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The States of the Federation (Malaysia) is Johor, Kedah,
Kelantan, Melacca, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Penang, Perak,
Perlis, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor and Terengganu. (13 States)
Malaysia have 3 Federal Territory Kuala Lumpur, Labuan
and Putrajaya.
Islam is the religion of the Federation (Malaysia); but other
religion may be practiced in peace and harmony in any part of
the Federation.

Federal Constitution is the supreme law of the Federation.


Federal Capital for Malaysia is Kuala Lumpur.

The national language is Malay language and other
language can be practice and teaching and also learning.
Supreme Head of the Federation is a first position in the
Federation (Yang di-Pertuan Agong/King).


Malaysia practices a parliamentary democracy system of
Malaysia practices democracy political system ruled by
the people.
Malaysia also practices the government system of
federation government at the federal level and government at
the states level.
Malaysia also practices general election process in which
the people choose their own representative and the
government of Malaysia (at the federal level)
Malaysia have three bodies administrative system is
executive, legislative and judiciary. Tiga badan pentadbiran :
(eksekutif,perundangan,badan kehakiman)
This three bodies for each with its own role and

The head of Malaysia is Yang di-Pertuan Agong or The



The King is chosen to hold the post for five (5) years by
the Council of Rulers. (majlis perbandaran/daerah)


administration is generally divided into two levels, the
federal level and the state level.

10. The component of Parliament -The King and both the

Houses of Parliament.(bangunan parlimen)
11. The Parliament have two house, House of Representative
and House of Senate..(wakil rakyat/
12. The head of the Cabinet of Malaysia is Prime Minister and
appointed by The King.

13. To safeguard the peace of the country and to protect

justice, the court has to play the role of guardian of the
14. The court must be an independent and neutral body.
15. The concept of distribution of power is the sharing of
power between the central and state government.
16. For Selangor, Perak, Pahang, Johore, Kelantan, Kedah and
Terengganu, Negeri Sembilan and Perlis ( 9 States) the
head of the state is known as the Sultan/Raja (kecuali KL,
Sabah, Sarawak, Melaka)-Yang Dipertuan Negeri
17. State Executive Council is responsible for forming various
states policies and implements and this body is headed by
the Menteri Besar or Ketua Menteri.
18. The state legislative body is the State Legislative
Assembly and the function is listens , debate and draws up
the acts of the state for application in the States ( to form
the law at the state level).
19. This structure is bring the Malaysia the peace and
prosperity and success country.
20. The strengthen of the country system of government that
is responsible for providing the people with protection and



Malaysia is a country inhabited by a multi-racial society.

In a plural society, unity and integration is vital to ensure
the people live in peace and harmony.
In Malaysia, every people and citizen must be aware that
unity and integration is a important and to ensure Malaysia
always success.
National unity generally refers to the uniting of various
groups that have different social and culture background into
one physical entity. Uniting Sabah, Sarawak and Peninsular into
one country or federation (Malaysia) is an effort at achieving
national unity.
The concept of integration refers to the process of
unification of groups with different background to become one
entity tied by norms and values as well as common interest.
Plural society is shows a society that is characterized by
physical, social, cultural and economic separation among ethnic
National Integration very important to development and is
the ultimate aim of national development. Every people and
every ethnic groups must have awareness about the
importance of national integration and together to ensure
Malaysia success.

National Integration Problems:

8.1. Prejudice the attitude toward other groups based on
common generalizations, on evidence that are not
concrete. Prejudice is a pre-judgment action.

8.2. Communalism this is the attitude of favouring ones

own ethnic community. This phenomenon is quite
obvious in the economic, political, social and culture.
This problem can easily lead to tension in relationship
and social gaps between individuals or groups of
different ethnic origin.
8.3. Ethnocentrism refer to the belief that ones own
culture or ethnic group is superior to that of others.

Prejudice, communalism and ethnocentrism are feelings

inside that can give rise to actions of partiality or
injustice towards others ethnic groups.

10. Causes of the National Integration Problem:

10.1.Ignorance of other ethnic groups limited or lack of
understanding of the way of life, the living conditions
and the problems of the races.
10.2.Process of socialization limited to within ethnic
groups the process of socialization among members
of one ethnic group is not conducive to a wide
exposure to other cultural elements.
10.3.Communal Politics generally racial politics remains
an important feature of politics in the country.
10.4.Social economic difference among the many ethnic
groups in the country and for a long time to the
history of colonialism.
10.5.Culture Differences easily spark off feelings of
prejudice, racism and ethnocentrism can be threat
to national integration.
10.6.Segregation or Physical Separation gives rise to
difficulty in physical contact and results in an ethnic
group not knowing another ethnic group, especially
one that in an difference area.

11. Malaysia especially Government always effort in

handling the problem of national integration. So, 3 efforts
to solve the problems is:
11.1.Political Efforts actions through the legislative
system, where laws and acts are made by Parliament
to settle problems related to unity.
11.2.Economic Effort to improving the economy of the
people in the country regardless of community or
ethnic groups.
11.3.Social & Culture Effort implemented the social and
culture approach by encouraging the sharing of
values among the race or ethnic groups.
12. The basic of successful in Malaysia based on multi ethnic
groups :
12.1.Sharing of Political Power every ethnic group can be
practice in politic and together with the government
cooperation in power sharing among ethnic groups
under Barisan Nasional (National Front).
12.2.Democratic Government political factors that also
contributed to stability in ethnic relations in the
country that is the system of democracy in the
ruling government.
12.3.Sound Economic Growth to ensure the communities
or every ethnic groups in the country get to enjoy the
economic prosperity together.

13. Method to achieve national integration is:

13.1.Social Development formal education, cocurriculum activities, continuous education, social
group, social activities, tourism and mass media.

13.2.Economic Development improving educational

infrastructure, create Malay ethnic group and others
ethnic in Sabah & Sarawak entrepreneurs and
professional, development in the small enterprise
sector, development
of rural infrastructure and
development of the rural society.
14. To create national unity and integration is the duty

organization, society and the people.
The Rukun Negara is a national ideology for Malaysia
The philosophy of Rukun Negara is to guide the people to
edify a national identity through the sharing of value, norms
and actions.
The Rukun Negara was inaugurated as a national ideology
on 31 August 1971 by the Yang Di-Pertuan Agong or The King.

Objectives of Rukun Negara is:

4.1. achieving a greater unity among the people.
4.2. maintaining a democratic way of life.
4.3. creating a just society in which the nations wealth
can be enjoyed together in a fair and equitable
4.4. ensuring a liberal attitude toward the rich and
diverse cultural traditional.
4.5. building a progressive society which shall be oriented
toward modern science and technology.


The Principles of Rukun Negara is:

5.1. Belief in God

5.2. Loyalty to King and Country
5.3. Upholding the Constitution
5.4. Rule of Law
5.5. Decorum and Morality.