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GUDLAVALLERU ENGINEERING COLLEGE

Department of CIVIL ENGINEERING


M.Tech Structural Engineering
Project Progress Report for 2nd Review
Date:
Name: P. Roopa Bhargavi
Roll No. : 14481D8715
Broad area of project work: Concrete technology
Title of the project work: Experimental Study on Strength and durability properties of steel
fibers & glass fibers using GGBS based concrete

1. ABSTRACT
Concrete is the broadly used construction material in civil engineering
industry due to its tremendous properties like high structural strength and stability. The
demand and cost of cement is growing day to day, so investigators are looking for
supplementary materials with the main objective of reducing solid waste disposal problem,
by using waste as supplementary by maintaining the same properties or by enhancing the
properties by using selected materials.
In this study, an attempt has been made to study the effect on mechanical and
durability properties of M25 grade concrete made with replacement of cement with Ground
Granulate Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS), (0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%). After the optimum
content of GGBS found, for the replacement of cement then Steel fiber in different
percentages (0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%) and glass fibers in different percentages (0%,
0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%) is added.
For each set of fibers, mechanical properties were studied by performing
Compression test for Cubes, Flexural test for beams and Split Tensile test for cylinders and
durability properties were studied by performing sulphate attack test cubes.

KEYWORDS: GGBS, Steel Fiber, Glass Fiber, Cement, Coarse Aggregate, Fine
Aggregate.

2.INTRODUCTION
1

GROUND GRANULATED BLAST SLAG (GGBS ): GGBS is not a new product. It has
already proven itself reliably in its use all over the world since the mid 1800s. Thirty-eight
years after the patent for Portland cement was first lodged by John Aspdin in 1824, Emil
Langin discovered GGBS cement. By 1865, commercial production of lime activated GGBS
had commenced in Germany and by 1880 GGBS was being used with Portland cement as the
activator. In 1889 it was used for construction of the Paris Metro. The United States
commenced production of slag cements in 1896.
Since then Europe, with its many blast furnaces and steel industries has used GGBS
extensively in all manner of structures. By 1914, GGBS was being manufactured in Scotland.
BS 146 was published in 1923 followed by BS 6699 in 1986 for GGBS. In Britain, over 2
million tons of GGBS is used every year. GGBS is also widely used by the cement and
concrete industries in continental Europe, with some 17.7 million tones now being used
annually. GGBS is specified for its many technical advantages and as a means of reducing the
environmental impact of the production of Portland cement.
FIBERS REINFORCED CONCRETE: Fibre Reinforced Concrete can be defined as a
composite material consisting of mixtures of cement, mortar or concrete and discontinuous,
discrete, uniformly dispersed suitable fibres. Continuous meshes, woven fabrics and long
wires or rods are not considered to be discrete fibres FRC increases the tensile strength of the
concrete, it reduce the air voids and water voids the inherent porosity of gel. It increases the
durability of the concrete. Fibres such as graphite and glass have excellent resistance to creep.
The addition of small closely spaced and uniformly dispersed fibres to concrete would act as
crack arrester and would substantially improve its static and dynamic properties.Fibre
reinforced concrsete is in use since many years in India, but the structural applications are
very much limited. However, its application is picking up in the recent days

TYPES OF FIBERS: The following are the different types of fibers that can be used in
FRC,
a. Steel fibers
b. Glass fibers
c. Synthetic fibers
d. Carbon fibers
e. Nylon fiber
STEEL FIBER: Steel fiber-reinforced concrete is basically a cheaper and easier to use form
of rebar reinforced concrete. Rebar reinforced concrete uses steel bars that are laid within the
liquid cement, which requires a great deal of preparation work but make for a much stronger
concrete. Steel fiber-reinforced concrete uses thin steel wires mixed in with the cement.
Diameter varying from 0.3-0.5mm and Length varying from 35-60mm

Fig: Steel fiber types with different geometric properties


ADVANTAGES OF STEEL FIBERS

Improved structural strength

Reduced steel reinforcement requirements

Improved ductility

Reduced crack widths and control of crack widths thus improving durability

Improved impact & abrasion resistance

EFFECT OF FIBER ON CONCRETE

Resistance to crack propagation due to plastic and drying shrinkage.

Resistance to thermal and moisture stresses.

Increases ductility.

Increases impact and abrasion resistance.

Increased tensile, flexural and fatigue strength.

Decreased permeability.

Decreased mix-water bleed rate

The following values gives the effects of fibers on concrete

PROPERTIES

IMPROVEMENT OVER
ORDINARY CONCRETE

DUCTILITY

5 TO 10 TIMES

IMPACT RESISTANCE

100 TO 200%

CRACKING & FLEXURAL


STRENGTH

80 TO 120%

SHEAR STRENGTH

50 TO 100%

BEARING STRENGTH

50 TO 100%

ABRASION RESISTANCE

SEVERAL TIMES

GLASS FIBER: Glass fiber is formed when thin strands of silica-based or other formulation
glass are extruded into many fibers with small diameters suitable
for textile processing. The technique of heating and drawing glass into fine fibers has
been known for millennia; however, the use of these fibers for textile applications is
more recent. Until this time, all glass fiber had been manufactured as staple (that is,
clusters of short lengths of fiber).
COMPOSITION: E-CR-glass (Electrical/Chemical Resistance; alumino-lime silicate with
less than 1% w/w alkali oxides, with high acid resistance)
USE: E-glass ("E" because of initial electrical application), is alkali free, and was the first
glass formulation used for continuous filament formation. It now makes up most of the
fiberglass production in the world, and also is the single largest consumer of boron mineralsk
globally. It is susceptible to chloride ion attack and is a poor choice for marine applications

Fiber
type

Tensile
strength
(MPa)[11]

Compressive
strength
(MPa)

Density
(g/cm3)

Thermal
expansion
(m/mC)

E-glass

3445

1080

2.58

5.4

Softening T Price
(C)
($/kg)

846

~2

3. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Santosh Kumar Karri, G.V.Rama Rao, P.Markandeya Raju (2015) [1] studied the Strength and

Durability Studies on GGBS Concrete. In this investigating characteristics of M20 and M40
grade concrete with partial replacement of cement with ground granulated blast furnace slag
(GGBS) by replacing cement via 30%, 40%, 50%. The cubes, cylinders and prisms are tested
for compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength. Durability studies with
sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid were also conducted. The compressive strength, flexural
strength and split tensile strength of concrete increased when cement is replaced by GGBS
for both M20 and M40 grade of concrete. At 40% replacement of cement by GGBS the
concrete attained maximum compressive, flexural and split tensile strength for both M20 and
M40 grade of concrete.The compressive strength values of acid effected concrete decreases
on comparison with of normal concrete, but the effect of acid on concrete decreases with the
increase of percentage of GGBS. At 40% replacement of GGBS the resistance power of
concrete is more. The compressive strength values of GGBS concrete effected to HCl were
greater than the GGBS concrete effected to H2SO4. The effect of HCl on strength of the
concrete is lower than the effect of H2SO4 on strength of the concrete.
Arvind b. nakum, vatsal n patel,vishal b. patel (2015) [2] studied the
experimental study on mechanical and durability properties of high strength concrete
incorporating ggbs and steel fibers effect on mechanical and durability properties of M50
grade concrete made with replacement of cement with Ground Granulate Blast Furnace Slag
(20%,30% and 40%) by weight and the addition of Steel Fiber in different percentages
(1.5%,2% and 2.5%). The concrete mixture with 30% GGBS and 2% steel fiber has the
highest compressive strength, flexural strength and split tensile strength performance at all
ages in comparison with all variations including non-fibers control Concrete. In terms of
durability test in sulphate attack and acid attack, concrete with 30% GGBS and 2% steel fiber
gave better results for 28, 56 & 90 days compared to control and other mix. Hence the
optimum value is achieved for 30%GGBS and 2% addition of steel Fibers. GGBFS can be
utilised as a mineral admixture in concrete due to economical and environmental benefits,
without any compromise with its performance.
avinash gornale*,s ibrahim quadri, mehmood quadri, syed md
akram ali, syed shamsuddin hussaini .(2012) [3] studied the Strength
Aspects of Glass Fibre Reinforced Concrete effect on Compressive, Flexural and Split tensile
strength of various grades of Glass fibre reinforced concrete mixes were compared with
ordinary concrete mixes of M-20, M-30 and M-40 grades of concrete. It has been observed
that the workability of concrete decreases with the addition of Glass Fibres. But this difficulty
can be overcome by using plasticizers or super-plasticizers. The increase in Compression
strength, Flexural strength, Split tensile strength for M-20, M-30 and M-40 grade of concrete
at 3, 7 and 28 days are observed to be 20% to 30%, 25% to 30% and 25% to30% respectively
when compared with 28 days strength of Plain Concrete It has been also observed that there
is gradual increase in early strength for Compression and Flexural strength of Glass Fibre
Reinforced Concrete as compared to Plain Concrete, and there is sudden increase in ultimate
strength for Split tensile strength of Glass Fibre Reinforced Concrete as compared to Plain
Concrete.

4. OBJECT AND SCOPE OF EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION


EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION: The experimental investigation consists of casting
and testing of 9 sets along with control mix. Each set comprises of 18 cubes, 3 cylinders and
6 beams for determining compressive, tensile and flexural strengths respectively. By taking
different percentage of GGBS, along with steel & Glass fibers individually as a partial
replacement of cement will be replaced accordingly with the different percentages by weight
of slag and different percentages by weight of steel fiber and Glass fiber. Cube section
dimension is of15cmx15cmx15cm, cylinder section dimension is 15cmx30cm and beam
dimension is 50cmx10cmx10cm. The moulds are applied with a lubricant before placing the
concrete. After a day of casting, the moulds are removed. The cubes, cylinders and beams are
moved to the curing tank carefully.
GRADE OF
CONCRETE
M25

STEEL FIBER

CUBES

CYLINDERS

BEAMS

0%

18

0.5%

18

1%

18

1.5%

18

2%

18

TOTAL NUMBER OF SPECIMENS


135

GRADE OF
CONCRETE
M25

GLASS FIBER

CUBES

CYLINDERS

BEAMS

0.1%

18

0.2%

18

0.3%

18

0.4%

18

TOTAL NUMBER OF SPECIMENS


108

5. MATERIALS & PROPERTIES


CEMENT: The cement used was ordinary Portland cement of 53- grade conforming to IS
12269. The cement should be fresh and of uniform consistency. Where there is evidence of
lumps or any foreign matter in the material, it should not be used. The cement should be
stored under dry conditions and for as short duration as possible.
FINE AGGREGATES: Sand shall be obtained from a reliable supplier and shall comply
with ASTM standard C- 33 for fine aggregates. It should be clean, hard, strong, and free of
organic impurities and deleterious substance. It should inert with respect to other materials
used and of suitable type with regard to strength, density, shrinkage and durability of mortar
made with it.Grading of the sand is to be such that a mortar of specified proportions is
produced with a uniform distribution of the aggregate, which will have a high density and
good workability and which will work into position without segregation and without use of
high water content. The fineness of the sand should be such that 100% of it passes standard
sieve No.8.The fine aggregate which is the inert material occupying 60 to 75 percent of the
volume of mortar must get hard strong nonporous and chemically inert. Fine aggregates
conforming to grading zone II with particles grater than 2.36 mm and smaller than 150 mm
removed are suitable.

COARSE AGGREGATE: Locally available crushed blue granite stones conforming to


graded aggregate of nominal size 20 mm as per IS: 383 1970. ].Its specific gravity was 2.6.
GGBS: Ground granulated blast furnace slag GGBS is obtained by quenching molten iron
slag (a by-product of iron and steel making) from a blast furnace in water or steam, to
produce a glassy, granular product that is then dried and ground into a fine powder. GGBS is
used to make durable concrete structures in combination with ordinary Portland cement
and/or other pozzolanic materials. Two major uses of GGBS are in the production of qualityimproved slag cement, namely Portland blast furnace cement (PBFC) and High slag Blast
furnace cement (HSBFC), with GGBS content ranging typically from 30 to 70%;and in the
production of ready-mixed or site-batched durable concrete. Use of GGBS significantly
reduces the risk of damages caused by alkali-silica reaction (ASR), provides higher resistance
to chloride ingress-reducing.

Fig : GGBS
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GGBS
Ecocem GGBS comprises mainly of CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, MgO, it contains
less than 1% crystalline silica, and contains less than 1 ppm water soluble chromium
IV. It has the same main chemical constituents as ordinary Portland cement, but in
different proportions.
Chemical Constituent
CaO
SiO2
AI2O3
MgO

Portland
65%
20%
5%
2%

GGBS
40%
35%
10%
8%

Table : Chemical Composition of GGBS


Because of these chemical similarities, Ecocem GGBS can be replaced for Portland
cement in concrete mixes by as much as up to 95% (EN 1971 allows for up to 95%
replacement).
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF GGBS
2.
Colour
Bulk density (loose)
Bulk density (vibrated)
Relative density
Surface area

Off-white powder
1.01.1 tonnes /m3
1.21.3 tonnes /m3
2.852.95
400600 m2/kg Blaine

Table : Physical Properties of GGBS


The ground cement powder is near-white in colour and is a hydraulic cement, i.e. it
has the property of setting and hardening through chemical reaction with water.
FIBER-REINFORCED CONCRETE (FRC)
STEEL FIBER: Fiber is a small piece of reinforcing material possessing certain
characteristics properties. They can be circular or flat. The fiber is often described by a
convenient parameter called aspect ratio. The aspect ratio of the fiber is the ratio of its
length to its diameter. Typical aspect ratio ranges from 30 to 150.
SPECIFICATIONS OF STEEL FIBERS
Fiber Type
Fiber length
Fiber diameter
Aspect Ratio

Hooked End Steel bar


35mm
0.45mm
80

Fig steel fiber


GLASS FIBERS: Glass fiber-reinforced concrete uses fiberglass, much like you would find
in fiberglass insulation, to reinforce the concrete. The glass fiber helps insulate the concrete
in addition to making it stronger. Glass fiber also helps prevent the concrete from cracking
over time due to mechanical or thermal stress. In addition, the glass fiber does not interfere
with radio signals like the steel fiber reinforcement does.

Fig glass fiber

GLASS FIBER PROPERTIES


Fiber length
Fiber diameter
Aspect Ratio

50mm
0.1mm
500

Specific gravity tests for coarse and fine aggregates are conducted and the test results
obtained are as follows:

S. No

Particulars of test

Test results

Specific gravity of coarse aggregate

2.6

Specific gravity of fine aggregate

2.67

Specific gravity of GGBS

2.85

Sieve analysis

Zone II

MOULDS AND EQUIPMENTS:


Moulds of required size and shape were prepared for casting process.The dimensions of the
moulds for casting cubes, cylinders and prisms are 150mm x 150mm x 150mm,300mm x
150mm &500mm x 100mm x 100mm respectively are used. All the moulds are applied
lubricant before concreting. After a day of casting moulds are de moulded and then cubes,
beams & cylinders are moved to the curing tank carefully for curing.

10

Cross sectional details of the beam

6. SCHEDULE DATES FOR CASTING AND TESTING


Steel
Fiber
%

Date of Casting

Date of testing
7 days

28 days

90 days

8/1/15

15/1/16

11/2/16

11/3/16

18/3/16

8/4/16

9/6/16

1.5

11/3/16

18/3/16

8/4/16

9/6/16

12/3/16

19/3/16

9/4/16

10/6/16

Glass
Fiber
%

Date of Casting

8/1/15

Date of testing
7 days

28 days

90 days

15/1/16

11/2/16

11

0.1

13/3/16

21/3/16

11/4/16

12/6/16

0.2

13/3/16

21/3/16

11/4/16

12/6/16

0.3

14/3/16

21/3/16

11/4/16

12/6/16

7. MIX DESIGN
Mix is designed basing on IS method and the ingredients will be batched on volumetric basis.
Puzzolonic material is used as partial replacement/addition to any of the ingredients by using
above material light weight aggregate concrete of M25 grade will be manufactured and tested
for strength, durability properties. Mix design can be defined as the process of selecting
suitable ingredients of concrete and determining their relative proportions with the object of
producing concrete of certain minimum strength and durability as economically as possible.
Mix design for each set having different combinations are carried out by using IS:10262 2009method. The mix proportion obtained for normal M25 grade concrete is 1: 1.87 :
3.2.with a water-cement ratio of 0.42
OBJECTIVE:
The main objects of concrete mix design are:
1. To achieve the stipulated minimum strength and durability
2. To make the concrete in the most economical manner
Design of concrete mix requires complete knowledge of the various properties of the
constituent materials, the implication in case of change on these conditions at the site, the
impact of properties of plastic concrete on the hardened concrete and complicated interrelationship between the variables. These strength results will be compared with conventional
concrete results.
8. WORK DONE WITH MIX PROPORTIONS:
Grade

Cement

Fine
aggregate

Coarse
aggregate

Water

W/C ratio

Units

kg/m3

kg/m3

kg/m3

Liters

kg/m3

M25

442

664.8

1181.9

186

0.42

WORK DONE FOR CONVENTIONAL TRAIL MIX1:


DATE

MIX DESIGN
No of cubes
casted = 3

3/12/15

Cement - 4.48 kgs


F.A
- 6.7 kgs
C.A
- 11.9 kgs
Water - 2.16 lts
12

7 DAYS TEST
MPa

10/12/15

Strength obtained=
42.51
45.61
43.25

The average strength of the 3 specimens casted is 43.79 Mpa


WORK DONE FOR CONVENTIONAL TRAIL MIX2:
Grade

Cement

Fine
aggregate

Coarse
aggregate

Water

W/C ratio

Units

kg/m3

kg/m3

kg/m3

Liters

kg/m3

M25

410.4

653.01

1140.9

172

0.42

DATE

MIX DESIGN
No of cubes
casted = 3

7 DAYS TEST
MPa

9/12/15

Cement - 4.14 kgs


F.A
- 6.57 kgs
C.A
- 11.46kgs
Water - 1.74lts

17/12/15

28 DAYS TEST
MPa

Strength obtained=
24.82
25.02
24.56

11/1/16

Strength obtained =
36.98
35.21
37.12

The average strength 7 & 28 days of the 3 specimens casted is 24.8 Mpa
&36.43 Mpa
WORK DONE FOR CONVENTIONAL TRAIL MIX3:
Grade

Cement

Fine
aggregate

Coarse
aggregate

Water

W/C ratio

Units

kg/m3

kg/m3

kg/m3

liters

kg/m3

M25

364.9

685.3

1197.08

153.26

0.42

13

DATE

MIX DESIGN
No of cubes
casted = 3

8/1/16

Cement - 3.69 kgs


F.A
- 7.23 kgs
C.A
- 11.7kgs
Water - 1.55lts

15/1/16

7 DAYS TEST
MPa

28 DAYS TEST
MPa

Strength obtained=
21.82
21.60
22.43

11/2/16

Strength obtained =
33.98
32.56
32.08

The average strength 7 & 28 days of the 3 specimens casted is 21.95 Mpa
&32.88 Mpa

GGBS OPTIMUM
The mix proportions with partial replacement of OPC with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%
of GGBS are calculated.
S.NO

% OF GGBS

COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH MPa
7 days strength

28 days strength

21.92

32.84

10

22.81

34.27

20

23.7

35.55

30

24.01

35.98

40

21.62

32.46

RESULT OF GGBS:
At 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% replacement of GGBS in the cement. As by mix at 30%
optimum value of GGBS found.

9. PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE OF CONCRETE


14

MIXING: The cement is then mixed with the other ingredients: aggregates (sand, gravel, or
crushed stone), admixtures, fibers, and water. Aggregates are pre-blended or added at the
ready-mix concrete plant under normal operating conditions. The mixing operation uses
rotation or stirring to coat the surface of the aggregate with cement paste and to blend the
other ingredients uniformly. A variety of batch or continuous mixers are used

PREPARATION OF CONCRETE CUBES: Metal moulds, preferably steel or cast iron,


strong enough to prevent distortion is required. They are made in such a manner as to facility
the removal of the moulded. Specimen without damage and are so maintained that, when it is
assembled, the dimensions and internal faces are required to be accurate with in the following
limits.

COMPACTING: The testing cube specimens are made as soon as possible after mixing and
in such a manner to produce full compaction of the concrete with neither segregation nor
excessive bleeding, after compacting cubes filled with concreting.

15

CURING: The test specimens are stored in a place free from vibration in moist air of at least
90% relative humidity and at a temperature of 27o2oC for 24 hours from the time of addition
of water to the dry ingredients. After this period, the specimens are marked and removed
from the moulds.

TESTING(Compressive Strength) : After 7, 28 and 90 days curing, cubical specimens are


placed on compression testing machine having a maximum capacity of 3000 KNand a
constant rate of loading of 40kg/m2 per minute is applied on test Ultimate load at which the
cubical specimen fails is noted down from dial gauge reading. This ultimate load divided by
the area of specimen gives the compressive strength of each cube.

TEST RESULTS

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH FOR GLASS FIBER


S.no

GGBS %

% OF STEEL FIBER

7days
COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH

30

21.92

30

23.77

30

1.5

25.55

30

24.66

16

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH FOR GLASS FIBER


S.no

GGBS %

% OF GLASS
FIBER

7days
COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH

30

21.92

30

0.1

23.33

30

0.2

24.22

30

0.3

24.44

10. FURTHER WORK SCHEDULE

Steel
Fiber %

Durability
HCL

28 days

90 days

H2SO4

28 days

90 days

28 days

90 days

6/4/2016

4/6/2016

6/4/2016

4/6/2016

8/4/16

9/6/16

1.5

6/4/2016

4/6/2016

6/4/2016

4/6/2016

8/4/16

9/6/16

7/4/2016

5/6/2016

7/4/2016

5/6/2016

9/4/16

10/6/16

Glass Fiber
%

Durability
HCL

28 days

90 days

H2SO4

28 days

90 days

28 days

90 days

0.1

6/4/2016

4/6/2016

6/4/2016

4/6/2016

11/4/16

12/6/16

0.2

6/4/2016

4/6/2016

6/4/2016

4/6/2016

11/4/16

12/6/16

0.3

7/4/2016

5/6/2016

7/4/2016

5/6/2016

11/4/16

12/6/16

Fiber
%

Date of Casting

Date of testing
7 days

G.F2.5

11/4/2016

17/4/2016
17

28 days
14/5/2016

90 days
31/6/2016

&
S.F0.4

11. CONCLUDING REMARKS


Four trails have been done for the obtaining of M25 mix design and in the fourth trail mix the
optimum values are obtained for the mix. A comparative study on strength and durability
properties will be done

Strength parameters:

Compressive strength for cubes


o Split tensile strength for cylinders
o Flexural strength for beams

Durability Parameters Two acids HCL & H2SO4 of 1% & 5% quantity is mixed
with water

12. REFRENCES:
1. Santosh Kumar Karri, G.V.Rama Rao, P.Markandeya Raju (2015) [1]
Durability Studies on GGBS Concrete.

the Strength and

2. Arvind b. nakum, vatsal n patel,vishal b. patel (2015) [2] studied


the experimental study on mechanical and durability properties of high strength concrete
incorporating ggbs and teel fibers.
3.avinash gornale*,s ibrahim quadri, mehmood quadri, syed md
akram ali, syed shamsuddin hussaini .(2012) [3] studied the Strength
Aspects of Glass Fibre Reinforced Concrete.
4. experimental investigations on strength characteristics of steel fibre reinforced concrete
d.neeraja associate professor, school of mechanical and building sciences, vit university, vellore

5. experimental study on steel fiber reinforced concrete for m-40 grade a.m. shende, a.m.
pande, m. gulfam pathan
6. IS 456:2000
7. IS 10262:2009

Signature of the student


Remarks by the Guide :

18

Signature of the guide with date


(Name of the guide)

Signature of M.Teh. Project Coordinator with date

19

Signature of HoD with date