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Water and Sanitation

About three million people in the CPC-6 areas do

not have access to improved sources of drinking
water. Half of them depend on unprotected wells
for their drinking water, one million use
undeveloped springs, and half a million people
use other unreliable sources.
While many household members use proper
methods of water treatment, use of improvised
filters, which is considered an inappropriate
method, remains prevalent in Capiz and Masbate.
About 3.4 million people still do not have access
to improved sanitation facilities. Of these, nearly
two million people live in households that have
no toilet facilities at all. The two provinces with the
worst situation, in terms of both absolute numbers
and in percentage terms, are Masbate and Negros
Oriental, with 388,000 and 271,000 people,
respectively, who have no toilet facilities at all.
Overall, as many as 1.5 million people in CPC-6
areas do not have access either to improved
sources of drinking water or to sanitary means of
excreta disposal. Of this number, almost a quarter
are accounted for by seven provinces: Masbate
(with about 227,000 household members lacking
both facilities), Maguindanao (190,000), Sulu
(161,00), Zamboanga del Sur (158,000), Negros
Oriental (126,000), Bukidnon (117,000), and North
Cotabato (114,000).

Safe drinking water is a basic necessity for good health. Unsafe drinking
water can be a significant carrier of diseases such as trachoma, cholera,
typhoid, and schistosomiasis. Drinking water can also be tainted with chemical,
physical and radiological contaminants with harmful effects on human health.
Inadequate disposal of human excreta and personal hygiene is likewise a
great concern for Filipinos as it is associated with a range of diseases including
diarrhoeal diseases and polio.
The MDG goal is to reduce by half, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of
people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.
The World Fit for Children goal calls for a reduction in the proportion of
households without access to hygienic sanitation facilities and affordable
and safe drinking water by at least one-third.
The indicators used for this sector are use of improved drinking water sources;
use of adequate water treatment method; and use of improved sanitation

The CPC-6 Indicators Report 2007 covered

24 cities and provinces under UNICEFs Sixth
Country Programme for Children (CPC-6) which
include Agusan del Sur, Antique, Aurora,
Bukidnon, Camarines Norte, Capiz, Cebu City,
Davao City, Eastern Samar, Guimaras, Isabela,
Maguindanao, Manila, Masbate, Mountain
Province, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato,
Northern Samar, Pasay City, Quezon City,
Sarangani, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu and
Zamboanga del Sur.
Overall, the CPC-6 areas are estimated to
cover 4.2 million households. A total of 41,535
households were successfully interviewed for
the CPC-6 Indicators Report 2007. Of the
48,963 women in the age group of interest (1549) in these households, 47,376 (96.8%) were
successfully interviewed. Questionnaires,
administered to mothers and caretakers, were
also completed for 20,490 children under the
age of five.

Percentage of Households Using Improved Water Sources

and Sanitation by CPC-6 Area: 2007

particularly common in Sulu (62 percent of household members),

Camarines Norte (50%), and Mountain Province (46%).
Use of Improved Sanitation Facilities
Improved sanitation facilities for excreta disposal include a
water-sealed flush toilet, whether exclusive or shared, and a
closed pit toilet or latrine. About 18 million people live in
households that use improved sanitation facilities. In the five
CPC-6 cities, the percentage is well over 90 percent, but in some
provinces, the percentages are much lower. The two provinces
with the lowest percentages are Masbate (50%) and Sulu (62%).
Use of Improved Drinking Water and Sanitation Facilities
Overall, 85 percent of the household member population use
an improved source of drinking water while 84 percent use
sanitary means of excreta disposal. Seventy-six percent use
both improved sources of drinking water and excreta disposal.
Programme of Action

Use of Improved Drinking Water Sources

Improved sources of drinking water include the following types
of supply: piped water (into dwelling, yard or plot), public tap/
standpipe, tubewell/borehole, protected well, protected spring,
or rainwater collection. Bottled water have also been considered
as an improved water source.

Governments program strategies should be focused on

environmental sanitation and environmental health impact
assessment. This involves technical collaboration, effective
monitoring and communication, resource mobilization, and
policy review and development. The public should be
continuously educated on the importance of having improved
sources of drinking water and the proper way of water treatment.
Use of Improved Water Sources and Sanitation Facilities
of Households in CPC-6 Areas: 2007

Overall, 85 percent of the population in the CPC-6 areas are

using an improved source of drinking water. Among the five
CPC-6 city areas, about half the population in Davao City and
Quezon City use drinking water that is piped into their dwelling
or into their yard or plot. In Cebu City and Manila, the
corresponding proportion is about a third, while in Pasay City it
is only a quarter. Almost half the population in Manila and Pasay
City rely on bottled water, as do a third of the population in Cebu
City and Quezon City.
The population in CPC-6 provinces has much less access than
those in the cities to piped water, except in Mountain Province,
where 58 percent of the household population use piped drinking
water. In three provinces (Isabela, Sultan Kudarat and Guimaras),
at least half of the population depend on protected wells for their
drinking water. The CPC-6 provinces with least access to good
drinking water are Masbate and Sulu, where only 57 percent
and 65 percent of the population respectively, have access to
improved sources of drinking water.

This is one in a series of Factsheets produced based on the results of

the CPC-6 Indicators Report conducted in 2007 by the National Statistics
Office (NSO). The survey hopes to provide baseline information on a
range of indicators for all the priority provinces and cities in which the
United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) is currently working.

Use of Adequate Water Treatment Method

For more information, visit our websites:

Appropriate water treatment includes boiling, chlorination, use

of proper filter equipment, and solar disinfection. In CPC-6 areas,
boiling is the most preferred method of treatment.
A quarter of the population in CPC-6 areas live in households
that treat water to make it safer to drink. Treating water is
A joint undertaking of: