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Summary:

The main objective of this experiment is

To examine in depth on the validity of Bernoullis theorem when applied to the steady
flow of water in tapered circular duct.
To measure the flow rates and both static and total pressure heads in a rigid convergent
or divergent tube of known geometry for a range of steady flow rate.
To investigate the effect of flow rate on head loss in a flowing system.

To learn the application of Bernoullis theorem in practical life.

To calculate the fluctuation between theoretical velocity head & practical velocity head

and determine its reasons.


Bernoullis theorem states that, for a frictionless ideal fluid (for which density and viscosity is
constant) flowing through a system the total energy entering a system is equal to the total energy
coming out of the system. It is true only if there is no energy loss due to friction or any other
reasons and no energy is added as shaft work or any other form. Here the three types of energies
that are taken under consideration are flow energy, kinetic energy and potential energy. The
energies are expressed in the form of height of water column (4o Celsius) at ground level and are
called pressure head, velocity head and potential head respectively. So, under ideal conditions
(no frictional loss), for ideal fluid and no shaft work, the summation of the changes in heads is
zero. Bernoulli's apparatus is designed actually to demonstrate visually the interchange between
pressure head and velocity head as water flows through a tube of variable cross sectional area in
a horizontal plane. In this experiment, fluid was flowing through a tapering circular duct and
there was six open end manometer (piezometer) to observe the steady head at different points. It
was found that at the converging point where pressure head was larger, velocity head was
smaller and opposite was the case for the diverging point. By taking the mass of water flown the
volumetric flow rate was measured and velocity head was calculated. Adding velocity head with
the steady head, the theoretical total head was obtained and compared with the practical one
obtained from the pitot tube of experimental apparatus. There was a little fluctuation of value
between the practical and theoretical one as all the condition to satisfy Bernoullis theorem
wasnt fulfilled.

Experimental Setup:
Bernoullis Theorem demonstration unit consists of:
Hydraulic Bench
Discharge pipe
Piezometer
Pitot tube
Stop watch
Venture tube with 6 measurement points
Probe for measuring overall pressure (can be moved axially)
Hose connection, water supply
A schematic diagram of the experimental setup is given below in Figure 1

Observed Data:
Room temperature 29C
Water density at 29C= 996 kg/m3 [Franzini & Finnemore, SI mertric edn , Page-571]

Mass of the empty bucket = 650 g or .65 kg

Table 01: Observed data in Piezometer and Pitot tube for flow rate-1,2&3
Diameter
Observation
No

Tube
No

of cross
section

Manometer levels (mm)


Static Head

Total Head

(mm)

(mm)

Velocity
Head (mm)

Time
(sec)

(kg)

(mm)

Mass of
(Water+
Bucket)

25

320

325

13.9

305

325

20

11.8

290

320

30

10.7

280

315

35

10.0

270

310

40

25

275

285

10

25

345

350

13.9

325

350

25

11.8

300

350

50

10.7

290

345

55

10.0

245

345

100

25

280

295

15

25

365

370

13.9

330

370

40

11.8

300

370

70

10.7

280

365

85

10

320

365

140

25

305

300

25

3.6

30

3.7

30

4.6

30

Calculated Data:
Table 2: Table for calculated data for different head
No of
Volumetric Cross
observations Flow rate
Sectional
Area

Velocity

Theoretical Practical
Velocity
Velocity
Head
Head

Theoretical
Total
Head

490.87

200.32

2.045

322.045

Practical
Total
Head
(from
pitot tube
Reading)
V2/2g+
P2/g +Z
(mm)
H2O
325

V2/2g
(mm)
H2O

V2/2g+
P2/g +Z
(mm)
H2O

151.75

647.98

21.40

20

326.40

325

109.36

899.15

41.21

30

331.21

320

89.92

1093.53

60.94

35

340.94

315

78.53

1251.97

79.89

40

349.89

310

490.87

200.32

2.045

10

277.05

285

490.87

207.12

2.186

347.186

350

151.75

669.99

22.88

25

347.88

350

109.36

929.69

44.05

50

344.05

350

89.92

1130.67

65.16

55

355.16

345

78.53

1294.50

85.40

100

330.41

345

490.87

207.12

2.186

15

282.186

295

490.87

268.23

3.67

368.67

370

151.75

867.69

38.37

40

368.37

370

109.36

1204.02

73.88

70

373.88

370

89.92

1464.29

109.28

85

389.285

365

78.53

1676.47

143.25

140

368.25

365

490.87

268.23

3.67

25

278.67

300

V (mm/s)
V
(mm3)

98300

101670

131670

A
(mm2)

V2/2g
(mm)
H2O

Sample Calculation:
Sample calculation for third observation:
Calculation of volumetric flow rate:
Mass of the bucket with water =4.6 kg
Mass of the empty bucket =0.65 kg
Mass of water, m= 3.95 Kg
Time of flow, t = 30.0 s
m

3.95

30.0

Mass flow rate, m = =

= 0.132 kgs

Density at 29c, =996 Kgm3


m

Volumetric flow rate , v = =

0.132
996

= 1.31610-4 m3 s = 131670

Velocity calculation:
For diameter, a:
Diameter, D =25.0 103 m
Area, A=

D2
4

= 4.91 10-4 m2
v

=
A

Velocity, V =

1.31610-4
4.9110-4

=0.268 ms-1 = 268.02 /

For diameter, b:
Diameter, D =13.9 10-3 m
Area, A=

D2
4

= 1.5210-4 m2
v

Velocity, V = A =

1.31610-4
1.5210-4

=0.865 ms-1 = 865.789 /

For diameter, c:
Diameter, D =11.810-3 m
Area, A=

D2
4

= 1.0910-4 m2
v

Velocity, V =A =

1.31610-4
1.0910-4

=1.204 ms-1 =1204.02mm/s

For diameter, d:
Diameter, D =10.710-3 m

Area, A=

D2
4

= 0.89910-4 m2
v

Velocity, V =A =

1.31610-4
0.89910-4

= 1.464 ms-1 = 1464.29

For diameter, e:
Diameter, D =10.010-3 m
Area, A=

D2
4

= 0.78510-4 m2
v

Velocity, V =A =

1.31610-4
0.78510-4

=1.676ms-1 = 1676.47/

For diameter, f:
Diameter, D =25.010-3 m
Area, A=

D2
4

= 4.9110-4 m2
v

Velocity, V =A =

1.31610-4
4.9110-4

=0.268 ms-1 = 268.02 /

Total Head Calculation for third observation:


For cross sectional diameter, a

v2
(268.02)2
Velocity head =
= 29.811000 m = 3.67 mm
2g
P

Static head (observed), g +z= 365 mm

v2 P
Total head, H= (
+ +z) = (3.67 +365 ) mm = 368.67 mm
2g g
For cross sectional diameter, b
Velocity head,

v2

=
2g

(865.789)2
29.811000

=38.21 mm

Static head (observed), g +z= 330 mm


H= (330+38.21) mm= 368.21 mm
For cross sectional diameter, c
Velocity head,

v2

=
2g

(1204.02)2
29.811000
P

= 73.88 mm

Static head (observed), g +z= 300 mm

H= (73.88 +300) mm = 373.88 mm


For cross sectional diameter, d
Velocity head,

v2

=
2g

(1464.29)2
29.811000

= 109.28 mm

Static head (observed), g + = 280 mm


H= (109.28 +280) mm = 389.28 mm

For cross sectional diameter, e


Velocity head,

v2

=
2g

(1676.47)2
29.811000

= 143.25 mm

Static head (observed), g +z=225 mm


H = (143.25+ 225) m = 368.25 mm
For cross sectional diameter, f
Velocity head,

v2

=
2g

(268.02)2
29.811000

= 3.66 mm

Static head (observed), g + = 275 mm


H = (3.66 +275) m = 278.66 mm

Result:
The theoretical and experimental values are very much close to each other. So we can say that
the Bernoullis theorem is valid for steady flow of ideal fluids.

Graphical Representation:
Flow Rate vs Head Loss
140000

130000

120000
Flow Rate
110000

100000

90000
1

11

16

Head Loss

Here head loss is actually the difference between theoretical total head that we have got from the
volumetric flow rate and calculated total head that we have got from the manometer levels. It is
evident from the graph that as the flow rate increases the head loss between two different point
also increases. With increase in velocity frictional losses like contraction and expansion at the
converging & diverging path increases. Thats why head loss also increases.

Discussions:
Bernoullis theorem states that, for a frictionless ideal fluid flowing through a system the total energy
entering a system is equal to the total energy coming out of the system. So the assumptions in this
theorem are,
The fluid have to be an ideal one.

The surface have to be frictionless.

The fluid needed to be incompressible.

There should be no exchange of energy between the points.

Though the experiment was done very carefully and properly, there is some discrepancy in the result.
The total head was not same in different points. The possible reasons are-

In Bernoullis theorem the fluid is considered as inviscid and incompressible. But


practically the water, used in this experiment as the working fluid does not satisfy
this assumption.
Since the venturi tube cannot be thermally isolated from the surrounding
completely, there are some possible heat transfer between tube and surrounding
which is not account in the theorem. It introduces a permanent frictional
resistance in the pipeline.
The use of mean velocity without kinetic energy correction factor () introduces
some error in the results. Here we assume that = 1. But it varies with Reynolds
number . The variation of with Reynolds number has to be accounted if we want to get
correct result.
Contraction loss: There is a drop in pressure due to the increase in velocity and to the loss
of energy in turbulence at the entrance of the pitot tube due to sudden contraction.

Fig: Flow at sudden contraction of cross section

Directional velocity fluctuation due to turbulence increase pitot tube readings and
hence we got large value of total head.
A large head loss occurs at the entrance of the pitot tube due to sudden
contraction.
Expansion loss: In sudden expansion there is a state of excessive turbulence. The
loss due to sudden expansion is greater than the loss due to a corresponding
contraction. This is so because of the inherent instability of flow in expansion
where the diverging path of the flow tend to encourage the formation of eddies
within the flow. In converging flow there is a dampening effect on eddy formation
and hence loss is less than diverging flow. It is reflected by the drastic decrease
of total head in following figure .

Fig: Flow at sudden enlargement of cross section

There was a leak in the venturi tube which induced clogging in the flow and some error
occurred as a result.
The piezometer readings were fluctuating continuously during the experiment due to
unsteady supply of the flowing system by the pump. Since capillarity makes water rise in
piezometer tube, it introduce some error in the calculation of the static head.
However ,it is also have to be noted that there might have been some human (parallax
error while taking reading of manometer levels) and unintentional errors done in the
experiment like misreading stop watch and volume meter which might have given us
some deviated results from the actual results.
Now ,let us talk about some of remedies to eradicate all those discrepancies and
application of Bernoullis theorem:

Recommendations:
However, the results can be improved if some precautions are taken during the
experiment for example the eyes level must be placed parallel to the scale when
manometer readings are taken. Besides that, the valve is also needed to be
controlled slowly to stabilize the water level in the manometer. The human

reaction error while noting the time using a stop watch can be avoided by using
light gates to give out highly accurate results for the time measured.

Applications of Bernoullis theorem:


Bernoullis theorem has several applications in everyday lives.In certain problems
in fluid flows when given the velocities at two points of the streamline and
pressure at one point, the unknown is the pressure of the fluid at the other point.
In practical life, if at a point in a pipeline sensors or any other pressure measuring
device cant be used then we can use Bernoulls theorem (if they satisfy the
required condition for Bernoulli's Equation) to find the unknown pressure. One
such example is the flow through a converging nozzle.