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CONCEPT MATRIX: What is the relationship between physical activity and academic achievement?

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AUTHORS:
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Health Behavior
and Academic
Achievement
Among
Adolescents: The
relative
Contribution of
Dietary Habits,
Physical Activity,
Body Mass Index,
and Self-esteem.
Kristjnsson,
Singfsdttir &
Allegrante (2010)
..
..( Kristjnsson,
Singfsdttir &
Allegrante , 2008)

Associations
between Physical
Activity, Fitness
and Academic
Achievement.

Physical Fitness and


Academic
Achievement

Physical Fitness and


Academic
Achievement in
Third- and FifthGrade Students

Is the health and


wellbeing of
university students
associated with
their academic
performance? Cross
sectional findings
from the United
Kingdom.

Kwak, Kremers,
Bergman, Ruiz,
Rizzo & Sjostrom
(2009)
. (Kwak, Kremers,
Bergman, Ruiz,
Rizzo & Sjostrom ,
2009)..

Grissom (2005)
.(Grissom,2005)

Castelli, Hillman,
Buck & Erwin (2007)

.( Castelli, Hillman,
Buck & Erwin, 2007)

Ansari and Stock


(2010).
.( Ansari and
Stock, 2010)

Kristjnsson, A.L.,
Singfsdttir, D.,
Allegrante, J.P.
(2010). Health
Behavior and
Academic
Achievement
Among

Kwak, L., Kremers,


S.P.J., Bergman, P.,
Ruiz, J.R., Rizzo,
N.S., & Sjostrom, M.
(2009).
Associations
between Physical
Activity, Fitness

Grissom, J.B.
(2005,February).
Physical Fitness and
Academic
Achievement.
Journal of Exercise
Physiologyonlline,
8(1), 11-25.

Castelli,D.M.
,Hillman, C.H., Buck,
S.M. & Erwin,H.E.
(2007). Physical
fitness and academic
achievement in thirdand fifth-grade
students. Journal of

Ansari, E.L. and


Stock, C. (2010). Is
the health and
wellbeing of
university students
associated with
their academic
performance? Cross

What is the
objective of
the study?

Adolescents: The
relative
Contribution of
Dietary Habits,
Physical Activity,
Body Mass Index,
and Self-esteem.
Health Education &
Behavior, 37(1), 5164.
To estimate the
relationship
between health
behaviors, body
mass index (BMI),
and self-esteem
and the academic
achievement of
adolescents.

No hypothesis
Is there a
hypothesis?
If so, what is
the

and Academic
Achievement. The
Journal of
Pediatrics, 155(60),
914-918.

To explore the
associations
between
objectively
assessed intensity
levels of physical
activity and
academic
achievement and
test whether
cardiovascular
fitness mediates
the associations
between physical
activity and
academic
achievement.
Physical fitness
mediates the
relationship
between the
proximal variables

The purpose of the


study was to
evaluate the
relationship between
physical fitness and
academic
achievement.

No hypothesis

sports & exercise


psychology, 29, 239252.

sectional findings
from the United
Kingdom.
International
Journal of
Environmental
Research and
Public Health, 7,
509-527.

). Investigate the
relationship between
physical fitness and
academic
achievement among
third- and fifth- grade
students using a field
test of fitness and
academic
achievement on the
Illinois Standards
Achievement Test
(ISAT

Assessed the
association
between health
awareness,
healthbehavior,
subjective health
status, and three
educational
achievement
outcomes.

Aerobic fitness would


be most associated
with academic
achievement.

It was hypothesized
that indicators of
positive health
would be
associated with

hypothesis?

What is the
methodology?
Describe the
respondents
and the
procedure.

and academic
achievement.
A total of 6,346
students of
secondary school
(51.4% girls, 48.6%
boys) complete the
questionnaire of
the survey. From
the survey, the
level of academic
achievement was
estimated by
asking the
respondents their
average grades in
the core subjects.
Meanwhile, BMI
was measured by
asking respondents
to self-report their
weight and height.
In order to
determine physical
activity, the
respondents were
asked two
questions that were
intended to
measure different

Cross-sectional
data were gathered
in Swedish 9th
grade students
(n=232; mean
age=16 years; 52%
girls). Academic
achievement was
assessed through
the schools by
taking students
individual written
marks based on 17
school subjects.
The mothers
education, family
structure, and
parental monitoring
were self-reported.
Physical activity
was measured with
an accelerometer,
participants worn it
on the right hip
with an elastic
waistband during
walking hours for 4
consecutive days.

The relationship
between physical
fitness and
academic
achievement was
evaluated by
comparing the
scores on the
FITNESSFRAM with
reading and
mathematics scores
on the Stanford
Achievement Test 9th
edition. The sample
size included
884,715 students in
5th,7t, and 9th grade
of California school.
The analysis has two
parts. The first one
is by calculating the
average test score
by overall PFT score.
Second, using
analysis of variance
(ANOVA) to relate
the overall PFT score
and achievement

This study was


conducted in a single
school district in
medium-sized urban
community. Four
schools were
selected for this
study; two schools
have a high average
academic
achievement while
the others have a low
average academic
achievement. The
study sample
comprised 259
participants. Illinois
department of
education and other
public documents
were used to
determine the
average
socioeconomic status
of the entire
students.
Students have to
complete the fitness

three positive
academic
outcomes.
Two-cross-sectional
studies were
simultaneously
undertaken among
students from the
University of
Gloucestershire, UK
during 2008-2009.
The first study was
a general students
health survey. The
second study was a
survey of students
satisfaction with
different aspects of
learning and
teaching
experience.
Students
registration
numbers links the
responses of both
questionnaires
together, and
subsequently linked
the questionnaires
to the university
database to import

What is the
result of the
study?
Did it support
the
hypothesis?

levels of physical
activity beyond one
compulsory school
session. The
confirmatory factor
analysis is used to
find the relation
between selfesteem , physical
activity and
academic
achievement

The data was


analyzed with
Microsoft Accessbased macro.
Furthermore,
cardiovascular
fitness was
measured with a
bicycle ergometer.
Linear regression
analysis was used
to test the intensity
levels of physical
activity and
academic
achievement.

scores.

From the result of


the study the
authors reported
that increasing BMI
was negatively
correlated with
academic
achievement and
increasing physical
activity was
positively
correlated with

After controlling for


confounding
factors, academic
achievement was
associated with
vigorous physical
activity in girls. The
association was not
mediated by
fitness. On the
other hand, in boys
only fitness was

Results indicate a
consistent positive
relationship between
overall fitness and
academic
achievement. That
is, as the overall
fitness scores
improved, mean
achievement scores
also improved. This
relationship between

testing which include


Progressive Aerobic
Cardiovascular
Endurance Run
(PACER) , push-ups,
curl-ups, mean backsaver sit and reach
and BMI. The score
were evaluated by
using Fitnessgram
software. The
academic
achievement was
tested by using total
academic
achievement,
mathematics
achievement and
reading achievement.
The key finding of
this study is that
physical fitness was
related to academic
performance in thirdand fifth- grade
children, providing
general support for
the notion that
children who are
physically fit are
more likely to

the grades that


students actually
achieved in their
studies.

The findings
supported that
health behaviors
related to academic
achievement. The
frequency of
students binge
drinking in the last
month was
negatively
correlated with the
importance of good

What does the


author
conclude
based on the

academic
achievement. A
part from that,
physical activity
also strongly
related to self
esteem. A higher
self-esteem will
make the academic
performance of the
students increase
since the selfesteem had a
positive direct
relationship with
academic
achievement.

associated with
academic
achievement.

fitness and
achievement
appeared to be
stronger for females
than males and
stronger for higher
socioeconomic
status (SES) than
lower SES students.

perform better on
standardized
academic
achievement test,
thus corroborating
the CDE (2001) study.
Specifically, aerobic
fitness was positively
associated, and BMI
was negatively
associated, with total
academic
achievement, reading
achievement, and
mathematics
achievement,
whereas muscle
strength and
flexibility fitness were
observed to be
unrelated to
achievement test
performance in this
data.

From the result of


the research,
health behavior did
autonomously
influence and was
positively related to

Further study are


necessary to
investigate the
potential
longitudinal effect
of vigorous physical

When the overall


PFT score was
compared to mean
SAT/9 reading and
mathematics scores,
there was a

This study confirms


that physical fitness
is generally
associated with
academic
performance in

grades. However,
the other health
behaviors such as
smoking, physical
activity and
nutritional factors
did not display in
the bivariate
analyses.
Nevertheless, the
lack of significant
associations
between physical
activity and module
mark are
conceivable. In
university, the
association
between binge
drinking and
academic
achievement
seems to be most
relevant
relationship.
The study supports
the conceptual
framework
suggesting
reciprocal
relationship

result of the
study?

self-esteem and
academic
achievement as
well as higher
levels of selfesteem. However,
the interpretation
of the result should
be considered in
light of several
methodological
limitations. These
limitations due to
the respondents
might answer the
questions
inaccurately since
this study is based
on the self-report of
behavior.
The authors
believed that their
study on the
relationship
between health
behaviors and
academic
achievements is
still incomplete.

activity on
academic
achievement, the
role of fitness
herein and the
implications of
these findings for
schools(Pediatr ,
2009)

consistent positive
relationship between
physical fitness and
academic
achievement.
Research indicates
that activities that
positively enrich
both mental and
physical process
promote the positive
development of the
whole system [17].
Notwithstanding,
results should be
interpreted with
caution. It cannot be
inferred from these
data that physical
fitness causes
academic
achievement to
improve. It more
likely that physical
and mental process
influences each
other in ways that
are still being
understood because
it is possible that
this relationship was

elementary school
children. Shephard
(1997) believes that
relationship between
physical fitness and
academic
performance related
to teacher attitudes,
students attitudes,
learning disabilities
and public policy.
Unfortunately, this
study was unable to
determine the
students attitude
and relate it with the
relationship between
physical fitness and
academic
performance.
Continued research is
needed to gain a
more casual
understanding of the
relationship between
physical fitness and
cognition in children.

between health,
health behaviors
and educational
achievement.
Comprehensive
health promotion
programmers may
have the potential
to influence
relevant predictors
of educational
achievement in
university students
and therewith do
not only add to
population health,
but contribute to
the core business
of higher education
institutions.

Unifying
theme?
This helps you
to write your
title and
thesis
statement, i.e.
your
introduction.
Keypoint

mediated by
variable(s) not
included in this
study.
Studies have documented a positive relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement or other
cognitive performance measures. Although the results of these study prove the positive relationship between
physical activity and academic achievement, researchers claims that their study are not too accurate due to
some limitations.

Genders
influence the
result of the
study.

Physical fitness is
generally associated
with academic
performance.