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Top Science 6 PRIMARY

TEACHERS
RESOURCE BOOK

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Introduction
Top Science 6 Teachers Resource Book provides a range of materials
designed to complement the Students Book and the Teachers Book.
These materials contribute to the flexible nature of Top Science: students
in the same class can be given worksheets at different levels, or weaker
students can complete the tasks with stronger peers. Teachers with more
contact hours can make use of these photocopiable materials
as and when they need them.
There are three categories of worksheets: reinforcement, extension,
and assessment. Use them for revision purposes, for extension
practice, as progress tests, assessment, or for homework.
The worksheets can be photocopied and filed in a folder.

Reinforcement and extension worksheets


There are forty-eight reinforcement worksheets. These materials
constitute a flexible tool: they can be worked on after the relevant
section in the Students Book, before the Activities sections, or as extra
preparation for the unit assessment. The answer keys are provided.
There are fifteen double-page extension worksheets, one for each unit
of the Students Book. These worksheets can be used for fast
finishers or to extend class work. Depending on their level, students
can complete the worksheets with or without consulting their Students
Book or other sources. The answer keys are provided.

26

Technical advances and society

Name

14

ReinfoRcement

Date

Name

Technical advances have shaped society in areas such as work, transport, health,
communication and leisure.

Most of the people worked in the fields.


They grew corn, cacao, beans, tomatoes,
pumpkins, spices and other plants.

. B is

The Mayans had an amazing knowledge


ofastronomy and mathematics. For example,
they knew about the concept of zero, and used
two calendars: lunar and solar. They were
also great architects and sculptors.
Their pyramid temples, altars and stelae
(sculpted monuments) are especially famous.

We use them to
B

Date

The Mayans lived in city-states governed


by asupreme chief who lived in Mayapan.
Their society was organised into four groups:
nobles, priests, peasants and slaves.

Complete the sentences.


A is

EXTENSION

The Mayan civilisation appeared about two


thousand years ago in the Yucatan peninsula
and the lowlands of present-day Mexico,
Guatemala and Honduras.

Remember

The Mayan civilisation

The difference between A and B is

The Mayans believed in many gods, but


themost important was the god of rain, as crop fertility depended on it.
C

C is

. D is

Their favourite game was played with a ball. The object of the game was to pass the ball
through a stone hoop. There were two teams and the players were not allowed to touch
the ball with their hands.

We use them to
D

The difference between C and D is

Read the text and answer the questions.


Mayan society
Where did the Mayans live?
Where did the rulers live?

E is

. F is

How was their society organised?

We use them to

What kind of work did most people do?

The difference between E and F is

What did they build?

Who was their most important god?


What was their favourite sport?

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Diagnostic tests
There are five double-page diagnostic tests. They are to be completed
at the start of the school year to give an indication of the students
basic level of Science and English. The answer keys are provided.
3

The relief of Spain

Name
1

Date

Label the most important relief features on the map.

Write the name of the two archipelagos that are part of Spain.

Label the main Spanish rivers on the map.

__________ Sea

DIAGNOSTIC TEST

E
W

Cantabrian Sea

________
AT L A N T I C

OCEAN

OCEAN

Mediterranean

_____________

Sea

Sea

AT L A N T I C O C E A N

Scale
0
111

Scale
140

Kilometres

Melilla

189736 Diagnostic Test 6 p2 h1_Espaa hidrografia

Kilometres

Diagnostic
6 p1
h1_Espaa
Now, write the names of 189736
the oceans
and seasTest
in the
correct
place. fisico

Ceuta

________ OCEAN

Colour the rivers: red Atlantic watershed, blue Mediterranean watershed, green Cantabrian
watershed.

Complete the word map on Spanish coasts.

Look at the map and answer the questions.

SpANiSh CoAStS

What climate is found in the shaded

area?
W

E
S

areas

What are the temperatures like?

areas

Andalusia

What is precipitation like?

What is the vegetation like?


Ceuta and Melilla

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Top Science 6 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL 2011 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Individual results chart


The individual results chart indicates areas in which a student has
achieved acceptable competence and highlights areas which require
additional practice.

Individual results chart

IndIvIduAL RESuLTS CHART

name

date
Yes

NR*

Yes

Comments

Living things and the environment

Population and the economy of Spain

Identify the parts of a cell.

use some concepts related to


population and the economy.

Identify some of the characteristics


of living things.

understand how population is


distributed inSpain.

Recognise the five levels of organisation.

Identify some of the main activities in


the three economic sectors in Spain

Identify two types of plant reproduction.


describe what an ecosystem is.
Identify environmental problems and
solutions.

Forces and movement


Recognise the effects of forces on
movement.
Identify the forces involved in various
types of movement.
Identify different types of simple
machines.

The relief of Spain


Identify the main relief features
of Spain.
Identify Spanish coasts.
Recognise the climates of Spain.
name and locate the main rivers and
watersheds in Spain.
Interpret maps using conventional
symbols.

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Top Science 6 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL 2011 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S.L.

NR*

Comments

describe the distribution of the Spanish


population by economic sector.
Analyse and interpret pie charts

Changes across time


Know the three ages of Prehistory and
their characteristics.
name the people who inhabited the
Iberian Peninsula in antiquity.
describe the Roman conquest of the
Iberian Peninsula and describe the
territorial organisation of Roman Spain.
Identify some of the main
characteristics of the visigoth kingdom.
Identify essential facts of the Moorish
occupation of the peninsula during the
Middle Ages.
Identify the Christian kingdoms up to
1492.
describe the differences between
Romanesque and Gothic buildings.

NP: needs needs reinforcement.

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Assessment worksheets
There is one double-page unit assessment worksheet and one
multiple-choice test for each unit. In addition, there are three doublepage term assessments and three term tests. There is one doublepage final assessment and one three-page final test.
6

Electricity and magnetism

Name
1

A magnetic instrument that shows directions.


and

charge

Materials that do not conduct electrical current.

electrical charges. If an object has

negative charges than positive charges, it is

charged. If it has more

Name three types of energy produced by electrical current.

Label the components of this electrical circuit.

Explain the function of each element in an electrical circuit.

Look at the pictures and explain what changes are taking place.
A

charged. Objects with the same

. Objects with different charges

Explain the diagram. Describe the action of the forces.

generator

Read the definition and write the word.


Organised movement of electrical charges through material.

Complete the sentences.

more positive charges than negative charges, it is

Date

All objects have

ASSESSmEnt

cables

What is an electromagnet? Answer.

Will these magnets attract or repel each other? Why?

switch

10 Look at this electrical circuit. Will the light bulb turn on? Why or why not?

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Top Science 6 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL 2011 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S.L.

129

Term assessment worksheets


Activities include labelling illustrations and diagrams, filling in the blanks,
matching, True/False, wordsearches, and many more activities.
2
Name
1

TERM ASSESSMENT

Date

Explain what a motor does. What are the main types?

Look at the picture. What type of mechanism is it? Explain draw arrows to indicate
which direction the smaller wheels turn.

Label the globe. Write equator, meridian and parallel.

Write what happens in each case.


When two objects are positively charged, they
When two objects are negatively charged, they
When one object is positively charged and the other is negatively charged, they

Explain what electrical current is and the effects it can produce.

List seven types of energy.


A

Write an example for each type of material.


conductors

Describe the location of point A. Circle the correct word.


Its latitude isnorth / south. Its longitude is east / west.

insulators

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Identify the type of power plant.

10 Look at the map. Write the number that corresponds to each geographical feature.

It uses the mechanical energy of falling water.

Carpathian Mountains

It uses the chemical energy stored in fuel.

7
6

It uses the mechanical energy of the wind.

Look at the picture. Is this machine mechanical, thermal or does it manage information?
Give reasons for your answer.

Ural Mountains
River Vistula

1
2

Central Massif
Cape St. Vincent

River Volga
River Danube

Crimean Peninsula
Write the name of three European islands.
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Unit test worksheets


All the unit tests have ten multiple-choice questions. These worksheets
test the basic concepts of the unit. These can be completed after the
unit assesment worksheets, or used as quick revision activities.

Nutrition I

TEST 1

Name

Date

Circle the correct option.


1. The systems involved in nutrition are...
a. the digestive, respiratory, excretory
and circulatory systems.
b. the mouth, the stomach, the large
intestine and the small intestine.
c. blood and oxygen.
2. The nutrients necessary to grow and repair
our bodies are
a. vitamins.

6. The first stage of the digestive process


is
a. digestion.
b. nutrition.
c. absorption.
7. The elimination of waste is carried out
by the
a. excretory system.
b. respiratory system.

b. lipids.

c. digestive system.

c. proteins.

8. Gastric juices are produced in the

3. Helper glands produce

a. stomach.

a. food.

b. oesophagus.

b. digestive juices.

c. small intestine.

c. gastric juices.
4. The process in which nutrients pass from
the digestive tube to the blood is called
a. digestion.
b. absorption.

9. Fruit is rich in
a. carbohydrates, proteins and fibre.
b. fibre, vitamins, minerals and
carbohydrates.
c. fats, proteins and vitamins.

c. elimination of waste.
10. The liver produces
5. Fibre is a

a. saliva.

a. nutrient from animal sources.

b. pancreatic juice.

b. component of food from vegetable


sources.

c. bile.

c. component of proteins.

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Top Science 6 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL 2011 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Other resources
Top Science 6 Activity Book

PRIMARY

STUDENTS MATERIAL

Students Book

Activity Book

Top Science 6 PRIMARY

Top Science 6 PRIMARY

9 788468 00196 8

ISBN 978-84-680-0196-8

At the end of the Activity Book,


6
there Top
areScience
two Lets
do it! and two
Read and do! pages per term.
In addition, there are instructions
for students to create and play a
board game, Ticket to travel, which
enables them to revise content
interactively.
Activity Book

Activity Book

The Activity Book is designed to provide further practice for both the
content and language objectives of the course and to encourage learner
autonomy. Each unit contains full-colour illustrations and diagrams, and
six to eight pages of graded activities.

Top Science 6 PRIMARY

Top Science 6 PRIMARY

Teachers Resource Book

Teachers Book

TEACHERS MATERIAL

Top Science 6 PRIMARY

Class Audio CD

Teachers Resource Book

Teachers Book

DIGITAL MATERIAL

ALSO AVAILABLE

Top Science 6 Teacher's Resource


Book: Annex
Digital Flashcards, Posters
and Web bank

Science Posters
Science Tasks Booklet

Teachers Resources
and Maps

Language Companion CD-ROM

i-book

Interactive Whiteboard
Activities

Two worksheets, Nutrition


and Map of Europe, enable
students to apply basic science
and geography concepts.
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Top Science i-solutions has these components:


CD 1

Digital ashcards
Digital posters
Web bank

CD 2

Teachers Resources and Maps

CD 3

i-book

CD 4

Interactive Whiteboard Activities

Minimum requirements and instructions:


See readmetxt le in each CD.

Top Science 6 PRIMARY

6
PRIMARY

Top Science 6 offers 4 CDs designed to bring digital


resources to the classroom. These CDs provide materials
for interactive whiteboard presentations and practice,
hands-on experiments and computer work for students.
Top Science i-solutions is a box set containing four
CDs which offer digital components for the CLIL
Science classroom.

i-solutions

Top Science 6 PRIMARY

T o p Scien ce i-s o lutio n s

i-solutions

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Digital resources

CD 1
Digital Flashcards, Posters and Web bank

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The digital posters can be printed when required.

CD 2

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Teachers Resource Book and Maps

Top Science 6 PRIMARY


CD 2

CD 2

Teachers Resources
and Maps

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Top Science 6 PRIMARY


CD 2

CD 3

This CD contains the digital version of the Teachers


Resource Book in PDF format. The worksheets can be
printed for individual use, or projected onto an interactive
whiteboard for group activities. In addition, this CD
provides blank and completed physical and political maps
of the world, Europe and Spain.

Digital Flashcards
Digital Posters
Web Bank

2
011
R

CD 2

The Web bank includes some of the best, free web


links for teaching Science, Geography and History.
These links provide access to valuable resources
to help with lesson planning as well as ways to
personalise classes and cater to students need.

Top Science 6 PRIMARY

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CD 1

The flashcard bank has over 200 images which can be


projected onto an interactive whiteboard or printed and
used as conventional flashcards. Each image offers the
option of listening to the audio and viewing the written
word.

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CD 3
i-book

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CD 4

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Interactive Whiteboard (IWB) Activities

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There are five interactive activities per unit on this CD.


These can be used to help reinforce the main concepts
ofeach unit in a different and fun way.

Top Science 6 PRIMARY


CD 2

The i-book provides the core course material of the


Teachers Book and the Students Book in interactive
format. It can be used in the classroom or for class
planning.

i-book

IWB Activities

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Contents
Worksheets
REINFORCEMENT WORKSHEETS . . . . . . . . . . . . .

EXTENSION WORKSHEETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
ASSESSMENT WORKSHEETS
Diagnostic tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Individual results chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Unit assessments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Unit tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Term assessments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Term tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Final assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Final test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Annex
Nutrition worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Map of Europe worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

Answer keys
REINFORCEMENT WORKSHEETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
EXTENSION WORKSHEETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
ASSESSMENT WORKSHEETS
Diagnostic tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Unit assessments and tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Term assessments and tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Final assessment and test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

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Reinforcement worksheets
1 Nutrition and health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

25 Operating parts and mechanisms . . . . . . . . . 33

2 The digestive process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

26 Technical advances and society . . . . . . . . . . . 34

3 Respiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

27 The Earth and maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

4 The circulatory system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

28 Relief map of the world . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

5 Blood circulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

29 Political map of the world . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

6 Sensitivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

30 European coasts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

7 The nervous system and movement . . . . . . . . 15

31 European climates and vegetation . . . . . . . . . 39

8 Internal co-ordination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

32 European rivers and lakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

9 Sexual characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

33 The population of Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

10 Sex cells and fertilisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

34 The European economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

11 Pregnancy and birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

35 The European Union today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

12 Health and illness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

36 The institutions of the European Union . . . . . 44

13 Health risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

37 The achievements of the European Union . . . . 45

14 Infectious diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

38 Prehistory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

15 Treatment of illness and disease . . . . . . . . . . 23

39 The Age of Antiquity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

16 Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

40 The Middle Ages on the Iberian Peninsula . . . 48

17 Magnets and magnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

41 The discovery of America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

18 Electrical circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

42 The Spanish Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

19 The properties of energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

43 The fragmentation of the Spanish Empire . . . 51

20 Heat and temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

44 Society and culture in the Modern Age . . . . . 52

21 Producing electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

45 The 19th century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

22 Energy in our society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

46 Life in the 19th century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

23 Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

47 From Primo de Rivera to Franco . . . . . . . . . . . 55

24 Inside a machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

48 Transition and democracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

ANSWER KEYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

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Nutrition and health

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Food contains the nutrients that our bodies need.
The main nutrients are:
carbohydrates, which supply energy;
fats or lipids, which also supply energy;
proteins, which are necessary to grow and repair our bodies;
vitamins and minerals, which are necessary for a healthy body.
The process of obtaining nutrients from food is called digestion.

Write one sentence with each group of words.


digestion nutrients

energy fats


Complete the text.


We need
it from

for all the activities we do. We obtain

and from

are necessary to grow and repair our bodies. Fruits and vegetables

are good sources of

and

. This process

of obtaining from food for our bodies to use is called .

Match the foods to the nutrients.


Proteins

Vitamins

Carbohydrates

Fats

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The digestive process

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
The digestive process takes place in the digestive system. There are three stages:
Digestion. It begins in the mouth. The food is crushed, mixed with saliva and swallowed. Now,
it is called bolus. The bolus passes through the pharynx and the oesophagus into the
stomach. There, it is mixed with gastric juices to form chyme.
Absorption. This occurs in the small intestine. The nutrients pass into the blood.
Elimination of waste. The waste moves into the large intestine and is transformed into faeces.
Then the faeces are excreted through the anus.

Complete the word map.

In this stage, 


Digestion



In this stage, 

The digestive process


has three stages:







In this stage, 



Answer the questions.


Where does absorption occur?

What are faeces? Where is waste transformed into faeces?


Complete the text.


The digestive process takes place in the . There are three stages
in the digestive process: , , and

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of waste.

Top Science 6 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL 2011 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S.L.

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Respiration

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Respiration is the process by which our body obtains oxygen from the air and expels carbon
dioxide. This process is carried out by the respiratory system.
The respiratory system consists of the air passageways and the lungs.
There are two breathing movements: inhalation and exhalation.

Write the names of the organs. Explain their function during respiration.









Look at the illustrations and circle the correct words.


A

The boy is inhaling / exhaling.


The lungs expand / contract.

The boy is inhaling / exhaling.


The lungs expand / contract.

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The circulatory system

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
The circulatory system is made up of:
Blood, which is a red liquid that reaches all the cells in our body and transports nutrients,
oxygen, carbon dioxide and waste.
Blood vessels, which circulate the blood. There are three types:
arteries, which carry blood away from the heart to other organs;
veins, which carry blood back to the heart;
capillaries, which connect arteries to veins.
The heart, which pumps blood around the body.

Complete the sentences.



is a red liquid that transports , ,


and

The

in our body.

pumps blood around the body using the circulatory system.

carry blood from the heart to other .


connect to , which carry blood to the heart.

Label the illustration with these words.


heart

capillaries

artery

vein

Look at the illustration and answer.


If you prick your finger, what would bleed more, an artery or a vein? Why?




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Blood circulation

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
Blood moves through the circulatory system in a closed circuit. There are two circuits:
Pulmonary circulation is the movement of blood between the heart and the lungs. Blood
leaves the heart through the pulmonary arteries. The oxygenated blood returns to the heart
through the pulmonary veins.
Systemic circulation is the movement of blood between the heart and the rest of the body.
Blood leaves the heart through the aorta and returns to the heart through the vena cava.

Match.
Pulmonary circulation

Systemic circulation

between the heart


and the rest of the body

between the heart


and the lungs

Now, look at the illustration. What circuit is shown? Explain.





Cross out the errors. Then write the sentences correctly.


In systemic circulation, oxygenated blood returns to the lungs through the vena cava.


In pulmonary circulation, blood returns to the heart through the aorta.



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Sensitivity

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
Through sensitivity we respond to changes in the external environment.
The sense organs capture information. The brain receives the information through the nerves
and decides how to respond. Then, the muscles receive orders from the brain and make the
body move.

Draw the sense organ that we use to

see

hear

smell

taste

Look at the illustrations. Explain the function of sensitivity in each case.












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The nervous system and movement

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
The nervous system is formed by the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous
system. The central nervous system has two parts: the brain and the spinal cord. The
peripheral nervous system is formed by the nerves.
Voluntary movements are those that we choose to make consciously.
Reflex movements happen automatically, without a conscious order from the brain.

Look at the illustrations of voluntary movement and complete the sentences.


1. The boy captures the information with his .
2. The

carry the information to the .

3.The

decides to kick the ball, and orders

the

in the leg to contract.

4.The carry the information to the in the leg.


5. The

in the leg contract, and the

boy .

Look at the illustrations of a reflex movement and complete.


1. The girl captures the information through her sense of .
2. The

carry the information.

3. The

orders an immediate response.

4. The

carry the information to the

in her arm.

5. The muscles contract and the girl .

Match.
Spinal cord
Brain

Reflex movements
Voluntary movements

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189736 _ 0008-0056.indd 15

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Internal co-ordination

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Internal co-ordination involves the nervous system, the involuntary muscles and the endocrine
system.
Many functions of our body are carried out by the involuntary muscles. They function
independently of our will, and we are not conscious of them and cannot control them.
The endocrine system is formed by the endocrine glands (pituitary gland, thyroid gland,
pancreas, ovaries and testicles). These glands produce hormones, which help control growth
and reproduction.

Small muscles in our skin cause goose bumps when they contract. Are these muscles voluntary
orinvoluntary? Explain.




Name the glands in the endocrine system. What substance do endocrine glands produce?



Tick the processes which involve internal co-ordination.


Our temperature is kept constant.

We run to get to class on time.

Saliva is produced when we look at food we like.

Complete the sentences.


The nervous system uses the

muscles and the

system

to carry out internal co-ordination.


The endocrine system controls the functions of

and .

If our muscles stopped working, the


our lungs would not be able to absorb

16
189736 _ 0008-0056.indd 16

would stop beating,

and we would die.

Top Science 6 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL 2011 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S.L.

10/10/11 10:31

Sexual characteristics

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
The male and female reproductive systems are the primary sexual characteristic.
They are formed by the genitals, which are the organs that carry out reproduction.
The female sex organs include the ovaries and uterus.
The male sex organs include the testicles and the penis.

Label the diagrams.


The reproductive system
Fallopian tube

vagina

vulva

uterus

ovary

The reproductive system


vas deferens

urethra

testicle

seminal vesicle

prostate

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189736 _ 0008-0056.indd 17

penis

scrotum

17
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10

Sex cells and fertilisation

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
The ovaries produce female sex cells called ovules.
The testicles produce male sex cells called spermatozoa or sperm cells.
Fertilisation occurs in the Fallopian tubes. Fertilisation is the union of an ovule and a sperm to
form a zygote. The zygote is the first cell of a new being. It divides many times to form an embryo.

Look at the illustration and answer.


A

Which part of the illustration represents the female sex cell? 


What is the name of the female sex cell? 
Which part represents the male sex cell? 
What is the name of the male sex cell? 

Match.
sperm
ovule

menstruation

semen

Order the stages in which an embryo develops. Write a number from 1 to 6.


a. Every 28 days, an ovule is released by an ovary.
b. The zygote divides many times to form an embryo.
c. Fertilisation results in a zygote.
d. The embryo attaches to the wall of the uterus.
e. Fertilisation happens in the Fallopian tube.
f. The ovule travels down the Fallopian tube.

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Top Science 6 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL 2011 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S.L.

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11

Pregnancy and birth

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Pregnancy is the period between fertilisation and the birth of the baby.
Birth is the moment when the baby exits the mothers body through the vagina.

Look at the illustration. Read the definition and write the correct word.
placenta

uterus
umbilical
cord
amniotic
fluid

fetus

An elastic, hollow organ where a baby grows during pregnancy.

A type of tube that joins the embryo to the placenta.


It transports nutrients and oxygen.

A liquid that protects the embryo.

The name the embryo receives after about three months.

An organ formed in the uterus during pregnancy through which


the fetus receives nutrients and oxygen.

Match.
Dilation stage
Afterbirth
Expulsion stage

The opening to the uterus gradually gets wider.


The expulsion of the placenta takes place.
The baby exits the mothers body through the vagina.

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12

Health and illness

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being. When a person does not feel well
in one of these aspects, it can lead to illness.
Diseases can be classified as infectious or non-infectious according to their origin.

Define the words.


health 

illness 


"Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being." Explain what this sentence means
and give examples.




Complete the word map.


how quickly they appear,
and how long they last.

Types of diseases
are classified by

their origin.

how many people are affected.

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13

Health risks

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Alcohol, tobacco, drugs and traffic accidents are factors that present risks to our health.

Look at the illustration. Explain the possible effects of tobacco use.




stroke

wrinkles
and blotches
on the skin




respiratory
disease

lung cancer

premature
babies

mouth, pharynx
and larynx cancer
dental problems
oesophagus
cancer
heart
problems
gastritis
and ulcers

Name two ways to avoid traffic accidents. Describe some of their consequences.







What is alcoholism? Explain the effects of alcohol abuse on a persons health.







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14

Infectious diseases

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Infectious diseases can be caused by bacteria, fungi, protozoans or viruses.
Good levels of hygiene can prevent many infectious diseases.

What is an infectious disease? Describe four causes and explain ways to stop transmission.




Match the infectious agent to the disease it causes.


bacteria
fungi
virus
protozoans

athletes foot
malaria
measles
pneumonia

What is a contagious disease? Explain and give an example.






Should you drink water from a river or stream even if it looks clean? Think and answer.




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15

Treatment of illness and disease

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
Sometimes illness and disease can be treated with medicines such as vaccines and antibiotics.
Some cases require surgery or an organ transplant.

Name four ways to cure or prevent illness and disease.








Complete the sentences.


are medicines that protect people from developing an infectious disease.

are medicines that are very effective in fighting bacterial infections.

Some illnesses or bone fractures cannot be cured with medicines. They require
or an .

Explain why people do not get measles if they have been vaccinated.




Name three organs that can be transplanted.






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16

Electricity

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Objects can have positive and negative electrical charges. Objects with the same charge
repel. Objects with a different charge attract.
Electrical current is the organised movement of electrical charge through material.
Electrical energy can be transformed into other forms of energy such as light, heat and
movement.

Complete the sentences.


There are

electrical charges and

electrical charges.

If two objects have the same charge, they . If one object is negatively charged
and the other is positively charged, they .

is produced when electrical charges move through material.

Electrical energy can be transformed into ,


and .

Look at the diagrams. Explain what force each shows.




Order the illustrations. Write 1 and 2. Then, explain why the pen attracts
the pieces of paper.







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17

Magnets and magnetism

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
Magnets attract objects made of iron, steel and other metals.
Magnetism is the property that causes magnets to attract metallic objects.
All magnets have two magnetic poles: north pole and south pole. Poles of the same type
repel. Opposite poles attract.
Electromagnets behave like magnets when they are connected to electricity.

Read and write the correct word.


An object which can attract other objects made of metal.

The two zones of a magnet.

The property of magnets to attract metal objects.

A device that works like a magnet when it is connected to electricity.

Write attract or repel. Then explain why.

The magnets will

each other because

The magnets will

each other because

Look and write electromagnet or magnetic band.


A

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18

Electrical circuits

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
An electrical circuit is formed by a generator, cables, light bulbs or electric motors, a switch
and other elements. It is a closed path through which electrical current can flow.
A generator is the part of the electrical circuit that produces electrical current. There are various
types: disposable batteries, rechargeable batteries, photovoltaic cells, alternators and dynamos.

Answer the questions.


What happens in an electrical circuit? 

What are the main elements in an electrical circuit? 

What is the difference between a disposable battery and a rechargeable battery? 


Label the components


of this electrical circuit.

Look at these circuits. Tick the closed circuit.

Explain what a closed circuit is. Refer to the diagram you ticked.



26
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Top Science 6 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL 2011 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S.L.

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19

The properties of energy

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
Energy causes changes to occur around us. There are different types of energy: mechanical,
sound, light, thermal or heat, electrical, chemical and nuclear.
Properties of energy: Energy can be transferred, stored, transported and transformed.

Complete the word map.


ENERGY
Properties

Types

Read the sentences. Write the type of energy each one describes.
It is transported through the electrical current of a circuit.

It is stored in substances such as combustibles, food or inside batteries.

It is possessed by objects due to their movement.

It is found in substances such as uranium.

It is transmitted in the form of heat.

It is transported by sound.

It uses light.

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20

Heat and temperature

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
Heat is a form of energy which causes the temperature of objects to rise.
Heat causes objects to expand. Cold causes objects to contract.
When energy is transformed from one form to another, some energy is transformed into heat.

Order the sentences. Write 1, 2 or 3. Then copy them in the correct order.
a. ...and which raises the temperature of objects.
b. Heat is a form of energy which...
c. ...can be transmitted through certain materials...




Why is mercury used in thermometers? Tick the correct answer.


Because when mercury is cooled, its volume expands and it rises up into the tube.
Because when mercury is warmed, its volume expands and it rises up into the tube.
Explain the meaning of the words.
contraction 
expansion 

Will it be easier to remove a metal ring from your finger when


the weather is cold or when it is hot? Think and answer.






28
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21

Producing electricity

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Power plants produce electricity.
The different types of power plants are: hydroelectric, wind, thermal, nuclear, solar thermal
and solar photovoltaic.

Complete the sentences. Use the words.


turbines

electricity

The

generator

energy sources

we use is produced in power plants.

Most power plants produce electrical current with a .


are used to turn generators or dynamos.

Power plants use different .

Look at the flow charts. Write the type of power plant.

Power plant

Mechanical energy
from water

turns
a turbine

electrical
current

Chemical energy from


combustible fuel

turns
a turbine

electrical
current

Mechanical energy
from the wind

turns
a turbine

electrical
current

The Sun shines on

photovoltaic
cells

electrical
current

Match.
Televisions

Power plants

Power lines

produce electricity

transport electricity

use electricity

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22

Energy in our society

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Most of the energy we use today comes from fossil fuels.
Using fossil fuels causes problems like depletion of resources, global warming and acid rain.
Nuclear energy creates radioactive waste which is dangerous for living things.

Circle six energy sources. Then classify them as renewable or non-renewable.


H

D M B

C W

D W

G W W N

Y M

M W O


Renewable





Non-renewable




Which of these energy sources are fossil fuels?




Complete the table.


Problem

Description

Solution

Depletion of fossil fuels


Radioactive waste
Global warming
Acid rain

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189736 _ 0008-0056.indd 30

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23

Machines

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Machines save us time and energy; they enable us to do work with precision; they make
itpossible to do dangerous tasks; they can convert one type of energy into another.
There are mechanical machines, thermal machines, and machines for communication
andinformation management.

Look at the illustrations. Circle the machine that is not mechanical.

Describe the machine you circled. What type is it? Why isnt it mechanical?



Match.
thermal
information management
mechanical

a hammer

a cooker

a computer

Complete the word map.


Types of machines
Mechanical
They are used to

They are used to

They are used to

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24

Inside a machine

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
The basic parts of a machine are: the structure, the housing or cover, the motor, operating
parts and mechanisms, an electrical or electronic circuit, sensors and indicators or screens.

Read and write the name of each component.


It is the skeleton of the machine on which the other
components are built.

They transmit the movement of the motor to other parts


of the machine.

They give us information about how the machine is functioning.

They enable a machine to receive information from the outside.

It directs the energy to the motor and other parts.

It produces the movement of the machine.

It protects the machine.

Label the parts of this machine.

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25

Operating parts and mechanisms

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
Operating parts and mechanisms transmit movement or force from one part of a machine to
another.
Mechanisms are two or more operating parts that work together in a machine.
Gears are mechanisms that transmit movement. They fit together with teeth or cogs.

Circle seven types of operating parts. Then write the names.

U c

R W

E W R

W U

M L

O
l

T W R

C W H

O W N

G G

Look at the gears. Circle the correct word.


A

The wheels will turn in the same / opposite direction.

The wheels will turn in the same / opposite direction.

The small wheel will turn faster / slower than the big wheel.

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26

Technical advances and society

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
Technical advances have shaped society in areas such as work, transport, health,
communication and leisure.

Complete the sentences.


A

A is

. B is

We use them to 
B

The difference between A and B is 





C is

. D is

We use them to 
D

The difference between C and D is 





E is

. F is

We use them to 
The difference between E and F is 
F




34
189736 _ 0008-0056.indd 34

Top Science 6 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL 2011 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S.L.

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27

The Earth and maps

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
The Earth can be represented on a globe or a map. A world map represents the entire Earth.
The scale on a map shows the relationship between the distance on the map and the actual
distance on the Earth.
Geographic co-ordinates are a system of lines called parallels and meridians which enable us
to locate points on a map.

Measure and calculate the distances in kilometres.


A Corua

Cantabrian Sea

F R A N C E

Zaragoza

OCEAN

P O
R T
U G
A L

AT L A N T I C
Madrid

Valencia
Badajoz

Murcia
Seville

AT L A N T I C O C E A N

a n
n e
a
r
e r
Malaga
i t
d
e
M

a
S e

Scale
0

170

Kilometres

128033p33R27_Espana_distancias.

From A Coruna to Zaragoza.

From Seville to Valencia.

From Madrid to Badajoz.

From Murcia to Malaga.

Look at points A, B and C on the globe. Complete the table.

Write North, South, East or West.


Latitude

Longitude

Hemisphere

A
B

Top Science 6 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL 2011 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S.L.

189736U9p27h2 globo terraqueo


189736 _ 0008-0056.indd 35

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28

Relief map of the world

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
Relief maps show the oceans and continents on the Earth.
There are five oceans: the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Pacific
Ocean and the Antarctic Ocean.
There are seven continents: Europe, Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Oceania
andAntarctica.

Use the key and colour the map.


green

North America

light green South America

pink

Africa

brown Asia

yellow Europe

orange Oceania

lavender Antarctica

Scale
1,800

Kilometres

Write the names of the oceans in the correct place.


189736U9p28_mundi mudo

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29

Political map of the world

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
Political world maps show the size, location and borders of the countries on Earth.

Look at the map and use the key to colour the countries.
Red = A landlocked country in Europe that borders with Italy.

Green = The southernmost country in Africa.

Orange = A small island country in Oceania.

Purple = The biggest country in Asia.

Pink = The two largest countries in North America.

Yellow = A landlocked country in South America.

Dark blue = An island country in Europe.

Scale
2,100

Kilometres

Write the names of the countries you have coloured. Use arrows if necessary.
189736U9p29 mundi_politico_mudo
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30

European coasts

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Europe is a small continent in the northern hemisphere.
Europe borders on Asia to the east, and is surrounded by two oceans, the Atlantic to the west
and the Arctic to the north.
The coasts are very irregular, with many capes, gulfs and peninsulas.

Look at the map. Write the number next to the landform.


Peninsulas
Kola

Scandinavian

Jutland
14

Iberian
OC
EA
N

Italian

24

10

11

Bay of Biscay

Lion
Genoa

27

23
25

Black Sea

19

21

15

M e d i t e r r a n e 12

an

18

ea

S
ian
sp

Bothnia

17

Ca

Gulfs

North
Sea 20

ATLA
NTI
C

Balkan
Crimean

ARCTIC OCEAN

13

16

Scale

22

Kilometres

Sea

Islands

Capes
North

Iceland

Finisterre

Ireland 189736U10p30_Europa_con_numeros
Corsica
Malta

St. Vincent

Great Britain

Sicily

Matapan

Balearic Islands

Sardinia

38
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392

Canary Islands

Cyprus

Crete

Top Science 6 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL 2011 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S.L.

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31

European climates and vegetation

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
The three temperate climates are: oceanic, Mediterranean and continental.
The two cold climates are: polar and alpine or mountain.
The vegetation is different in each climate.

Write the name of the climate.


Temperatures are mild in summer. Precipitation is abundant and regular.

Temperatures are cool in summer and very low in winter. Precipitation


is abundant.

Temperatures are high in summer and mild in winter. In summer there


is very little rain.

Temperatures are high in summer and very low in winter. In summer


precipitation is higher.

It is extremely cold. Precipitation is scarce.

Look at the map. Write the letter that corresponds to the type of vegetation.
ARCTIC OCEAN

Steppes
E

North
Sea

Oceanic forest
Taiga

Black Sea

oa
Spei
ns
iCaa
aspr
CMa

ATLANTIC
OCEAN

Mediterranean
vegetation
Tundra

Mediterranean Sea

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189736U10p31_Europa_con_letras

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32

European rivers and lakes

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
There are five watersheds: the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, the Arctic, the Black Sea and the
Caspian Sea.
The largest European lakes are located in the north.

Complete the map with the names of the oceans and seas.

R.
ora
ch
Pe

rn Dvina
he

R. Nort

a
D n ie

ASIA

on

per

R. Dnies
te
r

R. R
hn

R.

l
ra

R. Po

R.

D a nu b e

R. Gu
R

ro

R. Tagus
ana
adi
adalquivir
.Gu

R.
D

la
stu

ne
ron

R.
Eb

er
Od

R. Duero

lbe

R.

st e r n D v i n

R.
Vi

ne
ei

R. Loire

E
R.

ine
Rh
R.

R.
S

R.

R. Volga

R. W
e

R.
U

lga
R. Vo

0
AFRICA

Scale
450

Kilometres

189736p40R32_vertiente_Europa
Name the rivers that flow into the Atlantic Ocean.


Name the rivers that flow into the Mediterranean Sea.


Which watershed has the largest lakes?




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33

The population of Europe

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Europe is highly populated.
The population is ageing because of a low birth rate and increasing life expectancy.
The active population and birth rate are growing because of immigration.

Correct the sentences and make them true.


In Europe the birth rate is very high: this means that few babies are born.

In Europe life expectancy is 74 years. Therefore, there are few elderly people.


Look at the map and do the activities.


POPULATION
DENSITY

ARC

TIC

OCEAN

ICELAND

Less than 10
inhabitants/km2
From 10 to 100
inhabitants/km2
From 101 to 500
inhabitants/km2
More than 500
inhabitants/km2

Norwegian
Sea
SWEDEN

NORWAY

EA

ESTONIA

North
IRELAND

LA
NT
IC

FINLAND

UNITED
KINGDOM

DENMARK

BELGIUM

BELARUS
POLAND

GERMANY

AT

Scale

Caspian
Sea

MOLDOVA

HUNGARY

ROMANIA
SLOVENIA
CROATIA
BOSNIA & SERBIA
HERZEGOVINA

ANDORRA

GEORGIA

Black Sea

AZERBAIJAN
ARMENIA

BULGARIA

SPAIN

ITALY

MONTENEGRO KOSOVO
MACEDONIA
ALBANIA

TURKEY

GREECE

530
Canary Islands

Kilometres

UKRAINE

CZECH
REPUBLIC SLOVAKIA

FRANCE SWITZERLAND AUSTRIA

PORTUGAL

KAZAKHSTAN

RUSSIA

NETHERLANDS

LUXEMBOURG

RUSSIA

LATVIA
Baltic
Sea LITHUANIA

Sea

Ceuta

Melilla

Mediterrane

an
Sea

Three countries with a population density of less than 10 inhabitants/km2.




189736U11p33_densidad Europa

Three countries with a population density from 10 to 100 inhabitants/km2.




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34

The European economy

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
The primary sector employs 4% of the active population of Europe. The main activities are
agriculture and livestock farming.
The secondary sector employs 30%. The main industries are basic industry, capital goods
industry and consumer goods industry.
The tertiary sector employs 66%. Activities include commerce, transport and tourism.

Look at the pie chart and answer.


Secondary
sector
30%
Tertiary
sector
66%

Primary sector
4%

What economic sector employs the fewest people in Europe?


189736U11p34_graf_tarta

What economic sector employs the most people?




Write the economic activities in the correct column.


agriculture
fishing

forestry
Primary

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capital goods industry

livestock farming

commerce

basic industry

Secondary

consumer goods industry

tourism

transport

Tertiary

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35

The European Union today

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
The European Union (EU) is formed by twenty-seven democratic European states.

Write the names


of the member
countries of the
European Union.

ARCTIC OCEAN

Countries of the European


Union

Iceland

Other European countries

Norwegian
Sea
Russia

Norway

Nor th
Sea

ASIA
Belarus

ATLANTIC
Ukraine

OCEAN

Moldova
Switzerland
Croatia
Bosnia & Serbia
Herzegovina
Montenegro Kosovo
Macedonia
Albania

Scale
0

340

Black Sea

Kilometres

Mediterran
AFRICA

ean

Sea

189736p43R35

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36

The institutions of
the European Union

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
The main European Union institutions are: the European Parliament, the Council of the
European Union, the European Commission, the Court of Justice and the Court of Auditors.

Complete the word map.


Members: 
EUROPEAN
PARLIAMENT

Headquarters: 
Functions: 


Members: 
COUNCIL OF THE
EUROPEAN UNION

Headquarters: 
Functions: 


Members: 
EUROPEAN
COMMISSION

Headquarters: 
Functions: 


Members: 
COURT
OF JUSTICE

COURT
OF AUDITORS

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Functions: 


Functions: 


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37

The achievements
of the European Union

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
The European Union has adopted measures that bring European citizens together.
The single market is one of the greatest achievements of the European Union.
The EU started with six member states. By 2011, there were twenty-seven.
Twelve member states have used the euro since 2002.

Tick the true sentences. Correct the sentences that are false.
a. Merchandise can circulate freely within the EU, but not citizens.
b. No more countries can join the EU.
c. All EU states must agree for a new state to join.



Give two examples of measures that promote European citizenship.





Circle the names of the twelve countries that have adopted the euro. Write them on the lines.

M R

N G G

M T

A M

O N G N

D N N O

U M L

N D

Q G

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38

Prehistory

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
In the Palaeolithic Age, people were nomads.
In the Neolithic Age, people became sedentary. They built villages and became farmers.
In the Metal Ages, people learned to make objects from metal. Villages grew into cities.

Match. Then write the complete sentences.


In the Palaeolithic Age,
In the Neolithic Age,
In the Metal Ages,

people hunted, fished and gathered fruits and vegetables.

people made objects from copper, bronze and iron.

people looked after their crops and livestock.




Complete the crossword.

Down
1. The first artists appeared in this Age.
3. The invention that ended Prehistory.
5. A material used to make containers
for cooking and storing food
in the Neolithic Ages.

2. People used looms to make textiles


in this age.
4. The first metal used to make metal
objects.
6. A megalithic monument made with
long stones.
7. A person who has no permanent
home and moves from place to place.

189736 _ 0008-0056.indd 46

Across

46

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39

The Age of Antiquity

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
In the Age of Antiquity:
The Celts and Iberians inhabited the Iberian Peninsula.
The Phoenicians, Greeks and Carthaginians arrived from the Mediterranean and founded colonies.
The Romans began their conquest of the Iberian Peninsula.

Who am I? Write Celt, Iberian, Phoenician, Greek or Carthaginian.

I live in a tribe on the Atlantic


coast. I dont trade much.

I arrived from North Africa looking


for new territories to conquer.
I live on the Catalan coast. I sell ceramics
and buy esparto to make things.

I live in Andalusia, and I trade a lot.

I live on the Mediterranean coast.


Iarrived here before the Greeks.

Complete. Use the words.


free men

218

Christianity

Latin

19

slaves

provinces

law

Euskera

The Roman conquest of the peninsula began in the year

B.C. and ended in the

year B.C. The Romans divided Hispania into .


Roman was enforced throughout the peninsula. The official language
was . The only pre-Roman language that has survived to the present
is . In 380 A.D., the official religion became . Roman society
was divided into two classes:

and .

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40

The Middle Ages


on the Iberian Peninsula

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
In 711, the Moors conquered the Visigoth kingdom and created Al-Andalus.
The Christians opposed the Moorish conquest. They created Christian kingdoms in the north.

Write True or False. Then, correct the false sentences.


The capital of the Visigoth kingdom was Cordoba.

The Moors defeated the Romans in 711.

At first, Al-Andalus was a caliphate.




Tick the correct answer. Then, write the complete sentence.


The first Christian kingdoms were created...
in the north of Spain.

in the south of Spain.


In 1031, Al-Andalus was divided into...
Taifa Kingdoms.

provinces.


In 1212, the armies of the Christian kings defeated the Moorish armies at the Battle of...
Navas de Tolosa.

Granada.



The last territory of Al-Andalus was...
the Nasrid kingdom of Granada.

the Nasrid kingdom of Cordoba.

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41

The discovery of America

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
In 1492, the Catholic Monarchs financed Columbus expedition, which led to the discovery
ofthe Americas.
The Incas, the Aztecs and the Mayans lived in North and South America before the arrival
ofColumbus.

Write the name or date.


A sailor from Genoa who discovered the American continent.

The Monarchs who financed this expedition.

The year America was discovered.

The destination Columbus was trying to reach.

The Italian navigator who proved America was a new continent.

What territories did Hernn Corts and Francisco Pizarro conquer?




Complete the sentences. The photos may help you.

The Mayans were excellent

and

Pre-Columbian peoples were farmers, but they also made .


and

from pre-Columbian mines were sent to Spain.

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42

The Spanish Empire

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
In the 16th century, Carlos I and Felipe II ruled the largest empire that had ever existed.
Itcomprised territories in Europe, America, Africa and Asia.

Read the text and look at the map.


The Spanish Empire had many
territories: Spain, the Netherlands,
part of Italy, territories in central
Europe, colonies in the Americas
and many possessions in
Africa and Asia. In 1580, the
kingdom of Portugal was added.
Explain why this map
is not correct.

ATLANTIC
PACIFIC

OCEAN

INDIAN
OCEAN

OCEAN

Spanish Empire




Write the events on the timeline.

189736U14P42_IMPERIO_HISPANICO

1556

Felipe II became king.

1588

The Spanish Armada was defeated.

1516

Carlos I became king.

1571

The Battle of Lepanto.

1580

The Kingdom of Portugal


became a part of the
Spanish Empire.

1520

The revolt of the Communities.

1566

The Netherlands rose up against Spanish rule.

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43

The fragmentation
of the Spanish Empire

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
In the 17th century, the Spanish Empire became weak and began to break up.
In the 18th century, the Bourbons came to power and established an absolute monarchy.

Complete the crossword.


Down

Across

1. A battle in 1707 that was decisive in the


triumph of Felipe V.
3. Friends and ministers that governed in the
kings name.
4. A war between Castile and Aragon that was
an international war and a civil war.
5. Territory that gained independence from Spain
in 1648.
6. The first Bourbon king.

2. Factories created by the Spanish kings in the


18th century.
7. The city where a riot broke out in 1808.
It forced Carlos IV to abdicate.
8. A Spanish king who died without a successor
in 1700.
9. A type of monarchy in which the king controls
all the powers of state.

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44

Society and culture


in the Modern Age

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
Society in the Modern Age was divided into two groups. The privileged were the nobility and
the clergy. The unprivileged were the farmers and the middle class.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, literature, art and architecture developed rapidly.
In the 18th century, there were scientific advances.

Complete the illustration. Use the words.


clerics

nobility

farmers

middle class

Privileged
Unprivileged

Describe the differences between the privileged and the underprivileged classes.



Match.
Saint Teresa de Jesus
16th century

Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos

Spiritual works
Francisco de Quevedo

Lope de Vega

Spains problems
Garcilaso de la Vega
17th century

Miguel de Cervantes

Write the style of architecture.


This style imitated Roman architecture.

This style had curved lines and rich ornamentation.

This style was austere with little decoration.

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45

The 19th century

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
Fernando VII established an absolute monarchy. During the reign of Isabel II, the
constitutional monarchy was consolidated. At the end of the century, different forms of
government were attempted.

Circle two errores in each sentence. Then write the sentences correctly.
In 1807, France and Spain signed a treaty that allowed Spanish troops to cross into France
tooccupy Portugal.
Jose Bonaparte, Emperor of France, replaced King Fernando VII whith his brother Napoleon.
The population of Madrid did not accept the French king, and on 2nd May 1888, they rebelled
against the French. This was the beginning of the War of Succession.










Circle the correct word.


During the war of Independence...
the Liberals / Conservatives wanted to write a constitution and limit the power of the king.
the Nationalists / Francophiles wanted Fernando VII to return to the Spanish throne.
the Nationalists / Francophiles wanted a French king.
During the reign of Isabel II...
the Liberals / Conservatives wanted to increase the queens power and give less importance to the
Constitution.
the Liberals / Conservatives wanted to limit the queens power and give more importance to the
Constitution.

Write the year each event took place.


Constitution of Cadiz

Independence of Argentina

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War of Independence

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46

Life in the 19th century

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
In the 19th century, society was organised into social classes: the upper class, the middle
class and the lower class.
The Industrial Revolution brought many economic changes.
Modernist architecture and Impressionist painting flourished in this century.

Look at the diagram. Match each word with a social class. Draw a line.
factory owners

Upper class

lawyers

peasants
Middle class

bankers

engineers
nobles

factory workers
Lower class

doctors

servants

beggars
rich merchants

Write three sentences. Use the words.


A

revolution changes industrial 19th century


B

revolutionised railways transport

metal industries developed 19th century textile





This house was built in Barcelona by Antonio Gaudi.


Explain why it is a Modernist structure.




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47

From Primo de Rivera to Franco

Name

Reinforcement

Date

Remember
In 1923, Primo de Rivera led a coup and established a dictatorship.
In 1931, the Second Republic was proclaimed.
In 1936, the Spanish Civil War began. When the war ended, in 1939, General Franco
established a dictatorship.

Order de events. Write a number from 1 to 5.


The dictatorship of
Primo de Rivera began.

The dictatorship of
General Franco began.

The Second Republic


was proclaimed.

The Spanish Civil


War began.

The dictatorship of
General Franco ended.

Write Second Republic or Dictatorship of General Franco.


Women got the right to vote: 
Political parties were illegal: 
There was no constitution: 
Land was divided up among the peasants: 
The first Statutes of Autonomy were declared: 
Spain became internationally isolated: 

Circle the errors in each sentence. Then write the sentences correctly.
During the Civil War, the Nationalists supported the Republic.
The war ended in 1936 after General Francos coup.
Before the war, there was a dictatorship under Primo de Rivera.




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48

Transition and democracy

Reinforcement

Name

Date

Remember
The transition was the period in which policy changes moved Spain from the dictatorship
ofGeneral Franco towards democracy. This process began in 1975 and ended in 1982.
Since 1982, Spain has been governed by the Spanish Socialist Labour Party (PSOE)
and the Popular Party (PP).

Match.
Adolfo Suarez
Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo

He was president between 1996 and 2004.

Felipe Gonzalez

He was president between 1976 and 1981.

Jose Maria Aznar

He was president between 1982 and 1996.

Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero

He became president in 2004.

He was president between 1981 and 1982.

Find the date of each event in the puzzle. Then write it to complete the sentence.

1
9
7
8
2

9
1
2
9
0

1
9
9
5
0

9
7
1
2
2

8
5
8
0
7

6
1
9
7
7

Juan Carlos I was crowned King of Spain:

The first democratic elections were held since the Second Republic:

The new Constitution was approved:

Spain joined the European Community:

The Statutes of Autonomy initiated in 1978 were approved:

Spain adopted the euro:

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Extension worksheets
1 Prepare a balanced diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2 The Rh factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
3 Different ways of seeing the world . . . . . . . . . 62
4 Ultrasound imaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
5 Types of diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
6 Sparks of invention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
7 Alternative energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
8 Watches are machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
9 Map projections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
10 The most European river . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
11 Life expectancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
12 Europa, the Phoenician princess . . . . . . . . . . 80
13 Roman gods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
14 The Mayan civilisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
15 The Enlightenment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
ANSWER KEYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

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Prepare a balanced diet

EXTENSION

Name

Date

A healthy diet should be complete and balanced. This means we should eat
all types of food in appropriate quantities.
RECOMMENDED FOOD AND SERVINGS
Food
Dairy

Girls

Boys

13 to 15
years

13 to 15
years

Number
of servings

4 times a day

Meat, chicken

125 g

150 g

3 times a week

Fish

175 g

200 g

4 times a week

Eggs

one

one

Potatoes

200 g

250 g

Legumes

70 g

80 g

3 times a week

Vegetables

100 g

120 g

2-4 times a day

Fruits

300 g

300 g

3-4 times a day

Bread

400 g

400 g

once a day

Rice

70 g

80 g

2 times a week

Pasta

70 g

80 g

2 times a week

Sweets, pastries, soft drinks

60 g

60 g

once a day

3-4 times a week


once a day

Source: Healthy nutrition and prevention of eating disorders by Consuelo Lopez Nomdedeu.

Serving size equivalents:


L = one glass
125 g of bread = one portion
300 g of fruit = one large piece (orange, apple, peach)
150 g of meat = one medium-sized portion
100 g of vegetables, rice, pasta = one medium-sized serving

Study the information above, and answer the questions.


What is this information for?

What type of food should you eat more of every day?


How many servings of milk and vegetables should you eat every day?


Why do you think you should not eat sweets more than once a day?

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1
2

Complete the table. Make a list of all the food that you ate yesterday.
Give approximate amounts. Then answer the question below.
Breakfast

Lunch

Snack

Dinner

 Do you eat more fish or less fish than is recommended? And sweets?



3

Read the advice, and prepare your own balanced diet for one day.
Breakfast is the most important meal of the day because you do more
physical activity in the morning.
Lunch and dinner should complement each other. If you have meat for lunch,
you should have fish for dinner.
If you eat fried food, dont forget to include the oil.
Breakfast

Lunch

Snack

Dinner

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The Rh factor

Name

EXTENSION

Date
All human blood contains the same components: plasma, red
blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. However, there are
different blood types. The four main blood types or blood groups
are: A,B, AB and O. Your blood type depends on the type of
protein on the surface of your red blood cells.
Most people can only receive or donate blood to people who have
the same blood type. People with type O, however, are called
universal donors. Their blood can be given to almost anybody
without danger of rejection. Similarly, people with type AB blood
are called universal recipients.
They can receive blood
of any type.

Some red blood cells have


a protein on the surface called the Rh factor. A person whose blood
has this protein is Rh positive: Rh+. A person whose blood does
not have this factor is Rh negative: Rh. If you are Rh-, you can
only receive Rh negative blood.
We inherit blood type from our parents in the same way that we
inherit eye or hair colour. Blood type can also vary depending on
the place of origin of a specific population. For example, almost
all indigenous people in Peru have type O blood. In central Asia,
type B is the most common.

Read the text and answer the questions.


What are the main components of blood?

What are the main blood types?

What is a universal donor?


What is a universal recipient?



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2
2

Answer the questions.


What is your blood type? 
What is your Rh factor? 
What blood types can you receive in a transfusion?

What blood groups can you give blood to?


Analyse the words. Match them to their definitions.


haematologist

haemopathy

haematoma

Any disease of the blood.

A doctor who specialises in the study of blood.

An escape of blood from blood vessels.

A swelling which contains blood

A protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen.

haemorrhage

haemoglobin

What do you think the prefixes haemo- and haema- mean?




Research about blood banks. Answer the questions.


What is a blood bank?


Why is it important to donate blood?





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Different ways of seeing the world

Name

EXTENSION

Date

Almost all animals have organs that enable them to capture light and perceive images
of the world around them. However, there are interesting and important differences between
these organs. All of them have two types of photoreceptor cells in the retina:
Cones enable animals to see in colours and with high-quality images, but they need light
to function.
Rods enable animals to see in low light, but images are low-quality.
Daylight vision animals, like human beings, have many more cones than rods. As a result, they see
worse in the dark than other animals, but image quality is good. Nocturnal animals, on the other hand,
have more rods than cones and also larger eyes. As a result they see better at night.
Pupil shape also varies widely. For example, human beings have round
pupils, while cats have vertical slits. Goats have horizontal slits so their
eyelids do not obstruct their vision. The most unusual pupil shape in the
animal kingdom are the W-shaped pupils of the cuttlefish.
Birds of prey have the sharpest vision of all animals.
Thepart of their brain responsible for interpreting visual
stimuli is very large. They have big pupils with many
rods and cones in the central part of the retina. As
a result, they can see very clearly at great distances.
Insects and many other invertebrates have compound
eyes that consist of many small eyes or facets called
ommatidia. Each ommatidium is a complete and
independent eye made up of a group of cells. Together, the ommatidia
receive a single image made up of separate bits of information. All these
bits are received by the nervous system, which then produces a single image.

Define the words.


cone 


rod 


ommatidia 



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3
2

Think and explain.


Owls are nocturnal creatures. Do they have more cones or rods in their retina? Why?



Eagles are one of the animals with the best vision in the animal kingdom.
What do they use their sharp vision for? What are their eyes like?




Match each type of eye to a living thing.


A

Use the key to decipher the secret message.

A5

H
N

I5

E5

T
T

C
R

P
T

O5

R
N

U5

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Ultrasound imaging

Name

EXTENSION

Date

Blood tests, x-rays and ultrasound scans are


diagnostic medical procedures. They require
the use of sophisticated equipment.
Ultrasound machine scans emit high-frequency
sound waves to produce visual images of
organs and structures inside the body. A type
of microphone, called a transducer, is applied
to the skin and emits ultrasound waves. These
sound waves reflect off the internal organs and
produce an echo. The transducer picks up
theecho, and transforms it into an image
onascreen.
Bones reflect almost all the ultrasound waves and produce a bright white image in an ultrasound
scan. Other internal organs, like the heart and kidneys, produce a weak echo, so they produce
darker and less defined images.
Ultrasound imaging allows the doctor to monitor the health and development of a fetus
during pregnancy. It can provide early diagnosis of some malformations. Ultrasound scans do not
harm the fetus or the mother.

Read the text and answer the questions.


What is an ultrasound scan? What is it used for?




Describe how ultrasound imaging works.




What other medical diagnostic procedures are mentioned in the text?



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4
2

Look at the ultrasound images. Answer the questions.


What parts of the fetus can you recognise in image 1?







Describe the changes that have occurred in image 2.







What is the fetus doing in image 3?








Examine the images again. Which one shows the fetus at a later stage of development? Why?






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Types of diseases

EXTENSION

Name

Date

Do you know what disease is? Experts define disease


as the absence of health. Diseases can be classified
into four groups according to their origin.
Deficiency diseases are caused by the lack of an
essential nutrient in the diet. For example, scurvy
is caused by the lack of vitamin C.
Functional diseases are caused by the malfunction
ofan organ. For example, diabetes occurs when
the pancreas does not function properly.
Degenerative diseases are caused by ageing or
the deterioration of an organ. Alzheimers is
a degenerative disease that affects
the nervous system.
Infectious diseases are caused by an infectious
agent. Forexample, flu is caused by a virus.
Infectious diseases can affect a small group
ofpeople or large groups. In the latter case,
we speak of epidemics or pandemics.
An epidemic occurs when a disease affects many people in an area, such as a city,
country orregion.
A pandemic occurs when a disease affects a very large geographical area, such as
various countries, a continent or various continents.

Read and complete the table.


Classification of diseases by origin
Type of disease

Caused by

Example

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5
2

Read the text. Answer the questions.

The AH1N1 swine flu originated in Mexico in April 2009, and quickly spread beyond
Mexican borders. Cases of people infected by this virus were found on all continents.
In the Americas: Mexico, USA, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Cuba, Panama,
Guatemala, Ecuador, Colombia, Argentina, Brazil, Peru and Chile.
In Europe: Spain, UK, Germany, France, Austria, Netherlands, Switzerland, Denmark,
Italy, Ireland, Portugal, Sweden, Poland, Belgium, Norway and Finland.
In Asia: Israel, China, South Korea, Japan, Thailand, Malaysia and India.
In Oceania: New Zealand and Australia.

Refer to the text and the chart in Activities 1 and 2. How would you classify the AH1N1 flu? Why?


Was this disease an epidemic or a pandemic? Why?




Analyse your health during the past year, and answer.


Have you had any illnesses or diseases? Which ones?

How did you get better? What was the treatment?



What will you do to avoid getting ill in the future?





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Sparks of invention

EXTENSION

Name

Date

Since the first electric phenomena were described


over two centuries ago, advances in the field of
electricity have been slow, but constant.
In the 18th century, Benjamin Franklin
(1706-1790) flew a kite to capture electricity
from thunderclouds.
Alessandro Volta (1745-1827) developed an
instrument capable of producing electric charges.
It was called the electrophorus. Around 1800,
he invented the first electric battery. Fig. C.
In 1820, Hans Christian Oersted (1777-1851)
confirmed there was a very close relationship
between electricity and magnetism. He invented
the electromagnet. Fig. D.

C
D

In the early 19th century, Michael Faraday


(1791-1867) made important discoveries that led
to the development of electric generators and
motors. Fig. B.

In 1870, Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931)


invented the incandescent light bulb and many
other useful devices. Fig. A.
Another important invention was the electric telegraph. It was perfected by Samuel Morse
(1791-1872) in 1837. Fig. F.
In 1880, Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894) proved the existence of electromagnetic waves that could
be detected from a distance. He built a device that could generate radio waves. Fig. E.
In the 1960s, techniques were developed for building integrated circuits. The electronic age had begun.

Read the text. Then order from old to modern. Write a number.
Michael Faraday
Thomas Alva Edison
Benjamin Franklin
Hans Christian Oersted
Samuel Morse
Heinrich Hertz
Alessandro Volta

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2

Match the inventor to the invention.


his discoveries led to the development
of the electric generator and motor

Alessandro Volta
Thomas Alva Edison

a device to generate radio waves

Samuel Morse

the incandescent light bulb

Michael Faraday

the electric battery

Heinrich Hertz

the electromagnet

Hans Christian Oersted

the telegraph

Research Benjamin Franklins inventions. Find four of them in the wordsearch.


Use these clues:
A type of eyeglasses
A metal pole on the roof of a building for protection during thunderstorms. (two words)
A device that records the kilometres travelled by a car, bicycle, etc.
A type of heater

According to the text, Benjamin Franklin flew a kite to capture electricity from thunderclouds.
What invention does this refer to? Where do we install it?



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Alternative energy

Name

EXTENSION

Date

Alternative energy does not pollute the environment.


Its sources are renewable and cannot be depleted.
Solar, wind and ocean energy are alternative energies.
Solar energy is the most common alternative energy.
Itcan be harnessed directly through thermal or
photovoltaic proceses.
In thermal processes, solar energy is used to heat
aliquid, usually water, which is stored and then
distributed. The main component is a collector.
Energy obtained this way is mainly for domestic use
such as heating and hot water. In some cases,
athigh temperatures, it is also possible to generate
electricity.
In photovoltaic proceses, solar energy is
transformed directly into electricity by special
devices made of silicon called photovoltaic panels.
This electricity can be used directly for domestic
consumption or transferred to the electrical grid.
Due to the many hours of sunshine Spain receives every year, it has great potential
for harnessing solar energy.

Read the text. Answer the questions.


What are alternative energies?


What is renewable energy?



Why is Spain a good place to harness solar energy?




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2

Think about solar energy and give your opinion.


Research about the thermal and photovoltaic processes. Which is easier to use directly in the
home? Why?





Look at the diagram of a solar thermal system. Draw arrows to show the path of the water.
Explain how this system
works. Use the words.

Sunlight

collector
Collector

pipes

heat
tank











Tank

What factors should you consider when installing a solar collector or a photovoltaic panel?
Think and explain.





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Watches are machines

Name

EXTENSION

Date

Nowadays almost everyone has a watch with a battery. About 95%


of those batteries use quartz as the energy source.
In the past, all watches were mechanical. Mechanical watches do not
have batteries. The source of energy in those watches is the
mainspring. The spring can be wound mechanically or automatically
into a tight coil. The energy from the spring is transformed into
movement, and transferred to a series of small gears or gear train.
The balance wheel oscillates, and enables the gear train to move the
hands of the watch.
Gears have been used for centuries. Thousands of years ago, the
Greeks used astronomical instruments that worked with gears. In
ancient China, people used mechanical clocks based on the principle
of the sand clock or hourglass.

Read the text, and answer the questions.


How does a mechanical watch work? What energy source does it use?








Why do you not need to wind quartz watches?







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2

Find out what a clepsydra is and what it is used for. Look at the picture and explain how it works.









This is the inside of a mechanical watch. Look at the gears. Draw arrows to show the direction in which
each gear wheel turns.

Read the definitions and complete the word ladder. Begin at the bottom.
Remove the t. The first letter in the alphabet.

Remove the c. This preposition indicates


location or position.
Remove the h. A small domestic animal.
Remove the w. We talk to friends on the Internet.
You wear it on your wrist to tell the time.

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Map projections

EXTENSION

Name

Date

A map projection is a way to represent the spherical surface of the Earth on a flat map. A projection is
a grid of lines of latitude and longitude on which a map is drawn. There is always some distortion in a
projection, so there are different types of projections to represent a particular area accurately.
Cylindrical. This type projects information from the spherical Earth onto a cylinder. When the
cylinder is placed flat, the areas near the equator are slightly distorted, but the areas near the
poles appear larger than they really are. Parallels appear as horizontal lines and meridians as
vertical lines. Cylindrical projections are used for world maps. They were invented by Mercator.
Conic. This type projects information from the spherical Earth onto a cone. When the cone
is placed flat, the meridians meet at one point and the parallels are semicircles. Conic projections
are used to accurately represent areas near the tropics.
Planar. This type is used to accurately represent the polar regions. The parallels are concentric
circles, and the meridians are straight lines joined at the pole.
Interrupted. This type represents the continents accurately with no distortion by leaving blank
spaces in areas such as the oceans.
Mollweide. This type shows the entire surface of the Earth. Meridians appear as curved lines
that meet at the poles, and parallels as straight lines. The central areas are represented with
reasonable accuracy, although the Earths surface appears distorted towards the edges.

Read the text. Write the name under each projection.


A

189736_ext_9_proyec_cilindrica
189736_ext_9_proyec_cilindrica

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9
2

Read and write. What type of projection would you use in each case?
To represent Antarctic

To represent the tropical zone

To make a world map

Circle these words in the wordsearch.


Then write a definition for each one.

equator

latitude

tropics

world map

longitude
meridian
parallel
















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10

The most European river

Name

EXTENSION

Date

The Danube can only be described in superlatives. It is 2,850 kilometres


long and carries two hundred billion cubic metres of water per year
into the Black Sea.
It is the second longest river in Europe after the Volga. It passes through ten
countries: Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Romania,
Bulgaria, Moldova and the Ukraine on its journey to the sea.
Some scholars believe that the source of the Danube is in the springs at
Donaueschingen, a town at the confluence of the Rivers Breg and Brigach.
The springs are near Frstenberg castle, famous for the manuscripts
of the Song of the Nibelungs and Parsifal kept in its library. However,
other scholars believe the sources of the Danube are in the German town of
Furtwangen. The controversy reflects each towns wish to to be the source
of the most European river.
Claudio Magris
(Adaptation)

Why do you think the Danube is considered the most European river? Explain.




Unscramble the letters and write the names of the capitals the Danube passes through.
Germany

LEBIRN

Austria

NAINEV

Slovakia

ARAAISTBLV

Hungary

PESTBUDA

Croatia

GREZAB

Serbia

GRABELDE

Romania

TSUCHAEBR

Bulgaria

FOISA

Moldova

CISUINAH

Ukraine

VEIK

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3

Use your maths skills. Read and discover the number of inhabitants in each country.
82,000,000 47,000,000 22,000,000 11,000,000 10,000,000
8,400,000
7,300,000
5,300,000
4,500,000
4,400,000

Germany is the country with the largest population.

Austria has 4,000,000 more inhabitants than Croatia.

Croatia is the country with the smallest population.

Romania has a little more than 25% of the inhabitants of Germany.

Serbia has half the population of Romania.

Moldova has 100,000 inhabitants more than Croatia.

Hungary has the fifth largest population.

Slovakia has two million inhabitants less than Bulgaria, and is one
of the least populated countries.

Ukraine has more than four times the inhabitants of Slovakia.

Complete the map. Write the names of the countries the River Danube passes through.
ARCTIC

OCEAN

Norwegian
Sea

Nor th
Sea

ASIA

ATLANTIC
OCEAN

Black Sea
Scale
0

340

Kilometres

Mediterra

nean

Sea

AFRICA

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11

Life expectancy

EXTENSION

Name

Date

Life expectancy is the average number of years a person is expected to live.


This estimate reflects the quality of life of the people in a given country. In most developed
countries, people usually live longer because food and general living conditions, and
efficient health care systems make this possible. In less developed countries, however,
life expectancy is not so long.
Population studies by age and sex enable countries to plan for education, health care,
housing, employment, etc.
Canad

Sweden
80 years

Canad

Russia
77 years

United Kingdom
78 years

Canada
80 years

Poland
74 years
Romania
72 years

France
79 years
Spain
79 years

United States
77 years

Mexico

Cuba
77 years

Afghanistan
42 years

Bulgaria
72 years

China
72 years

Morocco
70 years
India
64 years

Senegal
58 years
Ecuador
76 years

Japan
Egypt
71 years

Sierra Leone
39 years
Cameroon
50 years
Equatorial Guinea
49 years

Australia

Angola
38 years

Argentina
76 years

Swaziland
South Africa
52 years
New Zealand
78 years

Read the text. Then complete the sentences.


Life expectancy indicates

the average person lives.

People usually live longer in

countries.

Life expectancy depends on

Scale
1,660

Kilmetros

and

systems.

189736_ext_11_planisferio

Study the map. Then, give examples. Write the names of the countries.
Life expectancy of 80 years.

Life expectancy between 70 and 80 years.

Life expectancy of less than 50 years.

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3

This table shows life expectancy by sex in four countries. Calculate the average life expectancy
in each country and complete the table. Then write the results on the map.
To calculate the life expectancy of a country, take the average of both women and men.
Life expectancy at birth

Women

Men

Japan

83

77

Australia

81

71

Mexico

76

68

Swaziland

31

29

Average

Look at the map, and study the table. Then, answer.


Look at the countries with the highest life expectancy. What continents are they on?


What country has the lowest life expectancy? What continent is it on?


Write T (true) or F (false).


The richer the country, the higher the life expectancy.
The poorer the country, the lower the life expectancy.
The poorer the country, the higher the life expectancy.

Why do you think countries with low life expectancy are poor countries?







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12

Europa, the Phoenician princess

Name

EXTENSION

Date

In Greek mythology, Europe or Europa was a beautiful


Phoenician princess. Zeus, the father of the Greek gods,
fell hopelessly in love with her.
One day, Zeus saw Europa and her sisters playing on the
beach. Fearing rejection, he transformed himself into a
beautiful white bull. When Europa saw the bull, she put
flowers around its neck. Seeing that the bull was tame,
she climbed on its back.
Suddenly, the bull began to run and carried her away to
the coast. Still riding on the bulls back, the princess
crossed the sea to the island of Crete. There, Zeus
revealed his true identity. He declared his eternal love for
Europa under a cypress tree. According to legend, this is
why cypress trees are always green.
Zeus made Europa the Queen of Crete. Much later, the
name of the beautiful young Phoenician princess became
the name of a continent.

Read the story and write a summary.








Cypress trees are called evergreens. What does this mean?








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12
3

Circle the names of eight European countries in the wordsearch. Copy them on the lines.
H




Unscramble the letters on the gray background to discover the first capital of the United States.

Read and identify the countries in the wordsearch. Use the Internet.
The second largest country in the EU. It joined in 1986.

One of the founders of the EU. The capital and the


country have the same name.

Athens is the capital of this peninsular country. It joined


the EU in 1981.

The smallest country in the EU. It joined in 2004.

It is on the Jutland peninsula. It joined the EU in 1973,


but has not adopted the euro.

It borders Greece and the Black Sea. It is one of the newest


members of the EU.

The EU country furthest to the north. It joined the EU in 1995.

Its capital is Warsaw. It joined the EU in 2004.

Research about Robert Schuman. Find out why he is important. Write.







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13

Roman gods

Name

EXTENSION

Date

The Romans were polytheistic, which means they


worshipped more than one god. Each god protected a
different human activity. Three important gods were Jupiter,
Juno and Minerva.
Jupiter was the supreme ruler of all the gods. Originally he
was the god of the sky and the king of the heavens. Jupiter
was also the god of rain, thunder and lightning. He was the
protector of Rome and defender of truth, justice and virtue.
Juno was Jupiters wife and, therefore, queen of the gods.
She was the protector of women. She presided over
marriages, helped women in childbirth, and was the special
adviser and protector of the Roman state.
Minerva was Jupiters daughter. She was cruel and warlike.
People worshipped her as the goddess of warriors, the
defender of the home and the state, and the embodiment of wisdom, purity and reason. She was also
the patroness of arts and crafts.

Read the text. Tick the true sentences.


Minerva was the defender of the home.
Jupiter was the husband of Juno.
Jupiter was the ruler of the gods.
Jupiter was the god of commerce.
Juno was the goddess of war.
Minerva was the protector of women.

Write the meaning of the words. Then use each in a sentence.


supreme ruler: 

warlike: 

polytheistic: 


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13
1

In Roman mythology, each god represented a specific activity. Match the descriptions and the pictures.
A

Neptune: god of all


waters and seas

Vulcan: god of
fire and metals

Mars: god
of war

Jupiter: supreme ruler of the gods. His symbols


are the sceptre, the eagle and lightning.

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Mercury: god of commerce


and messenger of the gods

Diana: goddess
of the hunt

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14

The Mayan civilisation

EXTENSION

Name

Date

The Mayan civilisation appeared about two


thousand years ago in the Yucatan peninsula
and the lowlands of present-day Mexico,
Guatemala and Honduras.
The Mayans lived in city-states governed
by asupreme chief who lived in Mayapan.
Their society was organised into four groups:
nobles, priests, peasants and slaves.
Most of the people worked in the fields.
They grew corn, cacao, beans, tomatoes,
pumpkins, spices and other plants.
The Mayans had an amazing knowledge
ofastronomy and mathematics. For example,
they knew about the concept of zero, and used
two calendars: lunar and solar. They were
also great architects and sculptors.
Their pyramid temples, altars and stelae
(sculpted monuments) are especially famous.
The Mayans believed in many gods, but
themost important was the god of rain, as crop fertility depended on it.
Their favourite game was played with a ball. The object of the game was to pass the ball
through a stone hoop. There were two teams and the players were not allowed to touch
the ball with their hands.

Read the text and answer the questions.


Mayan society
Where did the Mayans live?
Where did the rulers live?
How was their society organised?
What kind of work did most people do?
What did they build?
Who was their most important god?
What was their favourite sport?

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14
2

The Mayans inhabited the area of present-day Mexico, Guatemala and some parts of Belize,
El Salvador and Honduras. Find these countries on the map and colour them.

Scale
0

3,500

Kilometres

Scale
0

370

Kilometres

189736 ext 14 America Central pequeo


Read the text. Answer the questions.
189736 ext14 America Central grande
The Temple of Inscriptions

More than two thousand years ago, the Mayans built a stone
pyramid at Palenque in southeast Mexico. The pyramid is 23
metres high and has nine steps leading to a temple at the top.
The pyramid was built as a funeral monument to Pakal the Great,
a Mayan king. He was responsible for making Palenque a major
power.The outside of the pyramid is decorated with inscriptions
about the history of the kings of Palenque. King Pakal the Great
was buried inside one of the chambers. The entrance to the
chamber is blocked by a stone that weighs five tons.

What shape is the Temple of Inscriptions?



What was its function?

What do you think the steps were used for?

What was inside the pyramid?


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15

The Enlightenment

Name

EXTENSION

Date

The Enlightenment was a philosophical, political, and literary movement


of the 18th century in Europe and America. It was characterised by the
belief that human reason could lead to the progress of humanity.
Enlightened thinkers were the fathers of the first constitutions and
democracies. One of the most prominent figures of the Enlightenment
was Voltaire, a French writer and philosopher.
Voltaire defended two principles: freedom of thought and respect for all
men. As an author, he was committed to the problems of his time, such
as social and political inequality and poverty. He also participated in the
writing of the first Encyclopaedia.

Read the text. Tick the correct answer.


a. What was the name of the movement Voltaire belonged to?
The Enlightenment.
The Illustration.
b. Where did the movement take place?
In Europe and Africa.
In Europe and America.
c. Besides being a philosopher, what other activities did Voltaire engage in?
He was writer.
He was a musician.
d. In what century did The Enlightenment flourish?
In the 18th century.
In the 17th century.
e. What was one of the values that Voltaire defended?
Freedom of thought.
Freedom to do everything, without respecting anybody.
f. Why is Voltaire considered a committed person?
Because he was interested in the problems of his time, such as inequality and poverty.
Because he was committed to the defence of animals.

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15
2

What is an encyclopaedia? Write a description.






Research each persons field. Then match the columns.


Immanuel Kant
Jose Celestino Mutis
Antonio Vivaldi
Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos
Isaac Newton
Francisco de Goya

politics
philosophy
music
mathematics
natural science
painting

Francisco de Goya was a great portrait painter. This is the portrait of his grandson Mariano.
Study the painting. Describe the boy, his expression, his clothes, the movement, the light,
other objects you can see, etc.












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Answer key
1 NUTRITION AND HEALTH

4 THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

1. Write one sentence with each group of words.

1. Complete the sentences.

M. A. (Model Answer). Digestion is the process of


obtaining nutrients from food to use in our body. Fats
are high in energy.
2. Complete the text.
We need energy for all the activities we do.
Weobtain it from carbohydrates and fats.
Proteins are necessary to grow and repair our
bodies. Fruits and vegetables are good sources
of vitamins and minerals. This process of obtaining
nutrients from food for our bodies to use is called
digestion.
Proteins: C; Vitamins: D; Carbohydrates: A;
Fats: B.
2 THE DIGESTIVE PROCESS
1. Complete the word map.
From left to right and top to bottom:
Digestion: In this stage, food is broken down to
obtain the nutrients.
Absorption: In this stage, nutrients pass into the
blood.
Elimination of waste: In this stage, waste is
transformed into faeces and excreted through
the anus.
2. Answer the questions.
Absorption occurs in the small intestine.
Faeces are waste substances. Waste is
transformed into faeces in the large intestine.
3. Complete the text.
The digestive process takes place in the digestive
system. There are three stages in the digestive
process: digestion, absorption, and elimination of
waste.
3 RESPIRATION

Lungs: During respiration, the lungs obtain oxygen


from the air and expel carbon dioxide.
Bronchi: During respiration, these tubes carry the air
to the alveoli of the lungs.
2. Look at the illustrations and circle the correct words.

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The heart pumps blood around the body using the


circulatory system.
Arteries carry blood from the heart to other organs.
Capillaries connect arteries to veins,which carry
blood to the heart.
2. Label the illustration with these words.
From top to bottom: Left: artery; vein.
Right: heart; capillaries.
M. A. An artery would bleed more than a vein
because the heart pumps blood through the arteries
more quickly. Blood in veins returns to the heart
slowly with little pressure.
5 BLOOD CIRCULATION
1. Match.
Pulmonary circulation: between the heart and the lungs.
Systemic circulation: between the heart and the rest
of the body.
Now, look at the illustration. What circuit is shown?
Explain.
The illustration shows systemic circulation. It
shows the circulation between the heart and the
rest of the body.
2. Cross out the errors. Then write the sentences
correctly.
Errors: systemic; lungs; vena cava.
In pulmonary circulation, oxygenated blood returns
to the heart through the pulmonary veins.
Errors: pulmonary; aorta.
In systemic circulation, blood returns to the heart
through the vena cava.
6 SENSITIVITY

1. Write the names of the organs. Explain their function


during respiration.

B inhaling; expand.

Blood is a red liquid that transports nutrients,


oxygen, carbon dioxide and waste in our bodies.

3. Look at the illustration and answer.

3. Match the foods to the nutrients.

A exhaling; contract.

Reinforcement

1. Draw the sense organ that we use to...


see: drawing of the eye; hear: drawing of the ear;
smell: drawing of the nose; taste: drawing of the
tongue.
2. Look at the illustrations. Explain the function of
sensitivity in each case.
M. A. The ears capture the sound of the phone.
Nerves transmit the information to the brain. The
brain decides to answer the phone. The brain sends

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Answer key Reinforcement


an order to the muscles. The muscles act and answer
the phone.
M. A. The skin senses the rain. Nerves transmit
the information to the brain. The brain decides to
open the umbrella. The brain sends an order to the
muscles. The muscles act and open the umbrella.
7 THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND MOVEMENT
1. Look at the illustrations of voluntary movement and
complete the sentences.
1. The boy captures the information with his eyes.
2. The nerves carry the information to the brain.

4. Complete the sentences.


The nervous system uses the involuntary muscles
and the endocrine system to carry out internal
co-ordination.
The endocrine system controls the functions
of growth and reproduction.
If our involuntary muscles stopped working, the
heart would stop beating, our lungs would not be
able to absorb oxygen and we would die.
9 SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS
Label the diagrams.

3. The brain decides to kick the ball, and orders the


muscles in the leg to contract.

The female reproductive system.

4. The nerves carry the information to the muscles


in the leg.

Left: ovary; vulva.

5. The muscles in the leg contract, and the boy kicks


the ball.

The male reproductive system.

2. Look at the illustrations of a reflex movement and


complete.
1. The girl captures the information through her
sense of touch.
2. The nerves carry the information.
3. The spinal cord orders an immediate response.

From top to bottom:


Right: Fallopian tube; uterus; vagina.
From top to bottom:
Left: vas deferens; testicle; scrotum.
Right: seminal vesicle; prostate; penis; urethra.
10 SEX CELLS AND FERTILIZATION
1. Look at the illustration and answer.

4. The nerves carry the information to the muscles in


her arm.

A: spermatozoa; B: ovule.

5. The muscles contract and the girl pulls her hand


away.

Ovule.

3. Match.
Spinal cord: Reflex movements.
Brain: Voluntary movements.
8 INTERNAL CO-ORDINATION
1. Small muscles in our skin cause goose bumps
when they contract. Are these muscles voluntary or
involuntary? Explain.
These muscles are involuntary muscles because we
are not conscious of them, and cannot control their
movement.
2. Name the glands in the endocrine system. What
substance do endocrine glands produce?
The pituitary, the thyroid, the pancreas, the ovaries
and testicles.
Endocrine glands produce hormones.
3. Tick the processes which involve internal co-ordination.

B
A
Sperm cell.
2. Match.
From left to right:
sperm: semen.
ovule: menstruation.
3. Order the stages in which an embryo develops.
Write a number from 1 to 6.
From top to bottom: 1: a; 2: f; 3: e; 4: c; 5: b; 6: d.
11 PREGNANCY AND BIRTH
1. Look at the illustration. Read the definition and write
the correct word.
From top to bottom:
uterus; umbilical cord; amniotic fluid; fetus; placenta.
2. Match.

Our temperature is kept constant.

Dilation stage: The opening to the uterus gradually


gets wider.

Saliva is produced when we look at food we like.

Afterbirth: The expulsion of the placenta takes place.

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Expulsion stage: The baby exits the mothers body
through the vagina.

Transmission can be stopped with hygienic habits, for


example, washing your hands.

12 HEALTH AND ILLNESS


1. Define the words.

2. Match the infectious agent to the disease it causes.

health: a state of complete physical, mental and


social well-being.
illness: a condition in which physical, mental or social
well-being is absent or diminished.
2. Health is a state of physical, mental and social
well-being. Explain what this sentence means,
and give examples.
M. A. Health is a combination of these three different
states. For example, in order for our bodies to
function well, we must be in good physical condition,
have a good mental state and good relationships with
our family and the people around us.
3. Complete the word map.
From top to bottom:
how quickly... how long: acute illness, chronic illness;
their origin: infectious diseases, non-infectious
diseases;
how many people...: sporadic, epidemic, endemic.
13 HEALTH RISKS
1. Look at the illustration. Explain the possible effects of
tobacco use.
M. A. Tobacco can cause various types of cancer,
dental, skin and heart problems, gastritis and ulcers,
premature babies, respiratory disease and stroke.
2. Name two ways to avoid traffic accidents. Describe
some of their consequences.
M. A.
Respect the speed limit, maintain the correct
safety distance from other vehicles, always wear
a seat belt.
Some of the consequences are injury and death.
3. What is alcoholism? Explain the effects of alcohol
abuse on a persons health.
M. A. Alcoholism is a chronic disease. It is caused
by alcohol abuse. It can cause serious damage to
the liver and the nervous system, and problems with
family and friends.

1. What is an infectious disease? Describe four causes


and explain ways to stop transmission.
Infectious diseases are infections caused by
infectious agents.

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bacteria: pneumonia; fungi: athletes foot; virus:


measles; protozoans: malaria.
3. What is a contagious disease? Explain and give an
example.
M. A. A contagious disease is a disease transmitted
by contact with the infectious agent. Examples:
measles, chickenpox, flu.
4. Should you drink water from a river or stream even if
it looks clean? Think and answer.
M. A. No, because water from rivers or streams may
contain bacteria or other substances which can
cause illness.
15 TREATMENT OF ILLNESS AND DISEASE
1. Name four ways to cure or prevent illness anddisease.
O. A. (Open Answer)
2. Complete the sentences.
Vaccines are medicines that protect people from
developing an infectious disease.
Antibiotics are medicines that are very effective in
fighting bacterial infecitons.
Some illnesses and bone fractures cannot be
cured with medicines. They require surgery or an
organ transplant.
3. Explain why people do not get measles if they have
been vaccinated.
M. A. Vaccines contain dead or weakened agents
that cause the disease. When a person is infected
later with the real agent, their body has already
created cells and chemicals that recognise
it and can fight it.
4. Name three organs that can be transplanted.
All of these organs can be transplanted: heart,
kidney, liver, lungs, pancreas, intestines, bone, skin.
16 ELECTRICITY
1. Complete the sentences.

14 INFECTIOUS DISEASES

90

The four causes are: bacteria, fungi, protozoans and


viruses.

There are positive electric charges and negative


electrical charges.
If two objects have the same charge, they repel.
Ifone object is negatively charged and the other is
positively charged, they attract.

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Electrical current is produced when electrical
charges move through material.
Electrical energy can be transformed into light, heat
and movement.
2. Look at the diagrams. Explain what force each
shows.
Diagram A shows repulsion because two objects with
positive charges repel each other.
Diagram B shows attraction because two objects with
opposite charges attract each other.
3. Order the illustrations. Write 1 and 2; then, explain
why the pen attracts the pieces of paper.
A: 2; B: 1.
By rubbing a pen with your sleeve, negative charges
are passed from the sleeve to the pen. The pen
is left with more negative charges than positive
charges. The charged pen attracts the paper because
the paper is neutral, but has more positive charges
than the pen. Negatively charged objects and neutral
objects attract. has more positive charges than
negative charges.

Right from top to bottom: generator; switch; light


bulb; cable.
3. Look at these circuits. Tick the closed circuit.
Students should tick the left circuit.
Explain what a closed circuit is. Refer to the
diagram you ticked.
A closed circuit is a circuit in which all components
are connected and the switch is closed.
19 THE PROPERTIES OF ENERGY
1. Complete the word map.
Types: mechanical; sound; light; heat or thermal;
electrical; chemical; nuclear.
Properties: energy can be transferred; energy can be
stored; energy can be transported and energy can
betransformed.
2. Read the sentences. Write the type of energy each
one describes.
From top to bottom: electrical energy; chemical
energy; mechanical energy; nuclear energy; heat or
thermal energy; sound energy; light energy.

17 MAGNETS AND MAGNETISM


1. Read and write the correct word.
From top to bottom: magnet; poles; magnetism;
electromagnet.
2. Write attract or repel. Then explain why.
The magnets will attract each other because
different poles are near each other.
The magnets will repel each other because
the same poles are near each other.
3. Look and write electromagnet or magnetic band.
A: magnetic band.
B: electromagnet.
18 ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS
1. Answer the questions.
In an electrical circuit, various elements are
connected to create a closed path. This path
allows the circulation of electrical current.
The main elements are generators, cables, light
bulbs, motors and switches.
Disposable batteries cannot be reused when
they lose their charge. They must be discarded.
Rechargeable batteries can be recharged
andreused.
2. Label the components of this electrical circuit.
Left: motor:

20 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE


1. Order the sentences. Write 1, 2 or 3. Then copy them
in the correct order.
1: b; 2: c; 3: a
Heat is a form of energy which can be transmitted
through certain materials, and which raises the
temperature of objects.
2. Why is mercury used in thermometers? Tick the
correct answer.
Because when mercury is warmed, its volume
expands, and it rises up into the tube.
Explain the meaning of the words.
Contraction is the decrease in size of an object
when the temperature is lowered.
Expansion is the increase in size of an object when
the temperature is raised.
3. Will it be easier to remove a metal ring from your
finger when the weather is cold or when it is hot?
Think and answer.
A metal ring will be easier to remove when the weather
is cold because your fingers contract when it is cold.
21 PRODUCING ELECTRICITY
1. Complete the sentences. Use the words.
The electricity we use is produced in power plants.

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Most power plants produce electrical current with a
generator.
Turbines are used to turn generators or dynamos.
Power plants use different energy sources.
2. Look at the flow charts. Write the type of power plant.
From top to bottom: hydroelectric; thermal; eolic or
wind; solar photovoltaic.
3. Match the words to make sentences.

M. A.
Thermal: they are used to heat or cool things.

22 ENERGY IN OUR SOCIETY


1. Circle six energy sources. Then classify them as
renewable or non-renewable.
Renewable: wood; sunlight; wind.
Non-renewable: petroleum; uranium; coal.
Which of these energy sources are fossil fuels?
Oil and coal are fossil fuels.

Global
warming

Acid rain

Solution

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From top to bottom: structure; operating parts or


mechanisms; indicators and screens; sensors;
electrical and electronic circuit; motor; housing.

the use of nonSave energy.


renewable fuels Promote the use
until they run out of renewable
energy.

2. Label the parts of this machine.

toxic material
created in
nuclear power
plants

Find safe ways to


dispose of it.

25 OPERATING PARTS AND MECHANISMS

an increase in
temperatures
caused by too
much carbon
dioxide in the
atmosphere

Save energy.
Emit less carbon
dioxide into the
atmosphere.

rainwater that
contains a high
concentration
ofpollutants

Use less energy.


Filter exhaust
from factories and
vehicles.
Use cleaner
sources of energy.

Counterclockwise starting at top centre: structure;


housing; electrical circuit, operating parts; motor.

1. Circle seven types of operating parts. Then write the


names.
Graphic answer.
rack; wheel; crank; belt; lever; spring; axle.
2. Look at the gears. Circle the correct word.
A: same

1. Look at the illustrations. Circle the machine that is not


mechanical.

92

Machines for communication and information


management: they are used to manipulate text,
sound, photographs, videos, maps and games.

1. Read and write the name of each component.

23 MACHINES

The iron.

Mechanical: they are used to lift heavy objects or to


produce movement.

24 INSIDE A MACHINE

2. Complete the table.

Radioactive
waste

thermal: a cooker.

3. Complete the word map.

Televisions use electricity.

Depletion of
fossil fuels

2. Match.

mechanical: a hammer.

Power lines transport electricity.

Description

An iron is a thermal machine. It converts electrical


energy into thermal energy. It is not mechanical
because it is not used to lift heavy objects or
produce movement.

information management: a computer.

Power plants produce electricity.

Problem

Describe the machine you circled. What type is it?


Why isnt it mechanical?

B: opposite
C: faster
26 TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES AND SOCIETY
1. Complete the sentences.
A is a plough. B is a combine harvester. We use them
to harvest grain. The difference between A and B
is that A is a manual machine, and B is automatic.
Machine A does the work of one person, and B can
do the work of many people.
C is a letter. D is an e-mail. We use them to
communicate with other people. The difference

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between C and D is that e-mail is much faster than a
letter.
E is a carriage. F is an automobile. We use them to
transport people. The difference between E and F is
that automobiles are faster and more comfortable
than carriages.
27 THE EARTH AND MAPS
1. Measure and calculate the distances in kilometres.
From A Coruna to Zaragoza: 3.8 cm 170 = 646 km
From Madrid to Badajoz: 2 cm 170 = 340 km
From Seville to Valencia: 3.2 cm 170 = 544 km
From Murcia to Malaga: 2 cm 170 = 340 km
2. Look at points A, B and C on the globe. Complete the
table. Write North, South, East or West.
Latitude

Longitude

Hemisphere

North

West

North

South

West

South

North

East

North

30 EUROPEAN COASTS
1. Look at the map. Write the number next to the
landform.
Peninsulas: 1: Kola; 14: Scandinavian; 20: Jutland;
5:Iberian; 19: Italian; 15: Balkan; 10: Crimean.
Gulfs: 3: Bothnia; 11: Bay of Biscay; 7: Lion;
23:Genoa.
Capes: 4: North; 8: Finisterre; 27: St. Vincent;
16:Matapan.
Islands: 6: Iceland; 17: Ireland; 24: Great Britain;
9:Balearic Islands; 18: Canary Islands; 25: Corsica;
12: Sicily; 21: Sardinia; 2: Cyprus; 13: Malta;
22:Crete.
31 EUROPEAN CLIMATES AND VEGETATION
1. Write the name of the climate.
From top to bottom: oceanic; alpine or mountain;
Mediterranean; continental; polar.
2. Look at the map. Write the letter that corresponds to
the type of vegetation.
E: Steppes; A: Oceanic forest; C: Taiga; B:
Mediterranean vegetation; D: Tundra.

28 RELIEF MAP OF THE WORLD

32 EUROPEAN RIVERS AND LAKES

1. Use the key and colour the map.

1. Complete the map with the names of the oceans


andseas.

Finished map should look like pages 112-113 in the


Students Book.
Write the names of the oceans in the correct
place.
Graphic answer. See pages 112-113 in the
Students Book for reference.
29 POLITICAL MAP OF THE WORLD
1. Look at the map and use the key to colour
thecountries.
Graphic answer.
Red: M. A. Switzerland, Austria.

Graphic answer. See page 127 of the Students


Book.
Name the rivers that flow into the Atlantic Ocean.
Loire; Garonne; Duero; Tagus; Seine; Guadiana
and Guadalquivir.
Name the rivers that flow into the Mediterranean
Sea.
Ebro and Rhone.
2. Which watershed has the largest lakes?
The Atlantic.

Green: South Africa.

33 THE POPULATION OF EUROPE

Orange: M. A. New Zealand; Papua New Guinea.

1. Correct the sentences and make them true.

Purple: China.
Pink: Canada and United States.
Yellow: M. A. Paraguay, Bolivia.
Dark blue: M. A. Great Britain; Ireland; Iceland;
Cyprus, Malta.
Write the name of the countries you have
coloured.
Graphic answer.

In Europe the birth rate is very low: this means that


few babies are born.
In Europe, life expectancy is 74 years. Therefore,
there are a lot of elderly people.
Immigrants increase the active population.
2. Look at the map and do the activities.
M. A. Iceland; Sweden; Norway.
M. A. Ireland; Spain; Belarus.

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34 THE EUROPEAN ECONOMY

COURT OF AUDITORS

1. Look at the pie chart and answer.

Functions: control the money the European Union


uses and ensure EU money is spent correctly.

The primary sector.


The tertiary sector.
2. Write the economic activities in the correct column.
Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

37 THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION


1. Tick the true sentences. Correct the sentences that
are false.

agriculture

basic industry

commerce

C is true.

livestock
farming

capital goods industry

transport

A Merchandise and citizens can circulate freely within


the EU.

fishing

consumer goods industry

tourism

B More countries can join the EU.

forestry

2. Give two examples of measures that promote


European citizenship.

35 THE EUROPEAN UNION TODAY


1. Write the names of the member countries of the
European Union.
Austria; Belgium; Bulgaria; Cyprus; Czech Republic;
Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Greece;
Hungary; Ireland; Italy; Latvia; Lithuania; Luxembourg;
Malta; The Netherlands; Poland; Portugal; Romania;
Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; The United
Kingdom.
36 THE INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

M. A. EU citizens can travel, live or work in any EU


country.
Many professional and university qualifications are
recognised in other member states.
The European health card.
The Erasmus program.
3. Circle the names of the twelve countries that have
adopted the euro. Write them on the lines.
Belgium, Germany, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy,
Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Austria, Portugal,
Finland, Greece.

1. Complete the word map.


EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT

38 PREHISTORY

Members: MEPs.

1. Match. Then write the complete sentences.

Headquarters: Strasbourg and Brussels.


Functions: approve budgets and laws and control the
other EU institutions.
COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
Members: ministers from each member state.
Headquarters: Brussels.
Functions: make all the important decisions; approve
European laws, co-ordinate economic policies and
direct security, defence and foreign policy.

In the Palaeolithic Age, people hunted, fished and


gathered fruits and vegetables.
In the Neolithic Age, people looked after their crops
and livestock.
In the Metal Ages, people made objects from copper,
bronze and iron.
2. Complete the crossword.
Down: 1. Palaeolithic; 3. writing; 5. ceramic.
Across: 2. Neolithic; 4. copper; 6. menhir; 7. nomad.

EUROPEAN COMMISSION
Members: twenty-seven commissioners and a
president.
Headquarters: Brussels.

39 THE AGE OF ANTIQUITY


1. Who am I? Write Celt, Iberian, Phoenician, Greek or
Carthaginian.

Functions: act as the government of the EU; propose


new laws and policies and apply rules and regulations.

I arrived from North Africa looking for new


territories to conquer: Carthaginian.

COURT OF JUSTICE

I live in a tribe on the Atlantic coast. I dont trade


much: Celt.

Members: one judge from each member state and


eight advocate generals chosen by the governments
of the EU member states.
Functions: uphold European laws.

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I live on the Catalan coast. I sell ceramics and buy


esparto to make things: Greek.
I live in Andalusia, and I trade a lot: Phoenician.

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I live on the Mediterranean coast. I arrived here
before the Greeks: Iberian.
2. Complete. Use the words.
The Roman conquest of the peninsula began in the
year 218 B.C. and ended in the year 19 B.C. The
Romans divided Hispania into provinces. Roman law
was enforced throughout the peninsula. The official
language was Latin. The only pre-Roman language that
has survived to the present is Euskera. In 380 A.D.,
the official religion became Christianity. Roman society
was divided into two classes: free men and slaves.
40 THE MIDDLE AGES ON THE IBERIAN PENINSULA
1. Write True or False. Then, correct the false sentences.

The Spanish Empire included territories in Europe,


Africa, Asia and the Americas.
2. Write the events on the timeline.
Top from left to right:
1516: Carlos I became king;
1556: Felipe II became king;
1571: The Battle of Lepanto;
1588: The Spanish Armada was defeated.
Bottom from left to right:
1520: The revolt of the communities;
1566: The Netherlands rose up against Spanish rule;
1580: The Kingdom of Portugal became a part of the
Spanish Empire.

False: The capital of the Visigoth kingdom was Toledo.


False: The Moors defeated the Visigoth kingdom
in711.

43 THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE SPANISH EMPIRE

False: At first, Al-Andalus was an emirate.

1. Complete the crossword.

2. Tick the correct answer. Then, write the complete


sentence.
The first Christian kingdoms were created in the
north of Spain.
In 1031, Al-Andalus was divided into Taifa Kingdoms.
In 1212, the armies of the Christian kings defeated
the Moorish armies at the Battle of Navas de Tolosa.
The last territory of Al-Andalus was the Nasrid
kingdom of Granada.
41 THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA
1. Write the name or date.
From top to bottom: Christopher Columbus; the
Catholic Monarchs; 1492; Japan; Americo Vespucci.
2. What territories did Hernan Cortes and Francisco
Pizarro conquer?
Hernan Cortes conquered Mexico.
Francisco Pizarro conquered Peru.
3. Complete the sentences. The photos may help you.

Down:
1. Almansa; 3. favourites; 4. Succession;
5.Netherlands; 6. Felipe V.
Across:
2. royal manufacturers; 7. Utrecht; 8. Carlos II;
9. absolute.
44 SOCIETY AND CULTURE IN THE MODERN AGE
1. Complete the illustration. Use the words.
Privileged: nobility; clerics.
Unprivileged: middle class; famers.
Describe the differences between the privileged
and the underprivileged classes.
M. A. The privileged did not pay taxes; they held
government positions, and they owned most of the
land.
The unprivileged paid taxes and could not hold
government positions.
2. Match.

Photo A. The Mayans were excellent


mathematicians and astonomers.

Saint Teresa de Jesus: Spiritual works;

Photos B and C. Pre-Columbian peoples were


farmers, but they also made metal objects.

Garcilaso de la Vega: 16th century;

Photo D. Gold and silver from pre-Columbian mines


were sent to Spain.
42 THE SPANISH EMPIRE
Explain why this map is not correct.
M. A. The map is not correct because it shows
Spain as the only territory in the Spanish Empire.

Francisco de Quevedo: 17th century;


Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos: Spains problems;
Lope de Vega: 17th century;
Miguel de Cervantes: 17th century.
3. Write the style of architecture.
This style imitated Roman architecture: neoclassical.
This style had curved lines and rich ornamentation:
baroque.

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This style was austere with little decoration.
Herrerian.

and windows) and decorations based on shapes in


nature.

45 THE 19TH CENTURY

47 FROM PRIMO DE RIVERA TO FRANCO

1. Circle two errors in each sentence. Then, write the


sentences correctly.

1. Order the events. Write a number from 1 to 5.

In 1807, France and Spain signed a treaty that


allowed French troops to cross into Spain to occupy
Portugal.

1. The dictatorship of Primo de Rivera began: 1923.


2. The Second Republic was proclaimed: 1931.
3. The Spanish Civil War began: 1936.

Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of France, replaced


King Fernando VII with his brother Jose Bonaparte.

4. The dictatorship of Francisco Franco began: 1939.

The population of Madrid did not accept the French


king, and on 2nd May 1808, they rebelled against
the French. This was the beginning of the War of
Independence.

2. Write Second Republic or Dictatorship of General Franco.

2. Circle the correct word.

5. The dictatorship of Francisco Franco ended: 1975.


Women got the right to vote: Second Republic.
Political parties were illegal: Dictatorship of General
Franco.
There was no constitution: Dictatorship of General
Franco.

During the War of Independence...


From top to bottom:
Liberals; Nationalists; Francophiles.
During the reign of Isabel II...

Land was divided up among the peasants: Second


Republic.
The first Statutes of Autonomy were declared:
Second Republic.

From top to bottom:


Conservatives; Liberals.
3. Write the year each event took place.
Constitution of Cadiz: 1812.
Independence of Argentina: 1816.

Spain became internationally isolated: Dictatorship


of General Franco.
3. Circle the errors in each sentence. Then write the
sentences correctly.
During the Civil War, the Republicans supported the
Republic.

War of Independence: 1808.

The war began in 1936 after General Francos coup.

46 LIFE IN THE 19TH CENTURY


1. Look at the diagram. Match each word with a social
class. Draw a line.

After the war, there was a dictatorship under General


Franco.

Upper class:

48 TRANSITION AND DEMOCRACY

nobles; rich merchants; bankers.


Middle class:

1. Match.

factory owners; doctors; lawyers; engineers.


Lower class:
servants; beggars; peasants; factory workers.
2. Write three sentences. Use the words.
M. A. The industrial revolution brought many important
economic changes possible in the 19th century.
M. A. Railways revolutionised transport.
M. A. In the 19th century, textile and metal industries
developed rapidly.
3. This house was built in Barcelona by Antonio Gaudi.
Explain why it is a Modernist structure.
M. A. It is Modernist because Modernist structures
used new materials such as iron and glass (balconies

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Adolfo Suarez: He was president between 1976 and


1981.
Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo: He was president between
1981 and 1982.
Felipe Gonzalez: He was president between 1982 and
1996.
Jose Maria Aznar: He was president between 1996
and 2004.
Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero: He became president
in 2004.
2. Find the date of each event in the puzzle. Then write it
to complete the sentence.
From top to bottom:
1975; 1977; 1978; 1986; 1995; 2002.

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EXTENSION

1 PREPARE A BALANCED DIET

3 DIFFERENT WAYS OF SEEING THE WORLD

1. Study the information above, and answer the


questions.

1. Define the words.

This information shows the quantities and number


of servings you should eat of the various types of
foods.
Dairy, vegetables and fruits.
Milk: 4 servings a day;
Vegetables: 2-4 servings aday.
M. A. (Model Answer). Because sweets have
carbohydrates and fats, and too many can cause
obesity and other health problems.
2. Complete the table. Make a list of all the food that
you ate yesterday. Give approximate amounts. Then
answer the question.
O. A. (Open Answer).
3. Read the advice, and prepare your own balanced diet
for one day.
O. A.
2. THE RH FACTOR
1. Read the text and answer the questions.
Plasma, red cells, white blood cells and platelets.
The main blood types are A, B, AB and O.
A universal donor is a person who can donate
blood to almost anybody without danger of
rejection, such as people with type O blood.
A universal recipient is a person who can receive
any type of blood, such as people with type AB
blood.
2. Answer the questions.
O. A.
3. Analyse the words. Match them to their definitions.
In order from top to bottom: haemopathy;
haematologist; haemorrhage; haematoma;
haemoglobin.
4. What do you think the prefixes haemo- and haemamean? Answer.
The prefixes haemo- and haema- mean blood.
5. Research about blood banks. Answer the questions.
M. A. A blood bank is a place where blood is
collected and stored for later use in medical
procedures.
M. A. Donating blood is important because it can
help people in need and save lives.

cone: a photoreceptor cell in the retina that


enables animals to see in colour with high-quality
images.
rod: a photoreceptor cell in the retina that enables
animals to see in low light, but with low-quality
images.
ommatidia: each of the many small eyes that form
compound eyes in many invertebrates.
2. Think and explain.
Owls have more rods than cones in their retinas.
More rods enable nocturnal animals to see better
at night.
Eagles use their eyes to see clearly at great
distances and hunt prey. Their eyes have big pupils
with a large number of rods and cones in the
central part of the retina.
3. Match each type of eye to a living thing.
A: 4; B:1; C: 2; D: 3.
4. Use the key to decipher the secret message.
Cones and rods are photoreceptor cells in the retina.
4 ULTRASOUND IMAGING
1. Read the text and answer the questions.
An ultrasound scan is a diagnostic medical
procedure used to produce visual images of organs
and structures inside the body. It is also used to
monitor the health and development of a fetus
during pregnancy.
A transducer is applied to the skin and emits
ultrasound waves. These waves reflect off internal
organs and produce an echo. The transducer
transforms the echo into an image.
Other medical diagnostic procedures are blood
tests and x-rays.
2. Look at the ultrasound images. Answer the questions.
Image 1: the head, body, arm and leg.
Image 2: The face and body are more defined. The
body is curved and the arm is flexed so it can fit in
the same space.
Image 3: It is sucking a finger.
3. Examine the images again. Which one shows the
fetus at a later stage of development?
Image 3 shows the fetus at a later stage. We can
distinguish most of the head, and the head and body
are larger.

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Answer key EXTENSION


5 TYPES OF DISEASES
1. Read and complete the table.
Type of disease: Deficiency. Caused by: the lack of an
essential nutrient in the diet. Example: scurvy.
Type of disease: Functional. Caused by: the
malfunction of an organ. Example: diabetes.
Type of disease: Degenerative. Caused by: ageing or
deterioration of an organ. Example: Alzheimers.
Type of disease: Infectious. Caused by: an infectious
agent. Example: the flu.
2. Read the text. Answer the questions.
The AH1N1 flu would be classified as infectious
because it is caused by an infectious agent, a virus.
It was a pandemic. It affected a large geographical
area: many countries and several continents.
3. Analyse your health during the past year, and answer.
O. A.
6 SPARKS OF INVENTION
1. Read the text. Then order from old to modern.
Write a number.
1. Benjamin Franklin; 2. Alessandro Volta;
3. Hans Christian Oersted; 4. Michael Faraday;
5. Thomas Alva Edison; 6. Samuel Morse;
7. Heinrich Hertz.
2. Match the inventor to the invention.
Alessandro Volta: the electric battery;
Thomas Alva Edison: the incandescent light bulb;
Samuel Morse: the telegraph;
Michael Faraday: his discoveries led to the
development of the electric generator and motor;
Heinrich Hertz: a device to generate radio waves;
Hans Christian Oersted: the electromagnet.
3. Research Benjamin Franklins inventions. Find four of
them in the wordsearch.
bifocals; lightning rod; furnace; odometer.
Graphic answer
4. According to the text, Benjamin Franklin flew a kite
to capture electricity from thunderclouds. What
invention does this refer to? Where do we install it?
It refers to the lightning rod. We install it on the roof
of a building.
7 ALTERNATIVE ENERGY
1. Read the text. Answer the questions.
Alternative energies are sources of energy that do
not pollute the environment. They are renewable
and cannot be depleted.

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Renewable energy is energy that comes from


natural sources such as the Sun, wind and oceans.
It cannot be depleted.
Spain is a good place because it receives many
hours of sunshine during the year.
2. Think about solar energy and give your opinion.
M. A.
Thermal is easier to use directly in the home because
it only needs a small system for heating and for hot
water.
3. Look at the diagram of a solar thermal system. Draw
arrows to show the path of the water.
Graphic answer.
Sunlight heats the water in the collector. This water
is stored in a tank and distributed through the
pipes to the rest of the building.
4. M. A. The most important factors are the hours
of sunlight, the space available for the collector or
panels, and the heating needs of the building.
8 WATCHES ARE MACHINES
1. Read the text, and answer the questions.
M. A. A mechanical watch uses a mainspring
as the source of energy. The spring is wound
into a tight coil. The energy from the spring
is transformed into movement and transferred
to a gear train. The gear train moves the hands
ofthe watch.
M. A. You do not need to wind quartz watches
because they use batteries as the energy source.
2. Find out what a clepsydra is and what it is used for.
Look at the picture and explain how it works.
M. A. A clepsydra is a type of water clock. It was used
in ancient times. It consists of containers, usually
made of stone. The containers were filled with water.
They had a small hole near the bottom which allowed
water to drip at a constant rate. As the water level
in the container dropped, you could see marks on
the container. The marks indicated the time that had
passed.
3. This is the inside of a mechanical watch. Look at the
gears. Draw arrows to show the direction in which
each gear wheel turns.
Graphic answer.
4. Read the definitions and complete the word ladder.
Begin at the bottom.
Top to bottom: A; at; cat; chat; watch.

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Answer key EXTENSION


9 MAP PROJECTIONS

11 LIFE EXPECTANCY

1. Read the text. Write the name under each projection.

1. Read the text. Then complete the sentences.

A: conic; B: cylindrical; C: polar.


2. Read and write. What type of projection would you
use in each case?
From top to bottom: A polar projection; A conic
projection; A cylindrical projection.
3. Circle these words in the puzzle. Then write a
definition for each one.
Graphic answer.
equator: the principal parallel;
latitude: the distance between any point on the Earth
and the equator;
longitude: the distance between any point on the
Earth and the Greenwich meridian.
meridian: an imaginary line that runs from pole to
pole;
parallel: an imaginary line that circles the Earth;
tropics: an area near the equator;
world map: a map that represents the entire Earth.
10 THE MOST EUROPEAN RIVER
1. Why do you think the Danube is considered the most
European river? Explain.
M. A. The Danube is considered the most European
river because it runs through the most European
countries.
2. Unscramble the letters and write the names of the
capitals the Danube passes through.
Germany: Berlin; Austria: Vienna;
Slovakia: Bratislava; Hungary: Budapest;
Croatia: Zagreb; Serbia: Belgrade;
Romania: Bucharest; Bulgaria: Sofia;
Moldova: Chisinau; Ukraine: Kiev.
3. Use your maths skills. Read and discover the number
of inhabitants in each country.
Germany: 82,600,000; Austria: 8,400,000;
Croatia: 4,400,000; Romania: 22,000,000;
Serbia: 11,000,000; Moldova: 4,500.000;
Hungary: 10,000,000; Slovakia: 5,300,000;
Bulgaria 7,300,000; Ukraine: 22,000,000.
4. Complete the map with the names of the countries
the River Danube passes through.

Life expectancy indicates the number of years the


average person lives.
People usually live longer in developed countries.
Life expectancy depends on food, living conditions
and health care systems.
2. Study the map. Then, give examples. Write the names
of the countries.
80 years: Canada, Sweden.
Between 70 and 80 years:
M. A. United States, France, China.
Less than 50 years:
M. A. Sierra Leone, Angola, Afghanistan.
3 This table shows life expectancy by sex in four
countries. Calculate the average life expectancy in
each country and complete the table. Then write the
results on the map.
Japan 80; Australia 76; Mexico 72; Swaziland 30.
4. Look at the map, and study the table. Then, answer.
North America, Europe, Asia.
Swaziland, Africa.
5. Write T (true) or F (false).
T; T; F.
6. Why do you think countries with low life expectancy
are poor countries?
M. A. Because the food, general living conditions
and health care systems in poor countries are not as
good as they are in richer countries.
12 EUROPA, THE PHOENICIAN PRINCESS
1. Read the story and write a summary.
M. A. Zeus fell in love with a Phoenician princess
named Europa. He transformed himself into a bull
and carried her away to Crete. There, Zeus revealed
his identity and declared his eternal love. He made
Europa queen of Crete. This is how the continent of
Europe got its name.
2. Cypress trees are called evergreens. What does this
mean?
An evergreen is a tree that has green leaves all year
round.
3. Circle the names of eight European countries in the
wordsearch. Copy them on the lines.

Graphic answer.

Graphic answer.

Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia,


Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova, Ukraine.

Spain; Luxembourg; Greece; Malta; Denmark;


Bulgaria; Finland; Poland.

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Answer key EXTENSION


Unscramble the letters on the gray background to
discover the first capital of the United States.
Philadelphia.
4. Read and identify the countries in the wordsearch.
Use the Internet.
From top to bottom: Spain; Luxembourg; Greece;
Malta; Denmark; Bulgaria; Finland; Poland.
5. Research about Robert Schuman. Find out why he is
important. Write.
M. A. Robert Schuman is considered one of the
founding fathers of the European Union. He helped
write the Schuman Plan. This plan proposed joint
control of coal and steel production. Based on this
plan, six countries signed an agreement to form the
European Coal and Steel Community.
13 ROMAN GODS
1. Read the text. Tick the true sentences.
Minerva was the defender of the home.
Jupiter was the husband of Juno.

2. The Mayans inhabited the area of present-day Mexico,


Guatemala and some parts of Belize, El Salvador and
Honduras. Find these countries on the map and colour
them.
Graphic answer.
3. Read the text. Answer the questions.
The Temple of Inscriptions is pyramid shaped.
It was a funeral monument.
People walked up the steps to reach the temple.
Several chambers. Pakal the Great was buried
inside one of them.
15 THE ENLIGHTENMENT
1. Read the text. Tick the correct answer.
a. The Enlightenment; b. In Europe and America;
c.He was a writer; d. In the 18th century; e. Freedom
of thought. f. Because he was interested in the
problems of his time, such as inequality and poverty.
2. What is an encyclopaedia? Write a description.
M. A. An encyclopaedia is a book or a group of books
that contain information about many subjects.

Jupiter was the ruler of the gods.


2. Write the meaning of the words. Then use each in
a sentence.
supreme ruler: a person who has the maximum
authority or power. M. A. The supreme ruler of
Egypt was the pharaoh.
warlike: combative, aggressive, hostile. M. A. The
warlike tribe attacked the village.
polytheistic: the worship of more than one god.
M. A. Many ancient civilisations had polytheistic
beliefs.
3. In Roman mythology, each god represented a specific
activity. Match the descriptions and the pictures.
A: 1; B: 5; C: 2; D: 3; E: 4; F: 6.

3. Research each persons field. Then match the


columns.
Immanuel Kant: philosophy;
Jose Celestino Mutis: natural science;
Antonio Vivaldi: music;
Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos: politics;
Isaac Newton: mathematics;
Francisco de Goya: painting.
4. Francisco de Goya was a great portrait painter.
Thisisthe portrait of his grandson Mariano. Study
thepainting. Describe the boy, his expression, his
clothes, the movement, the light, other objects you
can see, etc.
O. A.

14 THE MAYAN CIVILISATION


1. Read the text and answer the questions.
The Mayans lived in the Yucatan peninsula and
lowlands of Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras.
The rulers lived in Mayapan.
Society was organised into four groups: nobles,
priests, peasants and slaves.
Most people worked in the fields.
They built pyramid temples, altars and stelae.
Their most important god was the god of rain.
Their favourite game was a ball game.

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Diagnostic tests
1 Living things and the environment . . . . . . . . . . 102
2 Forces and movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
3 The relief of Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
4 Population and the economy of Spain . . . . . . . 108
5 Changes across time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Individual results chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
ANSWER KEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

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Living things and the environment

Name

DIAGNOSTIC TEST

Date

Label the parts of the cell.

Write T (true) or F (false).


a. Algae belong to the fifth kingdom.
b. Bacteria are living things.
c. Fungi produce their own food.
d. Plants have nervous systems.
e. Living things are classified into five kingdoms.

Write the five levels of organisation in order.


organs

cells

organisms

1. 

4. 

2. 

5. 

systems

tissues

3. 

Match.
During respiration...

plants take in oxygen from the air,


and give off carbon dioxide.

During photosynthesis...

plants take in carbon dioxide,


and give off oxygen.

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1
5

Write the name of each type of plant reproduction.


Plant reproduction with
flowers and seeds is called:

Plants reproduction without


flowers or seeds is called:

What is an ecosystem? Explain and give an example.







List three environmental problems caused by people.







Explain how the following actions can help protect the environment.

Turning off a light

Using a bicycle





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Forces and movement

Name
1

DIAGNOSTIC TEST

Date

Look at the pictures, and answer the questions.


A

What makes the ball move in picture A? Explain. 


What makes the ball stop in picture B? Explain. 


2

Explain what speed is. How can you calculate it?





Now, read and calculate the speed.
The distance between Madrid and Cordoba is 400 kilometres. Marta took four hours to travel this
distance by car. John took two hours to travel the same distance by train.
At what speed was Marta travelling? And John?

Marta was travelling at

kph

John was travelling at

kph

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2
3

Look at the pictures, and answer the questions.


What force will make the skydiver fall to the ground? Explain.



What force will make the skydiver fall more slowly? Explain.




Match.
Wheels
Inclined planes
Pulleys

enable you to apply less force.

Levers

reduce friction.

change the direction of a force.

Identify these three types of levers.


A

Look at the picture. Why is an inclined plane useful in this building?








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The relief of Spain

DIAGNOSTIC TEST

Name
1

Date

Label the most important relief features on the map.


__________ Sea

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
OCEAN

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Sea

 ________ OCEAN
0

Scale
111

Kilometres

Diagnostic
6 p1
h1_Espaa
Now, write the names of 189736
the oceans
and seasTest
in the
correct
place. fisico

Complete the word map on Spanish coasts.


Spanish coasts

C


areas

areas

Andalusia



Ceuta and Melilla

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3
3

Write the name of the two archipelagos that are part of Spain.


Label the main Spanish rivers on the map.

Cantabrian Sea

AT L A N T I C
OCEAN

Mediterranean
Sea
AT L A N T I C O C E A N

Ceuta

Scale
140

Kilometres

Melilla

189736 Diagnostic Test 6 p2 h1_Espaa hidrografia

Colour the rivers: red Atlantic watershed, blue Mediterranean watershed, green Cantabrian
watershed.

Look at the map and answer the questions.


What climate is found in the shaded

area? 
W

E
S


What are the temperatures like?


What is precipitation like?

What is the vegetation like?

189736_DiagnosticTest6_p2_h2

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Population and the economy of Spain

Name
1

DIAGNOSTIC TEST

Date

Write T (true) or F (false).


a. N
 atural growth is the difference between the number of people who are born in an area
in one year and the number of people who die in the same year.
b. The population of Spain continues to increase because of negative natural growth and migration.
c. The population of Spain is concentrated on the coasts and in the cities.
d. The active population includes homemakers, students and retired people.

Look at the map, and answer the questions.


N

Cantabrian Sea
A CORUA

E
S

LEON
PONTEVEDRA

OURENSE

KEY
Country border
Province border
POPULATION DENSITY
(Inhabitants per square kilometre)
Less than 10

ZAMORA

From 101 to 600

From 31 to 60

More than 600

A T L A N T I C

O C E A N

SANTACRUZ
DETENERIFE

LASPALMAS

SORIA

GIRONA
LLEIDA

ZARAGOZA

BARCELONA

SEGOVIA
SALAMANCA

TERUEL

MADRID

CASTELLON
CACERES

TOLEDO

BADAJOZ

CIUDAD REAL

CUENCA
VALENCIA
ALBACETE

BALEARIC
ISLANDS

ALICANTE
CORDOBA

HUELVA

TARRAGONA

GUADALAJARA
AVILA

From 61 to 100

From 10 to 30

VALLADOLID

ANDORRA

HUESCA

RIOJA

PALENCIA

A T L A N T I C
O C E A N

F R A N C E

SANTANDER VIZCAYA
GUIPUZCOA
ALAVA
NAVARRE
BURGOS

LUGO

P O
R T
U G
A L

ASTURIAS

SEVILLE

JAEN

GRANADA
MALAGA

MURCIA

Mediterranean
Sea

ALMERIA

CADIZ
Ceuta
Melilla

A L G E R I A

M O R O C C O

Test 7_p1
What information can you find on this189736_Diagnostic
map? 


What is the population density? How is it calculated? 

What provinces have the highest population density? 

Which two provinces have the lowest population density? 


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4
3

Calculate the population density of these Spanish provinces.


Province

Population

Cadiz

1,207,343

7,435 km2

351,326

12,349 km2

2,486,483

10,806 km2

Salamanca
Valencia

Area

Density

Read the clues and circle the words in the wordsearch. Then, copy them on the lines.
a. A fuel Spain imports.
b. The most abundant livestock in Spain.
c. The main activity in the tertiary sector in Spain.
d. The Autonomous Community with the most fishermen.
e. A person who is part of the active population and looking for work.
f. The economic sector which employs the least people.

a. 
b. 
c. 
d. 
e. 
f. 

Look at the pie chart. Describe how the active population is distributed in Spain.
Tertiary sector
Tertiary sector
65%

(65%)




Secondary
sector
Secondary sector
30%
(30%)

Primary
sector
Primary
sector
5%
(5%)

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Changes across time

DIAGNOSTIC TEST

Name
1

Date

Complete the word map. Write the main characteristics of Prehistory.


Prehistory


characteristics


characteristics

characteristics

Colour the zones and circles on the map. Use the legend.
Cantabrian Sea
ASTURES

Celtic and celtiberian zone

VA

CCA

LU

VETTONES

Greek colonies

AT L A N T I C

Phoenician colonies

Emporion

LA

RP

green

CA

SO

AREVACI
AN
ET

blue

EI

ES

red

Iberian zone
OCEAN

yellow

Rhode

NI
I E TA

Saguntum

Hemeroskopeion
CONTESTANI

CELTS
TURDETANI
Gadir

I
AN
TET

BAS
Abdera

Sexi

Ebyssos

MEDITERRANEAN
SEA
Car tago Nova

Malaca

grey

Carthaginian colonies

189736 Test_Diagnostic Test 8 p 1

Answer the questions.

What were the wars between the Romans and the Carthaginians called? 
What did the Romans call the Iberian Peninsula? 
What were the five provinces in Roman Hispania? 

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5
4

Complete the text.


The Visigoth kingdom
Before the year , the Roman Empire was frequently attacked
by

tribes, who came from the north of Europe. The Visigoths were one

of these tribes. They arrived in Hispania, and founded a kingdom with


as its capital. Three important Visigoth kings were ,
and .

Match the historic events and dates. Write the letter under the date.
A

929 1031

The Caliphate of Cordoba

The Moors invaded the Visigoth kingdom

1212

1492

Match.
Pelayo
Alfonso I
Fernando III
Isabel I of Castile
Fernando II of Aragon

Taifa Kingdoms

The Battle of Navas de Tolosa

711

The conquest of Granada

Kingdom of Asturias

Crown of Castile

Crown of Castile and Aragon

Crown of Aragon

Explain the differences between Romanesque buildings and Gothic buildings.






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Individual results chart


Name

Date
Yes

NR*

Comments

Living things and the environment


Identify the parts of a cell.
Identify some of the characteristics
of living things.
Recognise the five levels of organisation.
Identify two types of plant reproduction.
Describe what an ecosystem is.
Identify environmental problems and
solutions.

Forces and movement


Recognise the effects of forces on
movement.
Identify the forces involved in various
types of movement.
Identify different types of simple
machines.

The relief of Spain


Identify the main relief features
of Spain.
Identify Spanish coasts.
Recognise the climates of Spain.
Name and locate the main rivers and
watersheds in Spain.
Interpret maps using conventional
symbols.

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Individual results chart

Yes

NR*

Comments

Population and the economy of Spain


Use some concepts related to
population and the economy.
Understand how population is
distributed inSpain.
Identify some of the main activities in
the three economic sectors in Spain
Describe the distribution of the Spanish
population by economic sector.
Analyse and interpret pie charts.

Changes across time


Know the three ages of Prehistory and
their characteristics.
Name the people who inhabited the
Iberian Peninsula in antiquity.
Describe the Roman conquest of the
Iberian Peninsula and describe the
territorial organisation of Roman Spain.
Identify some of the main
characteristics of the Visigoth kingdom.
Identify essential facts of the Moorish
occupation of the peninsula during the
Middle Ages.
Identify the Christian kingdoms up to
1492.
Describe the differences between
Romanesque and Gothic buildings.

NP: Needs reinforcement.

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Answer key
1 Living things AND THE ENVIRONMENT
1. Label the parts of the cell.
Left from top to bottom: cytoplasm; organelle.
Right from top to bottom: nucleus; membrane.
2. Write T (true) or F (false).
3. Write the five levels of organisation in order.
1: cells; 2: tissues; 3: organs; 4: systems;
5: organisms.
4. Match.
During respiration, plants take in oxygen from the air
and give off carbon dioxide.
During photosynthesis, plants take in carbon dioxide
and give off oxygen.
5. Write the name of each type of plant reproduction.
From top to bottom: sexual reproduction; asexual
reproduction.
6. What is an ecosystem? Explain and give an example.
M.A. An ecosystem is a community of living things in
a physical environment. Examples:
forests, grasslands, deserts, oceans, lakes, etc.
7. List three environmental problems caused by people.
M. A. Pollution, deforestation, smog, global
warming, greenhouse gases, soil erosion; oil spills,
desertification; species extinction; etc.
8. Explain how the following actions can help protect the
environment.
Turning off a light saves electricity.
Using a bicycle saves fuel.

Wheels reduce friction.


Inclined planes enable you to apply less force.
Pulleys change the direction of a force.
Levers enable you to apply less force.
A: Third-class; B: second-class; C: first-class.
6. Look at the picture. Why is an inclined plane useful in
this building?
An inclined plane is useful because you need less
force to move an object up a ramp than to lift it
straight up on stairs.
3 The relief of Spain
1. Label the most important relief features on the map.
From top to bottom and left to right: Cantabrian Range;
Pyrenees; Iberian Mountain Chain; Central Mountain
Chain; Sierra Morena; Betic Mountain Chain.
Now, write the names of the oceans and seas in the
correct place.
Top centre: Cantabrian Sea; top left: Atlantic Ocean;
bottom left: Atlantic Ocean; right: Mediterranean Sea.
2. Complete the word map on Spanish coasts.
Cantabrian coast.
Atlantic coast: areas Galicia; Andalusia; Canary
Islands.
Mediterranean coast: areas: Andalusia;
Murcia and the Valencian community;
Coast of Catalonia and the Balearic Islands;
Coast of Ceuta and Melilla.
3. Write the name of the two archipelagos that are part
of Spain.

2 Forces and movement


1. Look at the pictures, and answer the questions.
The force of the club makes it move.
The ball stops because of friction.
2. Explain what speed is. How can you calculate it?
M. A. Speed is the rate of movement. To calculate
speed, you divide distance by the time it takes to
travel the distance.
Now, read and calculate the speed.
Marta: 400: 4 = 100 km/h; John: 400: 2 = 200 km/h.
3. Look at the pictures, and answer the questions.
M. A. Gravity makes the skydiver fall. Gravity
attracts all bodies towards the Earths surface.
M. A. Friction makes the skydiver fall more slowly.
Friction slows down moving objects. It occurs when
a body moves through air or water.

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4. Match.

5. Identify these three types of levers.

T, T, F, F, T.

114

DIAGNOSTIC TEST

The Balearic Islands and the Canary Islands.


4. Label the main Spanish rivers on the map.
Clockwise starting at the top left: Mio; Duero; Ebro;
Jucar; Segura; Guadalquivir; Guadiana; Tagus.
Colour the rivers: red - Atlantic watershed, blue
- Mediterranean watershed, green - Cantabrian
watershed.
red: Tagus; Duero; Guadiana; Guadalquivir; Mio.
blue: Ebro; Jucar; Segura; Turia; Ter.
green: Navia; Nalon; Eo Nervion; Bidasoa.
5. Look at the map and answer the questions.
The Mediterranean climate.
Temperatures are mild because it is near the sea.
There is little precipitation, especially in summer.
The vegetation is Mediterranean forest.

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Answer key DIAGNOSTIC TEST


4 population and the economy if Spain
1. Write T (true) or F (false).
a: T; b: F; c: T; d: F.
2. Look at the map, and answer the questions.
Information on population density.
Population density is the number of inhabitants per
square kilometre. To calculate it, divide the total
number of inhabitants in a place by its surface
area.
The provinces with the highest population density
are Madrid and Barcelona.
The two provinces with the lowest population
density are Soria and Teruel.
3. Calculate the population density of these Spanish
provinces.
2

Cadiz 1,207,343 divided by 7,435 km = 162.38


inhabitants/km2.
Salamanca 351,326 divided by 12,349 km2 = 28.44
inhabitants/km2.
Valencia: 2,486,483 divided by 10,806 km2 = 230.1
inhabitants/km2.
4. Read the clues and circle the words in the
wordsearch. Then, copy them on the lines.
a. petroleum; b. pigs; c. tourism; d. Galicia;
e. unemployed.
5. Look at the pie chart. Describe how the active
population is distributed in Spain.
Five out of every 100 people work in the primary
sector. Thirty out of every 100 people work in the
secondary sector. Sixty-five out of every 100 people
work in the tertiary sector.
5 Changes across time
1. Complete the word map. Write the main
characteristics of Prehistory.

blue: Rhode; Emporion, Saguntum; Hemeroskopeion.


green: Gadir, Sexi; Malaca; Abdera.
grey: Ebyssos; Cartago Nova.
3. Answer the questions.
Punic Wars. Hispania. Baetica, Lusitania,
Tarraconense, Gallaecia and Carthaginense.
4. Complete the text.
Before the year 400 A.D., the Roman Empire was
frequently attacked by Germanic tribes, who came
from the north of Europe. The Visigoths were
one of these tribes. They arrived in Hispania, and
founded a kingdom with Toledo as its capital. Three
important Visigoth kings were Liuvigild; Recarred and
Recceswinth.
5. Match the historic events and dates. Write the letter
under the date.
711 - E: The Moors invaded the Visigoth kingdom;
929 - C: The Caliphate of Cordoba;
1031 - B: Taifa Kingdoms;
1212 - D: The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa;
1492 - A: The conquest of Granada.
6. Match.
Pelayo: Kingdom of Asturias;
Alfonso I: Crown of Aragon;
Fernando III: Crown of Castile;
Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon: Crown
of Castile and Aragon.
7. Explain the differences between Romanesque
buildings and Gothic buildings.
M. A. Romanesque buildings were solid with thick,
stone walls and round arches. They had few windows
and the interior was dark. Gothic buildings were tall
and slender with thin walls and pointed arches. They
had many large stained glass windows, so the interior
was light.

M. A. Palaeolithic: People were nomads. Tools were


made of wood, bone and stone. Cave paintings of
animals.
Neolithic: people cultivated crops and domesticated
animals. They built villages and became sedentary.
Tools were made of polished stone. Pottery and cloth
were invented. Cave paintings showed scenes of
dancing, hunting and gathering.
Metal Ages: People made objects from metal.
Villages grew into towns. The wheel, the sail and
plough were invented.
2. Colour the zones and circles on the map. Use the key.
yellow: lower south and east portion of the peninsula.
red: upper north and west portion of the peninsula.

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Assessment

Unit
assessments

Unit
tests

1 Nutrition I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

118

148

2 Nutrition II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

120

149

3 Sensitivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

122

150

4 Reproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

124

151

5 Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

126

152

6 Electricity and magnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

128

153

7 Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

130

154

8 Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

132

155

9 Representations of the Earth . . . . . . . . . . . .

134

156

10 European landscapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

136

157

11 The population and economy of Europe . . . . .

138

158

12 The European Union . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

140

159

13 From Prehistory to the Middle Ages . . . . . . . .

142

160

14 The Modern Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

144

161

15 The Contemporary Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

146

162

Term assessments
Term 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Term 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Term 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Term tests
Term 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Term 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Term 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Final assessment and test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Answer keys
Unit assessments and tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Term assessments and tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Final assessment and test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

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Nutrition I

ASSESSment

Name
1

Date

Explain the function of nutrition.





Make a word map of the processes and systems involved in nutrition.

What organ systems obtain and transport the oxygen we need?





Write two examples for each category.


Nutrients from
animal sources

Nutrients from
vegetable sources

Which of these components of food is not a nutrient? Explain why.


vitamins

lipids

fibre

water

minerals

carbohydrates





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1
6

What happens if a diet is too rich in carbohydrates and fats? Explain your answer.




List the helper glands and the substances they produce.






Label the diagram of the digestive system.

Define.
bolus


chyme


chyle

10

When does the absorption of food take place? Explain.






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Nutrition II

ASSESSment

Name
1

Date

Explain what respiration consists of.





Describe gas exchange in the alveoli during respiration.





Look at the pictures. Write inspiration or expiration.


A

Write the name of the muscles that carry out breathing movements.


Write T (true) or F (false).


a. The kidneys filter the blood in our body.

c. Urine is expelled as soon as it is produced.

b. Urine is expelled through the urethra.

d. The ureters connect the urethra to the bladder.

Answer the questions.


Where is sweat formed? 

What does sweat consist of?


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2
6

Label the diagram of the excretory system.

Complete the table.


Types of blood cells

Function

Draw the heart and label its parts. Use arrows to show the direction of blood circulation.

Answer these questions about systemic circulation.


What part of the circulatory system transports blood from the heart to the rest of the body?

What process takes place in the capillaries?

Which part of the heart pumps blood to the rest of the body?


10 Explain the difference between systole and diastole.





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Sensitivity

ASSESSment

Name
1

Date

Explain what the function of sensitivity consists of.





What group of organs and what systems are involved in sensitivity?





Complete the word map on the nervous system.


nervous system
cerebellum
Nervous
system


nervous system
motor nerves

What parts of the skeletal system protect the brain and the spinal cord?


Complete the diagram of the neuron. Then, answer the question.

What do a group of axons form?

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3
6

Look at the picture. Write reflex movement or voluntary movement. Explain your answer.





Write the word that corresponds to each definition.


Muscles that create opposite movements.

An elastic material that covers the ends of bones.

Special cells that can detect stimuli from the environment.

Explain what involuntary muscles are. Give two examples.






Label the main endocrine glands.

Explain the functions of the hormones produced in the pituitary gland.





10 Anna had an accident and has difficulty maintaining her balance.


What part of her brain was damaged? Think and answer.



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Reproduction

ASSESSment

Name
1

Date

Explain what secondary sexual characteristics are. Give three examples.





Label the diagram. Then, circle the correct word.

This diagram represents the male / female reproduction system.

Write the part of the reproductive system.


It produces the female sex cells.

The baby grows inside this part of the body during pregnancy.

They produce spermatozoa.

A tissue sac that protects the testicles.

Answer the questions.


What are the sex cells involved in fertilisation? 
What cell is created by the union of an ovule and a spermatozoa? 

Explain the difference between each pair of words.


semen spermatozoa 

ovule ovary 


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4
6

Write one sentence with each group of words.


spermatozoa male tail

ovules female large spherical


Explain how fertilisation takes place.






Complete the sentences.


The embryo is found inside a sac filled with a liquid called .
The embryo receives nutrients and oxygen from its mother through the .
The embryo is joined to the placenta by the .
After the third month, the embryo is called a .

Label the diagram.

10 Order the stages of birth. Write 1, 2 and 3.


a. The dilation stage. The opening to the uterus gradually gets wider.
b. The afterbirth. The expulsion of the placenta.
c. The expulsion stage. The baby exits the mothers body through the vagina.

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Health

ASSESSment

Name
1

Date

Define health.



List five healthy habits.




Complete the word map.


how quickly they appear
and how long they last
Illness and disease
can be classified by
their origin

What is the difference between epidemic and endemic diseases? Explain your answer.




List three effects for each drug.



Effects of
alcohol use


Effects of
tobacco use

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5
6

Why is the use of drugs a risk to your health? Explain your answer.




Name the infectious agent that causes each type of infection.


tetanus or salmonella 

athletes foot

flu or AIDS

malaria

How can microbes enter our body? Write five examples.








Circle the four mistakes in the text. Then, write the sentences correctly.
Antibiotics are substances that are toxic to viruses. Antibiotics are not harmful to people,
therefore, they are very effective in fighting infections caused by viruses, fungi or protozoans.




10 Explain what happens when a vaccine is injected into a healthy person.








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Electricity and magnetism

ASSESSment

Name
1

Date

Complete the sentences.


All objects have

and

electrical charges. If an object has

more positive charges than negative charges, it is


negative charges than positive charges, it is

charged. If it has more

charged. Objects with the same

charge . Objects with different charges .

Look at the pictures and explain what changes are taking place.
A






Explain the diagram. Describe the action of the forces.







What is an electromagnet? Answer.





Will these magnets attract or repel each other? Why?






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6
6

Read the definition and write the word.


Organised movement of electrical charges through material.

A magnetic instrument that shows directions.

Materials that do not conduct electrical current.

Name three types of energy produced by electrical current.


Label the components of this electrical circuit.

Explain the function of each element in an electrical circuit.


generator

cables

switch








10 Look at this electrical circuit. Will the light bulb turn on? Why or why not?





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Energy

ASSESSment

Name
1

Date

Read and write the type of energy.


Due to their movement, objects have this type of energy.

Substances such as fuel or food have this type of energy.

Substances such as uranium or plutonium have this type of energy.

Complete the word map.


Properties of energy

Energy can be


Energy can be


Energy can be


Energy can be


Now, write an example to explain each of these properties.





Write T (true) or F (false).


a. A thermometer is an instrument used to measure heat.
b. Heat is a form of energy that makes the temperature of objects rise.
c. Metals are good insulators of heat.
d. When an object loses heat, its temperature rises.

Explain the difference between expansion and contraction.






When we rub our hands together, and they get warm, what energy transformation takes place?
Think and answer.



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7
6

Why does the temperature of a room rise when it fills up with people? Think and answer.




Write the type of energy used in each power plant.


thermal power plants

nuclear power plants

hydroelectric power plants

Name two types of power plants that use renewable energy.





Explain what radioactive waste is.







10 Look at the pictures and explain how electrical energy comes into our homes.






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Machines

ASSESSment

Name
1

Date

Answer the questions.


What do we use machines for? 



What are the three main types of machines? 


Look at three machines. What does each one do for us?


A

Explain what a sensor is and write four examples.






Explain what an operating part is.





Look at the picture. What type of machine is it? What type of energy does it use?




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8
6

This sentence is not correct. Write the correct version.


Sensors give us information about how a machine works.



Write the name of each mechanism. Explain how it works.





B







Name three types of operating parts in a bicycle. Explain what each does.





Circle the machines that have a motor. Then, write the type of motor it is.
chainsaw

blender

bicycle

hammer




10 How have technological advances changed society? Give one example for each area.
work

transportation

health

communication

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Representations of the Earth

Name
1

ASSESSment

Date

Explain why the best way to represent the Earth is a globe.






Define.
map


world map


scale

Look at the map. Write A, B, C or D.


north latitude + west longitude
south latitude + east longitude

north latitude + east longitude

south latitude + west longitude

C
B

Scale
2,000

Kilometres

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9
4

What is the Greenwich Meridian? Label the Greenwich Meridian on the map in Activity 3.



Label the continents and oceans on the map in Activity 3.

Look at the map in Activity 3 and complete the table.


Point

Latitude

Longitude

Hemisphere

A
B
C
D

Explain the difference between a relief map of the world and a political map of the world.




This text is not correct. Write the correct version.


Meridians are imaginary lines that circle the Earth. These lines are parallel to the equator.
The equator is the principal meridian.




Look at the map and calculate the actual distance between La Poveda and El Otero.
Scale: 1:1,000,000

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10

European landscapes

Name
1

ASSESSment

Date

Write T (true) or F (false).


a. Europe lies in the southern hemisphere.
b. The Iberian, Italian and Irish Peninsulas are in southern Europe.
c. The Scandinavian Mountains are the eastern boundary between Europe and Asia.
d. The Black Forest Mountains are found on the Great European Plain.

Answer the questions.


What are fjords? Where are they found? 

What are massifs?


Think about European relief features. Where are plains found? Where are the highest mountains found?



Describe the European coast. Give examples of three coastal features.






Complete the table with the characteristics of European climates.


Climate

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Temperatures

Precipitation

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10
6

Match.
continental climate

taiga

oceanic climate

tundra

polar climate

meadows

Write the name of one European river for each watershed.


Arctic watershed

Atlantic watershed

Mediterranean watershed

Black Sea watershed

Caspian Sea watershed

Look at the map. Write the number that corresponds to each feature.
a. Vosges Range
b. Cape St. Vincent
c. Jutland Peninsula
d. The Alps
e. Mount Elbrus
f. River Danube
g. River Volga
h. Iceland

Complete the table of Spanish watersheds.


Watershed

Name of a river

10 Describe what the relief is like in Spain.




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11

The population and economy


of Europe

ASSESSment

Name
1

Date

Complete the word map.


Characteristics of the population of Europe
The number
of inhabitants is...

The population is ageing


because...

Most of the population


is concentrated in...

Explain the effects of immigration on the European population.





Write the names of three European countries for each characteristic.


High population density

Low population density

Look at the pie chart. Explain why it is not correct.


Tertiary sector

65%
Primary
sector
(66%)





Tertiary sector
Secondary
sector
30%
(30%)

Secondary
Primarysector
sector
5%
(4%)

Describe livestock farming and fishing in Europe.


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6

What are the main industries in Europe?




Name one secondary sector industry in Spain.


Why is the Spanish population ageing? Write two main factors.





Write a sentence with each group of words.


European

immigration

population growth



ageing

birth rate

life expectancy

Europe




What are the most important activities in the tertiary sector in Europe?


Name one tertiary sector activity in Spain.


10 Most people in Europe live in cities. Why? Think and answer.





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12

The European Union

Name
1

ASSESSment

Date

Answer the questions.


What is the European Union? 

Why was it created? 


Look at the map of the EU. What stage of development does it correspond to: the first, the present or
the future? Explain your answer




Netherlands
West
Germany

Belgium
Luxembourg

France
Italy




Explain what the eurozone is.


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List three joint measures adopted by the European Union.






Complete the word map.

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Institutions of the European Union

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12
6

Read and write the name of these institutions of the European Union.
It makes all the important decisions in the European Union.

It upholds European Union laws.

It is the government of the European Union.

Complete the sentences.


The European Parliament approves European and co-ordinates economic .
It controls all the institutions of the European Union. The European Parliament is elected every
years. Its members are called . They are
elected directly by EU citizens in each member state. The parliament also has a who
directs the activities of the parliament and is present at the sessions. Meetings of the European
Parliament are held in

and .

What are the symbols of the European Union? Describe them.





What is the single market? Explain its significance.





10 Colour the countries


that form the
European Union
blue.

LA

NT

IC

OC

EA

ARCTIC OCEAN

AT

Bla

Scale

503

Kilometres

Canary
Islands

M e d i t e r r ane

an

Sea

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13

From Prehistory to the Middle Ages

Name
1

ASSESSment

Date

Answer the questions.


What is Prehistory? 

List the three ages of Prehistory.

When did Prehistory begin? When did it end?


Complete with the ages of Prehistory.


In the , people made tools of polished stone and textiles.
In the , people hunted, fished and gathered fruit and vegetables.
In the , villages and towns grew into small cities.

Explain why people in the Neolithic Age stopped being nomads.






Describe the paintings of the Neolithic Age.






Complete the table.


The Celts

The Iberians

Location:
Professions:

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13
6

Identify the kingdom described in this text.


There was a kingdom in the Guadalquivir valley. Its territory was very rich in metals such
as gold, silver, copper and tin. The inhabitants were experts in making objects out of metal.


Match each colony with its location and its arrival on the Iberian Peninsula.
Greek

Balearic Islands and the eastern Iberian Peninsula

seventh century B.C.

Phoenician

Andalusian coast

sixth century B.C.

Carthaginian

Catalonian coast

third century B.C.

Write T (true) or F (false).


a. The Romans landed in Emporion in 380 BC.
b. The Romans divided Hispania into provinces.
c. Roman cities had two main streets: the cardo and the forum.
d. Aqueducts brought fresh water to the cities.

Write the date of each historic event.

The Battle of Navas de Tolosa

The conquest of the Kingdom of Granada

The Moorish conquest began

The Taifa Kingdoms appeared

10 Name the architectural style of each church. Explain your answer.











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14

The Modern Age in Spain

Name
1

ASSESSment

Date

List the territories conquored by the Catholic Monarchs.





Why are these people famous?


Christopher Columbus


Hernan Cortes


Francisco Pizarro

Answer the questions.


Who were the pre-Columbian peoples? 

How did the Spanish organise their territory in America? 


Colour the map. Use the key.


green

Inca Empire

AT L A N T I C
PAC I F I C

red

Aztec Empire

orange

Maya Empire

OCEAN
OCEAN

The Spanish Empire had many territories in the 16th century. Name the continents where they were located.
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14
6

Match each historic event to the king who was ruling at the time.
The Battle of Lepanto

Carlos I

The defeat of the Spanish Armada

The revolt of the Communities

Felipe II

The problems with the Lutherans

Tick the events that led to the War of Succession.


a. The king raised taxes and the population
became poorer.

e. The Netherlands wanted


independence.

b. Carlos II died without a successor.

f. European countries supported the


Archduke Charles or Philip of Anjou,
depending on their own interests.

c. The kings favourites tried to give him


more power.
d. There were two candidates for the Spanish
throne, one from Germany and one from France.

g. In Spain, Castile supported Philip


of Anjou, and Aragon supported
the Archduke Charles.

Define.
favourite or valido: 

absolute monarchy: 


Complete the word map.

Society in the 17th century


Unprivileged
Clerics

Write the name of a famous person for each profession in the Modern Age.
A Spanish painter

A Spanish writer

A Spanish sculptor

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15

The Contemporary Age in Spain

Name
1

ASSESSment

Date

Match the historic event to the date it took place.


The end of the War of Independence when Fernando VII returned as King of Spain.

1808

The first Spanish Constitution was approved.

1812

The start of the War of Independence.

1814

Argentina won its independence.

1816

Complete the sentences.


Fernando VII abolished the Constitution of Cadiz, and established an
. He persecuted the . Some of them left Spain to avoid jail.
Others tried to take power through a , which is a sudden seizure of power
from a government. The American colonies took advantage of the political disorder on the peninsula,
and began to struggle for .

Explain the difference between an absolute monarchy and a constitutional monarchy.





Who was General Primo de Rivera, and what did he do?






Answer the questions about the Spanish Civil War.


How did it start? 

What two groups fought against each other? 

How long did the war last? 


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15
6

Write T (true) or F (false).


a. In 1939, Francisco Franco established a democracy.
b. The first Statutes of Autonomy were declared during the Second Republic.
c. Francisco Franco allowed political parties and labour unions.
d. During the dictatorship under Franco, Spain was internationally isolated.

This text is not correct. Write the correct version.


The transition was the period of political changes that were made to move from the monarchy
of General Franco towards democracy. This process began in 1936 and ended in 1982.



When did these historic events take place? Write the correct year.

Juan Carlos I was crowned King of Spain.

The first democratic elections that were held in Spain since 1936.

The current Constitution was approved.

Spain joined the European Community.

List the presidents of the Spanish government since the approval of the last Constitution.




10 Complete the word map.


Society in the nineteenth century

middle class

bourgeois

servants

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Nutrition I

TEST 1

Name

Date

Circle the correct option.


1. The systems involved in nutrition are...
a. the digestive, respiratory, excretory
and circulatory systems.
b. the mouth, the stomach, the large
intestine and the small intestine.
c. blood and oxygen.
2. The nutrients necessary to grow and repair
our bodies are
a. vitamins.

6. The first stage of the digestive process


is
a. digestion.
b. nutrition.
c. absorption.
7. The elimination of waste is carried out
by the
a. excretory system.
b. respiratory system.

b. lipids.

c. digestive system.

c. proteins.

8. Gastric juices are produced in the

3. Helper glands produce

a. stomach.

a. food.

b. oesophagus.

b. digestive juices.

c. small intestine.

c. gastric juices.
4. The process in which nutrients pass from
the digestive tube to the blood is called

9. Fruit is rich in
a. carbohydrates, proteins and fibre.

a. digestion.

b. fibre, vitamins, minerals and


carbohydrates.

b. absorption.

c. fats, proteins and vitamins.

c. elimination of waste.
10. The liver produces
5. Fibre is a

a. saliva.

a. nutrient from animal sources.

b. pancreatic juice.

b. component of food from vegetable


sources.

c. bile.

c. component of proteins.

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Nutrition II

TEST 2

Name

Date

Circle the correct option.


1. During respiration...

6. Urine is expelled through the

a. we expel carbon dioxide and oxygen.

a. bladder.

b. air enters the lungs through systole


and diastole.

b. ureters.

c. we expel carbon dioxide and obtain


oxygen.
2. The elimination of waste substances from
the blood is called
a. respiration.
b. excretion.
c. circulation.
3. Arteries are blood vessels which
a. circulate blood inside the organs.
b. carry blood away from the heart.
c. carry blood to the heart.
4. The period of contraction of the heart is
called
a. diastole.
b. inspiration.
c. systole.
5. The thoracic cavity is formed by the
a. lungs, the heart and the kidneys.
b. sternum, the ribs and part of the
spinal column.
c. larynx, the trachea and the
bronchi.

c. urethra.
7. Blood enters the heart at the atria
through the
a. veins.
b. arteries.
c. capillaries.
8. Blood circulation
a. distributes nutrients and oxygen
through the body, and picks up waste
substances.
b. obtains oxygen from the air, and
eliminates carbon dioxide.
c. eliminates waste substances and
oxygen.
9. The trachea divides into two
a. lungs.
b. bronchi.
c. alveoli.
10. The part of the excretory system that
connects the kidneys to the bladder is
called the
a. atrium.
b. urethra.
c. ureters.

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Sensitivity

TEST 3

Name

Date

Circle the correct option.


1. The bones and muscles form the
a. nervous system.

6. The muscles receive orders from the


central nervous system through the

b. locomotor system.

a. motor nerves.

c. circulatory system.

b. voluntary nerves.
c. reflex nerves.

2. The receptor cells

7. The brain stem

a. form the brain.


b. can detect stimuli from
the environment.

a. regulates the activity of man


of our organs.

c. are the most important part of


the spinal cord.

b. co-ordinates movements
and maintains balance.

3. Bones are held together at the joints


by

c. controls all voluntary acts.


8. Insulin is produced by the

a. tendons.

a. thyroid.

b. cartilage.

b. pituitary gland.

c. ligaments.

c. pancreas.

4. Sensitivity is controlled by the


a. skeletal system.

a. nervous system, the involuntary


muscles and the endocrine system.

b. nervous system.
c. muscular system.
5. The part of a neuron which transmits
information to other neurons and sends
orders to the organs of the body is the
a. body.
b. dendrites.
c. axon.

9. The systems involved in internal


co-ordination are the

b. circulatory, digestive and nervous


systems.
c. locomotor system, the brain and the
sense organs.
10. The central nervous system consists
ofthe
a. nerves.
b. brain and the spinal cord.
c. endocrine system and the brain.

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Reproduction

TEST 4

Name

Date

Circle the correct option.


1. The physical differences between men
and women are the

6. During birth, the baby exits through the


a. placenta.

a. reproductive systems.

b. navel.

b. sexual characteristics.

c. vagina.

c. sexual hormones.
2. The female sex cells are the

7. The elastic hollow organ where the baby


grows during pregnancy is the

a. ovules.

a. uterus.

b. spermatozoa.

b. vagina.

c. ovaries.

c. vulva.

3. The period of a womans life between


fertilisation and the birth of a baby is
called
a. zygote.

8. The first cell of a new being is called


a. a fetus.
b. a zygote.
c. an embryo.

b. embryo.
c. pregnancy.
4. The tissue sac that protects the testicles is
the
a. urethra.

9. The placenta is an organ that forms


in the
a. uterus.
b. ovaries.
c. Fallopian tubes.

b. scrotum.
c. prostrate.
5. The liquid that transports and feeds sperm
cells is called
a. semen.

10. The stage of birth in which the expulsion


of the placenta occurs is the
a. afterbirth.
b. expulsion stage.
c. dilation stage.

b. placenta.
c. amniotic fluid.

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Health

TEST 5

Name

Date

Circle the correct option.


1. A state of complete physical, mental
and social well-being is called
a. health.

6. Medicines given to healthy people to


protect them from infectious diseases
are called

b. healthy habits.

a. antibiotics.

c. personal hygiene.

b. vaccines.

2. Parasitic infections are caused by

c. injections.
7. Depending on how quickly they appear
and how long they last, illnesses
can be

a. bacteria.
b. viruses.
c. protozoans.

a. infectious or non-infectious.

3. These substances are toxic to bacteria,


but not harmful to people:

b. acute or chronic.
c. epidemic or endemic.

a. antibiotics.
8. Athletes foot is caused by

b. vaccines.

a. protozoans.

c. suppositories.

b. fungi.
4. Infectious diseases that only affect a few
people are called

c. a virus.
9. Infectious diseases that are common
in a particular area or region are called

a. epidemic diseases.
b. sporadic diseases.

a. epidemic diseases.

c. endemic diseases.

b. endemic diseases.
5. Salmonella is a disease caused by

c. chronic illnesses.

a. the bite of an insect.


b. contaminated food.
c. contaminated water.

10. Malaria is a disease caused by


a. a vaccine.
b. the bite of an insect.
c. contaminated water.

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Electricity and magnetism

TEST 6

Name

Date

Circle the correct option.


1. Electrical charges of the same type
a. attract.

6. If the same poles of two magnets are put


close to each other, the magnets will

b. repel.

a. do nothing.

c. are neutral.

b. move together.

2. Some magnets can attract other objects.


This property is called
a. electricity.

c. repel each other.


7. If more electrical charges circulate
through an object, the current is

b. magnetism.

a. stronger.

c. gravity.

b. weaker.

3. Materials that carry electrical current well


are called
a. conductors.

c. the same.
8. The component of an electrical circuit
that controls current flow is the

b. insulators.

a. generator.

c. positive.

b. switch.

4. The component of an electrical circuit


that produces the electrical current
is the
a. cable.

c. motor.
9. When a compass is in a horizontal
position, the needle turns until it points
to the

b. motor.

a. north.

c. generator.

b. south.

5. When an object is left with more negative


charges, we say it is
a. positively charged.

c. axis of rotation.
10. For electrical current to flow through
an electrical circuit, the

b. positively and negatively charged.

a. circuit must be closed.

c. negatively charged.

b. switch must be open.


c. generator must have one terminal.

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Energy

TEST 7

Name

Date

Circle the correct option.


1. Due to their movement, objects have
a. thermal energy.

7. Too much carbon dioxide in the


atmosphere is causing

b. light energy.

a. acid rain.

c. mechanical energy.

b. the depletion of resources.

2. An instrument used to measure


temperature is the
a. conductor.

c. global warming.
8. Energy has many properties.
For example, it can be

b. thermometer.

a. transformed into fossil fuel.

c. insulator.

b. stored and transported.

3. When an object increases in size because


the temperature rises, this is called

c. transformed from one type


of energy to another.
9. When two objects of different
temperatures come in contact

a. contraction.
b. heat.
c. expansion.
4. Turbines or generators are not used in
a. nuclear power plants.
b. solar thermal power plants.
c. solar photovoltaic power plants.
5. Energy is transported from power plants to
the places where it is consumed through
a. cells.

a. the object with the higher


temperature transfers heat to the
object with the lower temperature.
b. the object with the lower temperature
transfers heat to the object with the
higher temperature.
c. both objects transfer heat into
the air.
10. The machines used to turn a generator
in a power plant are called

b. power lines.

a. turbines.

c. generators.

b. switches.
c. power lines.

6. Fossil fuels are a


a. renewable source of energy.
b. non-renewable source of energy.
c. clean source of energy.

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Machines

TEST 8

Name

Date

Circle the correct option.


1. Objects used to save time and energy
when we do different tasks are called

6. Machines used to cool or heat things are


called

a. motors.

a. mechanical machines.

b. forces.

b. thermal machines.

c. machines.

c. automatic machines.

2. Machines used to lift heavy objects or


produce movement are called
a. thermal engines.

7. The elements that enable a machine to


receive information from the outside or
inside of the machine are called

b. mechanical machines.

a. sensors.

c. compound machines.

b. indicators.

3. To produce movement, an automatic


machine needs a
a. gear.

c. screens.
8. Long bars with teeth that fit into toothed
wheels or other parts are called

b. motor.

a. racks.

c. housing.

b. springs.

4. Moving pieces that transmit movement


or force in mechanical machines are
called
a. operating springs.
b. operating parts.
c. operating motors.
5. The gears in a bicycle used to change
the turning speed of an axle are called
a. racks.
b. shifting gears.
c. cranks.

c. gears.
9. In this gear, the small
wheel
a. turns in the same
direction as the large wheel.
b. turns in a different direction than the
large wheel.
c. will not turn.
10. In a machine, the components are built
on or around the
a. structure.
b. housing.
c. screen.

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Representations of the Earth

TEST 9

Name

Date

Circle the correct option.


1. A map that represents the entire surface
of the Earth is called a

6. The equator is a
a. parallel.

a. globe.

b. meridian.

b. scale.

c. country.

c. world map.

7. Australia is part of

2. The largest continent is

a. Asia.

a. Asia.

b. Oceania.

b. Africa.

c. America.

c. Oceania.

8. Europe and Asia are separated by the

3. The imaginary lines that run from pole


to pole are called
a. meridians.

a. Pacific Ocean.
b. Ural and the Caucasus Mountains.
c. Pyrenees.

b. parallels.
9. Meridians enable you to measure

c. latitudes.

a. latitude.
4. The Antarctic Ocean is located in the
a. southern hemisphere.

b. longitude.
c. hemispheres.

b. northern hemisphere.
c. western hemisphere.
5. The relationship between the actual
distance on the Earth and the distance
on a map is indicated by the
a. scale.

10. If the scale on a map is 1 : 700,000,


each centimetre on the map is
equivalent to
a. 700 km.
b. 70 km.
c. 7 km.

b. legend.
c. longitude.

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European landscapes

TEST 10

Name

Date

Circle the correct option.


1. Europe is bordered on the north by the

6. Steppes are characteristic of

a. Mediterranean Sea.

a. continental climates.

b. Arctic Ocean.

b. Atlantic climates.

c. Cantabrian Sea.

c. polar climates.

2. The north of the Scandinavian countries


and Russia have

7. The largest rivers in Europe are in the


a. Arctic watershed.

a. a continental climate.

b. Mediterranean watershed.

b. a polar climate.

c. Atlantic watershed.

c. an oceanic climate.
3. The longest river in Europe is the

8. The largest, deepest lakes in Europe are


found in

a. Danube.

a. northern Europe.

b. Volga.

b. central Europe.

c. Ebro.

c. southern Europe.

4. The relief of the Iberian Peninsula can be


described as

9. Valleys made by glaciers into which


seawater enters are called

a. high with mountains.

a. bays.

b. volcanic.

b. gulfs.

c. flat.

c. fjords.

5. Mount Elbrus is found in the

10. The Rhone river is located in the

a. Caucasus.

a. Atlantic watershed.

b. Alps.

b. Mediterranean watershed.

c. Carpathians.

c. Black Sea watershed.

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The population and economy of Europe


Name

TEST 11

Date

Circle the correct option.


1. The main characteristic of the European
population is its

6. The most important economic sector


in Spain is the

a. ageing population.

a. primary sector.

b. low life expectancy.

b. secondary sector.

c. high growth rate.

c. tertiary sector.

2. The European population is mostly

7. In Europe, immigration has increased

a. urban.

a. life expectancy.

b. agricultural.

b. the number of births.

c. rural.

c. the number of deaths.

3. The economic sector that employs


the fewest people in Europe is the

8. One European country in the high


population density zone is

a. primary sector.

a. Greece.

b. secondary sector.

b. Luxembourg.

c. tertiary sector.

c. Sweden.

4. In the coastal Mediterranean areas,


livestock farming is

9. Europe is the continent with the

a. extensive.

a. densest system of railways and


roadways in the world.

b. intensive.

b. most commercial ports in the world.

c. limited.

c. oldest system of air transport in the


world.

5. Currently, the birth rate in Europe is


a. high, so the growth rate is slow.
b. low, so the growth rate is slow.
c. very high, so the growth rate is high.

10. One of the main activities of the service


sector in Europe is
a. cattle farming.
b. the consumer goods industry.
c. commerce.

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The European Union

TEST 12

Name

Date

Circle the correct option.


1. The European Union is an economic and
political organisation formed by
a. twenty-seven democratic European
countries.
b. all the countries of Europe.
c. twelve democratic European countries.
2. The countries that signed the Treaty
ofRome were
a. Germany, Italy, Belgium, Spain and
France.
b. Germany, Belgium, Netherlands,
Luxembourg and France.
c. Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands,
Luxembourg and France.
3. The Treaty of Maastricht was signed in
a. 1957.
b. 1986.
c. 1992.
4. MEPs are elected every
a. three years.
b. four years.
c. five years.
5. The official currency of the European
Union is the

6. Spain joined the European Union in


a. 1958.
b. 1986.
c. 2007.
7. The Council of the European Union is
made up of
a. MEPs.
b. ministers from each member state.
c. one judge from each member state.
8. The institution that governs the European
Union is the
a. European Commission.
b. Council of the European Union.
c. European Parliament.
9. The European Parliament holds
its meetings in
a. Brussels and Strasbourg.
b. Strasbourg and Luxembourg.
c. Paris and Brussels.
10. The institution that approves budgets
and laws, and controls the other EU
institutions is the
a. European Parliament.

a. dollar.

b. Council of the European Union.

b. pound.

c. Court of Auditors.

c. euro.

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From Prehistory to the Middle Ages

TEST 13

Name

Date

Circle the correct option.


1. Prehistory began with the

6. Menhirs and dolmens are

a. appearance of human beings.

a. cave paintings.

b. invention of writing.

b. polished stone tools.

c. invention of the wheel.

c. megaliths.

2. In the Palaeolithic Age, people were


a. nomads.

7. The Roman emperor who achieved


the conquest of Hispania was

b. sedentary.

a. Hannibal.

c. farmers.

b. Augustus.

3. When the Greeks arrived on the Iberian


Peninsula, they settled on the
a. Catalonian coast.

c. Fernando.
8. Christians in Al-Andalus who accepted
the Muslim religion were called

b. Balearic Islands.

a. Muladis.

c. Andalusian coast.

b. Almohads.

4. In Roman cities, the decumanus


was a
a. street that crossed the city from north
to south.
b. street that crossed the city from east
to west.
c. building where people bathed.
5. When Al-Andalus was a province that
belonged to the caliph of Damascus,
it was
a. a caliphate.
b. an emirate.

c. Almoravids.
9. The Battle of Navas de Tolosa took
place in
a. 1212.
b. 711.
c. 1492.
10. Basilicas were the buildings that Romans
used for
a. bathing.
b. imperial business.
c. events.

c. a Taifa Kingdom.

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The Modern Age in Spain

TEST 14

Name

Date

Circle the correct option.


1. In 1492, the Catholic Monarchs completed
the conquest of
a. the Canary Islands.
b. Europe.
c. Portugal.
2. The Incas occupied the territory now
called

6. Favourites or validos were


a. assistants who helped the king with
the tasks of government.
b. men who had the confidence of the
king and governed in his name.
c. foreign advisers.
7. Hernan Cortes conquered

a. Mexico.

a. Ecuador.

b. Peru.

b. Mexico.

c. Guatemala.

c. Peru.

3. The historic event that took place in 1520


was the

8. At the Battle of Lepanto in 1571,


Felipe II defeated the

a. discovery of America.

a. Turks.

b. revolt of the Communities.

b. Incas.

c. Battle of Lepanto.

c. English.

4. The Armada was the


a. Spanish fleet defeated by France
in1588.
b. English fleet defeated by Spain
in1588.
c. Spanish fleet defeated by England
in1588.
th

5. In the 18 century, the new dynasty


ofkings that ruled Spain was
a. Carlos I.
b. the Catholic Monarchs.
c. the Bourbons.

9. The Herrerian style of architecture is


characterised by its
a. austere style and minimal
decoration.
b. imitation of Roman architecture.
c. rich ornamentation.
10. One of the causes of the War of
Succession was the fact that
a. the Lutherans did not accept the
authority of the pope.
b. Carlos II died without leaving
a successor.
c. France wanted to conquer Spain.

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The Contemporary Age in Spain

TEST 15

Name

Date

Circle the correct option.


1. The War of Independence took place in
a. 1880.

6. Francisco Franco

b. 1808.

a. abolished the constitution and political


parties.

c. 1812.

b. approved the Statutes of Autonomy.

2. Joseph Bonaparte was Napoleon


Bonapartes brother and
a. King of Spain.

c. established a democracy.
7. The first president of a democratic
government in 20th century Spain was

b. King of France.

a. Adolfo Suarez.

c. King of Portugal.

b. Felipe Gonzalez.
c. Jose Maria Aznar.

3. A form of government in which there is no


king and the head of state is a president
elected by the citizens is called a

8. The Constitution of 1978 established


a

a. republic.

a. dictatorship.

b. monarchy.

b. constitutional monarchy.

c. dictatorship.

c. parliamentary monarchy.

4. In 1923, General Primo de Rivera


a. proclaimed the Second Republic.

9. In 1931, general elections took place to


decide the new government, and

b. replaced King Alfonso XII.

a. Alfonso XIII won.

c. led a coup and created a dictatorship.

b. the Republicans won.


c. Primo de Rivera won.

5. The Spanish Civil War began in


a. 1936.
b. 1978.
c. 1931.

10. Antonio Gaudi was famous for


his buildings and constructions in the
a Gothic style.
b. Neoclassical style.
c. Modernist style.

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Answer key
1 NUTRITION I
1. Explain the function of nutrition.
M. A. To supply the building materials and energy
we need to live.
2. Make a word map of the processes and systems
involved in nutrition.
The word map should have a title and at least four
sub-sections.
M. A.
Title: NUTRITION
Sub-sections:
Digestion: digestive system.
Respiration: respiratory system.
Excretion: excretory system.
Circulation: circulatory system.
3. What organ systems obtain and transport the oxygen
we need?
The respiratory system obtains oxygen, and the
circulatory system transports it.
4. Write two examples for each category.
Possible answers: Animal sources: fats, proteins,
carbohydrates;
Possible answers: Plant sources: carbohydrates,
vitamins, some proteins.
5. Which of these components of food is not a nutrient?
Explain why.
M. A. Fibre is not a nutrient because it does not supply
energy or building materials to the body.
6. What happens if a diet is too rich in carbohydrates
and fats? Explain your answer.
M. A. The body stores the extra energy from too many
carbohydrates and fats as body fat, which can cause
obesity.
7. List the helper glands and the substances they
produce.
salivary glands: saliva; liver: bile;
pancreas: pancreatic juice.
8. Label the diagram of the digestive system.
Left from top to bottom: oesophagus; large intestine.
Right from top to bottom: mouth; pharynx; stomach;
small intestine.
9. Define.
A bolus is chewed food mixed with saliva.
Chyme is a liquid produced in the stomach from
gastric juices.
Chyle is a milky liquid produced in the small intestine
from intestinal juice, pancreatic juice and bile.

10. When does the absorption of food take place?


Explain.
M. A. Absorption of food takes place when
nutrients pass from the small intestine, through
the capillaries, into the blood.
ASSESSMENTS 1 TEST
1. a, 2. c, 3. b, 4. b, 5. b, 6. a, 7. a, 8. a, 9. b, 10. c.
2 NUTRITION II
1. Explain what respiration consists of.
M. A. Respiration consists of obtaining oxygen
from the air and expelling carbon dioxide.
2. Describe gas exchange in the alveoli during respiration.
M. A. In the alveoli, oxygen from the air passes into
the blood, and carbon dioxide passes from the blood
into the air to be expelled.
3. Look at the pictures. Write inspiration or expiration.
A: inspiration; B: expiration.
Write the name of the muscles that carry out
breathing movements.
The diaphragm and intercostal muscles.
4. Write T (true) or F (false).
a. T; b. T; c. F; d. F.
5. Answer the questions.
Sweat is formed in the sweat glands.
Sweat consists primarily of water, but also contains
salts and a small amount of waste substances.
6. Label the diagram of the excretory system.
Left from top to bottom: ureters; urethra.
Right from top to bottom: kidney; bladder.
7. Complete the table.
M. A.
Type: Red blood cell. Function: distribute oxygen and
make blood red;
Type: White blood cell. Function: protect the body
from illnesses;
Type: Platelets. Function: coagulation.
8. Draw the heart and label its parts. Use arrows to show
the direction of blood circulation.
Graphic answer: See page 21 of the Students Book.
9. Answer these questions about systemic circulation.
The arteries.
Blood releases oxygen and nutrients, and collects
carbon dioxide and waste substances.
The left ventricle.

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10. Explain the difference between systole and
diastole.
M. A. Systole is the stage in which the heart
contracts and makes blood flow to the arteries.
Diastole is the stage in which the heart relaxes
and blood enters the heart through the veins.
ASSESSMENTS 2 TEST
1. c, 2. b, 3. b, 4. c, 5. b, 6. c, 7. a, 8. a, 9. b, 10. c.
3 SENSITIVITY
1. Explain what the function of sensitivity consists of.
M. A. Sensitivity consists of responding to changes
in the external and internal environment.
2. What group of organs and what systems are involved
in sensitivity?
M. A. The organs involved in sensitivity are the sense
organs.
M. A. The two systems involved in sensitivity are the
nervous system and the locomotor system.
3. Complete the word map on the nervous system.
From top to bottom and left to right
Central nervous system: brain; spinal cord.
Brain: cerebrum, cerebellum; brain stem.
Peripheral nervous system: sensory nerves; motor
nerves.
4. What parts of the skeletal system protect the brain
and the spinal cord?
The cranium and the spinal column.
5. Complete the diagram of the neuron. Then, answer
the question.
M. A. See page 32 in the Students Book.
A group of axons form nerves.
6. Look at the picture. Write reflex movement or
voluntary movement. Explain your answer.
Reflex movement.
M. A. A movement that takes place automatically
without a conscious order from the brain.
7. Write the word that corresponds to each definition.
From top to bottom:
antagonists; cartilage; receptor cells.
8. Explain what involuntary muscles are. Give two
examples.
M. A. Involuntary muscles are muscles that function
independently from our will. We arent conscious of
them and cannot control their function. Examples:
the heart muscle; the digestive tube muscle.

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9. Label the main endocrine glands.


Left from top to bottom: pituitary; thyroid; testicles.
Right from top to bottom: pancreas; ovaries.
Explain the functions of the hormones produced
in the pituitary gland.
M. A. The hormones produced in the pituitary gland
direct the activity of other endocrine glands and
control growth.
10. Anna had an accident and has difficulty maintaining
her balance. What part of her brain was damaged?
Think and answer.
The cerebellum was damaged. It co-ordinates
movement and balance.
ASSESSMENTS 3 TEST
1. b, 2. b, 3. c, 4. b, 5. c, 6. a, 7. a, 8. c, 9. a, 10. b.
4 REPRODUCTION
1. Explain what secondary sexual characteristics are.
Give three examples.
M. A. Secondary sexual characteristic are the
physical differences between men and women.
They are not necessarily related to reproduction.
Possible examples in men: low voice, facial hair, more
developed muscles, body hair. Possible examples in
women: breasts, higher voice, wider hips.
2. Label the diagram. Then, circle the correct word.
Left from top to bottom: vas deferens; seminal
vesicle; prostate; penis.
Right from top to bottom: urethra; testicle; scrotum.
This diagram represents the male reproductive
system.
3. Write the part of the reproductive system.
From top to bottom: ovaries, uterus, testicles,
scrotum.
4. Answer the questions.
An ovule and a sperm cell.
A zygote.
5. Explain the difference between each pair of words.
M. A. Spermatozoa are the male sex cells formed
in the testicles. Semen is a liquid made in the
prostate gland and seminal vesicles. It transports
and feeds the spermatozoa.
M. A. An ovule is the female sex cell produced in
the ovaries. An ovary is the organ that produces
the female sex cells and hormones.
6. Write one sentence with each group of words.
M. A. Male sex cells called spermatozoa have a tail
to help them move.

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M. A. Female sex cells called ovules are large and
spherical in shape.
7. Explain how fertilisation takes place.
M. A. An ovule is released by an ovary and travels
down the Fallopian tube. Semen enters a womans
vagina and the spermatozoa swim into the Fallopian
tube. If the mature ovule and sperm cell meet,
fertilisation occurs.
8. Complete the sentences.
The embryo is found inside a sac filled with
a liquid called amniotic fluid.
The embryo receives nutrients and oxygen from
its mother through the placenta.
The embryo is joined to the placenta by the
umbilical cord.
After the third month, the embryo is called a fetus.
9. Label the diagram.
Left from top to bottom: uterus; umbilical cord;
amniotic fluid.
Right from top to bottom: placenta; fetus.
10. Order the stages of birth. Write 1, 2 and 3.
1: a; 2: c; 3: b.
ASSESSMENTS 4 TEST
1. b, 2. a, 3. c, 4. b, 5. a, 6. c, 7. a, 8. b, 9. a, 10. a.
5 HEALTH
1. Define health.
Health is a state of complete physical, mental and
social well-being.
2. List five healthy habits.
M. A. Good hygiene, adequate rest, regular exercise,
a healthy diet and correct posture.
3. Complete the word map.
From left to right and top to bottom
how quickly they appear and how long they last: acute
illness; chronic illness.
their origin: infectious diseases; non-infectious
diseases.
4. What is the difference between epidemic and
endemic diseases? Explain your answer.
M. A. Epidemic diseases rapidly affect a large
number of people at the same time.
M. A. Endemic diseases are only prevalent in some
areas or regions.
5. List three effects for each drug.
Possible answers:

Effects of alcohol use: mental damage and


dementia, lung infections, breast cancer, muscle
degeneration, liver damage, cancer of the digestive
system, mouth cancer, heart problems, bone
fractures, pancreas damage, gastritis and ulcers,
fetal damage.
Effects of tobacco use: stroke, wrinkles and
blotches on the skin, respiratory disease, lung
cancer, premature babies, mouth, pharynx and
larynx cancer, oesophagus cancer, gastritis and
ulcers, heart problems, dental problems.
6. Why is the use of drugs a risk to your health?
Explain your answer.
M. A. Drugs affect the brain. They cause changes in
a persons perceptions, state of mind or behaviour.
In many cases, drugs cause death.
7. Name the infectious agent that causes each type of
infection.
tetanus or salmonella: bacteria.
athletes foot: fungi.
flu or AIDS: viruses.
malaria: protozoans.
8. How can microbes enter our body? Write five
examples.
Through a cut in the skin that has not been
disinfected properly; through contaminated water;
through contaminated food; through contaminated
air; through insect bites.
9. Circle the four mistakes in the text. Then, write
the sentences correctly.
Students should circle: viruses; viruses, fungi or
protozoan.
Antibiotics are substances that are toxic to bacteria.
Antibiotics are not harmful to people, therefore, they
are very effective in fighting infections caused by
bacteria.
10. Explain what happens when a vaccine is injected
into a healthy person.
M. A. When a vaccine is injected into a healthy
person, weakened or dead agents that cause a
disease enter the body. The body senses this
invasion and fights it.
ASSESSMENTS 5 TEST
1. a, 2. c, 3. a, 4. b, 5. b, 6. b, 7. b, 8. b, 9. b, 10. b.
6 ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
1. Complete the sentences.
All objects have positive and negative electrical
charges. If an object has more positive charges than

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negative charges, it is positively charged. If it has
more negative charges than positive charges, it is
negatively charged. Objects with the same charge
repel. Objects with different charges attract.
2. Look at the pictures and explain what changes are
taking place.
M. A. A: Both the cloth and the pen have positive
and negative charges.
B: When you rub the pen with the cloth, negative
charges pass from the cloth to the pen.
C: Now, the pen has more negative charges than
positive charges. The cloth has been left with
more positive charges.
3. Explain the diagram. Describe the action of
the forces.
M. A. The diagram shows two objects with opposite
electrical charges. Opposite electrical charges
attract.
4. What is an electromagnet?
A device that works like a magnet when it is
connected to electricity.
5. Will these magnets attract or repel each other?
Why? Look and explain.
M. A. These magnets will repel each other because
the poles near each other are the same.
6. Read the definition and write the word.
From top to bottom: electrical current; compass;
insulators.
7. Name three types of energy produced by electrical
current.
M. A. heat, light, sound, magnetism, movement.
8. Label the components of this electrical circuit.
Left from top to bottom: cable; motor.
Right from top to bottom: generator; switch; light
bulb.

7 ENERGY
1. Read and write the type of energy.
From top to bottom: mechanical; chemical; nuclear.
2. Complete the word map.
M. A. Energy can be: transferred, stored,
transported, transformed.
Now, write an example to explain each of these
properties.
M. A. Energy can be transferred when a racquet
hits a tennis ball. The racquet transfers mechanical
energy to the ball. Energy can be stored in
batteries. Energy can be transported through
cables. Energy can be transformed from one type
to another, for example, chemical energy in petrol is
transformed into mechanical energy in a car.
3. Write T (true) or F (false).
a. F; b. T; c. F; d. F.
4. Explain the difference between expansion and
contraction.
M. A. Expansion is the increase in size of an object
when the temperature is raised. Contraction is the
decrease in size of an object when the temperature
is lowered.
5. When we rub our hands together, and they get warm,
what energy transformation takes place? Think and
write.
Mechanical energy is transformed into heat.
6. Why does the temperature of a room rise when
it fills up with people? Think and answer.
M. A. The temperature of a room rises because the
heat from the people is transferred to the room until
the room and the people are the same temperature.
7. Write the type of energy used in each power plant.
From top to bottom: chemical energy; nuclear
energy; mechanical energy.

9. Explain the function of each element in an electrical


circuit.

8. Name two types of power plants that use renewable


energy.

M. A. A generator produces the electrical current.


M. A. Cables transmit the electrical current from the
generator to the other components of the circuit.
M. A. A switch controls the flow of the current.

Possible answers: hydroelectric; eolic or wind; solar


thermal; solar photovoltaic.

10. Look at this electrical circuit. Will the light bulb turn
on? Why or why not?
M. A. The light bulb will turn on because the circuit
is closed. Current flows in a closed circuit.
ASSESSMENTS 6 TEST
1. b, 2. b, 3. a, 4. c, 5. c, 6. c, 7. a, 8. b, 9. a, 10. a.

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9. Explain what radioactive waste is.


M. A. Radioactive waste is a type of pollution that is
produced in nuclear power plants. It emits radiation
and can take thousands of years to become safe.
10. Look at the pictures and explain how electrical
energy comes into our homes.
M. A. Mechanical energy from dams or wind
energy is transformed into electricity in power
plants. From there, electrical current is transported

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through power lines. The power lines are held up
by transmission towers. In cities, the power lines
are part of an underground grid until they enter
our homes. Inside our homes, the current travels
through cables to the wall sockets.
ASSESSMENTS 7 TEST
1. c, 2. b, 3. c, 4. c, 5. b, 6. b, 7. c, 8. a, 9. a, 10. a.
8 MACHINES
1. Answer the questions.
We use machines to save time and energy, to work
with more precision, to do dangerous work, or to
transform one type of energy into another.
The three main types of machines are: mechanical
machines, thermal machines, and machines for
communication and information management.
2. Look at the three machines. What does each one do
for us?
M. A. A: A fan moves the air; B: A cooker heats food;
C: a camera takes photos.
3. Explain what a sensor is and write four examples.
M. A. A sensor enables a machine to receive
information from the outside or inside of the machine.
Examples: a temperature sensor, a light sensor, an
infrared sensor, an antenna.
4. Explain what an operating part is.
M. A. An operating part is a moving piece that is used
to transmit movement or force in mechanical machines.
5. Look at the picture. What type of machine is it? What
type of energy does it use?
Pliers are mechanical machines. They are manual
machines that use energy from people.
6. This sentence is not correct. Write the correct version.
Indicators and screens give us information about how
a machine works.
7. Write the name of each mechanism. Explain how
it works.
M. A. A: This is a rack and pinion mechanism.
It is formed by a small toothed wheel joined with
a toothed bar. When the pinion turns, the rack moves
to one side.
B: This is a gear. It is formed by two wheels which
turn in opposite directions.
C: This is a gear. It is formed by two wheels joined by
a belt. The two wheels turn in the same direction.
8. Name three types of operating parts in a bicycle.
Explain what each does.
M. A.

cogset: the gear wheels at the back transmit


movement and move the bicycle.
chainset: the gear wheels at the front transmit
movement through the chain to the back wheel.
cranks: pedals that turn the gear wheels in the
chainset.
shifting gears: change the turning speed of an axle.
9. Circle the machines that have a motor. Then, write
the type of motor it is.
Circled machines: blender; chainsaw.
Both have electric motors.
10. How have technological advances changed society?
Give one example for each area.
M.A.
work: Robots can do the work of more than person
and can replace several factory workers.
transportation: Aeroplanes make it easy to travel
long distances and go on holiday.
health: Scanners enable doctors to see inside the
human body.
communication: E-mail is replacing conventional
mail because it is faster.
ASSESSMENTS 8 TEST
1. c, 2. b, 3. b, 4. b, 5. b, 6. b, 7. a, 8. a, 9. a, 10. a.
9 REPRESENTATIONS OF THE EARTH
1. Explain why the best way to represent the Earth is a
globe.
M. A. A globe shows distances, landforms, size
and distribution of oceans and continents without
distortions.
2. Define.
A map is a flat representation of all or part of the
Earth.
A world map is a flat representation of the entire
surface of the Earth.
The scale shows the relationship between an
actual distance and the distance on a map.
3. Look at the map. Write A, B, C or D.
A: north latitude + east longitude;
B: south latitude + west longitude;
C: south latitude + east longitude;
D: north latitude + west longitude.
4. What is the Greenwich Meridian? Label the Greenwich
Meridian on the map in Activity 3.
M. A. The Greenwich meridian is meridian zero or the
principal meridian.

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Students label the darker vertical line in the centre of
the map.
5. Label the continents and oceans on the map in
Activity 3.
See map on pages 112-113 in the Students Book.
Continents: North America, South America, Asia,
Europe, Africa, Oceania, Antarctica.
Oceans: Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, Pacific, Antarctic.
6. Look at the map in Activity 3 and complete the table.
A: north latitude + east longitude; northern hemisphere
B: south latitude + west longitude; southern
hemisphere
C: south latitude + east longitude; southern hemisphere
D: north latitude + west longitude; northern hemisphere
7. Explain the difference between a relief map of the
world and a political map of the world.
M. A. A relief map depicts all the variety of geography
on the Earth, whereas a political map represents
the size, location and borders of all the countries on
Earth.
8. This text is not correct. Write the correct version.
Parallels are imaginary lines that circle the Earth.
These lines are parallel to the equator. The
Greenwich Meridian is the principal meridian.
9. Look at the map and calculate the actual distance
between La Poveda and El Otero.
1,000,000 x 4 = 4,000,000 cm.
4,000,000: 100,000 = 40.
La Poveda is 40 km from El Otero.
ASSESSMENTS 9 TEST
1. c, 2. a, 3. a, 4. a, 5. a, 6. a, 7. b, 8. b, 9. b, 10. c.
10 EUROPEAN LANDSCAPES
1. Write T (true) or F (false).
a. F; b. F; c. F; d. T.
Fjords are valleys made by a glacier into which
seawater enters. Fjords are found on the
Scandinavian Peninsula.
Massifs are low mountains.
3. Think about European relief features. Where are
plains found? Where are the highest mountains
found?
The plains extend through the central and eastern
parts of Europe. The highest mountains are found in
the south of Europe.

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M. A. The European coast is very irregular with many


capes, gulfs, peninsulas and islands.
Possible answers: Peninsulas: Kola; Scandinavian;
Jutland; Iberian; Italian; Balkan; Crimean.
Gulfs: Bothnia; Lion; Genoa; Bay of Biscay.
Capes: North; Finisterre; St. Vincent; Matapan.
Islands: Iceland; British Isles; Great Britain;
Ireland; Balearic and Canary Islands; Corsica;
Sardinia; Sicily; Cyprus; Malta; Crete.
5. Complete the table with the characteristics of
European climates.
Oceanic: Temperatures - mild in summer;
Precipitation - abundant and regular.
Mediterranean: Temperatures - high in summer
and mild in winter; Precipitation - low, especially in
summer.
Continental: Temperatures - high in summer and
very low in winter; Precipitation - higher in summer.
Polar: Temperatures - very cold; Precipitation - scarce.
Mountain or alpine: Temperatures - very low in
winter and cool in summer; Precipitation - abundant.
6. Match.
oceanic climate: meadows; continental climate:
taiga; polar climate: tundra.
7. Write the name of one European river for each
watershed.
Possible answers:
Arctic watershed: Pechora or Northern Dvina.
Atlantic watershed: Western Dvina, Vistula, Oder,
Elbe, Rhine, Seine, Loire, Garonne; Duero, Tagus,
Guadiana or Guadalquivir.
Mediterranean watershed: Ebro, Rhone or Po.
Black Sea watershed: Danube, Dniester, Dnieper or
Don.
Caspian Sea watershed: Volga or Ural.
8. Look at the map. Write the number that corresponds
to each feature.

2. Answer the questions.

168

4. Describe the European coast. Give examples of three


coastal features.

a. 2; b. 8; c. 4; d. 6; e. 7; f. 5; g.3; h.1.
9. Complete the table of Spanish watersheds.
Mediterranean: Ebro.
Atlantic: Duero, Tagus, Guadiana, Guadalquivir.
10. Describe what the relief is like in Spain.
M.A. The Inner Plateau is in the centre. Mountains
run through the plateau and surround it. There are
more mountains in the north and in the south of
Spain.

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ASSESSMENTS 10 TEST
1. b, 2. b, 3. b, 4. a, 5. a, 6. a, 7. c, 8. a, 9. c, 10. b.
11 THE POPULATION AND ECONOMY OF EUROPE
1. Complete the word map.
The number of inhabitants is 700 million.
The population is ageing because of the low birth
rate and increasing life expectancy
Most of the population is concentrated in the centre
of the continent.
2. Explain the effects of immigration on the European
population.
M. A. Immigration increases the active population
and the birth rate.
3. Write the names of three European countries for
each characteristic.
High population density: The Netherlands;
Luxembourg; Belgium; Germany; France; Italy;
The United Kingdom.
Low population density: Greece; Iceland; Norway;
Finland; Sweden; Russia.
4. Look at the pie chart. Explain why it is not correct.
M. A. The pie chart is not correct because 66% of the
European population works in the tertiary sector, 30%
in the secondary sector and 4% in the primary sector.
5. Describe livestock farming and fishing in Europe.
M. A. Livestock farming is intensive in northern
and central Europe and extensive in the coastal
Mediterranean areas. The most common livestock
are cattle, sheep and pigs. The countries with the
largest catch are Russia, Norway, Iceland, Denmark,
Spain and the United Kingdom. All of the countries
have modern, industrial fishing fleets.
6. What are the main industries in Europe?
Basic industry, the capital goods industry and the
consumer goods industry.
Name one secondary sector industry in Spain.
M.A. The capital goods industry.
7. Why is the Spanish population ageing? Write two
main factors.
Increasing life expectancy; low birth rate.
8. Write a sentence with each group of words.
M. A. Immigration has helped European population
growth.
M. A. The ageing population in Europe is due to
increasing life expectancy and the low birth rate.
9. What are the most important activities in the
tertiary sector in Europe?
Trade, transport and tourism.

Name one tertiary sector activity in Spain.


M. A. Tourism.
10. Most people in Europe live in cities. Why? Think and
answer.
M. A. Most people live in cities because there are
more job opportunities and more services. For
example, education, health, leisure
ASSESSMENTS 11 TEST
1. a, 2. a, 3. a, 4. a, 5. b, 6. c, 7. b, 8. b, 9. a, 10. c.
12 THE EUROPEAN UNION
1. Answer the questions.
The European Union is an economic and political
organization formed by twenty-seven democratic
European countries.
It was created for two reasons: to avoid future wars
and improve the economic development of Europe.
2. Look at the map of the EU. What stage of
development does it correspond to: the first, the
present or the future? Explain your answer.
M. A. The map corresponds to the first stage
because the EU only has six member countries.
3. Explain what the eurozone is.
M. A. Eurozone refers to the countries which use
the euro as their official currency.
4. List three joint measures adopted by the European
Union.
M. A. protect the environment; fight crime and
terrorism; defend equality among men and women;
protect the rights of consumers.
5. Complete the word map.
European Parliament; Council of the European Union;
European Commission; Court of Justice; Court of
Auditors.
6. Read and write the name of these institutions of the
European Union.
From top to bottom: Council of the European Union;
Court of Justice; European Commission.
7. Complete the sentences.
laws; budgets; five; MEPs; president, Strasbourg;
Brussels.
8. What are the symbols of the European Union?
Describe them.
M. A. The symbols are the flag, the anthem and
Europe Day. The flag is blue with twelve gold stars in
a circle. The anthem is Ode to Joy by Beethoven.
Europe Day is celebrated on 9th May to encourage
people to learn more about the institutions of the EU.

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Answer key ASSESSMENTs


9. What is the single market? Explain its significance.
M. A. The single market means there are no border
or customs controls between the countries of the
European Union. This means that citizens and
merchandise can circulate freely within the EU.
10. Colour the countries that form the European Union
blue.
See page 144 of the Students Book.
ASSESSMENTS 12 TEST
1. a, 2. c, 3. c, 4. c, 5. c, 6. b, 7. b, 8. a, 9. a, 10. a.
13FROM PREHISTORY TO THE MIDDLE AGES
1. Answer the questions.
Prehistory is the first stage of history. Three
ages of Prehistory: Palaeolithic, Neolithic, Metal
Ages.
Prehistory began with the appearance of human
beings and ended with the invention of writing.
2. Complete with the ages of Prehistory.
From top to bottom: Neolithic Age; Palaeolithic Age,
the Metal Ages.
3. Explain why people in the Neolithic Age stopped being
nomads.
M. A. They stopped being nomads because they
learned to cultivate plants and domesticate animals.
As a result, they needed to care for their crops and
livestock.
4. Describe the paintings of the Neolithic Age.
M. A. Neolithic paintings represented scenes of
people hunting and groups dancing or collecting fruit.
The figures were schematic, and the artists used one
colour.
5. Complete the table.
The Celts. Location: central plateau and Atlantic
coast. Professions: livestock farmers and specialists
in metal.
The Iberians. Location: Mediterranean coast.
Professions: farmers and artisans.
6. Identify the kingdom described in this text.
Tartessos.
7. Match each colony with its location and its arrival on
the Iberian Peninsula.
Greek - Catalonian Coast - sixth century B.C.;
Phoenician - Andalusian coast - seventh century B.C.;
Carthaginian - Balearic Islands and the eastern
Iberian Peninsula - third century B.C.

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8. Write T (true) or F (false).


a. F; b. T; c. F; d. T.
9. Write the date of each historic event.
711: The Moorish conquest began;
1031: The Taifa Kingdoms appeared;
1212: The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa;
1492: The conquest of the Kingdom of Granada.
10. Name the architectural style of each church. Explain
your answer.
M. A. A: This church is Gothic. It is tall and slender.
There are many large windows and pointed arches
were used.
B: This church is Romanesque. It is not tall or
slender. There are few windows and the walls are
thick. The arches are the shape of a half-circle.
ASSESSMENTS 13 TEST
1. a, 2. a, 3. a, 4. b, 5. b, 6. c, 7. b, 8. a, 9. a, 10. b.
14 THE MODERN AGE IN SPAIN
1. List the territories conquered by the Catholic
Monarchs.
They conquered the kingdom of Granada, the Canary
Islands, the Kingdom of Naples, small territories
in North Africa, the Kingdom of Navarre and the
Americas.
2. Why are these people famous?
Christopher Columbus discovered America.
Hernan Cortes conquered Mexico.
Francisco Pizarro conquered Peru.
3. Answer the questions.
The Aztecs, Mayans and Incas.
The territory was organized into viceroyalties, and
each one was controlled by a viceroy.
4. Colour the map. Use the key.
See page 171 of the Students Book.
5. The Spanish Empire had many territories in
the 16th century. Name the continents where
they were located.
Europe, Asia, the Americas and Africa.
6. Match each historic event to the king who was ruling
at the time.
Carlos I: The revolt of the Communities; The
confrontation with the Lutherans.
Felipe II: The Battle of Lepanto; The defeat of the
Spanish Armada.
7. Tick the events that led to the War of Succession.
b; d; f; g.

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8. Define.
favourite or valido: ministers and friends who had
the confidence of the king and governed in his
name.
absolute monarchy: a form of government in
which the king controls all the powers of state.
9. Complete the word map.
Privileged: nobility; clerics.
Unprivileged: farmers; middle class.
10. Write the name of a famous person for each
profession in the Modern Age.
Possible answers:
A Spanish painter: Velazquez; Zurbaran; Ribera;
Murillo; Goya.
A Spanish writer: Saint Teresa de Jesus; Juan
de la Cruz; Garcilaso de la Vega; Miguel de
Cervantes; Fancisco de Quevedo: Luis de
Gongora; Lope de Vega; Calderon de la Barca.
A Spanish sculptor: Gregorio Fernandez; Martinez
Montanes; Alonzo Cano; Francisco Salzillo.
ASSESSMENTS 14 TEST
1. a, 2. b, 3. b, 4. c, 5. c, 6. b, 7. b, 8. a, 9. a, 10. b.
15 THE CONTEMPORARY AGE IN SPAIN
1. Match the historic event to the date.
The end of the War of Independence when Fernando
VII returned as King of Spain: 1814;
The first Spanish Constitution was approved: 1812;
The start of the War of Independence: 1808;
Argentina won its independence: 1816.

The two groups that fought each other were the


Republicans and the Nationalists.
The Civil War lasted from 1936 to 1939.
6. Write T (true) or F (false).
a. F; b. T; c. F; d .T.
7. This text is not correct. Write the correct version.
The transition was the period of political changes
that were made to move from the dictatorship of
General Franco towards democracy. This process
began in 1975 and ended in 1982.
8. When did these historic events take place? Write the
correct year.
Juan Carlos I was crowned King of Spain: 1975;
The first democratic elections that were held in
Spain since 1936: 1977;
The current Constitution was approved: 1978;
Spain joined the European Community: 1986.
9. List the presidents of the Spanish government since
the approval of the last Constitution.
Adolfo Suarez, Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo,
Felipe Gonzalez, Jose Maria Aznar, Jose Luis
Rodriguez Zapatero.
10. Complete the word map.
upper class: aristocrats; bourgeois.
middle class: less prosperous merchants; small
landowners; professionals.
lower class: peasants; workers; servants; beggars.
ASSESSMENTS 15 TEST
1. b, 2. a, 3. a, 4. c, 5. a, 6. a, 7. b, 8. c, 9. b, 10. c.

2. Complete the sentences.


From top to bottom and left to right: absolute
monarchy; Liberal; coup; independence.
3. Explain the difference between an absolute monarchy
and a constitutional monarchy.
M. A. In an absolute monarchy, the king controls
all the powers of the state, while in constitutional
monarchy the monarchs power is limited by a
constitution.
4. Who was General Primo de Rivera, and what did he do?
General Primo de Rivera led a coup and established
a dictatorship in 1923. He assumed all the powers of
state, abolished the constitution and banned political
parties.
5. Answer the questions about the Spanish Civil War.
The Civil War started because General Francisco
Franco led a coup against the Republican
government in 1936.

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TERM ASSESSMENT

Name

Date

Label the diagram of the digestive system.

Define and explain these terms.


helper glands 

chyme 

chyle 


Complete the table.


Respiration

Circulation

Excretion

What is it?
What organs are involved?

What is the relationship between the digestive process and the circulatory system? Think and answer.



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1
5

Explain how we carry out the function of sensitivity and what group of organs and systems are involved.




What is the difference between sensory nerves and motor nerves? Explain your answer.




Write the word that corresponds to each definition.


The stage in a persons development when the reproductive
system matures.

The organ where the male sex cells are formed.

The external part of the female reproductive system.

Write one sentence with each group of words.


spermatozoa ovule fertilisation

embryo placenta umbilical cord


Explain the damage to your health that can be caused by smoking.





10 Explain the difference between a bacterial infection and a viral infection.






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TERM ASSESSMENT

Name
1

Date

Write what happens in each case.


When two objects are positively charged, they

When two objects are negatively charged, they

When one object is positively charged and the other is negatively charged, they

Explain what electrical current is and the effects it can produce.






List seven types of energy.





Write an example for each type of material.


conductors

insulators

Identify the type of power plant.


It uses the mechanical energy of falling water.

It uses the chemical energy stored in fuel.

It uses the mechanical energy of the wind.

Look at the picture. Is this machine mechanical, thermal or does it manage information?
Give reasons for your answer.





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2
7

Explain what a motor does in a machine. What are the main types?




Look at the picture. What type of mechanism is it? Explain. Draw arrows to indicate
which direction the smaller wheels turn.




Label the globe. Write equator, meridian and parallel.

Describe the location of point A. Circle the correct words.


Its latitude isnorth / south.
Its longitude is east / west.
189736Ter_a2_p2_h1_esfera

10 Look at the map. Write the number that corresponds to each geographical feature.
Carpathian Mountains
7
6

Ural Mountains
Cape St. Vincent

River Vistula

1
2

Central Massif

River Volga
River Danube

Crimean Peninsula

Write the name of three European islands.



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TERM ASSESSMENT

Name
1

Date

What are the causes of Europes ageing population? Tick ().


The arrival of immigrants.

The growth rate of the population.

The low birth rate.

Increasing life expectancy.

Describe the tertiary sector in Europe. List the main services.







Answer the questions.


What is the European Union? 


Which countries signed the Treaty of Rome? 



Read and write the name of the institution of the European Union.

It makes all the important decisions in the European Union.

It approves budgets and laws, and controls the other institutions.

It is the government of the European Union.

It controls European Union funds.

It upholds European Union laws.

Cross out the countries that do not belong to the European Union.
Spain

Norway

Slovenia

Ireland

Romania

France

Poland

Russia

Hungary

Portugal

Switzerland

Malta

Germany

Italy

Croatia

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3
6

Complete the sentences.

began with the appearance of human beings, about

years

ago. The period called Prehistory ends when history begins, that is, with the invention
of

around 3,000 years ago. There are three ages in Prehistory:

the , the

and the

What seven groups of people lived on the Iberian Peninsula during the Age of Antiquity?
Order them according to the date of their arrival on the peninsula.



Write the historic event that occurred in each year.


1031 

711 

1492 

1212 

Order these historic events. Write the century each one occurred in.
a. The Battle of Lepanto

century 

b. The War of Succession

century 

c. The discovery of America

century 

d. The use of favourites or validos

century 

10 Write T (true) or F (false).


a. The Statutes of Autonomy were approved during the reign of Isabel II.
b. Franco created several political parties and labour unions.
c. Spain joined the European Community during the Second Republic.
d. The Nationalists fought against the Francophiles during the Civil War.
e. The architect Antonio Gaudi built Modernist homes and churches.
f. T he transition was the period of political changes that made it possible for Spain
to evolve from the dictatorship of General Franco towards democracy.

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TERM 1 TEST

Name

Date

Circle the correct option.


1. The process of obtaining nutrients from
food for our bodies to use is called...

6. The brain and spinal cord are parts of


the...

a. digestion.

a. peripheral nervous system.

b. respiration.

b. local nervous system.

c. nutrition.

c. central nervous system.

2 Crushed food mixed with saliva is called...

7. The pancreas produces...

a. a bolus.

a. insulin.

b. chyme.

b. bile.

c. bile.

c. thyroxine.

3. The tubes through which air goes in and


out of our bodies are called the...

8. Fertilisation takes place in the...


a. ovules.

a. lungs.

b. uterus.

b. air passageways.

c. Fallopian tubes.

c. nostrils.

9. The embryo receives nutrients and


oxygen from the mother through the...

4. The three parts shown in the


diagram are...
a. 1. kidneys, 2. bladder,
3. ureters.

a. uterus.

b. 1. kidneys, 2. bladder,
3. urethra.
c. 1. bladder, 2. kidneys, 3. ureters.
5. The movement of blood throughout the
body except to the lungs is called...
a. systemic circulation.

b. placenta.
c. amniotic fluid.
10. Antibiotics are effective against
infections caused by...
a. viruses.
b. bacteria.
c. measles.

b. pulmonary circulation.
c. arterial circulation.

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TERM 2 TEST

Name

Date

Circle the correct option.


1. Objects that have the same number
of positive and negative charges are
electrically
a. neutral.
b. positive.
c. negative.
2. The organised movement of electrical
charges through material is called
a. electrical current.
b. magnetism.
c. electrical charge.
3. The energy which objects have
due to their movement is called
a. light energy.
b. mechanical energy.
c. nuclear energy.
4. The increase in size of an object when
the temperature rises is called
a. expansion.
b. contraction.
c. shrinkage.
5. Machines used to lift heavy objects or
produce movement are called

6. Gears are used to


a. store energy.
b. transmit movement.
c. transform mechanical energy
into electrical energy.
7. The relationship between the distance
on a map and the actual distance
on the Earth is indicated by the
a. equator.

b. scale.

c. meridian.

8. The ocean which lies between America,


Europe and Africa is the
a. Indian Ocean.
b. Pacific Ocean.
c. Atlantic Ocean.
9. The mountains that form the border
between Europe and Asia are the
a. Ural Mountains.
b. Pyrenees.
c. Carpathian Mountains.
10. The River Rhine is located in the
a. Atlantic watershed.
b. Mediterranean watershed.
c. Caspian Sea watershed.

a. thermal machines.
b. mechanical machines.
c. automatic machines.

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TERM 3 TEST

Name

Date

Circle the correct option.


1. The European population is concentrated
in the...

6. The Moors defeated the Visigoths, and


created Al-Andalus in...

a. centre of the continent.

a. 171.

b. north of Europe.

b. 711.

c. south of Africa.

c. 1492.

2. The most important economic sector


in Europe is the...

7. In 1571, Felipe II defeated the Turks


at the...

a. primary sector.

a. Battle of Granada.

b. secondary sector.

b. Battle of Navas de Tolosa.

c. tertiary sector.

c. Battle of Lepanto.

3. In 1957, the Treaty of Rome created


the...

8. The War of Succession ended with


the signing of the...

a. eurozone.

a. Treaty of Rome.

b. European Economic Community.

b. Treaty of Utrecht.

c. single market.

c. Treaty of Maastricht.

4. The institution responsible for the


government of the European Union
is the...
a. European Parliament.

9. Fernando VII established...


a. an absolute monarchy.
b. a parliamentary monarchy.
c. a constitutional monarchy.

b. European Commission.
c. Court of Justice.
5. In 218, the Romans landed in Emporion,
and conquered the...

10. The period of political changes made


after the dictatorship of General Franco
which moved Spain towards democracy
was called the...

a. Phoenicians.

a. transition.

b. Carthaginians.

b. democracy.

c. Iberians.

c. republic.

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Answer key

TERM assessments

TERM 1 ASSESSMENT
1. Label the diagram of the digestive system.
Left from top to bottom: mouth; pharynx; liver; pancreas; large intestine.
Right from top to bottom: stomach; small intestine; anus.
2. Define and explain these terms.
M. A.
Helper glands produce digestive juices, for example, the salivary glands, the liver
and the pancreas.
Chyme is a liquid produced in the stomach from gastric juices.
Chyle is a milky liquid produced in the small intestine from intestinal juice, pancreatic
juice and bile.
3. Complete the table.
M. A. Respiration: the process of obtaining oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide.
Organs: the air passageways and lungs.
Circulation: the movement of blood around the body to transport nutrients, oxygen and
waste substances. Organs: blood, blood vessels and the heart.
Excretion: the elimination of waste substances from the blood. Organs: ureters, bladder
and urethra.
4. What is the relationship between the digestive process and the circulatory system? Think
and answer.
M. A. The circulatory system is responsible for transporting the nutrients and waste
products that result from the digestive process.
5. Explain how we carry out the function of sensitivity and what group of organs and systems
are involved.
M. A. We carry out sensitivity by responding to changes that occur in our external
and internal environment. The organs and systems involved are the sense organs,
the nervous system and the locomotor system.
6. What is the difference between sensory nerves and motor nerves? Explain your answer.
M. A. Sensory nerves carry information from the sense organs to the central nervous
system, while motor nerves carry orders from the central nervous system to the muscles
and the organs.
7. Write the word that corresponds to each definition.
From top to bottom: puberty; the testicles; the vulva.
8. Write one sentence with each group of words.
M. A. Fertilization is the union of an ovule and a sperm cell.
M. A. The embryo is joined to the placenta by the umbilical cord.
9. Explain the damage to your health that can be caused by smoking.
M. A. Smoking damages the respiratory and circulatory systems. It causes various types
of cancer.
10. Explain the difference between a bacterial infection and a viral infection.
M. A. Bacterial infections are caused by bacteria, while viral infections are caused
by a virus.
TERM 1 TEST
1. a, 2. a, 3. b, 4. c, 5. a, 6. c, 7. a, 8. c, 9. b, 10. b.

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Answer key TERM ASSESSMENT


TERM 2 ASSESSMENT
1. Write what happens in each case.
When two objects are positively charged, they repel.
When two objects are negatively charged, they repel.
When one object is positvely charged and the other is negatively charged, they attract.
2. Explain what electrical current is and the effects it can produce.
M. A. Electrical current is the organised movement of electric charges through material.
It can produce heat, light, sound, magnetism and movement.
3. List seven types of energy.
mechanical energy, sound energy, light energy, heat or thermal energy, electrical energy,
chemical energy and nuclear energy.
4. Write an example for each type of material.
conductors: most metals, such as copper, aluminium, gold, and silver.
insulators: cork; glass, rubber; plastic; wood; wool.
5. Identify the type of power plant.
It uses the mechanical energy of falling water: hydroelectric; It uses the chemical energy
stored in fuel: thermal; It uses the mechanical energy of the wind: wind.
6. Look at the picture. Is this machine mechanical, thermal or does it manage information?
Give reasons for your answer.
M. A. This is a mechanical machine because it is used to produce movement. Electrical
energy causes the blades to move and crush and mix the food.
7. Explain what a motor does in a machine. What are the main types?
M. A. The motor is the part of an automatic machine that produces movement. The main
types are combustion engines and electric motors.
8. Look at the picture. What type of mechanism is it? Explain. Draw arrows to indicate which
direction the smaller wheels turn.
M. A. This type of mechanism is a gear. M. A. It has three wheels with teeth that fit
together and transmit movement. Students draw an arrow going clockwise on the small
wheel: the same as the large wheel.
9. Label the globe. Write equator, meridian and parallel.
Left: parallel. Right from top to bottom: meridian; equator.

Describe the location of point A. Circle the correct word.


Its latitude is north / south.
Its longitude is east / west.
Students circle north and west. M. A. Point A is at north latitude and west longitude.

10. Look at the map. Write the number that corresponds to each geographical feature.
1: Carpathian Mountains; 2: Central Massif; 7: Ural Mountains; 5: Cape St. Vincent;
4: River Vistula; 6: River Volga; 8: River Danube; 3: Crimean Peninsula.

Write the name of three European islands.


Possible answers: Iceland; British Isles; Great Britain; Ireland; Balearic Islands, Canary
Islands; Corsica; Sardinia; Sicily; Cyprus; Malta; Crete; Faroe Islands; Shetland Islands.

TERM 2 TEST
1. a, 2. a, 3. b, 4. a, 5. b, 6. b, 7. b, 8. c, 9. a, 10. a.

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Answer key TERM ASSESSMENT


TERM 3 ASSESSMENT
1. What are the causes of Europes ageing population? Tick.
Students should tick: The low birth rate; Increasing life expectancy.
2. Describe the tertiary sector in Europe. List the main services.
M. A. The tertiary sector is the largest economic sector. It employs the most people:
66% of the population. The most important services are trade, transport and tourism.
3. Answer the questions.
M. A. The European Union is an economic and political organization formed
by twenty-seven democratic European countries.
M. A. The Treaty of Rome was signed by Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands,
Luxembourg and France.
4. Read and write the name of the institution of the European Union.
From top to bottom: the Council of the European Union; the European Parliament;
the European Commission; the Court of Auditors; the Court of Justice.
5. Cross out the countries that do not belong to the European Union.
Countries that do not belong to the EU: Norway; Russia; Switzerland; Croatia.
6. Complete the sentences.
Prehistory began with the appearance of human beings, about one million years ago.
The period called Prehistory ends when history begins, that is, with the invention of
writing around 3,000 years ago. There are three ages in Prehistory: the Palaeolithic,
the Neolithic and the Metal Ages.
7. What seven groups of people lived on the Iberian Peninsula during the Age of Antiquity?
Order them according to the date of their arrival on the peninsula.
From first to last: Celts and Iberians, Tartessians, Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians
and Romans.
8. Write the historic event that occurred in each year.
711: The Moorish conquest began;
1031: Al-Andalus was divided into Taifa Kingdoms;
1212: The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa;
1492: The Catholic Monarchs conquered the Kingdom of Granada.
9. Order these historic events. Write the century each one occurred in.
2. Battle of Lepanto: 16th century
4. The War of Succession: 18th century
1. The discovery of America: 15th century
3. The use of favourites or validos: 17th century
10. Write T (true) or F (false).
a. F; b. F; c. F; d. F; e. T; f. T.
TERM 3 TEST
1. a, 2. c, 3. b, 4. b, 5. b, 6. b, 7. c, 8. b, 9. a, 10. a.

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FINAL ASSESSMENT

Name
1

Date

Identify the parts of the digestive system.

Circle the correct option.

1. 

2. 
3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 
8. 

Write the names of the two types of blood circulation.




Complete these sentences about fertilisation.


Ovules are

sex cells and

Fertilisation is the union of an

are male sex cells.

and a . Fertilisation

occurs inthe .

Look at the diagram and answer the questions.


What does this diagram show? 

Is the circuit closed? How do you know? 

What happens when a circuit is open? 


Write the names of three continents and three oceans.




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ENT
6

Write one example of each.


A European mountain range

A European peninsula

A river in the Caspian Sea watershed

Colour the countries that form the European Union. Then write the names of the original members.
ARCTIC OCEAN


N


OC

EA

AN

TIC

AT L

Canary
Islands

Bla

Mediter rane

ck Sea

an
Sea

Number the people chronologically to reflect the order of their appearance in history.
189736Eval_f_p2

Adolfo Suarez

Carlos I

Felipe II

Isabel II

Alfonso XIII

Carlos II

Felipe V

Juan Carlos I

Augustus

Carlos IV

General Franco

The Catholic Monarchs

Match each historic event with the year it took place.


The discovery of America.

1808

The Spanish Civil War.

1975

The War of Independence.

1492

Juan Carlos I became king.

1936

10 This is a painting by Joaquin Sorolla. In what century was it painted? What style is it?





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FINAL TEST

Name

Date

Circle the correct option.


1. The function that includes all the
processes that we carry out to obtain
the building materials and energy that
our bodies need is called
a. sensitivity.

6. The parts of the central


nervous system shown
in the drawing are

a. 1. cerebellum,
2. cerebrum, 3. brain stem.

c. nutrition.
2. The digestive process includes these three
stages:
a. digestion, absorption and elimination
of waste.

c. 1. cerebrum, 2. brain stem, 3.


cerebellum.
7. The ovaries produce
a. ovules.

b. digestion, absorption and respiration.

b. spermatozoa.

c. circulation, digestion and elimination


of waste.

c. the placenta.

3. The respiratory system consists of the

8. The union of an ovule and a spermatozoa


forms a

a. air passageways and the bronchi.

a. zygote.

b. lungs and the throat.

b. fetus.

c. air passageways and the lungs.

c. embryo.

4. The blood vessels which carry blood to


the heart are the

9. Diseases that are common in some


areas or regions are called

a. arteries.

a. sporadic diseases.

b. veins.

b. epidemic diseases.

c. capillaries.

c. endemic diseases.

5. The central nervous system consists


ofthe

10. Diseases caused by protozoans are


called

a. brain and the brain stem.

a. bacterial infections.

b. brain and the spinal cord.

b. parasitic infections.

c. nerves and the brain.

c. viral infections.

189736 _ 0172-0192.indd 186

b. 1. cerebrum,
2. cerebellum, 3. brain stem.

b. reproduction.

186

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EST

Name
Circle the correct option.
11. Objects with electrical charges of
the same type

Date
17. The imaginary lines that run from pole to
pole are called

a. attract each other.

a. meridians.

b. repel each other.

b. parallels.

c. are magnetised.

c. latitudes.

12. Materials that carry electrical current


well are called

18. The largest continent is


a. Africa.

a. insulators.

b. Asia.

b. generators.

c. America.

c. conductors.
13. Many of the changes that occur around
us are caused by

19. The highest mountain peak in Europe


is
a. Mulhacen.

a. electricity.

b. Mount Elbrus.

b. energy.

c. Mount Everest.

c. movement.
14. The heat of the sun boils water to create
steam in

20. The tundra is a type of vegetation found


in areas of Europe with
a. a mountain climate.

a. solar thermal power plants.

b. an oceanic climate.

b. solar photovoltaic power plants.

c. a polar climate.

c. thermal power plants.


15. This is a picture of a

21. Immigrants who come to Europe have


increased the continents

a. mechanical
machine.

a. birth rate.

b. thermal motor.

c. life expectancy.

b. death rate.

c. machine for managing information.


16. In this gear, the wheel that will turn
at a faster speed is

22. The industry that employs the fewest


people in Europe is the
a. primary sector.

a. the smaller wheel.

b. secondary sector.

b. the larger wheel.

c. tertiary sector.

c. Both turn at the


same speed.

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187
10/10/11 10:38

Name
Circle the correct option.
23. The European Union is formed by
a. twenty-seven European monarchies.

Date
28. The first king of the Bourbon dynasty
was

b. fifteen democratic European


countries.

a. Carlos I.

c. twenty-seven democratic European


countries.

c. Juan Carlos I.

24. The institution of the European Union


that approves budgets and laws, and
controls the other EU institutions is the
a. Council of the European Union.
b. European Parliament.
c. European Commission.
25. Prehistory ended with the invention of
a. fire.

b. Felipe V.

29. The first Spanish Constitution was


approved in
a. 1808 in Aranjuez.
b. 1812 in Cadiz.
c. 1814 in Madrid.
30. The Constitution of 1978 established
a. an absolute monarchy in Spain.
b. a parliamentary monarchy in Spain.
c. a democracy in Spain.

b. writing.
c. the wheel.
26. Roman buildings constructed for imperial
business were called
a. amphitheatres.
b. basilicas.
c. baths.
27. The revolt of the Communities was a
a. protest in the major cities of Castile
during the reign of Carlos I.
b. revolt of the Lutherans in central
Europe.
c. revolt in the Netherlands.

188
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Answer key

FINAL assessments

1. Identify the parts of the digestive system.


1. mouth; 2. salivary glands; 3. oesophagus; 4. stomach; 5. pancreas; 6. large intestine;
7. liver; 8. small intestine.
2. Write the names of the two types of blood circulation.
Pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation.
3. Complete these sentences about fertilisation.
Ovules are female sex cells and spermatozoa are male sex cells. Fertilisation is the union
of an ovule and a sperm cell. Fertilisation occurs in the Fallopian tubes.
4. Look at the diagram and answer the questions.
An electrical circuit.
M. A. Yes, because all the components are connected and the switch is closed.
M. A. The electrical current cannot complete the whole circuit, and it will not work.
5. Write the names of three continents and three oceans.
Possible answers: Continents: Africa; North America; South America; Asia; Europe;
Oceania; Antarctica.
Possible answers: Oceans: Arctic; Antarctic; Atlantic; Pacific; Indian.
6. Write one example of each.
Possible answers: European mountain ranges: Central Massif; Vosges; Black Forest;
Pyrenees; Alps, Carpathians, Balkans, Caucasus; Scandinavian; Ural; Apennines; Ore;
Dinaric Alps.
Possible answers: European peninsulas: Kola; Scandinavian; Jutland; Iberian; Italian;
Balkan; Crimean.
Possible answers: A river in the Caspian Sea watershed: Volga or Ural.
7. Colour the countries that form the European Union. Then write the names of the original
members.
Graphic answer. See page 146 in the Students Book: Germany, Belgium, Netherlands,
Luxembourg, France and Italy.
8. Number the people chronologically to reflect the order of their appearance in history.
1: Augustus; 2: Catholic Monarchs; 3: Carlos I; 4: Felipe II; 5: Carlos II; 6: Felipe V;
7: Carlos IV; 8: Isabel II; 9: Alfonso XIII; 10: General Franco; 11: Juan Carlos I;
12: Adolfo Suarez.
9. Match each historic event with the year it took place.
The discovery of America: 1492;
The Spanish Civil War: 1936;
The War of Independence: 1808;
Juan Carlos I became king: 1975.
10. This is a painting by Joaquin Sorolla. In what century was it painted? What style is it?
It was painted in the 19th century. It is in the Impressionist style.
FINAL TEST
1. c; 2. a; 3. c; 4. b; 5. b; 6. b; 7. a; 8. a; 9. c; 10. b;
11. b; 12. c; 13. a; 14. a; 15. a; 16. a; 17. a; 18. b; 19. b; 20. c;
21. a; 22. a; 23. c; 24. b; 25. b; 26. b; 27. a; 28. b; 29. b: 30. b.

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189736 _ 0172-0192.indd 189

189
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digestive tube

The digestive system

helper glands

The excretory system

The respiratory system

Nutrition

190
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189736 _ 0172-0192.indd 191

50

Top Science 4 PHOTOCOPIABLE MATERIAL 2011 Richmond Publishing / Santillana Educacin, S.L.

40

20

Canary Islands

10

Lisbon

Melilla

Gibraltar

Ceuta

Madrid

Dublin

Reykjavik

tic

Arc

20

cle

Paris

Merid

Monaco

Bern

Luxembourg

Brussels

Berlin

Tirana

Podgorica

Sarajevo

Zagreb

Budapest

30

Vilnius

Riga

Tallinn

Helsinki

20

40

Bucharest

Chisinau

Minsk

Athens

Soa
Skopje

Pristina

Belgrade

Warsaw

Bratislava

Valletta

Vienna

Prague

Rome

San Marino

20

Stockholm

Ljubljana

Vaduz

10

10

Oslo

Copenhagen

Amsterdam

ian

189736p191_Europa poltico

Andorra
la Vella

London

Cir

10

Green

wich

60

30

30

Kiev

30

210 km

Nicosia

Ankara

Moscow

50

JORDAN

60

40

40

70

60

70

Baku

60

National capital

Yerevan

Tbilisi

70

KUWAIT

Political map of Europe

191

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Top Science 6 is a collective work, conceived, designed and created by the Primary Education department at Santillana,
under the supervision of Enric Juan Redal and Vicki Caballero.
Content team: Primary Education department, Santillana and Ainara Solana
English adaptation: Jeannette West
Managing editor: Sheila Tourle
Project editor, Level 6: Michele C. Guerrini for MCG Content and Language Network
Editorial team: Jeannette West, Soo Hamilton and Ainara Solana
Art director: Jos Crespo
Design coordinator: Rosa Marn
Design Team:
Interiors design: Jorge Gmez Tobar
Cover design: Pep Carri
Cover illustration: Javier Vzquez
Design development coordinator: Javier Tejeda
Design development: Jos Luis Garca and Ral de Andrs
Technical director: ngel Garca Encinar
Technical coordinator: Marisa Valbuena
Layout: Hilario Simn and David Redondo
Art coordination: Carlos Aguilera
Illustrations: Jordi Baeza, Paul Coulbois, Carlos Fernndez, Digitalartis, Jorge Salas, and Bartolom Segu.
Photo research: Amparo Rodrguez
Photographs: C. Prez; GARCA-PELAYO/Juancho; J. M. Escudero; J. V. Resino; M. Moreno; Michele di Piccione; S. Enrquez; X. S.
Lobato; GETTY IMAGES SALES SPAIN/Photos.com Plus; ISTOCKPHOTO; SEIS X SEIS; MUSEO DE CUENCA, ECUADOR; ARCHIVO
SANTILLANA
All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system
or transmitted in any form, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise without the
prior permission in writing of the copyright holders. Any infraction of the rights mentioned
would be considered a violation of the intellectual property (Article 270 of the Penal Code).
If you need to photocopy or scan any fragment of this work, contact CEDRO
(Centro Espaol de Derechos Reprogrficos, www.cedro.org).
However, the publisher grants permission for the photocopying of those pages marked
photocopiable, for individual use or for use in classes taught by the purchaser only.
Under no circumstances may any part of this book be photocopied for resale.

2011 by Santillana Educacin, S. L. / Richmond Publishing


Torrelaguna, 60. 28043 Madrid
Richmond Publishing is an imprint
of Santillana Educacin, S. L.

Richmond Publishing
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Oxford OX1 ST
United Kingdom

PRINTED IN SPAIN

ISBN: 978-84-294-9247-7
CP: 189736
D.L.:

189736 _ 0172-0192.indd 192

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