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Construction Project Management

TCM305/05

UNIT 5

Unit 5
Safety Issues and Project
Closeout

Learning Outcomes
By the end of Unit 5, learners should be able to:

Discuss the issues on health and safety in the construction industry;


Describe the main requirements of health and safety;
Describe the measures that can be taken to improve health and safety
of a construction project;
Explain the cost of safety to a project; and
Describe the main activities during the project closeout

Content Overview
5.1 Safety and Health

5.2 Project Closeout

5.1

Safety and Health

Under this sub-unit, the student will learn to:

Discuss the issues on health and safety in the construction


industry
Discuss the causes and costs of accidents
Describe the main requirements of health and safety
Explain the need for an occupational safety and health
management system
Describe the measures that can be taken to improve health
and safety of a construction project
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Issues about health and safety at


construction sites
Cost of accident and safety
Direct costs
obvious costs paid in the form of compensation payments to the victims. For
example, workers' compensation claims which cover medical costs and
indemnity payments for an injured or ill worker
Poor safety records may attract higher insurance premium

Indirect costs
real costs of accidents are more indirect, difficult to predict, and not covered
by insurance
hidden costs which are not so obvious.
costs to train and compensate a replacement worker, repair damaged
property, investigate the accident and implement corrective action, and to
maintain insurance coverage
Other examples: stoppage work orders, penalties, legal penalties, public
relations, hiring replacement worker, supervisory costs, worker demanding
more pay
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Issues about health and safety at


construction sites
Causes of Accidents
Schedule pressures to finish the work faster
Covering up: problems detected but covered, instead of being
recognised and communicated to the decision makers for action
Unsafe conditions are hazards that can cause injuries
Unsafe acts are hazards caused by the actions of people on the
job site
Construction also has a certain macho mystique, which makes it
difficult for workers to always follow safety procedures
Lack of enforcement of the regulatory requirements

Regulatory Requirements on Health


and Safety
Occupational Safety And Health Act 1994
OSHA 1994 states that every employer must conduct his
undertaking in such a manner as to ensure that other persons
(not being his employees), who may be affected thereby are not
thereby exposed to risks to their safety or health

Safety and Health of the Organisations

Safety and Health Policy


Safety and Health Committee
Occupational Safety and Health Management System
Safety And Health Officer
Site Safety Supervisor
Contractors Safety Supervisor

Safety and Health of the Organisations


Safety and Health Policy
Every employer must prepare and as often as may be appropriate
revise a written statement of his general policy with respect to the safety
and health at work of his employees and the organisation and
arrangements for the time being in force for carrying out that policy, and
to bring the statement and any revision of it to the notice of all of his
employees (Section 16, Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994).

Safety and Health Committee


The main contractor of a worksite in which forty or more persons are for
the time being employed shall establish a safety and health committee
for the purpose of keeping under review conditions in the worksite which
may affect the safety and health of the persons employed therein or the
public (Section 30, Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994;
Occupational Safety and Health (Safety And Health Committee)
Regulations 1997; DOSH, 2007).

Safety and Health of the Organisations

Occupational Safety and Health Management System

Safety And Health Officer

Every employer should establish, implement and maintain an occupational safety and health
management system and shall be in accordance with the requirement of the relevant
Malaysian Standard or with any other equivalent Occupational Safety and Health
Management System approved by Director General (DOSH, 2007).

Every contractor of any building operation and works of engineering construction when the
total contract price of the project exceeds twenty million ringgit Malaysia shall employ a
safety and health officer (Section 29, Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994; Occupational
Safety and Health (Safety And Health Officer) Order 1997; DOSH, 2007).

Site Safety Supervisor

The main contractor of a worksite shall appoint a part time site safety supervisor who should
spend at least fifteen hours per week exclusively on safety supervision and on promoting the
safe conduct of work generally within the site (Reg. 25, Building Operations And Works Of
Engineering Construction (Safety) Regulations, 1986; DOSH, 2007).

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Safety and Health of the Organisations

Contractors Safety Supervisor

Every contractor other than the main contractor in charge of worksite who employs more
than twenty persons to carry out work on a worksite shall appoint a part time contractors
safety supervisor, who should spend at least five hours per week exclusively on safety
supervision and on promoting the safe conduct of work generally by his employees. (Reg.
26, Building Operations And Works Of Engineering Construction (Safety) Regulations, 1986;
DOSH, 2007)

General Duties of Employers

Employer means immediate employer or the principal employer or both (Section 3,


Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994). As the employers have the essential resources
and is also the decision maker, their willingness to abide by the regulatory requirements has
the greatest impact on the safety and health performance in a construction project.
Contractor who is in possession of the construction site is one of the important employers.
General duties
shall have a written statement of his general policy with respect to the safety and health
shall develop a safety and health manual

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Safety and Health of the Organisations


General Duties of Employers
General duties
shall make an arrangement during operation, handling, transport, storage of
plant and substance, to ensure the safety and health to the employees and
public
shall ensure that all workers are properly informed of the hazards of their
respective occupations and the precautions necessary and adequately
supervise to avoid accidents, injuries and risk to health, and in particular that
young workers, newly engaged workers, illiterate and foreign workers
shall provide sufficient allocation for ensuring that provisions to ensure the
public and his employees safety and health are implemented and
maintained
shall take adequate steps to develop and promote safety and health
programs to ensure not only the safety and health of his employees but also
members of the public

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Safety and Health of the Organisations


General Duties of Architects, Engineers and Designers
At the planning stage of any proposed building or civil engineering works,
specific consideration should be given, by those responsible for the design
and the construction, to the safety of the workers and the public who will
subsequently be affected by the plant associated with the process of the
erection of such structures.
not to include anything in the design that would necessitate the use of
unwarrantably dangerous structural procedures and undue hazards, which
could be avoided by design modifications, should exercise care.
should exercise with care not to include anything in the design that would
necessitate the use of unsafe construction procedures and create undue
hazards.
should take into account the safety problems associated with the
subsequent maintenance of plant where this would involve hazards.
Safety and health facilities should be included in the design for such work to
be performed with the minimum of risk
Measures should be taken to ensure that all the necessary safety and
health program are efficiently implemented and properly maintained.

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Safety and Health of the Organisations


General Duties of Employees
take reasonable care for the safety and health of themselves and
of other persons who may be affected by his acts or omissions at
work
should co-operate with his employer or any other person in the
discharge of any duty or requirement imposed on the employer
by OSHA 1994.
must wear or use at all times any protective equipment or
clothing provided by the employer for the purpose of preventing
risks to his safety and health, and comply with any instruction or
measure on occupational safety and health

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Safety and Health of the Organisations


Notification of an Operation
Section 35 under Factories and Machinery Act 1967 requires every
person who undertakes any building operations or works of
engineering construction to notify the Department of Occupational
Safety and Health not later than seven days from the
commencement of construction activities.

Notification and Reporting of an Accident and Dangerous


Occurrence
Section 32 under Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 requires
an employer to notify the nearest Department of Occupational
Safety and Health office of any accident, dangerous occurrence,
occupational poisoning or occupational disease which has occurred
or is likely to occur at the place of work.
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Safety and Health of the Organisations


Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control (HIRARC)
When planning method of work, a suitable and sufficient assessment should
be carried out and recorded. Method, materials, and equipment should be
selected to remove or minimise risk from work. Employers are responsible
to carry out the risk assessment (DOSH, 2007).

Emergency Response Plan


should identify the potential for accidents and emergency situations, and
address the prevention of occupational safety and health risk associated
with them
ensure that the necessary information, internal communication and
coordination are provided to protect all people in the event of an emergency
at the worksite;
provide information and communication with the relevant authorities and the
neighbourhood and the emergency response services;
address first aid, fire fighting and evacuation at construction sites; and
provide relevant information and training to all members of the organisation,
at all levels, including regular exercise in emergency response.
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Construction Operations and Relevant Regulatory


Requirements

DOSH (2007) has summarised the regulatory requirements in Malaysia


pertaining to some construction operations with reference to the specific
clauses of the regulations

Movements of vehicles
All vehicles used at worksites shall be roadworthy and comply with the
requirements of the Road Transport Department of Malaysia.
No person shall drive a vehicle of any class or description in a construction
worksite unless he is the holder of a driving license
Whenever any work is being performed over
the working area shall be barricaded

Catch Platforms for Demolition Operations


During the demolition of the exterior walls of a structure originally more than 12.2
metres high, catch platforms shall be provided along the exterior, faces of such
wall, where necessary, to prevent injury to the public.
shall be designed by a Professional Engineer and certified
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Construction Operations and Relevant Regulatory


Requirements

Catch Platforms for Demolition Operations


shall be maintained not more than 6 metres below from which the exterior walls
are being removed
shall not be used for storage of materials or be used as working platforms or
walkways

Blasting and Use of Explosives


Before firing, the blaster shall sound a warning
Approval from relevant authorities shall be obtained
Explosives shall not be handled or used except in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions.
shall be done by trained personnel
owner should take every precaution for the protection of life and property
shall be stopped immediately upon the approach of a thunderstorm

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Construction Operations and Relevant Regulatory


Requirements

Removal of debris

shall be handled and disposed off by a method, which will not endanger workers and public
safety and health
shall not be allowed to accumulate
shall be kept sufficiently moist to lay the dust
Wherever materials are dropped more than 6 metres to any point lying outside the exterior
walls of the building, an enclosed chute of wood, or materials of equivalent strength shall be
used

Excavation Work

any excavation site shall be provided with substantial guard-rails or board fences. In addition,
temporary foot walks beyond the kerb shall be substantially constructed and provided with
protection on both sides
During darkness, all public sidewalks shall be adequately illuminated and warning lights or
flares shall be placed about the property to ensure safety for pedestrian and vehicular traffic
structures shall be supported where necessary
excavation site and its vicinity shall be checked by a designated person
Temporary sheet piling installed to permit the construction of a retaining wall shall not be
removed until the wall has developed its full strength
adequate shoring shall be provided
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Construction Operations and Relevant Regulatory


Requirements
Piling
Where there is any question of stability of structures adjoining areas to be piled,
such structures shall be supported where necessary
All pile-driving equipment shall be inspected daily by a designated person
warn persons not to approach within 50 metres of a pile under test
Before placing or advancing a pile driver, the ground shall be inspected

Scaffolding
shall be of good construction, of suitable and sound material and of adequate
strength
No scaffold shall be erected or be substantially altered or be dismantled except
under the direct supervision of a designated person
materials to be used for the construction of scaffolds shall be inspected by a
designated person
shall be properly maintained
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Construction Operations and Relevant


Regulatory Requirements
Safety Net and Peripheral Net
shall be attached to sufficient anchorages or supports outside
and beyond the area of possible fall and supported at a height
sufficient to prevent dropping
shall be of sufficient size, strength and must be provided to the
area of possible fall

Catch Platform
may be constructed of material other than wood provided such
material is of equal strength

Concrete Work
Formwork and reshores shall be certified structurally safe by a
Professional Engineer and shall be properly braced or tied
together so as to maintain position and shape.
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CIDB Green Card Programme


The main purposes of the programme are:
To ensure that construction workers are aware of the importance a safe
and healthy working place;
To provide a basic knowledge on safety and health at the construction
work site; and
To inform construction workers of the legal requirements in relation to
safety and health.

Following a one-day Safety and Health Induction Course which also


services as proof of Registration with CIDB under the category of
Construction Personnel, the participants will be issued a green card
Those Construction Personnel who have been registered with CIDB
and issued the Green Card are automatically covered by a special
insurance scheme that insures the Construction Personnel against
death and accidents
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5.2

Project Closeout

Under this sub-unit, the student will learn to:

Describe the main activities during the project closeout


Discuss the processes involved in the commissioning stage of
a project
Explain briefly the procedures involved in the issuance of the
Certificate of Completion and Compliance (CCC)
Discuss how to conduct a project closeout review

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Project Closeout Activities


When a project is moving toward this stage,
there are a number of activities necessary to
close it out:

Finishing the work


Handing over the project
Gaining acceptance for the project
Harvesting the benefits
Reviewing how it all went
Disbanding the team

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Finishing the work


As a project moves towards its conclusion, normally there are still a
number of tasks that need to be completed or given a final polish
Completion of minor details of work. Many of these remaining details
are neglected by subcontractors when they leave the project.
Delivery of late material and equipment. Many of these items are not
essential to the operation of the facility.
Replacement of defective materials, equipment, or parts of assemblies.
Replacement materials normally are ordered prior to the closeout
period, but they may not have arrived or been installed.
Repair of defective workmanship. Most defective workmanship relates
primarily to finishes, as workmanship repairs to structural assemblies or
the building envelope probably are completed prior to the project
closeout phase.
Testing and approval of building systems, including code inspections,
fire alarm and building safety, testing of HVAC systems, temperature
control systems, and other specialised systems.

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Finishing the work


Methods that can help minimise the time required to complete
outstanding items
The contractors field personnel (e.g. the project manager and site
supervisors) should be aware of the quality of the subcontractors work
during its progress.
All defective equipment delivered to the jobsite should be tracked for.
Closer to the completion of the project, the contractor must prepare a
list of work that needs to be completed for each subcontractor and his
staff
Follow-up with subcontractors and suppliers usually is necessary
Many contractors are cautious about releasing all or most of the
subcontractors and suppliers payments until all work is complete. After
fully paid they might not be interested to sort out the minor works

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Finishing the work


Punch list
a list of remaining work to be done and the repairs required
When the project gets closer to completion, the contractor should
compile a punch list that covers the remaining work to be done,
including repairs. The list should then be distributed to all the
subcontractors and suppliers for their action, and monitored by the
contractor
When the outstanding items in the contractors punch list are completed,
the architect is notified and requested to perform an inspection
If the architect and consulting engineers are not satisfied with the
workmanship of certain items or notice some outstanding tasks, they will
compile another punch list for the contractor to address. This is normally
a precondition to the issuance of certificate of practical completion,
which is commonly known as CPC, in PAM 2006 Form of Contract.

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Finishing the work


Cleanup
The contractor is obligated to clean up the construction site thoroughly
at the end of the job before the work can be accepted.
The scope of final cleanup is significant as this includes removal of
temporary utilities, haul roads, temporary fences, field offices, detours,
stockpiles, surplus materials, scrap, replacement of landscaping where
it had been temporarily removed, street cleaning, and the obtaining of
releases from the various city, county, or other governmental authorities
having jurisdiction
Final acceptance of the work should be withheld until the contractor has
satisfactorily complied with all of the requirements for final cleanup of
the project site

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Gaining acceptance for the project


Can be tricky and complex because the client may be nervous about
their capabilities or technical know-how to operate the facility
Some clients will purposely withhold unconditional acceptance of a
project because they fear that after granting it they will lose the
ability to ask for modifications or corrections for obvious errors
The acceptance of the client is signified by the issuance of certificate
of practical completion (CPC) and the like
Acceptance of the works must proceed in accordance with the terms
of the contract, which normally covers the following:

Request from the contractor to make final inspection


Final inspection of works
Project commissioning
Record drawings
Practical completion
Issuance of the Certificate of Completion and Compliance (CCC)

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Gaining acceptance for the project

Request from the contractor to make final inspection

Final inspection of works

If the contractor thinks that the work has been substantially/practically completed
a letter giving notice of completion and requesting final inspection should be sent to the
architect or lead engineer

at least two inspections required to close out


The first will establish those areas still requiring correction or other remedial work; whereas
the final inspection will be a check off to assure that all work is substantially complete and
that all corrections have been made
Before acceptance, all workmanship must meet specified standards, all work must be
installed and complete, and all equipment must be tested and operational

Project commissioning

a systematic, comprehensive and dynamic process of ensuring that all building systems
perform interactively according to the design intent and the clients requirements and
operational needs.
follows a logical sequence of testing, verifying and documenting the installation of
components, equipment and ultimately integrated structural, architectural, electrical and
mechanical systems to ensure design intent and operational requirements are met.

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Gaining acceptance for the project


Record drawings
To ensure ongoing efficient and safe operation of the new asset, it is
important that the as-built design is recorded
This process entails recording actual dimensions, location of utilities,
and any changes in drawings.
It is important that the contractor keep this documentation safe, in a
retrievable location. Owners will occasionally misplace receivables and
claim they never received the documents from the contractor, therefore
written records are essential

Practical completion
the client has accepted the project/building from the contractor, with the
condition that the loose ends will be tied up and the defects are made
good.
Under PAM 2006 Form, the possession of the jobsite should also be
returned to the client upon the issuance of the certificate of practical
completion. This means that now the client officially owns the building
etc constructed for him by the contractor.
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Gaining acceptance for the project


Issuance of the Certificate of Completion and
Compliance (CCC)
replaces the Certificate of Fitness For Occupation (CFO)
previously issued by the local authority (PBT).
issued by the projects Principal Submitting Person (PSP) who is
a Professional Architect, Professional Engineer or a Registered
Building Draughtsman
without it the client cannot move into the building

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Impacts and Procedures for the


Issuance of CCC

The Principal Submitting Person (PSP) will receive, process and approve
planning permission and building plans. They can also authorize site
inspections on own initiative or acting on complaints to check the works in
progress, issue a notice if there is a breach or divergence and failure to
rectify it, issue a notice in writing to the PSP not to issue the CCC if
breaches and divergence are not rectified, taking action to rectify any
continuous breach or divergence including reporting to Professional Boards.
Under the new CCC system, a responsibility process matrix is introduced.
Each construction process needs to be verified by professionals and
contractors or trade contractors.
The PSP must ensure that these certification forms (Form Gs) are duly filled
and certified as they form part of the CCC.
The project works need to be completed in accordance to the approved
Building Plans (or subsequent revised approved building plans or as-built
plans) and the PSP has supervised the works accordingly.
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Impacts and Procedures for the


Issuance of CCC

The PSPs tasks are to prepare and present planning and building plans to
Pihak Berkuasa Tempatan (PBT, or Local Authority) for approval, informing PBT
of the commencement of construction works on site, supervising construction
works at the site and ensuring that the laws and technical conditions of the PBT
are followed
There is no change to the responsibility or liability on the PSP as under the old
system the PSP was already fully liable and responsible for the entire project
even though the PBT approved it and issues the CFO for it.
There is no reason for any professional to succumb to pressure by any party to
flaunt the independent certifying role that has been entrusted to the profession.
There are increased penalties for offences.
The architect can issue CCC without electricity and water being connected but
ready for connection.
In a nutshell, the introduction of CCC has put more responsibility on the
consultants in ensuring the safety and performance of the project compared to
the past.
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Handing over the project


Transferring or handing over the project to the client can be a
straightforward process or highly complex. The process
usually involves a formal transfer of ownership of the project
to client, including any terms and conditions of the transfer
Requires transferring and sharing technical designs and
features, making all drawings and engineering specifications
available, and so on
Under private finance initiatives (PFI), the contractor may be
required to operate the facility constructed for some period of
time to ensure that it operates smoothly as designed before
handing over to the client
To ensure smooth handing over of the project an effective
communication with the client on his requirements during the
course of the project

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Harvesting the benefits


Assessing the benefits brought about by the project to
the client and our own firm
For example, in a construction project the benefit gained
may come in the form of recognition (e.G. Worlds
tallest building - burj dubai) and the profits that it brings
to the company.
It may be difficult to assess benefits from a project in the
short run. For example, if we want to assess the benefits
from a housing development we have constructed, it
may be necessary to wait several months or even years
until all lots and houses have been sold.
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Disbanding the team


In most cases, project team members are simply transferred back to
the original functional departments to await their appointment to
future projects
must ensure the team members are given due reward for their
contribution and that the end of the project is marked appropriately
You may want to note that research reveals that if the outcome of a
project is positive or successful, they are more likely to collaborate in
the future (Pinto, 2010).
In short, disbanding of the project team must be done in a caring
way.

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Reviewing how it all went


Conducting the lessons learned analysis based on the
realistic and critical review of the project
On what went wrong or the mistakes made and what
went right. All these information are to be shared with
other colleagues to ensure that the mistakes made will
not be repeated.
As normally the teams attention may be focused on
completing the task and looking forward to the next
project, this often remains undone

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Conducting Project Closeout


Review
Steps

Select participants and facilitator


Prepare for workshop
Conduct workshop
Present Results

Project close out review report normally covers the followings:

Project performance
Administrative performance
Organisational structure
Team performance
Techniques of project management
Benefits to the organisation and the customer

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End of UNIT 5

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