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Solution

Q.1.

Given current in a mixture of a d.c. component of 10 A and an alternating current of maximum value
5A.
R.M.S. value =
=

Q.2.

(d.c current)2 (rms value of a.c.current)2


(10)2 (5 / 2 )2 =

15
2

XL = 2fL = 2 50 0.7 = 220 .


R 2 XL2 = 220 2

z=

Power factor, cos =

220
1
R
=
=
.
z
220 2
2

Q.3.

(a) v avg =
veff =

1
v
v
v m sin d m [ cos ]0 m
2 0
2

v2
1
( v m sin )2 d 0 m
2 0
4

vm
2
(b) When switch is closed
2 & 3 series
2 + 3 = 5 and 6 & 9 - series
6 + 9 = 15
5 12 60
5 & 12 parallel

5 12 17
60
60 315
15 &
series
15

17
17
17
10
5 & 10 parallel

3
10
315
(10 / 3) (315 / 17)
&
are parallel
= 2.825H
10 315
3
17

3
17
1
I (t) = E1 E 2
R
1
=
(25 3 + 25 6 sin t)
50
3
I (t) =
(1 + 2 sin t)
2
Heat produced in one cycle of AC.

veff =

Q.4.

2 /
2

I ( t )Rdt

3
50
4

2 /

1 2 sin

t 2 2 sin t dt

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75 2 2 3

J
2
2
No. of cycle in 14 minute is N = 14 60 50
3
Total heat produced =
14 60 50
2
Total heat produced = 3/2 14 60 50 = 63000 J

Q.5.

Q.6.

(a) 0 =

1
LC

iC

50
10 2 200 10 6
2

0 = 100 (= frequency of impressed voltage)


hence net current through resistance is zero.
(b) v = 5 sin 100 t.

Comparing, E = 100

2 sin (100 t) with E = Emax sin t,

we get, Emax = 100 2 V and = 100 Emax (rad/sec.)


1
1
XC =

10 4
C 100 10 6
as ac instrument reads rms value, the reading of ammeter will be,
E
E
Irms = rms max 10 mA
2
2 Xc

Q.7.

Charged stored in the capacitor oscillates simple harmonically as


Q = Q0 sin (t )
Q0 = 2 10-4 C
1
1
=
= 104 s-1

3
6
LC
2 10 5 10
Let at t = 0, Q = Q0 then,
Q(t) = Q0 cos t
dQ
i(t) =
Q0sin t
dt
di( t )
and
= - Q0 2 cos t
dt
Q
(a)
Q = 100 C or 0
2

. . . . . (i)
. . . . . (ii)
. . . . . (iii)

from (i) equation cos t =


from equation (iii)
di
= Q02 cos t
dt
1
= 2 10-4 (104)2
2
di
4
= 10 A/s
dt

1
2

vi

iL

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(b)

Q.8.

Q = 200 C or Q0 then cos t = 1 i.e., t = 0, 2


from equation (ii)
I(t) = - Q0 sin t
I(t) = 0
[sin 0 = sin 2 = 0]

In one complete cycle


Iav = 0
/2

Irms =

2I0
t

/2

dt
0

I0

Irms =
Q.9.

When S is closed
Applying Kirchoffs law
0 = iR + (1/C) idt
i = - (q0 / RC) e-t/RC = - (40/R)e-t/RC
but RC = 0.2 106 10 10-6 = 2 sec.
40
-4 -t/2
i=
e t / 2 = - 2 10 e amp.
0.2 106
where ve sign indicates current is flowing in opposite direction. to our convention.

Wdissipated =

i2Rdt ( 4 10 8 )(2 10 5 )e t dt

=8

10-3 e t 0

= 8 10-3 J.

(80)2 (60)2 100 volt,

Q.10. v =
p.f. =

80
= 0.8 lagging
100

Q.11. The rms value of the current is 1.5 mA


1
1

6.67k
C 300 0.5 106
20
The rms voltage across the capacitor is 1.5 103
103 10 V
3
The impedance of the circuit is

The impedance of the capacitor is given by |ZC | =

|Z| =

Q.12. 2f =

10 103

400
20

= 1.2 104

103 = 103 100


3
9

1
1

LC
(0.5 10 3 5 106

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10 4
Hz

1 2 1 2
cV Li
2
2
5 10-6 4 104 = 0.5 10-7 i2
i = 20 Amp.

f=

Q.13. XL = L =
Impedance =Z = 3.3
Power factor = R/ Z = 1/3.3

Q.14.

C= 0.014200 F
For minimum impedance, L = 1/ C
L= 0.36 mH.

Q.15. The loop equation


di
L iR 0
dt
At t = 0, i = 0,
di
60 - 0.008
0
dt
di
60
= 7500 A/s

dt 0.008
di
Where
= 500A/s, an equation yields,
dt
60 - (0.008)(500) - 30i = 0
30 i = 60 - 4 i = 1.867 A
di
For the final current
= 0, and
dt
L(0) - 30 IF = 0
IF = 2A
Q.16. Applying KVL to the circuit at time 't'
0.2 di
2i +
= 20
10 dt
solving this differential equation :
i = 10 (1+9e-100t )
Q.17. Current in inductance will lag the applied voltage while across the capacitor will lead.
IL = Imax sin (t - /2) = - 0.4 cos t for inductor
IC = Imax sin (t + /2) = +0.3 cos t for capacitor
so current drawn from the source.
I = IL + IC = - 0.1 cos t
Imax = |I0| = 0.1 A.
Q.18. Constant value in the cycle therefore

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vavg = v0
vrms = v0

(80)2 (60)2 100 volt,

Q.19. v =

80
= 0.8 lagging
100

p.f. =

Q.20. When connected to d.c. source


V 12
R=

= 3 (1)
I
4
When connected to a.c. source
V
12
Z = rms
= 5 (2)
I rms
2.4
2

R 2 L (3)

Z=

From (1), (2) and (3)


L = 0.08 H
with condenser

R L

Z =

3 50 0.08
6
50 2500 10

=5

R
0.6
Z'
P = Vrms.Irms cos
= 12 2.4 0.6 = 17.8 volt
cos =

L 100 10 3
= 2 10-3 sec.

R
50
v
= I0 (1 et/) = (1 e t / )
R

Q.21. (a) L =

0.001

dI
v t /
100
210 3

e
=
.
e
3
dt .R
2 10 50
= 103 (0.606) = 606 amp/sec.

(b) Heat produced, H = I20 ( t / )2Rdt

Irms =

(1/ 3)I20R
R

I0
3

Q.22. Let effective resistance is r.

12
I0R
3

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3 =

vc =
1

Vc
rI
3 rI

(i)

vc
(rI 10I)
3
3r = r + 10
r=5
capacitive nature of box.

Q.23. The angular resonance frequency of the circuit is given by:


1
1
=

104 rad / s
3
6
LC
10 10 10
At a frequency that is 10% lower than the resonance frequency, the reactance XC, of the capacitor
is:
1
1
XC =

111
C 10 4 10 6 0.9
And that of the inductance is
XL = L = 104 0.9 102 = 90
The impedance of the circuit is
|Z| =

R 2 XL XC

32 21 21.2

15
A 0.7A
21.2
The average power dissipated is:
12
1
2
i R 0.7 3 0.735 W
2
2
The average energy dissipated in 1 cycle is
2
0.735
J
0.9 104
or 5.13 104 J

The current amplitude, i =

Q.24.

1 2 1 2
Li0 Cv 0
2
2
C
i0 = v 0
L
q
5.0 10 6
v0 = 0
1.25 10 2 volt
C
4.0 10 4
4.0 10 4
-2
8.33 10 4 A
i0 = 1.25 10
0.09

umax =

1 2 1 2
Li0 Cv 0 3.125 10 8 J
2
2
2

3.125 10

-8

8.33 10 4
1
1
q2
= (0.09)

2
2
2 (4.0 104 )

q = 4.33 10-6 C.

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1

Q.25. At resonance frequency f0 =

2 LC
i0 = v0/R
From given condition
1 v0
v0

2 R
1 2
R 2 ( L
)
C
1
L R.
C
1
2f1L R
(i)
2f1C
1
2f2L R
(ii)
2f2C
solving equations (i) and (ii) we get,
R
f1 f2 =
.
2L
T

Q.26. vrms =

dt
0

vmean =
vmean =

V 2dt

V 2
t dt
T
0

dt

V
3

T tdt
0

V
2

Q.27. Impedance Z=

I cos

(R 2 2L2 )

= (50) 2 (2 50 0.7) 2
I sin
= 225.4 ohms
V
200
Current I
= 0.887 amp
Z 225.4
I
L 2 50 0.7
and tan =
= 4.4

R
50
or
= 77 12.
Power component of current IR = I cos = 0.887cos 77 12 = 0.197 amp.
and wattless components of the current IL
= I sin= 0.887sin7712 = 0.865 amp.

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Q.28. (i) Applying Kirchhoff's law to meshes (1) and (2)
2I2 + 2I1 = 12 - 3 = 9
and 2I1 + 2(I1 -I2) = 12
solving I1 = 3.5 A, I2 = 1A
P.D.between AB = 2I2 + 3 = 5 volt
dQ 2
Rate of production of heat
i1R1 24.5 (J)
dt

E
1 e Rt / L = i0 1 eRt / L
R
Rt
i = i0/2
= ln 2
L
t = 0.0014 sec.
1 2
Energy stored =
Li
2
= 0.00045 (J).

(ii) i =

R3
2 (1)
I1R1 I1
I2

R1

E1

12V
E2

S
A

3V

(I1-I2)
(2)
R2 B
2

I2