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# Experiment No.

12(a)
Heat Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter
Author:

Lim, Darwin B.

Macalam, Alfred

I.

Introduction
The value of

## accompanying a reaction at constant pressure. When heat flows into or out of a

substance, the temperature of the substance changes. Experimentally, we can
determine the heat flow associated with a chemical reaction by measuring the
temperature change it produces. The measurement of heat flow is calorimetry; an
apparatus that measures heat flow is a calorimeter.

II.

Theory
Heat Capacity and Specific Heat
When an object sits in the Sun and absorbs heat, its temperature changes. The
temperature change experienced by an object when it absorbs a certain amount of
energy is determined by its heat capacity. We define the heat capacity of an object as
the amount of heat required to raise its temperature by 1 K (or 1C). The greater the
heat capacity of a body, the greater the heat required to produce a given rise in
temperature. For pure substances the heat capacity is usually given for a specified
amount of the substance. The heat capacity of 1 mol of a substance is called its molar
heat capacity. The heat capacity of 1 g of a substance is called its specific heat
capacity, or merely its specific heat. The specific heat of a substance can be
determined experimentally by measuring the temperature change,

T, that a known

mass, m, of the substance undergoes when it gains or loses a specific quantity of heat,
q:

Bomb Calorimeter
One of the most important types of reactions studied using calorimetry is combustion. A
compound, usually an organic compound, is allowed to react completely with excess oxygen.
Combustion reactions are most conveniently studied using a bomb calorimeter, a device shown
schematically in Figure 1. The substance to be studied is placed in a small cup within a sealed
vessel called a bomb. The bomb, which is designed to withstand high pressures, has an inlet
valve for adding oxygen and also has electrical contacts to initiate the combustion. After the
sample has been placed in the bomb, the bomb is sealed and pressurized with oxygen. It is then
placed in the calorimeter, which is essentially an insulated container, and covered with an
accurately measured quantity of water. When all the components within the calorimeter have
come to the same temperature, the combustion reaction is initiated by passing an electrical
current through a fine wire that is in contact with the sample. When the wire gets sufficiently hot,
the sample ignites.

## Figure 1: Cutaway view of a bomb calorimeter, in which reactions occur at

constant volume.

To calculate the heat of combustion from the measured temperature increase in the
calorimeter, it is necessary to know the heat capacity of the calorimeter, Ccalorimeter. This is
normally ascertained by combusting a sample that gives off a known quantity of heat. For

## example, it is known that combustion of exactly 1 g of benzoic acid, C 7H6O2, in a bomb

calorimeter produces 26.38 kJ of heat. Suppose that 1 g of benzoic acid is combusted in our
calorimeter and it causes a temperature increase of 5.022C. The heat capacity of the calorimeter
is then given by 26.38 kJ/5.022C = 5.253 kJ/C. Once we know the value of the heat capacity of
the calorimeter, we can measure temperature changes produced by other reactions, and from
these we can calculate the heat, q, evolved in the reaction:
q=Ccalorimeter x T Eq .1

III.

## Materials & Apparatus

Bomb Calorimeter
Thermometer
Benzoic Acid
Rubber Band

IV.

Methodology
1. The weight of the sample was controlled so that the temperature rice produced by
its combustion will be equal to that 1g of benzoic acid. The sample was weighed
to the nearest 0.1mg
2. The head cup of the vessel was unscrewed with the vessel head got out on the
support stand.
3. The cup was placed in the curved electrode and fuse wire was arranged so that the
control position of the loop presses down on the center of the tape disk.
4. 1mL o water was added to the bomb.
5. With the test sample and fuse wire, the bomb with oxygen was changed to 30cfm
pressure at room temperature.
6. Calorimeter was assembled on the socket and started the stirring. 5 min. was
allowed to attain thermal equilibrium. Calorimeter reading was then recorded
after 1 min. with each interval for 5 min.
7. The charge was then fired at the start of the sixth minute and time and temperature
was recorded. 60% of the expected temperature rise was added, the time which
the 60% point was reached.

8. After the rapid rise period, the temperatures at 1 min. intervals was recorded until
the difference between successive readings has been constant for 5 min.
9. For the liquid fuel sample, calculate the heat of combustion using the formula
below:
W=

V.

H . g+ e1 +e 3
Eq .2
t

## Data and Results

Charged:
Benzoic Acid
Time (1 min. for
interval)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Temperature
C
28.88
28.88
28.9
28.9
28.91
28.91
30.2
31.2
31.3
31.3

W=

H .g
t

KJ
kg
KJ
W=
=10.92
31.328.88
C
26.454

Coal:
Time (1 min. for
interval)
1
2
3

Temperature
C
32.1
33.2
33.5

4
5
6
7
8
9
10

33.6
33.8
33.85
33.87
33.9
33.92
33.92

W=
10.92
W=

VI.

H . ge 1e 3
g

KJ
(33.9232.1 )156.35
kg
KJ
=17.32
1g
g

Conclusion
The Heat of combustion of benzoic acid was determined to identify the
heat of combustion of coal which will be the next step. From the calculations, the
KJ
heat of combustion of the benzoic acid was 10.92 C

## also the heat of

KJ
combustion of the coal was 17.32 g . This value helps us to understand the
energy that could be used for any sample for a wide variety of applications.

VII.

Bibliography
http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/3080/3154819/blb0505.html