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TheAdditionRule

3/30/2016

TableofContents

TableofContents

Overview

LearningObjectivesandAssessments

Standards

PrerequisiteKnowledge

MathSkills

Vocabulary

Differentiation

IntegrationofOtherContentAreas

InstructionalStrategiestoDifferentiateInstruction

Modifications/Accommodations/Extensions

Materials,Resources,andTechnology

RequiredItems

TechnologyIntegration

SourcesforLessonPlanandResources

TeachingandLearningSequence

Agenda

Sequence

CommonCoreTeachingStandardsandRationales

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Reflection

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Overview

TeachersName:NicholasLacasseDateofLesson:

LearningObjectivesandAssessments

Objective:StudentswilllearnTheAdditionRule.
Assessment:ExitTicket
PreAssessment()Formative(X)Summative()

Standards
CommonCoreStateStandards

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSS.CP.B.7
ApplytheAdditionRule,P(AorB)=P(A)+P(B)P(AandB),andinterpretthe
answerintermsofthemodel.

Rationale:thislessonisdesignedaroundtheadditionrule.

PrerequisiteKnowledge

MathSkills
Addingfractions
Convertingfractions,decimals,andpercentages.

Vocabulary

Event(source:dictionary.com)
1.

Mathematics.Asetofoutcomesofanexperiment.

Differentiation

IntegrationofOtherContentAreas
English:Studentswillbeinterpretingtextanddialogue,andcommunicatingwithothers.They
willalsobereceivingdirectinstructiononvocabulary.

InstructionalStrategiestoDifferentiateInstruction

Content
1.

GeometricProbability

2.

TheBasicCountingPrinciple
a.

3.

Permutations
i.
Combinations
1. CombinatoricsProblemSolving
InclusionExclusionPrincipleExtensionoftheAdditionRule

4.

ConditionalProbability
a.
b.

TheFullMultiplicationRule
TestingforIndependence

Allextensionscanbefoundattheclassroomwikispace.
TheFullMultiplicationRuleismostapplicabletothislesson.

Process
MultipleIntelligences:
Verbal:ThinkPairShare.Groupwork.
Logical:Cognitivedissonancewiththemisunderstandingoftheadditionrule.
Visual/Spatial:Thediagramleadinguptolearningtheadditionrulewhereweidentifythedouble
countingissue.
Interpersonal:Groupwork.ThinkPairShare.
Intrapersonal:ThinkPairShare.Independentwork.Personaltoolkitsummary.

Product
N/A

Modifications/Accommodations/Extensions

FromIEPs(IndividualEducationPlan),504s,ELLIDEP(EnglishLanguageLearning
InstructionalDeliveryEducationPlan)
K.D.

Specificstructureandroutinesprovided.
Structureandroutineshavebeenestablished.Inparticulartheclassroom
warmuproutine.
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S.H.

J.K.

Separateworkspaceandsmallgroupsettingprovidedasneeded
K.D.typicallyworkswithasmallgroupofstudents.
Handsoninstructionandactivities.
Regularpractice/reviewofconcepts.
Thewarmupsallowforthepracticeandreviewofconcepts.
Multipleopportunitiestoapplynewconceptsandskills.
Graphicorganizersareprovided.
Specificstructure/formatsprovidedtoassistwithsequencing&organization
Theagenda,writtenontheboardeachclass,helpssupportthestudents
understandingofthedayssequence.
Initialreviewofdirections/expectationsbeforeindependentworkdirectionswrittenout
Instructionsarealwaysgivenverballybeforeindependentpractice.The
directionsarealwayswrittenonworksheets.
Assignmentsbrokenintosmallerstepswithscheduledcheckinbetweencompleted
portions
Integratedintoscreencastprojectwithgraphicorganizerandscript.
Spaceprovidedatfirstsignsoffrustration/anxietyfor510minutes(inclassroom)before
returningtosupportand/orprocesswithKitara.
Focusingstrategiesavailableduringworkperiods
Useofagendatorecordassignments,assistanceprovidedduringguidedstudywith
workcompletion,andtoverifyunderstandingofexpectationswithassignments.
Agendaispostedinclassroomandontheclasswebsite.
Extendedtimeontimedassignments.
Studentcanhaveextratimeontimedassignments,includingtest,through
academicsupport,andtheCenter.
Opportunitytoretakeassessmentsorally.

Strategicseatingtoavoiddistractions
Strategicseatinghasbeenimplemented.
Teacherencouragementandcheckinsforunderstanding
Implementedthroughoutthelesson.
TeacherswillnotifyparentswhentheyseesignsofstudentsOCDintheclassroom,
allowingparentstimetoconferwithmedicalprofessionalsandadjustmedications.
Observationsareongoing.
StudentwillbeallowedtocometotheGuidanceOffice,ifheranxietyheightens,as
needed.
Teacherswilltrytoaddressconcernswiththestudentprivately.

Retestingallowed
Extendedtimeontests
AllowedthroughacademicsupportandtheCenter.
Calculatorokontests
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Nopenaltyforgrammarorspelling
Breaklargeassignmentsintosmallerparts

PlanforStudentswhoareMissingPrerequisiteSkills:
Studentswhoaremissingprerequisiteskillswillbehinderedonlyinthecalculationsandnotin
regardstoconcepts.Forthisreason,Iwilldescribethewaywedothingslikeaddfractions(asI
addthem)butwillnotprovideexplicitinstructionfortheentireclass.Explicitinstructionmaybe
providedduring1on1assistance.

Extensions
1.

GeometricProbability

2.

TheBasicCountingPrinciple
a.

3.

Permutations
i.
Combinations
1. CombinatoricsProblemSolving
InclusionExclusionPrincipleExtensionoftheAdditionRule

4.

ConditionalProbability
a.
b.

TheFullMultiplicationRule
TestingforIndependence

Allextensionscanbefoundattheclassroomwikispace.
TheFullMultiplicationRuleismostapplicabletothislesson.

PlanforAccommodatingAbsentStudents
AbsentstudentscanfindmeintheiracademicsupportblockorworkwiththestaffinThe
Center.Iftheseaccommodationsareinsufficient,furtherarrangementswillbemade.

Materials,Resources,andTechnology

RequiredItems

Handouts
Toolkit
ExitTicket

Technology
TeacherLaptop/StudentiPads

Other

TechnologyIntegration
Technology:TeacherLaptop/StudentiPads
SAMRLevel:Augmentation
Rationale:Thedevelopedroutinesoftheclassroomhavestudentslookingtothewhiteboardfor
theMath1WarmUpsGoogledocumentwhichisbeingprojectedfromtheteacherslaptop,or
findingthedocumentontheirowniPad.

SourcesforLessonPlanandResources

TeachingandLearningSequence

Agenda
(theagendatobewrittenonthewhiteboardforthestudents)
1. HomeworkAnswersandQuestions
2. WarmUp
3. Vocab
4. CognitiveDissonance
5. TheAdditionRule
6. Summary
7. FormativeAssessment

Goal:LearntheAdditionrule.

Sequence
SequenceLength:~66Minutes
1. Homeworkanswersandquestions.(10minutes)
2. ThinkPairShareWarmUp(5minutes)
a. Whatarethemaxandminprobabilitiesofanyoutcome/event?
b. Thesumofalltheprobabilitiesinasamplespacesumto1.
3. Vocab:Event(3minutes)
a. Aneventisacollectionofoutcomes.
4. TheAdditionRule(33minutes)
Writetheseontheboardsidebysideforeasycomparison.
a. Scenario1:(2.5minutes)
i.
Experiment:Rollone6sideddie.
ii.
Whatstheprobabilityofrollinganevennumber?
iii.
Whatstheprobabilityofrollinganoddnumber?
iv.
Whatstheprobabilityofrollinganevenoroddnumber?
b. Scenario2:(2.5minutes)
i.
Experiment:Rollone6sideddie.
ii.
Whatstheprobabilityofrollinggreaterthan2?
iii.
Whatstheprobabilityofrollinglessthan5?
iv.
Whatstheprobabilityofrollinggreaterthan2orlessthan5?
c. Additionruleneedsacorrection.Whydidntitwork?
i.
Thinkaboutit,seeifyoucanfigureitout.(5minutes)
ii.
Reportbackasaclass.(3minutes)

iii.

LetslookataVennDiagram.Ourtwocircleswillbegreaterthan2,
andlessthan5.
Adiagram:showthesamplespace(writeitontheboard).Askstudentsif
theyagreetheP(>2)=4/6andP(<5)=4/6.Circletheelements.Sowhat
wentwrongforP(>2or<5)?Noticethatwecountedsomethingtwice!
Somedesiredoutcomes(3and4)werecountedtwice!Everythingthetwo
eventsshareincommon(theiroverlap)getscountedtwice.Overlapgets
countedtwice.Soweneedtosubtractoutonecopyofit.Sowehave
P(A)+P(B)P(A&B).(10minutes)
iv.
FullStop.Emphasizeimportanceandmoveintotoolkit.
1. Whyisthissoimportant?Becausewecancomputeprobabilities
withoutneedingtoknowalltheoutcomesjustbyhaving
percentages.
d. Examples
i.
Whenweseethatorwerethenjusthuntingdown3piecesof
information:P(A),P(B),andP(AandB).(Emphasizethis)
ii.
Abaghas3redmarbles,4greenmarbles,6greencubes,and2redcubes.
Whatstheprobabilityofpickingaredobject,ORacube?
iii.
Preassessmentproblem:10%ofpeoplehavefreckles.60%havebrown
hair.5%havebrownhairandfreckles.Whatstheprobabilitysomeone
hasfrecklesorbrownhair?Addtotoolkit.Showthemhowtocorrectly
setuptheVenndiagramforthis.
5. Summary(10minutes)
a. Movestudentattentiontothe2factsonthefront:seewhorememberswhatthey
were.MoveontoEvent,askifanyoneremembers,thenwriteitontheboard.
Finishwiththeadditionrule.
b. Fact:Probabilitiesarebetween0and1inclusive.
c. Fact:Sumofprobabilitiesinsamplespaceis1.
d. Vocab:Event:Aneventisacollectionofoutcomes.
e. Theadditionrule.
6. ExitTicketFA(5minutes)
a. Smallsamplespace
b. createdistributiontable
c. basicprobabilityformula
d. TheAdditionrule
7. Homework
a. AdditionRuleWorksheet

CommonCoreTeachingStandardsandRationales

LearnerDevelopment
Standard#1LearnerDevelopment
Theteacherunderstandshowstudentslearnanddevelop,recognizingthatpatternsoflearning
anddevelopmentvaryindividuallywithinandacrossthecognitive,linguistic,social,emotional,
andphysicalareas,anddesignsandimplementsdevelopmentallyappropriateandchallenging
learningexperiences.
Rationale:Mystudentsdifferinregardstocontentmastery.ForthisreasonIhaveadded
differentiationforcontent.Thereareseveralextensionsavailableforthislessonthatstudentswill
haveaccesstoandtheywillhavechoiceinwhichextensionismoreinterestingtothem.

Standard#2LearningDifferences
Theteacherusesunderstandingofindividualdifferencesanddiverseculturesandcommunities
toensureinclusivelearningenvironmentsthatalloweachlearnertoreachhisorherfull
potential.
Rationale:Ihaveintegratedothercontentareastoassistinthelearningprocessaswellas
motivationforparticipation.Multiplemethodsofprocess(groupdiscussion,individual
reflection)showsanunderstandingoflearnerdifferencesaimedatfosteringstudentlearning.

Standard#3LearningEnvironments
Theteacherworkswithlearnerstocreateenvironmentsthatsupportindividualandcollaborative
learning,encouragingpositivesocialinteraction,activeengagementinlearning,andself
motivation.
Rationale:Ihaveincludedactivitiesthatplacestudentsinindividual,paired,andgroup
activitiestoencouragecollaborationandpeersupport.Overcomingcognitivedissonancealso
supportsstudentsperseveranceandtenacity.

Content
Standard#4ContentKnowledge
Theteacherunderstandsthecentralconcepts,toolsofinquiry,andstructuresofthediscipline(s)
heorsheteachesandcreateslearningexperiencesthatmaketheseaspectsofthediscipline
accessibleandmeaningfulforlearners.
Rationale:Tooptimizestudentlearning,mylessonisaimstocreateboldcognitivedissonance
attheonsetofanewconcepttomaketheexperiencememorableandgroundedinreasonand
understanding(ratherthanstudentsmemorizetheformula).Beyondtheintroductionofnew
ideas,thereisampletimetoprovidefeedbackonstudentworkduringthelesson,ensuringthat
studentsreceivedindividualizedsupportthatmakesthecontentofthelessonaccessibleforthem.

Standard#5InnovativeApplicationsofContent
Theteacherunderstandshowtoconnectconceptsandusedifferingperspectivestoengage
learnersincritical/creativethinking,andcollaborativeproblemsolvingrelatedtoauthenticlocal
andglobalissues.
Rationale:Iwillnotimmediatelydispelthecognitivedissonancethatisbeingengineered.Iwill
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useitsjarringpowertocreateamemorablelearningexperienceinwhichstudentsmustthink
critically.

InstructionalPractice
Standard#6Assessment
Theteacherunderstandsandusesmultiplemethodsofassessmenttoengagelearnersintheirown
growth,todocumentlearnerprogress,andtoguidetheteachersongoingplanningand
instruction.
Rationale:Answeringhomeworkquestionsatthebeginningofthelessonprovidesagood
overviewofstudentsunderstandingofthepreviousclassscontentwhichwillbeused
throughoutthislesson.TheKahoot!showsthegeneralabilityofstudentstoidentifydisjoint
events.Theexitticketwillinforminstructionforthenextclass.

Standard#7PlanningforInstruction
Theteacherdrawsuponknowledgeofcontentareas,crossdisciplinaryskills,learners,the
communityandpedagogytoplaninstructionthatsupportseverystudentinmeetingrigorous
learninggoals.
Rationale:Theimplementationofdifferentiationintermsofprocessandcontentis
demonstrationofcompetencyinplanningforinstruction.

Standard#8InstructionalStrategies
Theteacherunderstandsandusesavarietyofinstructionalstrategiestoencouragelearnersto
developdeepunderstandingofcontentareasandtheirconnections,andtobuildskillstoaccess
andappropriatelyapplyinformation.
Rationale:Thislessonwillimplementavarietyofstrategies:teacherled,studentindividual,
studentpairs,studentgroups,classdiscussion,thesocraticmethod,aswellasstrategiesthatare
notimplementedintheplanningphasebutarepresentintheclassroomsuchascoldcallingand
thenooptoutstrategyasdescribedinTeachLikeaChampion2.0.

ProfessionalResponsibility
Standard#9ReflectionandContinuousGrowth
Theteacherisareflectivepractitionerwhousesevidencetocontinuallyevaluatehis/herpractice,
particularlytheeffectsofhis/herchoicesandactionsonothers(students,families,andother
professionalsinthelearningcommunity),andadaptspracticetomeettheneedsofeachlearner.
Rationale:TheKahootalsoservesasformativeassessmenttoinstructwheretimemaybebest
spentwithdifferentstudents.Thisandtheformativeassessmentattheendofthelessoninform
meontheeffectivenessofthelesson.Anoverallreflectivecomponentofthelessonisalso
integratedintothelessonplanningdocument.Thisassistsmeinanalyzingwhatwentwelland
whatdidnot.

Standard#10Collaboration
Theteacherseeksappropriateleadershiprolesandopportunitiestotakeresponsibilityforstudent
learning,tocollaboratewithlearners,families,colleagues,otherschoolprofessionals,and
communitymemberstoensurelearnergrowth,andtoadvancetheprofession.
Rationale:Thislessonplanistheresultofcollaborationbetweenprofessionals,directlyand
indirectly.Indirectly,ourcollaborationhasmademeamoreawareeducator,andhasresultsina
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significantincreaseinstudentunderstanding.Directly,thecollaborationinvolvedrevisingmy
originallessonplantobettermeettheneedsofstudents.

Technology
Standard#11TechnologyStandardsforTeachers(NETST)
EffectiveteachersmodelandapplytheNationalEducationalTechnologyStandardsforStudents
(NETSS)astheydesign,implement,andassesslearningexperiencestoengagestudentsand
improvelearningenrichprofessionalpracticeandprovidepositivemodelsforstudents,
colleagues,andthecommunity.AllteacherswillmeettheNETSTstandardsandperformance
indicators.
Rationale:TechnologyisasignificantcomponentintheclassroomandiPadsareoftenusedas
partoftheproblemsolvingprocess.Studentsarefreetousetheirdevicesaspartoftheproblem
solvingprocess.Todayslessondemonstratesintegrationwiththeimplementationofthe
warmupdocument.

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Reflection

Thelessonwaslargelyasuccess.Studentssuccessfullypuzzledthroughfiguringout
twoimportantfactsofprobabilitybasedonthebasicformulaforprobability.Whenpresented
withthetwoscenariostheywerealittlehesitanttogetinvolvedinthediscussionofhowthe
scenariosweredifferent.Thisisunderstandable.Firstofall,itsnotanobviousdetail.Second,
thiscouldbeanewkindofthinkingforthem.Manyofthemmaybeusedtohavinginformation
deliveredtothemratherthandiscoveringknowledgeontheirown.Theideaofdiscovering
knowledgeiscentraltothislessonas(besidesthevocabularywordevent)allmajorinformation
isconveyedthroughdiscovery:thetwofactsinthebeginning,andtheadditionrule.Looking
overformativeassessmentresults,Ithinkthatstudentscouldhaveusedacoupleofexplicit
examples.Maybetheycouldaddoneofthosetotheirtoolkitundertheactualrule.

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Name:______________________
FormativeAssessment

Experiment:yourollone6sideddie.

1. Writethesamplespacefortheexperiment.

2. Createaprobabilitydistributiontabledescribingtheexperiment.

3. Whatistheprobabilityofrollinganevennumber?

Experiment:youpickastudentarandom.
1. Supposethefollowingstatementsaretrue:
a. 104 ofstudentsplaybasketball.
b. 106 ofstudentssinginchorus.
c. 102 ofstudentsplaybasketballandsinginchorus.
Whatistheprobabilitythatthestudentyoupickedatrandomplaysbasketballor
singsinchorus?

Name:_________________
TheAdditionRule:Homework

Forthefollowingproblems,findtheprobabilitybyspecificallyidentifyingtheprobabilityofthe
firstevent,theprobabilityofthesecondevent,andtheprobabilitythatbotheventsoccur.Then
usetheadditionruletoidentifytheprobability.

Example:
Question:
Yourolla6sideddie.Whatistheprobabilityyourollanumbergreaterthan2orlessthan5.

YourAnswer
P(greaterthan2)=4/6
P(lessthan5)=4/6
P(greaterthan2andlessthan5)=2/6

4/6+4/62/6=6/6=1

1. Twofoursideddicearerolled.Whatistheprobabilityyourollanevennumberora
numbergreaterthan1?

2. Acoinisflippedandasixsideddieisrolled.Whatstheprobabilityyougettailsora5?

3. Youdrawacardfromastandarddeckofplayingcards.Whatstheprobabilityyoudraw
adiamondcardorafacecard?
Astandarddeckofplayingcardshas4suits(diamonds,hearts,spades,andclubs).
Eachsuithas13cards(Ace,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,Jack,Queen,King).Thejack,
queen,andkingcardsareallcalledfacecards.Thereare52cardsinthewholedeck.

4. Aschoolsurveyfoundthat60%ofstudentsplayvideogames,80%ofstudentsreadin
theirfreetime,and50%ofstudentsbothplayvideogamesandreadintheirfreetime.
WhatstheprobabilitythatastudentchosenatrandomwilleitherplayvideogamesOR
readintheirfreetime?