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doi:10.1006/qres.1997.

1907 | How to Cite or Link Using DOI


Copyright © 1997 University of Washington. All rights reserved.
Cited By in Scopus (28)
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Regular Article

Precipitation Source Inferred from Stable Isotopic


Composition of Pleistocene Groundwater and Carbonate
Deposits in the Western Desert of Egypt*1

Mohamed Sultana, Neil Sturchioa, Fekri A. Hassanb, Mohamed Abdel Rahman Hamdanc, Abdel Moneim Mahmoodd, Zeinhom El
a
Environmental Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois, 60439
b
Institute of Archaeology, University College London, 31-34 Gordon Square, London, WC1H0PY, United Kingdom
c
Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
d
Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
e
Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority, 3 Salah Salem St., Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt
f
Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130
Received 14 February 1996.
Available online 12 April 2002.

Abstract
An Atlantic source of precipitation can be inferred from stable isotopic data (H and O) for fossil groundwaters and
uranium-series-dated carbonate spring deposits from oases in the Western Desert of Egypt. In the context of
available stable isotopic data for fossil groundwaters throughout North Africa, the observed isotopic depletions (δD
−72 to −81‰; δ18O −10.6 to −11.5‰) of fossil (≥32,000 yr B.P.) groundwaters from the Nubian aquifer are best
explained by progressive condensation of water vapor from paleowesterly wet oceanic air masses that traveled
across North Africa and operated at least as far back as 450,000 yr before the present. The values of δ18O (17.1 to
25.9‰) for 45,000- to >450,000-yr-old tufas and vein-filling calcite deposits from the Kharga and Farafra Oases are
consistent with deposition from groundwaters having oxygen isotopic compositions similar to those of fossil
groundwaters sampled recently at these locations.

Quaternary Research
Volume 48, Issue 1, July 1997, Pages 29-37
Strontium isotope evidence for late Pleistocene
reestablishment of an integrated Nile drainage
network
1. M. R. Talbot*1,
2. M. A. J. Williams*2 and
3. D. A. Adamson*3
-Author Affiliations
1. 1Geological Institute, University of Bergen, Allégaten 41, 5007 Bergen, Norway
2. 2Mawson Graduate Centre for Environmental Studies, University of Adelaide, GPO
Box 498, Adelaide, South Australia 5001, Australia
3. 3School of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde, New South
Wales 2109, Australia
Abstract

Evidence of late Pleistocene closed-basin conditions in equatorial African lakes has far-
reaching implications for the history of the Nile River. There has been widespread
acceptance that overflow of Lakes Victoria and Albert into the Nile occurred some time
during the terminal Pleistocene, but recent suggestions that Lake Victoria remained a closed
basin until ca. 7.2 ka imply a much longer period of greatly reduced White Nile discharge.
This hypothesis has major consequences for current ideas about the river's paleohydrology,
early human exploitation of riverine resources, Nile delta sedimentation, and late
Quaternary genesis of sapropels in the eastern Mediterranean. Here we resolve the timing of
Lake Victoria's overflow by using strontium isotopes as a tracer for water from the principal
lakes and rivers of the Upper Nile. Our data demonstrate that overflow of Lakes Victoria and
Albert into the Nile drainage network occurred no later than 11.5 14C ka.
• 87Sr/86Sr

• Africa

• Quaternary

• paleohydrology
Footnotes

• ↵GSA Data Repository item 200039, Mass balance plus raw data, is available on
request from Documents Secretary, GSA, P.O. Box 9140, Boulder, CO 80301-
9140, editing@geosociety.org, or atwww.geosociety.org/pubs/drpint.htm.
• ↵* michael.talbot@geol.uib.no
• Data Repository item 200039 contains additional material related to
this article.

o Accepted January 24, 2000.
o Received October 5, 1999.
o Revision received January 12, 2000.
• Geological Society of America

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o T. C. JOHNSON
BIOGENIC SILICA PROFILES IN THE SEDIMENTS OF LARGE TROPICAL LAKES:
EXAMPLES FROM EAST AFRICASedimentation in Continental Rifts January 25, 2010,
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o A.D. Jacobson,
o J.D. Blum,
o and B.L. Valero Garces
Watershed reconstruction of a Paleocene Eocene lake basin using Sr isotopes
in carbonate rocksGeological Society of America Bulletin January 1, 2008, v. 120, p.85-
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o D. Adamson,
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1004

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o K. R.M. Beuning,
o K. Kelts,
o J. Russell,
o and B. B. Wolfe
Reassessment of Lake Victoria-Upper Nile River paleohydrology from oxygen
isotope records of lake-sediment celluloseGeology June 1, 2002, v. 30, p. 559-562

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o M. D. Krom,
o J. D. Stanley,
o R. A. Cliff,
o and J. C. Woodward
Nile River sediment fluctuations over the past 7000 yr and their key role in
sapropel developmentGeology January 1, 2002, v. 30, p. 71-74

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Geology; July 2004; v. 32; no. 7; p. 565-568; DOI: Alert me when this article is cited
10.1130/G20419.1
© 2004 Geological Society of America Alert me if a correction is posted

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New neodymium isotope data
quantify Nile involvement in
Mediterranean anoxic episodes Services

Adam E. Scrivner*,1, Derek


Vance*,1 and Eelco J. Rohling*,2 Email this article to a friend

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1
Department of Geology, Royal Holloway, University of London,
Egham, TW20 0EX, UK Alert me to new issues of the journal
2
School of Ocean and Earth Science, Southampton University,
Southampton Oceanography Centre, European Way, Southampton, Download to citation manager
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The development of widespread anoxic conditions


in the deep oceans is evidenced by the accumulation Citing Articles
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Pleistocene Mediterranean Sea, increased riverine
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runoff has been implicated both as a source for
nutrients that fuel enhanced photic-
zone productivity and a source of a less dense GeoRef
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GeoRef Citation
Monsoon-driven increases in Nile River
discharge and increased regional precipitation due
to enhanced westerly activity—two mechanisms
that represent fundamentally different climatic
driving forces—have both been suggested as causes of the altered freshwater balance.
Here we present data that confirm a distinctive neodymium (Nd) isotope signature for
the Nile River relative to the Eastern Mediterranean—providing a new tracer of
enhanced Nile outflow into the Mediterranean in the past. We further present Nd
isotope data for planktonic foraminifera that suggest a clear increase in Nile
discharge during the central intense period of two recent anoxic events. Our data also
suggest, however, that other regional freshwater sources were more important at the
beginning and end of the anoxic events. Taken at face value, the data appear to imply a
temporal link between peaks in Nile discharge and enhanced westerly activity.

Key Words: anoxia • Mediterranean • Nile River • monsoon • foraminifera •


neodymium isotopes

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Journal of Hydrology
Volume 138, Issues 1-2, September 1992, Pages 169-189

doi:10.1016/0022-1694(92)90163-P | How to Cite or Link Using DOI


Copyright © 1992 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Cited By in Scopus (6)
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Research paper

Composition and history of ground water in the western Nile


Delta

, 1, 2
W. Geirnaert and M.P. Laevena, 1
1
Institute of Earth Sciences, Amsterdam Free University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081HV, Amsterdam Netherlands
2
IWACO Consultants for Water and Environment, P.O. Box 8520, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Received 16 December 1991;
accepted 2 February 1992.
Available online 27 March 2003.

Abstract
A hydrochemical and environmental isotope investigation was conducted in the Nile Delta and adjacent desert fringes
within the framework of a routine hydrogeological mapping project. The aim of the study was to obtain additional
insight into the historical groundwater flow pattern, to differentiate between fossil ground water and contemporaneous
recharge by Nile water. An inventory of existing chemical analyses was made (252 data points) and an additional 27
new samples were taken, which were also analysed for stable isotope (δ18 O and δ2 H) content and, for nine
samples, 14C and tritium.
In the majority of analyses, irrespective of total salinity, an enrichment in sodium was observed relative to the
concentration resulting from direct mixing of Nile water with sewater. The Na-rich water is thought to have originated
in the extreme arid period from 14000 to 10000 years B.P. (last phase of the Weichsel glaciation) in which, by direct
evaporation of (scarce) rain, trona minerals were formed at the surface, and the ground water in phreatic aquifers
gradually became saline. The succeeding humid phase from 8000 to 5000 years B.P. when sea-level was relatively
high, caused freshening on the desert fringes only, because the Delta floodplain was covered by clay. The present
arid phase, which started at around 3500 years B.P., also marked the start of widespread floodplain irrigation.
Groundwater levels on the desert fringes dropped as a result of both aquifer depletion by discharge to the Qattara
Depression in the west and climatic effects. This in turn initiated a freshening process in the Quaternary and Moghra
aquifer of the Delta. Nile water has since then reached Wadi Natrun, 55 km to the west of the western floodplain
border.

Correspondence to: W. Geirnaert, Institute of Earth Sciences, Amsterdam Free University, De Boelelaan 1085,
1081HV, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Journal of Hydrology
Volume 138, Issues 1-2, September 1992, Pages 169-189
E. A. Farah1, E. M. A. Mustafa2 and H. Kumai1
(1) Department of Geosciences, Faculty of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka, 558-8585 Japan, e-mail: fatih@sci.osa

(2) General Administration for Non-Nile Waters Management, Ministry of Irrigation and Water Resources, Sudan, SD

Abstract Due to the rapid expansion of the Sudanese capital city far awa
has become a necessity to estimate the sustainability of the groundwater
area. The purpose of this study – based on the stable-isotopic composition
identify the sources of recharge and their relative contribution. The results
groundwater infiltrated from the Niles under the present prevailing arid cli
contribution from the White Nile compared to the Blue Nile, occupies an ex
the Niles within the two main aquifers. Paleogroundwater of meteoric origin, infiltrated in
Holocene, occupies the outer zones beyond the Niles' effect. A rational uti
recommended to preserve the finite groundwater resources. 

Stable isotopes - Groundwater¶recharge - Arid region - Nile River Key words

Received: 27 August 1998 · Accepted: 2 March 1999

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Stable isotope constraints on the nitrogen cycle of the
Mediterranean Sea water column

, ,a
Silvio Pantoja , Daniel J. Repetaa, Julian P. Sachsb and Daniel M. Sigmanc
a
Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA
b
Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
c
Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
Received 7 December 2001;
revised 14 May 2002.
Available online 26 September 2002.

Abstract
We used the nitrogen isotope ratio of algae, suspended particles and nitrate in the water column to track spatial
variations in the marine nitrogen cycle in the Mediterranean Sea. Surface PON (5–74 m) was more depleted in 15N in
the eastern basin (−0.3±0.5‰) than in the western basin (+2.4±1.4‰), suggesting that nitrogen supplied by biological
N2 fixation may be an important source of new nitrogen in the eastern basin, where preformed nitrate from the Atlantic
Ocean could have been depleted during its transit eastward. Theδ15N of nitrate in the deep Mediterranean ( 3‰ in
the western-most Mediterranean and decreasing toward the east) is significantly lower than nitrate at similar depths
from the North Atlantic (4.8–5‰), also suggesting an important role for N2 fixation. The eastward decrease in the δ15N
of surface PON is greater than the eastward decrease in the δ15N of the subsurface nitrate, implying that the amount
of N2 fixation in the eastern Mediterranean is great enough to cause a major divergence in the δ15N of phytoplankton
biomass from the δ15N of the nitrate upwelled from below. Variations in productivity associated with frontal processes,
including shoaling of the nitracline, did not lead to detectable variations in the δ15N of PON. This indicates that no
differential fertilization or productivity gradient occurred in the Almerian/Oran area. Our results are consistent with a
lack of gradient in chlorophyll-a (chl-a) and nitrate concentration in the Alboran Sea. 15N enrichment in particles below
500 m depth was detected in the Alboran Sea with respect to surface PON, reaching an average value of +7.4±0.7‰.
The δ15N in sinking particles caught at 100 m depth (4.9–5.6‰) was intermediate between suspended surface and
suspended deep particles. We found a consistent difference in the isotopic composition of nitrogen in PON compared
with that of chlorophyll (Δδ15N[PON-chlorin]=+6.4±1.4‰) in the surface, similar to the offset reported earlier in
cultures for cellular N and chl-a. This indicates that δ15N of phytoplankton biomass was retained in surface PON, and
that alteration of the isotopic signal of PON at depth was due to heterotrophic activity.

Article Outline

1. Introduction
2. Methods
2.1. Sampling
2.2. Analyses
2.2.1. δ15N-general
2.2.2. δ15N-PON analysis
2.2.3. Nitrate isotopic analysis
2.2.4. δ15N-chlorin in surface particles
2.2.5. Sampling of suspended material
3. Results
3.1. Nitrate and chlorophyll concentration
3.2. Nitrogen isotope composition
4. Discussion
4.1. Generation of the isotopic signal of PON and nitrate
4.2. East–west trends in the δ15N of surface PON and deep water nitrate
Acknowledgements
References

Corresponding author. Department of Oceanography, University of Concepción, P.O. Box 160-C, , Concepción, ,
Chile. Tel.: +1-56-41-20-3499; fax: +1-56-41-25-6571; email: spantoja@udec.cl

Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers


Volume 49, Issue 9, September 2002, Pages 1609-1621
Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers
Volume 49, Issue 9, September 2002, Pages 1609-1621

doi:10.1016/S0967-0637(02)00066-3 | How to Cite or Link Using DOI


Copyright © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cited By in Scopus (41)
Permissions & Reprints

Stable isotope constraints on the nitrogen cycle of the


Mediterranean Sea water column

, ,a
Silvio Pantoja , Daniel J. Repetaa, Julian P. Sachsb and Daniel M. Sigmanc
a
Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA
b
Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
c
Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
Received 7 December 2001;
revised 14 May 2002.
Available online 26 September 2002.

Abstract
We used the nitrogen isotope ratio of algae, suspended particles and nitrate in the water column to track spatial
variations in the marine nitrogen cycle in the Mediterranean Sea. Surface PON (5–74 m) was more depleted in 15N in
the eastern basin (−0.3±0.5‰) than in the western basin (+2.4±1.4‰), suggesting that nitrogen supplied by biological
N2 fixation may be an important source of new nitrogen in the eastern basin, where preformed nitrate from the Atlantic
Ocean could have been depleted during its transit eastward. Theδ15N of nitrate in the deep Mediterranean ( 3‰ in
the western-most Mediterranean and decreasing toward the east) is significantly lower than nitrate at similar depths
from the North Atlantic (4.8–5‰), also suggesting an important role for N2 fixation. The eastward decrease in the δ15N
of surface PON is greater than the eastward decrease in the δ15N of the subsurface nitrate, implying that the amount
of N2 fixation in the eastern Mediterranean is great enough to cause a major divergence in the δ15N of phytoplankton
biomass from the δ15N of the nitrate upwelled from below. Variations in productivity associated with frontal processes,
including shoaling of the nitracline, did not lead to detectable variations in the δ15N of PON. This indicates that no
differential fertilization or productivity gradient occurred in the Almerian/Oran area. Our results are consistent with a
lack of gradient in chlorophyll-a (chl-a) and nitrate concentration in the Alboran Sea. 15N enrichment in particles below
500 m depth was detected in the Alboran Sea with respect to surface PON, reaching an average value of +7.4±0.7‰.
The δ15N in sinking particles caught at 100 m depth (4.9–5.6‰) was intermediate between suspended surface and
suspended deep particles. We found a consistent difference in the isotopic composition of nitrogen in PON compared
with that of chlorophyll (Δδ15N[PON-chlorin]=+6.4±1.4‰) in the surface, similar to the offset reported earlier in
cultures for cellular N and chl-a. This indicates that δ15N of phytoplankton biomass was retained in surface PON, and
that alteration of the isotopic signal of PON at depth was due to heterotrophic activity.
Article Outline

1. Introduction
2. Methods
2.1. Sampling
2.2. Analyses
2.2.1. δ15N-general
2.2.2. δ15N-PON analysis
2.2.3. Nitrate isotopic analysis
2.2.4. δ15N-chlorin in surface particles
2.2.5. Sampling of suspended material
3. Results
3.1. Nitrate and chlorophyll concentration
3.2. Nitrogen isotope composition
4. Discussion
4.1. Generation of the isotopic signal of PON and nitrate
4.2. East–west trends in the δ15N of surface PON and deep water nitrate
Acknowledgements
References

Corresponding author. Department of Oceanography, University of Concepción, P.O. Box 160-C, , Concepción, ,
Chile. Tel.: +1-56-41-20-3499; fax: +1-56-41-25-6571; email: spantoja@udec.cl

Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers


Volume 49, Issue 9, September 2002, Pages 1609-1621
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
Volume 57, Issue 20, October 1993, Pages 4947-4955

doi:10.1016/0016-7037(93)90131-F | How to Cite or Link Using DOI


Copyright © 1993 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
Cited By in Scopus (78)
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Uranium in river water

M. R. Palmer1 and J. M. Edmond2


1
Department of Geology, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queen's Rd., Bristol BS8 1RJ, UK
2
E34-201, Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Received 14 October 1992;
accepted 10 May 1993. ;
Available online 31 March 2003.

Abstract
The concentration of dissolved uranium has been determined in over 250 river waters from the Orinoco, Amazon, and
Ganges basins. Uranium concentrations are largely determined by dissolution of limestones, although weathering of
black shales represents an important additional source in some basins. In shield terrains the level of dissolved U is
transport limited. Data from the Amazon indicate that floodplains do not represent a significant source of U in river
waters. In addition, we have determined dissolved U levels in forty rivers from around the world and coupled these
data with previous measurements to obtain an estimate for the global flux of dissolved U to the oceans. The average
concentration of U in river waters is 1.3 nmol/kg, but this value is biased by very high levels observed in the Ganges-
Brahmaputra and Yellow rivers. When these river systems are excluded from the budget, the global average falls to
0.78 nmol/kg. The global riverine U flux lies in the range of 3–6 × 107 mol/yr. The major uncertainty that restricts the
accuracy of this estimate (and that of all other dissolved riverine fluxes) is the difficulty in obtaining representative
samples from rivers which show large seasonal and annual variations in runoff and dissolved load.

Article Outline

• References
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
Volume 57, Issue 20, October 1993, Pages 4947-4955
Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy
Volume 53, Issue 2, 27 February 1998, Pages 273-287
Speciation-The opportunity and the future

doi:10.1016/S0584-8547(97)00134-1 | How to Cite or Link Using DOI


Copyright © 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.
Cited By in Scopus (69)
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Accurate determination of element species by on-line


coupling of chromatographic systems with ICP-MS using
isotope dilution technique*1

Klaus G. Heumann , Stefan M. Gallus, Gunther Rädlinger and Jochen Vogl


Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Becherweg 24, D-55099, Mainz, Germany
Received 1 November 1996;
accepted 11 August 1997. ;
Available online 17 August 1998.

Abstract
The instrumental design for coupling different liquid chromatographic systems such as ion, reversed phase, and size
exclusion chromatography as well as capillary gas chromatography, with ICP-MS for the determination of element
species is described. For accurate analyses obtaining ‘real time’ concentrations of chromatographic peaks, the
isotope dilution mass spectrometric (IDMS) technique is applied. Two different spiking modes are possible, one using
species-specific and another one using species-unspecific spike solutions of isotope-enriched labelled compounds.
The species-specific mode is only possible for element species well defined in their structure and composition, for
example iodate or selenite, whereas the species-unspecific mode must be applied in all cases where the structure
and composition of the species is unknown, for example, for metal complexes with humic substances. For accurate
determinations by the isotope dilution technique the mass discrimination effect must also be taken into account.
Iodate, iodide and organoiodine species, including those of humic substances, have been analysed in mineral,
drinking and environmental water samples by coupling different liquid chromatographic methods with ICP-IDMS.
Heavy metal complexes with humic substances in water samples of different origin have been characterized by size
exclusion/ICP-IDMS. The possibilities of determining different environmental selenium species are discussed and the
results for the analysis of selenite and selenate, which has been carried out by GC/ICP-IDMS after converting these
species into a volatile piazselenol compound, are presented.

Author Keywords: Chromatographic seperation; ICP-MS; Isotope dilution; On-line coupling; Speciation

Article Outline
• References

Corresponding author. Fax: 00 49 6131 39 3369.

Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy


Volume 53, Issue 2, 27 February 1998, Pages 273-287
Speciation-The opportunity and the future
Journal of Archaeological Science
Volume 34, Issue 9, September 2007, Pages 1391-1401

doi:10.1016/j.jas.2006.10.029 | How to Cite or Link Using DOI


Copyright © 2006 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.
Cited By in Scopus (8)
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Migration in the Nile Valley during the New Kingdom period:


a preliminary strontium isotope study

Michele R. Buzona, ,
, Antonio Simonettib and Robert A. Creaserb
a
Department of Archaeology, Earth Sciences, Room 806, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, C
b
Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3, Canada
Received 5 July 2006;
revised 11 October 2006;
accepted 31 October 2006.
Available online 8 December 2006.

Abstract
The value of strontium isotope analysis in identifying immigrants at numerous archaeological sites and regional areas
has been demonstrated by several researchers, usually by comparing 87Sr/86Sr values of human tooth enamel and/or
bone with the local strontium isotope signature determined by faunal and environmental samples. This paper
examines the feasibility of using 87Sr/86Sr ratios to investigate residential mobility in the Nile Valley region, specifically
at the New Kingdom period ( 1050–1400 BC) archaeological site of Tombos (ancient Nubia). Archaeological and
textual information regarding this period indicates that immigrant Egyptians and local native Nubians were likely
interacting at this site during a period of Egyptian colonial occupation. The results of this study suggest that non-local
individuals may be distinguished from locals using 87Sr/86Sr values and that colonial agents in the Tombos population
were probably both local native Nubians and immigrants.

Keywords: Residential mobility; Nubia; Egypt; Tombos; Tooth enamel; MC-ICP-MS; Colonialism

Article Outline

1. Introduction
2. Tombos and New Kingdom period residential mobility in the Nile Valley
2.1. Military and colonial activities
2.2. Tombos
2.3. Archaeological indications of ethnic identity
2.4. Cranial morphology and biological identity
2.5. Potential use of strontium isotope analysis for identifying immigrants in New Kingdom Nubia
2.6. The intersection of ethnic identity, cranial morphology, and strontium isotope analyses
3. Principles of strontium isotope analysis
4. Geology and strontium sources of the Nile Valley, Tombos, and Thebes
5. Materials and methods
6. Results
6.1. Isotopic results for human enamel samples
6.2. Local range
6.3. Isotopic results by ethnic identity based on burial features
6.4. Isotopic results by biological groups based on craniometric data
7. Discussion
7.1. Feasibility of strontium isotope analysis of residential mobility in the Nile Valley
7.2. Immigrants at Tombos
7.3. Variation by ethnic identity
7.4. Variation by biological affinity
8. Conclusions and future research
Acknowledgements
References

Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 403 220 4857; fax: +1 403 282 9567.
Journal of Archaeological Science
Volume 34, Issue 9, September 2007, Pages 1391-1401
http://www.springerlink.com/content/mwc4bwe0ehctg6f9/

L. K. Benninger1, I. B. Suayah1 and D. J. Stanley2

(1) Department of Geology, CB #3315 Mitchell Hall, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-
3315, USA Tel.: +1 919 962-0699 · Fax: +1 919 966 4519, US

(2) Deltas-Global Change Program, Paleobiology E-206, National Museum of Natural History,
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560, USA, US

Abstract This study was undertaken to determine whether recent anthropogenic


changes in the Nile basin have affected the modern rate of sediment accumulation
in the Nile delta. Excess  210Pb, 137Cs, and 239,240Pu were used to develop a sediment
chronology for a core from central Manzala lagoon, the delta sector which has had
the highest average rate of sediment accumulation during the Holocene (to about
0.7 cm year–1). Excess 210Pb was detected in the top 32 cm of the core, yielding an
accumulation rate of 1.2 cm year–1, higher than the mean rate for the Holocene. A
high 137Cs/239,240Pu ratio requires a reactor source (possibly Chernobyl) for these
nuclides. Low concentrations of excess210Pb and weapons-fallout nuclides precluded
recognition of changes in sediment accumulation rate in Manzala lagoon during this
century and may limit the use of tracer radionuclides for modern sediment
chronology in the Nile delta.

Manzala lagoon - Nile delta - Chernobyl - Radionuclides Key words

Received: 18 March 1997 · Accepted: 22 July 1997


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Impact of the Sudd wetland on the Nile hydroclimatology

Y. A. Mohamed

UNESCO‐IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft, Netherlands

B. J. J. M. van den Hurk

Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut, De Bilt, Netherlands

H. H. G. Savenije

UNESCO‐IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft, Netherlands

W. G. M. Bastiaanssen

International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences, Enschede, Netherlands

Large evaporation occurs over the Sudd wetland, a huge swamp located on the upper Nile. Historically, water
resources planners have had the intention to reduce the Sudd evaporation by shortcut channels (e.g., Jonglei canal).
The question is: What is the effect of draining the Sudd wetland on the regional water cycle and on the Nile water
flow? A regional climate model has been applied to the Nile Basin, with a special modification to include routing of
the Nile flood over the Sudd. The impact of the wetland on the Nile hydroclimatology has been studied by
comparing two model scenarios: the present climatology and a drained Sudd scenario. The results indicate that
draining the entire Sudd has negligible impact on the regional water cycle owing to the relatively small area covered
by the wetland. The runoff gain would then be up to ∼36 Gm3 yr−1. However, the impact on the microclimate is
large. The relative humidity will drop by 30–40% during the dry season, and temperature will rise by 4°–6°C. The
impact during the wet season is small.

Citation: Mohamed , Y. A., B. J. J. M. van den Hurk, H. H. G. Savenije, and W. G. M. Bastiaanssen (2005),Impact of the Sudd wetland on
the Nile hydroclimatology, Water Resour. Res., 41, W08420, doi:10.1029/2004WR003792.

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lakes and the Sudd Marsh

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Isotopic composition of waters from Ethiopia and Kenya:
Insights into moisture sources for eastern Africa

Naomi E. Levin

Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA

Edward J. Zipser

Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA

Thure E. Cerling

Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA

Oxygen and deuterium isotopic values of meteoric waters from Ethiopia are unusually high when compared to
waters from other high‐elevation settings in Africa and worldwide. These high values are well documented;
however, the climatic processes responsible for the isotopic anomalies in Ethiopian waters have not been thoroughly
investigated. We use isotopic data from waters and remote data products to demonstrate how different moisture
sources affect the distribution of stable isotopes in waters from eastern Africa. Oxygen and deuterium stable isotopic
data from 349 surface and near‐surface groundwaters indicate isotopic distinctions between waters in Ethiopia and
Kenya and confirm the anomalous nature of Ethiopian waters. Remote data products from the Tropical Rainfall
Measuring Mission (TRMM) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis project show
strong westerly and southwesterly components to low‐level winds during precipitation events in western and central
Ethiopia. This is in contrast to the easterly and southeasterly winds that bring rainfall to Kenya and southeastern
Ethiopia. Large regions of high equivalent potential temperatures ($\theta$e) at low levels over the Sudd and the
Congo Basin demonstrate the potential for these areas as sources of moisture and convective instability. The
combination of wind direction data from Ethiopia and $\theta$e distribution in Africa indicates that transpired
moisture from the Sudd and the Congo Basin is likely responsible for the high isotopic values of rainfall in Ethiopia.

Citation: Levin , N. E., E. J. Zipser, and T. E. Cerling (2009), Isotopic composition of waters from Ethiopia and Kenya: Insights into moisture
sources for eastern Africa, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D23306, doi:10.1029/2009JD012166.

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seated thermal anomaly

• Low lower crustal velocity across Ethiopia: Is the Main

Ethiopian Rift a narrow rift in a hot craton?

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©2009. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


M. Sadek1 and Abd S. El-Samie1

(1) Siting and Environmental Department, National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control,
Atomic Energy Authority, 3 Ahmed El-Zomer Street, Nasr City 11762, P.O. Box 7551, Cairo, Egypt,

Received: 08 January 1999 Accepted: 18 December 2000

Abstract. The present study was conducted to delineate the pollution vulnerability of
the Quaternary aquifer in two areas, Imbaba and Shobra El-Khima, near Cairo, Egypt.
Environmental isotopes combined with hydrochemistry were used for this purpose. The
groundwater in the Imbaba area (average total dissolved solids about 900 mg/L;
sodium/chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate water types) is more mineralized than
groundwater in the Shobra El-Khima area (average total dissolved solids 500 mg/L;
calcium and sodium/bicarbonate water type). A high nitrate content and significant
mineralization in the groundwater are probably due to contamination of recharge to the
aquifer by irrigation drainage, deteriorated sewage networks, and septic tanks. The
deuterium and oxygen-18 compositions of the groundwater are depleted compared to
Nile River water, which is the main source of aquifer recharge. This less isotopically
enriched water probably represents older Nile water recharge that flooded the region
before construction of the Aswan High Dam in 1963, or it is a mixture of a young water
and originally deposited paleowater that was in deeper horizons at a time of cooler and
more humid climate. Intensive pumping has moved the paleowater higher in the
aquifer. Groundwater in the Shobra El-Khima area has higher residence time, based on
the tritium concentration, than groundwater in the Imbaba area. The percentage of the
isotopically depleted water equals 75% in the Shobra El-Khima and 35% in Imbaba,
and the thickness of the clay cap above the aquifer is 38 m in Shobra El-Khima and
20 m in Imbaba. These factors are indicative of the rate of recharge to the aquifer and
were used to evaluate the pollution vulnerability in the two areas.

contamination isotopes hydrochemistry Egypt unconsolidated sediments

Resumen. Se ha llevado a cabo el presente estudio con el fin de establecer la


vulnerabilidad a la contaminación del acuífero cuaternario cercano a El Cairo (Egipto),
en las áreas de Imbaba y Shobra. Para ello, se ha utlizado isótopos ambientales en
combinación con información hidroquímica. Las aguas subterráneas en Imbaba
(promedio de 900 mg/L de sólidos disueltos, aguas del tipo sódico/cloruradas,
sulfatadas y bicarbonatadas) están más mineralizadas que las de Shobra-El Khima
(promedio de 500 mg/L de sólidos disueltos, aguas de tipo cálcico y
sódico/bicarbonatadas). El origen del elevado contenido en nitrato y la mineralización
existente reside, probablemente, en la contaminación de la recarga al acuífero por
infiltración de retornos de riego, redes de saneamiento deterioradas y fosas sépticas. La
composición en deuterio y oxígeno-18 es inferior a la del río Nilo, que actúa como
fuente principal de recarga al acuífero. Este agua, empobrecida isotópicamente, apunta
probablemente a agua de recarga más antigua del río Nilo, que inundaba la región
hasta la construcción de la Presa del Asuán en el año 1963. También se puede asociar a
una mezcla de agua joven y de aguas paleozoicas que se hallaban en horizontes más
profundos en una época de clima más húmedo y frío. El bombeo intensivo ha provocado
la movilización del paleo-agua hacia las capas someras del acuífero. Las aguas
subterráneas en Shobra-El Khima tienen un tiempo de residencia mayor que las de
Imbaba, de acuerdo con la concentración de tritio. El espesor de la capa de arcilla
confinante es de 38 m en Shobra-El Khima y de 20 m en Imbaba. Estos factores son
indicadores de la tasa de recarga del acuífero y se han empleado para evaluar la
vulnerabilidad a la contaminación en ambas áreas.
Résumé. Cette étude a été réalisée dans le but de définir la vulnérabilité de l’aquifère
quaternaire de deux régions proches du Caire (Égypte), Imbaba et Shobra El-Khima.
Les isotopes du milieu associés à l’hydrochimie ont été utilisés à ce propos. L’eau
souterraine de la région d’Imbaba (minéralisation moyenne autour de 900 mg/L, eaux
de faciès chloruré sodique, sulfaté et bicarbonaté) est plus minéralisée que celle de
Shobra El-Khima (minéralisation moyenne autour de 500 mg/L, eaux de faciès
bicarbonaté calcique et sodique). Une forte concentration en nitrates et une
minéralisation significative de l’eau souterraine sont probablement dues à une
contamination de la recharge de l’aquifère par le drainage de l’eau d’irrigation, les
réseaux d’égouts détériorés et les fosses septiques. Les teneurs en deutérium et en
oxygène-18 de l’eau souterraine sont appauvries par rapport à l’eau du Nil, qui est la
principale source de recharge de l’aquifère. Cette eau moins enrichie isotopiquement
représente probablement une recharge par de l’eau du Nil plus ancienne, qui inondait la
région avant la construction du barrage du haut Aswan en 1963, ou bien un mélange
d’une eau jeune et d’une eau ancienne originelle introduite dans les horizons plus
profonds à une époque à climat plus frais et plus humide. Les pompages excessifs ont
fait remonter l’eau ancienne plus haut dans l’aquifère. D’après les teneurs en tritium,
l’eau souterraine de Shobra El-Khima a un temps de séjour plus long que l’eau
souterraine de la région d’Imbaba. Le pourcentage d’eau appauvrie isotopiquement est
de 75% à Shobra El-Khima et de 35% à Imbaba, et l’épaisseur de la couverture d’argile
au toit de l’aquifère est de 38 m à Shobra El-Khima et 20 m à Imbaba. Ces facteurs
donnent une indication sur le taux de recharge de l’aquifère et ont été utilisées pour
évaluer la vulnérabilité dans les deux régions.

Electronic Publication

M. Sadek
Email: sgamal55@yahoo.com
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What's this?

Oxygen and carbon isotope composition of authigenic


carbonate from an Ethiopian lake: a climate record of
the last 2000 years
Henry F. Lamb

Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23


3DB, UK, henry.lamb@aber.ac.uk

Melanie J. Leng

NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory, British Geological Survey, Keyworth,


Nottingham NG12 5GG, UK and School of Geography, University of Nottingham,
Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK;

Richard J. Telford

Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Allégaten 55, 5007 Bergen, Norway;
Tenalem Ayenew

Department of Earth Sciences, P.O. Box 3434, University of Addis Ababa, Addis
Ababa, Ethiopia)

Mohammed Umer

Department of Earth Sciences, P.O. Box 3434, University of Addis Ababa, Addis
Ababa, Ethiopia)

The oxygen and carbon isotope composition of sedimentary carbonates formed in Lake Hayq,
a closed-basin lake in northern Ethiopia, suggests marked variation in the balance between
precipitation and evaporation during the last 2000 years. Diatom stratigraphy shows that the
lake remained deep enough to support planktonic taxa, and was never saline. The record
suggests that rainfall was higher than that of the twentieth century during most of this time,
especially during two short intervals centred on AD 700 and AD 1300. Climate was drier only
around AD 800, and from AD 1750—1900. Similar, but slightly moister climate than today, with
high interdecadal variability, prevailed from AD 800 to AD 1200, equivalent to the European
`Mediaeval Warm Period'. A period of high effective precipitation followed, from AD 1200 to
AD 1700, during the `Little Ice Age'. Pollenevidence suggests that increased forest cover from
AD 1400 to AD 1750 was a response to higher rainfall; forest cover may have increased
evaporative loss from the catchment, contributing to a subsequent trend of increasing
lakewater 18O values.The record shows similarities in the timing and direction of changes in
proxy-climatic records from Lake Naivasha (Kenya) and from the Nile.

Key Words: Palaeolimnology • palaeoclimatology • stable isotopes • oxygen • carbon •


diatom stratigraphy • East Africa • Ethiopia • late Holocene.

The Holocene, Vol. 17, No. 4, 517-526 (2007)


DOI: 10.1177/0959683607076452

CiteULike Complore Connotea Del.icio.us Digg Reddit Technorati


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Copyright © 2007 by SAGE Publications | SAGE Website | Privacy Policy


doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2006.11.020 | How to Cite or Link Using DOI
Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.
Cited By in Scopus (19)
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Late Pleistocene desiccation of Lake Tana, source of the


Blue Nile

Henry F. Lamba, ,
, C. Richard Batesb, Paul V. Coombesa, Michael H. Marshalla, Mohammed Umerc, Sarah J. Daviesa and Esh
a
Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 3DB, UK
b
School of Geography and Geosciences, University of St Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9AL, UK
c
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Addis Ababa, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
d
Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 794, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
Received 1 July 2006;
accepted 8 November 2006.
Available online 15 February 2007.

Abstract
High-resolution seismic data from Lake Tana, the source of the Blue Nile in northern Ethiopia, reveal a deep
sedimentary sequence divided by four strong reflectors. Data from nearshore cores show that the uppermost strong
reflector represents a stiff silt unit, interpreted as a desiccation surface. Channel cuts in this surface, bordered by
levee-like structures, are apparent in the seismic data from near the lake margin, suggesting fluvial downcutting and
over-bank deposition during seasonal flood events. Periphytic diatoms and peat at the base of a core from the
deepest part of the lake overlie compacted sediments, indicating that desiccation was followed by development of
shallow-water environments and papyrus swamp in the central basin between 16,700 and 15,100 cal BP. As the lake
level rose, open-water evaporation from the closed lake caused it to become slightly saline, as indicated by
halophytic diatoms. An abrupt return to freshwater conditions occurred at 14,750 cal BP, when the lake overflowed
into the Blue Nile. Further reflection surfaces with downcut structures are identifiable in seismic images of the
overlying sediments, suggesting at least two lesser lake-level falls, tentatively dated to about 12,000 and 8000 cal
BP. Since Lake Victoria, the source of the White Nile, was also dry until 15,000 cal BP, and did not reach overflow
until 14,500 cal BP, the entire Nile system must have been reduced to intermittent seasonal flow until about
14,500 cal BP, when baseflow was re-established with almost simultaneous overflow of the headwater lakes of both
the White and Blue Nile rivers. Desiccation of the Nile sources coincides with Heinrich event 1, when cessation of
northward heat transport from the tropical Atlantic disrupted the Atlantic monsoon, causing drought in north tropical
Africa. The strong reflectors at deeper levels in the seismic sequence of Lake Tana may represent earlier desiccation
events, possibly contemporaneous with previous Late Pleistocene Heinrich events.

Article Outline
1. Introduction
2. Regional setting
3. Methods
4. Results
4.1. Seismic data
4.2. Core chronology and stratigraphy
5. Discussion and conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

Corresponding author. Tel.: +44 1970 622597; fax: +44 1970 622659.
Quaternary Science Reviews
Volume 26, Issues 3-4, February 2007, Pages 287-299
http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFMPP21C..05T

Title: Strontium Isotopes as Palaeohydrological Tracers in the White Nile


Headwater Lakes, East Africa
Authors: Talbot, M. R.; Brendeland, K. I.
Affiliation: AA(Geological Institute, University of Bergen,
Norway ; michael.talbot@geol.uib.no), AB(Geological Institute,
University of Bergen, Norway ; knut.brendeland@student.uib.no)
Publication: American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2001, abstract #PP21C-05
Publication Date: 12/2001
Origin: AGU
AGU Keywords: 1040 Isotopic composition/chemistry, 1655 Water cycles (1836), 1833
Hydroclimatology, 9305 Africa
Bibliographic Code: 2001AGUFMPP21C..05T

Abstract

Strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) provide a powerful method for reconstructing ancient hydrological
networks in East Africa where contrasting geological terrains yield surface runoff with distinctly
different Sr-isotopic signatures. In particular, waters from catchments dominated by Archaean
and Proterozoic basement rich in radiogenic 87Sr are readily distinguished from those derived
from Cenozoic volcanic rocks characterised by low 87Sr/86Sr values. In an earlier study, the Sr-
isotopic composition of shell carbonate and fish phosphate was used to show that water
originating from Lake Victoria was making a major contribution to the flow of the White Nile at
Khartoum by 13.5 cal. ka BP, following a prolonged period of low lake levels and reduced river
discharge. Overflow of Victoria at that time is, however, still disputed. Lake Albert provides the
critical link between Lake Victoria and the White Nile system, as Lake Victoria water must pass
through Albert to reach the main Nile. In this study we use Sr-isotopes to resolve the timing of
Victoria's overflow into Lake Albert by establishing a Sr-isotope stratigraphy for the latter
waterbody. During the LGM, Lake Albert was a closed, possibly desiccated basin and
high 87Sr/86Sr values indicate that it was completely isolated from Lakes Victoria and Edward.
Refilling of the basin commenced at ca. 15 ka. Within 1000 years of the change to a positive
water balance, a major excursion to lower87Sr/86Sr values is recorded, indicating contact with
Lakes Edward and Victoria. This age is consistent with previous evidence for Lake Victoria
waters reaching the White Nile during the terminal Pleistocene. During the early Holocene, Lake
Albert was strongly influenced by volcanic Sr, due either to high discharge from Lake Edward or
local volcanic activity. The Sr-isotope record also confirms the existence of a hiatus in the Albert
basin at ca. 4.6 - 5.8 ka, which was probably related to a lowstand. When sedimentation
recommenced, the dominant inflow came initially from Lake Edward, suggesting that Lake
Victoria may at this time have been closed. This was probably a major reason for the coeval
records of low discharge in the middle and lower reaches of the Nile.
Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences)
Add this article to private library Remove this article from private library
Julia Gaye-Siessegger1, Ulfert Focken1, Hansjörg Abel2 and ‫المزيد من‬
Klaus Becker1 ‫الخيارات‬

‫بحث‬
(1) Department of Aquaculture Systems and Animal Nutrition in the Tropics and
Subtropics, University of Hohenheim (480b), Fruwirthstrasse 12, 70599 Stuttgart,
...
Germany

(2) Institute for Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, Georg August University ‫اذهب‬

Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany

‫ضمن كامل المحتوى‬


Received: 14 October 2003 Accepted: 5 December 2003 Published
online: 20 January 2004

Abstract Although stable isotope ratios in animals


have often been used as indicators of the trophic
level and for the back-calculation of diets, few
experiments have been done under standardized
laboratory conditions to investigate factors
influencing 15N and 13C values. An experiment
using Nile tilapia [Oreochromis niloticus (L.)] was
therefore carried out to test the effect of different
dietary protein contents (35.4, 42.3, and 50.9%)
on 15N and 13C values of the whole tilapia. The fish
were fed the isoenergetic and isolipidic semi-
synthetic diets at a relatively low level. 15N and 13C
values of the lipid-free body did not differ between
the fish fed the diets with different protein contents,
but the trophic shift for N and C isotopes decreased
with increasing protein accretion in the individual

fish, for N from 6.5 to 4 and for C in the lipid-

free body from 4 to 2.5 . This is the first study


showing the strong influence of the individual
protein balance to the degree to which the isotopic
signature of dietary protein was modified in tissue
protein of fish. The extrapolation of the trophic level
or the reconstruction of the diet of an animal from
stable isotope ratios without knowledge of the
individual physiological condition and the feeding
rate may lead to erroneous results.

Klaus Becker
Email: inst480@uni-hohenheim.de
Phone: +49-711-4593158
Fax: +49-711-4593702

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