Warnings:
1. Use sufficiently small increments in Kp in order to get at least 3 digit accuracy. The use of
increments in Kp smaller than the size needed is fine but unnecessary! Specify the increments
in Kp used in your solution.
2. Presents your optimum Kp results as a part of your text answering.
3. Specify and justify the integration method, integration time step, and final time of integration
used in your Simulink solutions.
4. Provide all input (command line and/or code) and output (command line and/or plot)
evidences of matlab use in full detail as an integral part of the associated problem. Try to use
explanatory comment lines in your codes so that any novice reader could understand your
computational operations. ,OTE THAT THIS REQUIREME,T IS ,OT SPECIFIC TO THIS
PROBLEM BUT APPLIES TO SOLUTIO,S OF ALL PROBLEMS I,VOLVI,G MATLAB
USE I, ALL TAKE HOME EXAMI,ATIO,S.
PROBLEM 1: A plant represented by the following transfer function
4
G (s) =
2
(s + 1) (s + 2) 2
is to be controlled by a P-controller with unity feedback.
a) Determine the optimum settings for the parameter Kp of the P-controller by using
i) the ultimate sensitivity method of Ziegler-Nichols tuning and also
ii) Matlab-Simulink simulations for various Kp values for a step input employing ISE,
IAE, ITSE, ITAE criteria, separately.
Warning: You are expected to produce an individual performance index versus Kp plot for
each criterion in order to determine the corresponding location of the minimum with at
least 3 digit accuracy.
b) Using Matlab, plot the unit step responses (on the same graph) of the resulting optimum
closed loop systems whose parameters are tuned according to each method given in part (a).
PROBLEM 1: Determine vector in
J=
[(
x ) 2 + pu 2 dt
ME507/Platin/16S-TH2
Page 1 / 6
y( t ) = 10e t + 5te t
for the canonical controllable representations of the systems defined by
K
K(s+ 2)
i) G1 (s) = 2
; ii) G 2 (s) = 2
s (s+ 1) (s+ 3)
s (s+ 1) (s+ 3)
Hint: ,ote that one needs a minor modification in defining the output expression in terms of
controllable canonical states as
y = c1 x1 + c2 x2 + L + cm xm
if the open-loop (uncontrolled) transfer function possesses some finite zeros (i.e., has some
numerator dynamics) as
G(s) =
K(s m + cm s m-1 + L + c2 s + c1 )
s n + an s n-1 + L + a2 s + a1
requiring a new and a slightly more complex set of relationships between the elements of
vector and coefficients is of the differential equation representing the dynamics of the system
model
1 y(t) + 2
dy(t)
d 2 y(t)
d n-1 y(t)
+ 3
+
L
+
=0
n
dt
dt 2
dt n-1
implying that the order of the model must be limited to (nm1) thereby leading to a conclusion
that the existence of zeros in the open loop transfer function represents a performance limitation.
PROBLEM 2: [Adapted from Problem 1.2-3 of
y
Lewis & Syrmos] A meteor is in a hyperbolic orbit
Satellite
described with respect to the earth at the origin by
(x1,y1)
2
2
x
y
=1
a 2 b2
Meteor
a) Using the method of Lagrange multiplier,
(x,y)
determine a set of 3 algebraic equations when
x
solved give its closest point of approach to a
Earth
satellite that is in such an orbit that it has a
fixed position of (x1,y1). Manipulate your
equations and reduce them into a single
polynomial equation in terms of Lagrange
multiplier.
b) Using the concept of Hamiltonian, determine a
set of 3 algebraic equations when solved give its closest point of approach to a satellite that is
in such an orbit that it has a fixed position of (x1,y1).
c) Demonstrate that your solution satisfies the sufficiency conditions for a minimum under
certain cases. Find these cases.
Sufficiency Conditions for a Minimum with Equality Constraints:
Considering the minimization of
L(x , u)
with respect to u subject to n many constraint equations
f(x , u)=0
where u Rr, x Rn, f Rn; to the second order, the increments dL and df away from a
nominal point (x , u) are written as
ME507/Platin/16S-TH2
Page 2 / 6
df = f
d x 1
LTu + d xT
d u 2
dL = LTx
d x 1
f u + d xT
d u 2
L xu d x
L
d uT xx
L ux L uu d u
f xu d x
f
d u T xx
f
f uu d u
ux
where
T
L
L
L xu =
, L ux =
u x
x u
and df expression must be interpreted as applying each component of f.
If the expression of df is premultiplied by T and added to the expression for dL, one gets
H xu d x
H
d x 1
dL + T d f = H Tx H Tu + d xT d u T xx
d u 2
H ux H uu d u
For a stationary point on the constraint, it is required that
df=0 to all orders (since f=0)
and
dL=0 to the first order
for all arbitrary increments dx and du, which requires
Hx=0 and Hu=0
At such a point, the expression for dL to the second order becomes
H xu d x
H
1
dL = d xT d uT xx
2
H ux H uu d u
But, df=0 to the first order requires
d x = f x 1 f u d u
which gives when used in dL
H xx H xu f 1 f
1 T
T T
x
u d u
dL = d u f u f x
I
H
H
2
I
ux
uu
14444444424444
4444
3
2L
2
u
L uu
f =0
= L uu
f =0
f =0
= H uu f Tu f xT H xu H ux f x1 f u + f Tu f xT H xx f x1 f u
Therefore, to ensure a minimum, dL>0 to the second order for all increments du, L uu
f =0
should
Page 3 / 6
V( x, x& ) =
tf
(1 + x& 3 ) dt
ti
ii) V( x, x& ) =
tf
( x 2 + x& 2 + 2xe t ) dt
ti
iii) V( x , x& ) =
tf
x& 2
ti
t3
dt
iv) V(x, x& ) = [x 2 + (2 t 2 + 2 t + 1) x& ] dt subject to each of the following boundary conditions
0
ME507/Platin/16S-TH2
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ME507/Platin/16S-TH2
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I hereby declare that the solutions submitted under this cover are products of my own personal
efforts, wholly. Hence, they truly reflect my personal approaches and knowledge in the subject
areas of questions. If I used sources other than the textbook of this course, they have been
properly referenced. Neither my peer consultations nor any help which I got from others in any
form went beyond discussions on the solution methods used and/or cross-checking my findings.
I am fully aware of serious consequences of any deviations from the statements above as
evidenced by my solutions submitted.