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Handling damage Excessive preload Excessive end play

or overload

Tapered Roller Bearing Damage Analysis

Roller spaced nicking — Rapid and deep spalling Scalloping — Uneven


The most common types of bearing damage that may result in a
reduction of bearing or application life are often caused by:
Fatigue spalling
Raised metal on races from caused by unusually high localized wear resulting from
contact with roller edges. stresses. Full race width excessive end play.
• insufficient maintenance practices
fatigue spalling is caused by • mishandling
heavy loads creating a thin • improper installation and adjustment practices
lubricant film and possible • inadequate lubrication
elevated temperatures.
The following offers a quick reference to the common causes of
bearing damage.

Inclusion origin — Spalling


from oxides or other hard
inclusions in bearing steel.
Inadequate
Roller nicking/denting — Cage pocket wear — Heavy lubrication*
Rough handling or contact between the rollers
installation damage. and cage pocket surfaces
caused by bearing operating
too loosely.
Total bearing lock-up —
Rollers skew, slide sideways
and lock-up bearing.
WARNING!
Never spin a bearing with compressed air. The force of the
compressed air may cause the rollers to be expelled with Roller end scoring — Metal- Geometric stress
great velocity, creating a risk of serious bodily harm. to-metal contact from concentration — Spalling
breakdown of lubricant film. from misalignment,
Proper bearing maintenance and handling practices are deflections or heavy loading.
critical. Failure to follow installation instructions and
failure to maintain proper lubrication can result in
equipment failure, creating a risk of serious bodily harm.

Cup-face denting — Indentations If a hammer and mild steel bar are used for bearing removal,
from hardened driver. fragments from the hammer, bar or the bearing can be
released with sufficient velocity to create a risk of serious Cone large rib face scoring —
bodily injury including damage to your eyes. “Welding” and heat damage
from metal-to-metal contact.
Cone large rib face
deformation — Metal flow
from excessive heat generation. Point surface origin —
* Excessive preload can cause
damage similar to inadequate Spalling from debris or raised
lubrication damage. metal exceeding the lubricant
film thickness.
Timken® is the registered trademark of
The Timken Company
www.timken.com
©2003 The Timken Company
Printed in USA THE TIMKEN COMPANY
1M 08-05-07 Order No. 6347
High spots in Improper fit Electric current Peeling
Foreign material Corrosion / etching
cup seats

Micro-spalling due to thin


Etching — Rusting with lubricant film from high loads/low
pitting and corrosion from RPM or elevated temperatures.
Localized spalling on the cup
moisture/water exposure. Cone bore damage —
race from stress riser created
Abrasive wear — Fine abrasive Fractured cone due to out-of-
by split housing pinch point.
particle contamination. round or oversized shaft.

Electric arc pitting — Small


burns created by arcs from
improper electric grounding
while the bearing is stationary.

Staining — Surface stain with

Bruising — Debris from other


no significant corrosion from
moisture exposure. Cup spinning — Loose cup fit
False brinelling
fatigued parts, inadequate in a rotating wheel hub.
sealing or poor maintenance. Cage damage
Misalignment

Wear caused
by vibration
Line spalling — Roller-spaced Fluting — or relative axial
spalling from bearings Series of small movement
operating after etching damage. axial burns caused by electric between rollers and races.
Cage Deformation —
Grooving — Large particle current passing through the
Improperly installed or
contamination imbedding bearing while it is rotating.
dropped bearing.
into soft cage material.
Irregular roller path from
True brinelling
deflection, inaccurate machining
or wear of bearing seats.

Damage
Rollers binding and skewing — from shock
Cage ring compressed during or impact.
installation or interference
during service.
High spots in Improper fit Electric current Peeling
Foreign material Corrosion / etching
cup seats

Micro-spalling due to thin


Etching — Rusting with lubricant film from high loads/low
pitting and corrosion from RPM or elevated temperatures.
Localized spalling on the cup
moisture/water exposure. Cone bore damage —
race from stress riser created
Abrasive wear — Fine abrasive Fractured cone due to out-of-
by split housing pinch point.
particle contamination. round or oversized shaft.

Electric arc pitting — Small


burns created by arcs from
improper electric grounding
while the bearing is stationary.

Staining — Surface stain with

Bruising — Debris from other


no significant corrosion from
moisture exposure. Cup spinning — Loose cup fit
False brinelling
fatigued parts, inadequate in a rotating wheel hub.
sealing or poor maintenance. Cage damage
Misalignment

Wear caused
by vibration
Line spalling — Roller-spaced Fluting — or relative axial
spalling from bearings Series of small movement
operating after etching damage. axial burns caused by electric between rollers and races.
Cage Deformation —
Grooving — Large particle current passing through the
Improperly installed or
contamination imbedding bearing while it is rotating.
dropped bearing.
into soft cage material.
Irregular roller path from
True brinelling
deflection, inaccurate machining
or wear of bearing seats.

Damage
Rollers binding and skewing — from shock
Cage ring compressed during or impact.
installation or interference
during service.
Handling damage Excessive preload Excessive end play
or overload

Tapered Roller Bearing Damage Analysis

Roller spaced nicking — Rapid and deep spalling Scalloping — Uneven


The most common types of bearing damage that may result in a
reduction of bearing or application life are often caused by:
Fatigue spalling
Raised metal on races from caused by unusually high localized wear resulting from
contact with roller edges. stresses. Full race width excessive end play.
• insufficient maintenance practices
fatigue spalling is caused by • mishandling
heavy loads creating a thin • improper installation and adjustment practices
lubricant film and possible • inadequate lubrication
elevated temperatures.
The following offers a quick reference to the common causes of
bearing damage.

Inclusion origin — Spalling


from oxides or other hard
inclusions in bearing steel.
Inadequate
Roller nicking/denting — Cage pocket wear — Heavy lubrication*
Rough handling or contact between the rollers
installation damage. and cage pocket surfaces
caused by bearing operating
too loosely.
Total bearing lock-up —
Rollers skew, slide sideways
and lock-up bearing.
WARNING!
Never spin a bearing with compressed air. The force of the
compressed air may cause the rollers to be expelled with Roller end scoring — Metal- Geometric stress
great velocity, creating a risk of serious bodily harm. to-metal contact from concentration — Spalling
breakdown of lubricant film. from misalignment,
Proper bearing maintenance and handling practices are deflections or heavy loading.
critical. Failure to follow installation instructions and
failure to maintain proper lubrication can result in
equipment failure, creating a risk of serious bodily harm.

Cup-face denting — Indentations If a hammer and mild steel bar are used for bearing removal,
from hardened driver. fragments from the hammer, bar or the bearing can be
released with sufficient velocity to create a risk of serious Cone large rib face scoring —
bodily injury including damage to your eyes. “Welding” and heat damage
from metal-to-metal contact.
Cone large rib face
deformation — Metal flow
from excessive heat generation. Point surface origin —
* Excessive preload can cause
damage similar to inadequate Spalling from debris or raised
lubrication damage. metal exceeding the lubricant
film thickness.
Timken® is the registered trademark of
The Timken Company
www.timken.com
©2003 The Timken Company
Printed in USA THE TIMKEN COMPANY
1M 08-05-07 Order No. 6347