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Chemical Reactions

1. Matter can be described in terms of two kinds of properties:


A. Physical Properties
B. Chemical properties
2. Changes in matter can be described in terms of physical change and
chemical change.
3. Physical Property – characteristic of a substance that can be
observed without changing the substance into another substance
4. Examples of Physical Properties:
A. Melting Point
B. Color
C. Texture
D. Shine
E. Flexibility
F. Solubility
G. Conductivity
5. Chemical Property - characteristic of a substance that describes its
ability to change into other substances
6. A substance must change into another substance in order for chemical
properties to be observed.
7. Examples of Chemical Properties:
A. Burning
B. Tarnishing
C. Rusting
8. Physical Change – any change that alters the form or appearance of
a substance but that does not make the substance into another
substance
9. A change in state of matter is a physical change.
10. Chemical Reaction – a change in matter that produces one or
more new substances
11. Chemical changes occur when bonds break and new bonds form.
12. Chemical reactions involve two main kinds of changes that you
can observe:
A. Formation of new substances
B. Changes in energy
13. Endothermic Reaction – a reaction in which energy is absorbed
14. Exothermic Reaction – a reaction that releases energy in the
form of heat
15. Chemical Equation – short, easy way to show a chemical
reaction, using symbols instead of words
16. Chemical equations use chemical formulas and other symbols
instead of words to summarize a reaction.
17. A chemical formula is a combination of symbols that represents
the elements in a compound.
18. Examples of chemical formulas:
A. H2O = Water
B. CO2 = Carbon Dioxide
C. O2 = Oxygen
D. NaCl = Table Salt (Sodium Chloride)
19. A chemical equation tells you the substances you start with in a
reaction and the substances you get at the end.
20. Reactants – the substances you have at the beginning of a
chemical reaction
21. Products – the new substances produced at the end of a
chemical reaction

22. Structure of a chemical equation:


A. Reactants are written on the left side of the equation.
B. Products are written on the right side of the equation.
C. You read the arrow as “yields” or “produces.”
23. General structure of a chemical equation:
Reactant + Reactant  Product + Product
24. Examples of chemical equations:
A. 4H + O2  2H2O
B. C + O2  CO2
C. 6H2O + 6CO2  C6H12O6 + 6O2
D. 2H2O  4H + O2
25. Many chemical reactions can be classified in one of three
categories:
A. Synthesis
B. Decomposition
C. Replacement
26. Synthesis Reaction – reaction in which two or more elements
or compounds combine
27. Example of a synthesis reaction:
4H + O2  2H2O
28. Decomposition Reaction – reaction in which more complex
substances are broken down into elements or compounds
29. Example of a decomposition reaction:
2H2O2  2H2O + O2
30. Replacement Reaction – reaction in which one element
replaces another in a compound, or when two elements in different
compounds trade places
31. Example of a replacement reaction:
2Cu2O + C  4Cu + CO2
32. When one element replaces another element it is called a single
replacement reaction.
33. In a double replacement reaction, elements in one compound
appear to trade places with elements in another compound.
34. Example of a double replacement reaction:
FeS + 2HCl  FeCl2 + H2S
35. Acid – any substance that produces hydrogen ions (H+) in water
36. Common properties of acids:
A. Taste sour
B. React with metals and carbonates
C. Turn blue litmus paper red
37. Acids are called corrosive because they “eat away” some
metals.
37. Base – any substance that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) in
water
38. Common properties of bases:
A. Taste bitter
B. Feels slippery
C. Turns red litmus paper blue
39. Indicator – a compound that changes color when in contact with
an acid or a base
40. pH Scale – a numeric scale used to show whether a substance is
an acid or a base
41. The pH scale ranges in value from 0 to 14.
42. Zero to 6.9 on the pH scale is acidic.
43. 7.1 to 14 on the pH scale is basic.
44. Seven on the pH scale is neutral.
45. The farther away from 7 a substance is, the more acidic or basic
it is.
46. Neutralization – reaction between an acid and a base
47. A neutralization produces water and a salt.
48. Salt – any ionic compound that can be made from the
neutralization of an acid with a base