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Chapter4.Imperfections

Chapter4.Imperfections
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ImperfectionsinSolids
4.1Introduction
Materialsareoftenstrongerwhentheyhavedefects.Thestudyofdefectsisdividedaccordingtotheir
dimension:
0D(zerodimension)pointdefects:vacanciesandinterstitials.Impurities.
1Dlineardefects:dislocations(edge,screw,mixed)
2Dgrainboundaries,surfaces.
3Dextendeddefects:pores,cracks.

PointDefects
4.2VacanciesandSelfInterstitials
Avacancyisalatticepositionthatisvacantbecausetheatomismissing.Itiscreatedwhenthesolidis
formed.Thereareotherwaysofmakingavacancy,buttheyalsooccurnaturallyasaresultofthermal
vibrations.
Aninterstitialisanatomthatoccupiesaplaceoutsidethenormallatticeposition.Itmaybethesame
typeofatomastheothers(selfinterstitial)oranimpurityatom.
Inthecaseofvacanciesandinterstitials,thereisachangeinthecoordinationofatomsaroundthedefect.
Thismeansthattheforcesarenotbalancedinthesamewayasforotheratomsinthesolid,whichresults
inlatticedistortionaroundthedefect.
Thenumberofvacanciesformedbythermalagitationfollowsthelaw:
NV=NAexp(QV/kT)
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whereNAisthetotalnumberofatomsinthesolid,QVistheenergyrequiredtoformavacancy,kis
Boltzmannconstant,andTthetemperatureinKelvin(note,notinoCoroF).
WhenQVisgiveninjoules,k=1.381023J/atomK.WhenusingeVastheunitofenergy,k=8.62
105eV/atomK.
NotethatkT(300K)=0.025eV(roomtemperature)ismuchsmallerthantypicalvacancyformation
energies.Forinstance,QV(Cu)=0.9eV/atom.ThismeansthatNV/NAatroomtemperatureisexp(36)=
2.31016,aninsignificantnumber.Thus,ahightemperatureisneededtohaveahighthermal
concentrationofvacancies.Evenso,NV/NAistypicallyonlyabout0.0001atthemeltingpoint.

4.3ImpuritiesinSolids
Allrealsolidsareimpure.Averyhighpuritymaterial,say99.9999%pure(called6Nsixnines)
contains~61016impuritiespercm3.
Impuritiesareoftenaddedtomaterialstoimprovetheproperties.Forinstance,carbonaddedinsmall
amountstoironmakessteel,whichisstrongerthaniron.Boronimpuritiesaddedtosilicondrastically
changeitselectricalproperties.
Solidsolutionsaremadeofahost,thesolventormatrix)whichdissolvesthesolute(minorcomponent).
Theabilitytodissolveiscalledsolubility.Solidsolutionsare:
homogeneous
maintaincrystalstructure
containrandomlydispersedimpurities(substitutionalorinterstitial)
Factorsforhighsolubility
Similaratomicsize(towithin15%)
Similarcrystalstructure
Similarelectronegativity(otherwiseacompoundisformed)
Similarvalence
Compositioncanbeexpressedinweightpercent,usefulwhenmakingthesolution,andinatomic
percent,usefulwhentryingtounderstandthematerialattheatomiclevel.

MiscellaneousImperfections
4.4DislocationsLinearDefects
Dislocationsareabruptchangesintheregularorderingofatoms,alongaline(dislocationline)inthe
solid.Theyoccurinhighdensityandareveryimportantinmechanicalpropertiesofmaterial.Theyare
characterizedbytheBurgersvector,foundbydoingalooparoundthedislocationlineandnoticingthe
extrainteratomicspacingneededtoclosetheloop.TheBurgersvectorinmetalspointsinaclosepacked
direction.
Edgedislocationsoccurwhenanextraplaneisinserted.Thedislocationlineisattheendoftheplane.In
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anedgedislocation,theBurgersvectorisperpendiculartothedislocationline.
Screwdislocationsresultwhendisplacingplanesrelativetoeachotherthroughshear.Inthiscase,the
Burgersvectorisparalleltothedislocationline.

4.5InterfacialDefects
Theenvironmentofanatomatasurfacediffersfromthatofanatominthebulk,inthatthenumberof
neighbors(coordination)decreases.Thisintroducesunbalancedforceswhichresultinrelaxation(the
latticespacingisdecreased)orreconstruction(thecrystalstructurechanges).
Thedensityofatomsintheregionincludingthegrainboundaryissmallerthanthebulkvalue,sincevoid
spaceoccursintheinterface.
Surfacesandinterfacesareveryreactiveanditisusualthatimpuritiessegregatethere.Sinceenergyis
requiredtoformasurface,grainstendtogrowinsizeattheexpenseofsmallergrainstominimize
energy.Thisoccursbydiffusion,whichisacceleratedathightemperatures.
Twinboundaries:notcovered

4.6BulkorVolumeDefects
Atypicalvolumedefectisporosity,oftenintroducedinthesolidduringprocessing.Acommonexample
issnow,whichishighlyporousice.

4.7AtomicVibrations
Atomicvibrationsoccur,evenatzerotemperature(aquantummechanicaleffect)andincreasein
amplitudewithtemperature.Vibrationsdisplacetransientlyatomsfromtheirregularlatticesite,which
destroystheperfectperiodicitywediscussedinChapter3.

MacroscopicExamination
Sections4.8to410werenotcovered.

Terms:
Alloy
Atompercent
Atomicvibration
Boltzmannsconstant
Burgersvector
Composition
Dislocationline
Edgedislocation
Grainsize
Imperfection
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Chapter4.Imperfections

Interstitialsolidsolution
Microstructure
Pointdefect
Screwdislocation
SelfInterstitial
Solidsolution
Solute
Solvent
Substitutionalsolidsolution
Vacancy
Weightpercent

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