the area A, b is the number


of species of the area B, and c is the number of species common
to A and B (Gonza et al., 2008).

3. Results and discussion


3.1. Diversity of medicinal plants
Fig. 9. Plants parts used in traditional treatment of different diseases.

Fig. 10. Routes of administration against different diseases.

A total of 74 plant species belonging to 70 genera and 42 families with 1468 use reports were recorded (Table 1). Details of all
the documented medicinal plants species including scientic
name, vernacular name, voucher number, family name, habit, part
used, medicinal uses, used value, relative frequency citations and
delity level for each plant species and number of use reports (Ui,
FCs and Iu) for each plant species are given in Table 1. Herbaceous
life form was the dominant with 57%, followed by shrubs (23%)
and trees (20%) (Fig. 5). The reason for herbaceous dominancy in
the study area might be the easy availability resulting from
abundant growth in wild habitats. Less tree percentage might be
due to high altitude, geographic and climatic factors. The local
informants reported that most of the practitioner healers and
hakims prevalently use herbs against diseases due to their easy
availability. Inline results were found from other researchers on
medicinal plants conducted in Ethiopia (Giday et al., 2003, 2007),
Nepal (Upreti et al., 2010), Swat, Pakistan (Akhter et al., 2013),
Karak, Pakistan (Khattak et al., 2015), Abbottabad, Pakistan (Ijaz
et al., 2015), Swat, Pakistan (Khan et al., 2015a, 2015b) they reported herbaceous life form as the dominant one for medicinal
purposes. It is estimated that majority of medicinal plants found in
summer season i.e. 65% were in the month of MayAugust, 10%
SepOctober, 10% NovDecember and 15% of plants in JanFebruary (Fig. 6). Same was noticed by Badshah et al. (2013) who
reported that in spring and summer maximum number of species

228

F. Ijaz et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 179 (2016) 208233

Fig. 11. Use value and relative frequency citations of medicinal plants for various diseases cited by the informants.

was found than any other season (67.3% and 48.7%), respectively.
Durrani et al. (2010) and Ahmad et al. (2009) also stated in line
ndings, they reported that spring and summer ora/ aspect have
higher number of species than other aspects.
Results revealed that Asteraceae is the dominant family used in
the treatment of different diseases with 151 URs highest family
wise use reports (8 spp. and 8 genera). This family was also reported as the leading family with maximum number of medicinal
plants species to cure diseases by Teklehaymanot and Giday
(2007), Mesn et al. (2009) and Bhattarai et al. (2010). Asteraceae
was followed by Fabaceae having 7 spp. and 7 genera with 144 use
report, Lamiaceae having 5 spp. and 5 genera with 106 URs,
Polygonaceae and Rosaceae each having 3 spp. and 3 genera with
57 URs and 50 URs respectively. Malvaceae having 3 spp. and
2 genera with 57 URs. Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae, Brassicaceae,
Primulaceae, Urticaceae and Verbenaceae having (2 spp. and
2 genera) each. Whereas only 3 families Moraceae, Oleaceae and
Rhammnaceae having 1 genera and 2 spp. The rest of 27 families
having 1 species each as shown in Fig. 7.

3.2. Disease treated by traditional practitioners


Traditional medicinal knowledge is a part of the Pakistani culture and plant-based medicines are traditionally used by the majority of the population (Qureshi et al., 2009). Seventy four medicinal plant species were used by the local traditional practitioners
for 56 different diseases. Majority of the species were used for the
treatment of digestive problems (9.09%), followed by cough
(7.44%). It was noticed that the local inhabitants are interested to
use herbal therapies mostly for digestive and cough problems indicated that the plant species of this area have versatile therapeutic uses against diseases. The other noticeable diseases were
pain (4.96%) followed by diuretic and skin diseases (4.55%). The
reason behind citations for urinary ailments might be due to the
low intake of water during cold season which resulting in shortage
of water in blood circulation and due to this reason skin problems
also occurs because much use of water keeps the skin fresh.
However, diuretic and skin diseases are followed by eye problems
and inammation (3.72%) each, carminative, diarrhea, fever,
rheumatism and arthritis (3.31%) each. A main reason for bone

Fig. 12. Fidelity level (%) of medicinal plants for various diseases cited by the informants.

Table 2
Comparison of the current study with previous studies at regional, neighboring and global level.
S. No Study area

Year

Number of recorded plants


species of
aligned areas

Plants
with similar uses

Plants with
dissimilar
uses

Total species
common in
both area

% of plant
species common in both
areas

% of species % of plant
Species enSpecies enenlisted only with similisted only in listed only
lar uses
aligned areas in study area in study

Jaccard
Index (JI)

Citation

G.M. Shah et al.


(2013) and N.A.
Shah et al.
(2013)
Shah et al.
(2012)
Gilani et al.
(2001)
Gilani et al.
(2006)
Qureshi et al.
(2008)
Abbasi et al.
(2010a)
Butt et al.
(2015)

Abbottabad,
Pakistan

2013

67

13

19.40

54

61

82.43

5.40

12.16

12.74

2012

54

11

20.37

43

63

85.13

4.05

10.81

11.57

2001

26

15.38

22

70

94.59

1.35

4.05

4.54

2006

21

23.80

16

69

93.24

1.35

5.40

6.25

2008

47

11

14

29.78

33

60

81.08

14.86

4.05

17.72

2010

27

18.51

22

69

93.24

2.70

4.05

5.81

2015

62

10

10

16.12

52

64

86.48

13.51

9.43

2013

45

11

24.44

34

63

85.13

4.05

10.81

12.79

2009

76

9.21

69

67

90.54

1.35

8.10

5.42

2015 125

120

69

93.24

4.05

2.70

2.71

16.21

8.10

24.32

12

Abbottabad,
Pakistan
Abbottabad,
Pakistan
Abbottabad,
Pakistan
Abbottabad,
Pakistan
Abbottabad,
Pakistan
Bannu, Swat, Hazara
division and tribal
northern parts,
Pakistan
Lesser Himalayas,
Pakistan
Northern areas,
Pakistan
Alpine and Sub-alpine regions,
Pakistan
Abbottabad,
Pakistan
Attock, Pakistan

1.35

0.92

13
14

3
4
5
6
7

8
9
10

11

2010

54

12

18

33.33

36

56

75.67

2009

37

2.70

36

73

98.64

Swat, Pakistan

2013 106

16

15.09

90

58

78.37

12.16

9.45

12.12

2015

22

9.09

20

72

97.29

1.35

1.35

2.22

15

Thakht-e-Sulaiman
hills, west Pakistan
Rawalpindi, Pakistan

2013

87

12

10

22

25.28

65

52

70.27

16.21

13.51

23.15

16

Satpuda Hills, India

2008

52

3.84

50

72

97.29

2.70

1.66

17

Valvestino, Italy

2008

58

1.72

57

73

98.64

1.35

0.77

18

Manisa, Turkey

2013 137

6.56

128

65

87.83

5.40

6.75

0.86

19

Accra, Ghana

2013

44

2.27

43

73

98.64

1.35

1.08

20

Kashmir Himalaya,
India
North-western,
Patagonia

2004

27

3.70

26

73

98.64

1.35

1.27

2005

89

2.24

87

72

97.29

1.35

1.35

1.27

21

Abbasi et al.
(2013)
Afzal et al.
(2009)
Kayani et al.
(2015)
Abbasi et al.
(2010b)
Ahmad et al.
(2009)
Akhter et al.
(2013)
Ahmad et al.
(2015)
Saqib et al.
(2014)
Kosalge and
Fursule (2009)
Vitalini et al.
(2009)
Sargn et al.
(2013)
Asase and Kadera (2014)
Khan et al.
(2004)
Estomba et al.
(2006)

F. Ijaz et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 179 (2016) 208233

% of dissimilar uses

229

230

F. Ijaz et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 179 (2016) 208233

problems was found to be walking in mountains (Schlage et al.,


2000). Rheumatism and arthritis are followed by blood pressure
and purier, laxative, throat problems, tonic and wound healing
(2.89%) each. For the treatment of asthma, diabetes and respiratory
disorder 2.48% of species were used, followed by kidney problem
(2.07%). 1.65% of medicinal plant species were used to treat cold,
constipation, fungal infections and intestinal worms, followed by
antiseptic and ulcer (1.24%) each. Whereas 0.83% of medicinal
plant species were used to treat diseases which include cholera,
febrifuge, jaundice, malarial fever, as sedative and female problems (Fig. 8). Externally treated diseases were skin problems and
wound healing while rest all was treated orally as reported by
many other researchers (Upreti et al., 2010; Lulekal et al., 2013;
Luitel et al., 2014: Ijaz et al., 2015).
Different parts of the plant accumulate various secondary
metabolites that can be helpful to treat a variety of disorders used
by the local community (G.M. Shah et al., 2013; N.A. Shah et al.,
2013, 2014a,b). Traditional healers of the Sarban Valley use 18
different parts of plants for the treatment of different diseases
(Fig. 9). Out of which leaves are the most widely used part (27.9%),
followed by whole plant (17.7%), seeds and fruit (13.5%) each, root
(9.3%), ower (2.5%), leaves paste, pods, stem, aerial part, bark and
wood bark (1.6%) each. While the minimum part used are frond,
branches, shoot, gum, root bark and trunk (0.84%) each as shown
in Fig. 6. Monteiro et al. (2011) also reported leaves as the most
used part.
3.2.1. Routes of remedies administrated
There are different utilizations of medicinal plant species for
various ailments. Results revealed that 74 medicinal plant species
were used traditionally through different administrational routes
out of which extraction was the most dominant and frequent way
(30%, 440 URs) use reports. Bussmann (2006) reported oral as the
most frequent way (64%) to administrate remedies. Extraction was
followed by powder (22%, 323 URs), poultice (19%, 279 URs), tonic
(13%, 191 URs), infusion (10%, URs 147). Whereas lowest use form
was decoction (6%, 88 URs) to treat 56 various diseases (Fig. 10).
Burlakoti and Kunwar (2008) also reported various popular form
of therapeutic preparation from medicinal plants in Western Nepal
such as juice, decoction, paste, and powder.
3.3. Use value of medicinal plants
The use value (UVi) is a quantitative method that demonstrates
the relative importance of species or plant family for a population
(Vendruscolo and Mentz, 2006). The use value of medicinal plants
species ranges from 0.21 to 0.91 (Fig. 11). The species with high
used values and use reports were B. lycium (0.91 UVi and 42 URs),
C. sativa (0.81 UVi and 35 URs), Z. nummularia (0.80 UVi and 37
URs) 3rd Ficus carica (0.78 UVi and 28 URs) and Geranium mascatense (0.77 UVi and 30 URs). However the lowest value was
observed in Xanthium strumarium (0.21 UVi and 11 URs). Maximum used values of mentioned medicinal plants might be due to
their common distribution and local practitioner's awareness
which make the rst choice for ailment (Ullah et al., 2014). Table 1
describes all of the plants listed with their respective indications,
used value, method of use and parts used to prepare the ethno
medicines.
3.4. Relative frequency citations of medicinal plants
A relative frequency citation (RFCs) shows the local importance
of each species with reference to informants who cited these
medicinal plant species. The value of relative frequency citations of
74 medicinal plant species ranges from 0.060 to 0.313 with 1468
use reports (Fig. 11 and Table 1). Reason for the high RFCs may be

Fig. 13. Percentage of plant species regarding their medicinal use reports.
Table 3
List of medicinal plants species with uses not reported and dissimilar uses reported
from Abbottabad region.
S. no

Uses not reported

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

Allium grifthianum Boiss.


Anagallis arvensis L.
Brugmansia suaveolens (Humb. & Bonpl.ex Willd.) Bercht. & J. Presl
Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants
Dicliptera bupleuroides Nees
Diospyros kaki L.f.
Duchesnea indica (Jacks.) Focke
Eucalyptus globulus Labill
Galinsoga parviora Cav.
Geranium mascatense Boiss.
Incarvillea emodi (Royle ex.Lindl.) Chatterjee
Ipomoea hederaceae Jacq.
Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton
Lamium amplexicaule L.
Lantana camara L.
Lepidium virginicum L.
Lonicera caprifolium L.
Malva sylvestris L.
Gymnosporia royleana Wall.ex M.A. Lawson
Micromeria biora (Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don) Benth.
Polygonum plebeium R.Br.
Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don
Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.
Urtica pilulifera L.
Glandularia canadensis (L.) Small
Baccharoides anthelmintica (L.) Moench
Ziziphus jujuba Mill.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

Dissimilar uses reported


Adiantum capillus-veneris L.
Albizia lebbek (L.) Benth.
Artemisia absinthium L.
Bauhinia variegata L.
Carissa spinarum L.
Cissampelos pariera L.
Debregeasia saeneb (Forssk.) Hepper & J.R.I. Wood
Ficus sarmentosa Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.
Grewia optiva J.R.Drumm. ex Burret
Medicago sativa L.
Persicaria capitata (Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don) H.Gross
Pinus roxburghii Sarg.
Portulaca oleracea L.
Punica granatum L.
Rumex hastatus D.Don
Sonchus asper (L.) Hill
Tagetes minuta L.
Xanthium strumarium L.
Ziziphus nummularia (Burm. f.) Wight & Arn.

F. Ijaz et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 179 (2016) 208233

wide-ranging distribution, easy availability and ethnic culture for


curing various diseases by using these medicinal plant species. The
medicinal plant species with maximum relative frequency citations were B. lycium (0.313 RFC and 42 URs), Z. nummularia (0.276
RFC and 37 URs), C. sativa (0.261 RFC and 35 URs), Dysphania
ambrosioides (0.254 RFC and 34 URs) and Rydingia limbata (0.246
RFC and 33 URs). Signorini et al. (2009) reported that Asparagus
acutifolius was the most used species (RFC 0.71), Pamungkas
et al. (2013) found Cocos nucifera as the most frequently cited plant
with RFC value of 0.97. However the lowest relative frequency
citations value was observed in Melia azedarach (0.060) and Z.
jujuba (0.060). These results reinforces the idea that these species
are the most important for the population studied and that the
informants share knowledge about practices and plants used in
ethno medicinal practice at Sarban valley. In future, these results
might be used as most vital source for relating and evaluating
research in related academic disciplines for future drug discovery
and sustainable use of plants for therapeutic uses (Mukherjee and
Wahile, 2006). Medicinal plant species with maximum RFC should
be progressed to biological, phytochemical and pharmacological
studies to assess and prove their validity (Mukherjee et al., 2012).
3.5. Fidelity level (%) of medicinal plants
Fidelity level (FL%) is used to identify species that are most
preferred by the inhabitants for the treatment of certain ailments.
The delity level ranges from 11.11% to 100% (Fig. 12 and Table 1).
The medicinal plant species with highest delity level was Z. jujuba cited 100% for laxative, L. caprifolium (92.31%) for diuretic and
kidney problems and Pyrus pashia (88.89%). These medicinal plant
species may be conrmed as important medicinal plants through
further assessment and evaluation through biological activities,
pharmaceutical and phytochemical activities. Ilker et al. (2009)
reported Allium cepa with 100% delity level. However the lowest
delity level among medicinal plant was of Myrsine africana
(11.11%). Besides, plants with minimum FL% should not be abandoned as declining to remark them to the future generation that it
could raise the threat of gradual vanishing of the knowledge
(Chaudhary et al., 2006).
3.6. Consistency of ethno medicinal uses and its comparison with
previous studies through Jaccard index
The similarities and differences in ethno medicinal studies
seem to target the importance of traditional knowledge on medicinal plants in different regions, where historical (Moerman,
1998), phytochemical (Leonti et al., 2003) and ecological (Ladio
et al., 2007) factors interact in their selection. The traditional
medicinal uses of plants documented in the study area are compared with 21 published ethno-medicinal studies from regional to
neighboring as well as at global level. In the current study, review
of literature indicates that of the 74 reported medicinal plants
(Table 2), the similarity index uses ranges from 0% (Khan et al.,
2004; Vitalini et al., 2009; Ahmad et al., 2009; Asase and Kadera,
2014; Butt et al., 2015) to 16.21% (Abbasi et al., 2010b; Saqib et al.,
2014) while dissimilar uses vary from 0% (Kosalge and Fursule,
2009) to 13.51% (Saqib et al., 2014; Butt et al., 2015). The less similarities were noticed in comparison with analyzed studies that
may be probably the result of a remarkable cultural adaption that
are important indicative of current extensive change in population
and habitat structure (Leonti et al., 2009) as similarity indices are
very sensitive to variation in population sizes (Wolda, 1981). In the
present study, the highest degree of similarity index was found
with studies conducted by Abbasi et al. (2010b), and Saqib et al.
(2014) with JI 24.32 and 23.15 respectively, while the lowest indices of similarity was found with studies of Vitalini et al. (2009)

231

and Sargn et al. (2013) with JI 0.77 and 0.86 respectively. Variation
in Jaccard Index might be due to the distance between study area
and other regions (Fig. 13).
The present study was comparatively analyzed with the studies
carried out within the region, neighboring areas as well as with
aligned countries. In Pakistan all researches related to ethno
medicinal plants published from 2001 to 2015 were analyzed
while from aligned countries 6 research articles from 2004 to 2013
were reviewed. It was found that majority of plants reported in the
present study are conned to the present geographical region
because the study area is located in lesser Himalayas and may be
due to their native habitats and supporting conditions. The analysis of our study revealed that 36% of medicinal plant species
were reported for the rst time from Abbottabad regarding their
uses whereas 26% of plant species were found with different
medicinal uses like Adiantum capillus-veneris is used for bronchial
disorder, fever, cough, diuretic and cold while from same region G.
M. Shah et al. (2013) and N.A. Shah et al. (2013) reported the plant
species for antidandruff and Butt et al. (2015) for scorpion and
snake bite (Table 3). Some plants of this study area were also
widely distributed in aligned countries due to their wide adaptability in different ecological zones and reported for medicinal
uses but during comparative analysis some new medicinal uses
were observed. In aligned countries Albizia lebbek, Punica granatum and Bauhinia variegata were also reported but their uses vary
from our study except a few. B. suaveolens, A. grifthianum, P. pashia and Ipomoea hederaceae were recorded for the rst time from
Pakistan as well as from aligned regions. Besides this, Incarvillea
emodi and Ficus sarmentosa was reported for the rst time from
Abbottabad region for asthma and Jasminum sambac for diuretic.
In medicinal plants of Sarban Hills, B. lycium and Rydingia limbata
seems to be the most well-known plants to the locals. Our ndings
are in contrast to previous ethno botanical studies in neighboring
countries as well as to other parts of the world, where different
plant species were reported with respect to their preference use
(Abbasi et al., 2010c; Khan et al., 2013; Cornara et al., 2009; Mitherman et al., 2005).
The importance and novelty of this study is that no work has
been done previously on Sarban Hills neither ethno medicinally
nor statistically by applying UVi, RFCs, FL (%) and JI (%). By comparing this work with literature reveals that some medicinal
plants have similar uses against various infectious diseases which
led us to think about its usefulness by making pharmacological
efcacy studies on the plants used in different regions for similar
diseases. Therefore, we believe that such studies may contribute to
research on both traditional ethno botanical knowledge and also
sourcing of raw materials for the production of commercial
pharmaceuticals.

4. Conclusions
Medicinal plants are playing a vital role in traditional medicines. In present study, versatile and precious data regarding traditional medicinal knowledge of local ora has been documented
which consists of 74 plant species belonging to 42 families. Most of
the medicinal plant species were used in treatment of digestive
problems (9.71%). The UVi and user reports (URs) of the study area
plants in health care practices were B. lycium (0.91) and C. sativa
(0.81). The medicinal plant species with greater RFCs were B. lycium (0.313) and Z. nummularia (0.276) and species with highest
FL% were Z. jujuba (100%) and L. caprifolium (92.31%). The Jaccard
index reveals that 36% of medicinal plants were reported rst time
from Abbottabad by their uses and 26% with different medicinal
uses. B. suaveolens and A. grifthianum were recorded for the rst
time from Pakistan as well as from aligned regions. Incarvillea

232

F. Ijaz et al. / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 179 (2016) 208233

emodi was reported for the rst time from Abbottabad region for
asthma and cough and Dicliptera bupleuroides was for fever. Although, the modern health care facilities are available in the study
area but the local community still rely on herbal remedies. Many
important medicinal plant species are near to endanger due to
over exploitation. The chances of loss of traditional knowledge
from the human community are always present due to reduction
of natural resources and modernization of the society. So, it is
necessary to document this worth traditional knowledge of the
natural wealth. Future antimicrobial, antivirals, and pharmacological studies are required to ratify the efcacy and safety of the
medicinal plant species.

Acknowledgment
The authors gratefully acknowledge local community of the
study area for sharing their traditional medicinal knowledge.

Appendix A. Supplementary material


Supplementary data associated with this article can be found in
the online version at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.12.050.

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