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Assignment 01

Submitted to:
Dr. Mohd Hasanur Raihan Joarder
Associate Professor,
Director, School of Business (UIU),
United International University

Submitted by:
Name
MD. Serajus Sakline
Fariya Nowsheen
Parvin Akter
MD. Touhidul Islam
Syed Md. Moshiur Rahman

Student Id.
111 123 148
111 131 212
111 123 026
11 122 73
111 122 058

Section: B

2nd April 2016

United International University

Assignment Topics
1.
2.
3.
4.

Performance appraisal and job satisfaction


Importance of Effective Performance Appraisal in an Organization.
Appraisal Interview
Performance appraisal & Job satisfaction

Performance appraisal and job satisfaction

Performance Management
Performance management is an ongoing process of communication between a supervisor and an
employee that occurs throughout the year, in support of accomplishing the strategic objectives of
the organization. The communication process includes clarifying expectations, setting objectives,
identifying goals, providing feedback, and reviewing results.
This is used most often in the workplace, can apply wherever people interact schools,
churches, community meetings, sports teams, health setting, governmental agencies, social
events, and even political settings - anywhere in the world people interact with their
environments to produce desired effects.

Performance appraisal
A performance appraisal is a systematic and periodic process that assesses an individual
employee's job performance and productivity in relation to certain pre-established criteria and
organizational objectives. Other aspects of individual employees are considered as well, such as
organizational citizenship behavior, accomplishments, potential for future improvement,
strengths and weaknesses, etc.

To collect PA data, there are three main methods: objective production, personnel, and
judgmental evaluation. Judgmental evaluations are the most commonly used with a large variety
of evaluation methods. Historically, PA has been conducted annually (long-cycle appraisals);
however, many companies are moving towards shorter cycles (every six months, every quarter),

and some have been moving into short-cycle (weekly, bi-weekly) PA. The interview could
function as "providing feedback to employees, counseling and developing employees, and
conveying and discussing compensation, job status, or disciplinary decisions". PA is often
included in performance management systems. PA helps the subordinate answer two key
questions: first, "What are your expectations of me?" second, "How am I doing to meet your
expectations?"
Performance management systems are employed "to manage and align" all of an organization's
resources in order to achieve highest possible performance. "How performance is managed in an
organization determines to a large extent the success or failure of the organization. Therefore,
improving PA for everyone should be among the highest priorities of contemporary
organizations". Some applications of PA are compensation, performance improvement,
promotions, termination, test validation, and more. While there are many potential benefits of
PA, there are also some potential drawbacks. For example, PA can help facilitate managementemployee communication; however, PA may result in legal issues if not executed appropriately,
as many employees tend to be unsatisfied with the PA process.
A central reason for the utilization of performance appraisals (PAs) is performance improvement
("initially at the level of the individual employee, and ultimately at the level of the
organization").Other fundamental reasons include "as a basis for employment decisions (e.g.
promotions, terminations, transfers), as criteria in research (e.g. test validation), to aid with
communication (e.g. allowing employees to know how they are doing and organizational
expectations), to establish personal objectives for training" programs, for transmission of
objective feedback for personal development, "as a means of documentation to aid in keeping
track of decisions and legal requirements" and in wage and salary administration.

Objectives of Performance Appraisal


Performance Appraisal can be done with following objectives in mind:

1. To maintain records in order to determine compensation packages, wage structure,


salaries raises, etc.
2. To identify the strengths and weaknesses of employees to place right men on right job.
3. To maintain and assess the potential present in a person for further growth and
development.
4. To provide a feedback to employees regarding their performance and related status.
5. To provide a feedback to employees regarding their performance and related status.
6. It serves as a basis for influencing working habits of the employees.
7. To review and retain the promotional and other training programs.
Advantages of Performance Appraisal
It is said that performance appraisal is an investment for the company which can be justified by
following advantages:
1. Promotion: Performance Appraisal helps the supervisors to chalk out the promotion
programs for efficient employees. In this regards, inefficient workers can be dismissed or
demoted in case.
2. Compensation: Performance Appraisal helps in chalking out compensation packages for
employees. Merit rating is possible through performance appraisal. Performance
Appraisal tries to give worth to a performance. Compensation packages which includes
bonus, high salary rates, extra benefits, allowances and pre-requisites are dependent on
performance appraisal. The criteria should be merit rather than seniority.
3. Employees Development: The systematic procedure of performance appraisal helps the
supervisors to frame training policies and programs. It helps to analyse strengths and
weaknesses of employees so that new jobs can be designed for efficient employees. It
also helps in framing future development programs.
4. Selection Validation: Performance Appraisal helps the supervisors to understand the
validity and importance of the selection procedure. The supervisors come to know the

validity and thereby the strengths and weaknesses of selection procedure. Future changes
in selection methods can be made in this regard.
5. Communication: For an organization, effective communication between employees and
employers is very important. Through performance appraisal, communication can be
sought for in the following ways:
a. Through performance appraisal, the employers can understand and accept skills of
subordinates.
b. The subordinates can also understand and create a trust and confidence in
superiors.
c. It also helps in maintaining cordial and congenial labour management
relationship.
d. It develops the spirit of work and boosts the morale of employees.
All the above factors ensure effective communication.
6. Motivation: Performance appraisal serves as a motivation tool. Through evaluating
performance of employees, a persons efficiency can be determined if the targets are
achieved. This very well motivates a person for better job and helps him to improve his
performance in the future.
Performance Appraisal Tools and Techniques
Appraisals of their employees
1. Ranking
2. Paired Comparison
3. Forced Distribution
4. Confidential Report
5. Essay Evaluation

6. Critical Incident
7. Checklists
8. Graphic Rating Scale
9. BARS
10. Forced Choice Method
11. MBO
12. Field Review Technique
13. Performance Test

Ranking Method
The ranking system requires the rater to rank his subordinates on overall performance.
This consists in simply putting a man in a rank order. Under this method, the ranking of
an employee in a work group is done against that of another employee. The relative
position of each employee is tested in terms of his numerical rank. It may also be done by
ranking a person on his job performance against another member of the competitive
group.
Advantages of Ranking Method
i.
ii.

Employees are ranked according to their performance levels.


It is easier to rank the best and the worst employee.

Limitations of Ranking Method


i.

The whole man is compared with another whole man in this method. In practice, it is
very difficult to compare individuals possessing various individual traits.

ii.

This method speaks only of the position where an employee stands in his group. It does
not test anything about how much better or how much worse an employee is when
compared to another employee.

iii.

When a large number of employees are working, ranking of individuals become a


difficult issue.

iv.

There is no systematic procedure for ranking individuals in the organization. The ranking
system does not eliminate the possibility of snap judgements.

Forced Distribution method


This is a ranking technique where raters are required to allocate a certain percentage of
rates to certain categories (eg: superior, above average, average) or percentiles (eg: top 10
percent, bottom 20 percent etc.). Both the number of categories and percentage of
employees to be allotted to each category are a function of performance appraisal design
and format. The workers of outstanding merit may be placed at top 10 percent of the
scale, the rest may be placed as 20 % good, 40 % outstanding, 20 % fair and 10 % fair.
Advantages of Forced Distribution
1. This method tends to eliminate raters bias
2. By forcing the distribution according to pre-determined percentages, the problem
of making use of different raters with different scales is avoided.
Limitations of Forced Distribution
The limitation of using this method in salary administration, however, is that it
may lead low morale, low productivity and high absenteeism.
Employees who feel that they are productive, but find themselves in lower grade
(than expected) feel frustrated and exhibit over a period of time reluctance to
work.
Critical Incident techniques
Under this method, the manager prepares lists of statements of very effective and
ineffective behaviour of an employee. These critical incidents or events represent
the outstanding or poor behaviour of employees or the job. The manager
maintains logs of each employee, whereby he periodically records critical
incidents of the workers behaviour. At the end of the rating period, these recorded
critical incidents are used in the evaluation of the workers performance. Example
of a good critical incident of a Customer Relations Officer is : March 12 - The
Officer patiently attended to a customers complaint. He was very polite and
prompts in attending the customers problem.

Advantages of Critical Incident techniques


This method provides an objective basis for conducting a thorough discussion of an

i.

i.
ii.

employees performance.
This method avoids recency bias (most recent incidents are too much emphasized)
Limitations of Critical Incident techniques
Negative incidents may be more noticeable than positive incidents.
The supervisors have a tendency to unload a series of complaints about the incidents

iii.
iv.

during an annual performance review sessions.


It results in very close supervision which may not be liked by an employee.
The recording of incidents may be a chore for the manager concerned, who may be too

ii.

busy or may forget to do it.


Checklists and Weighted Checklists
In this system, a large number of statements that describe a specific job are given. Each
statement has a weight or scale value attached to it. While rating an employee the
supervisor checks all those statements that most closely describe the behaviour of the
individual under assessment. The rating sheet is then scored by averaging the weights of
all the statements checked by the rater. A checklist is constructed for each job by having
persons who are quite familiar with the jobs. These statements are then categorized by the
judges and weights are assigned to the statements in accordance with the value attached
by the judges.
Advantages of Checklists and Weighted Checklists
Most frequently used method in evaluation of the employees performance.
Limitations of Checklists and Weighted Checklists
This method is very expensive and time consuming
Rater may be biased in distinguishing the positive and negative questions.
It becomes difficult for the manager to assemble, analyze and weigh a number of
statements about the employees characteristics, contributions and behaviors
Performance Appraisal Biases
Managers commit mistakes while evaluating employees and their performance. Biases
and judgment errors of various kinds may spoil the performance appraisal process. Bias
here refers to inaccurate distortion of a measurement. These are:
1. First Impression (primacy effect):
Raters form an overall impression about the ratee on the basis of some particluar
characteristics of the ratee identified by them. The identified qualities and features
may not provide adequate base for appraisal.
2. Halo Effect:

The individuals performance is completely appraised on the basis of a perceived


positive quality, feature or trait.
3. Horn Effect:
The individuals performance is completely appraised on the basis of a negative
quality or feature perceived.
4. Excessive Stiffness or Lenience:
Depending upon the raters own standards, values and physical and mental makeup
at the time of appraisal, ratees may be rated very strictly or leniently.
5. Central Tendency:
Appraisers rate all employees as average performers. That is, it is an attitude to
rate people as neither high nor low and follow the middle path.
6. Personal Biases:
The way a supervisor feels about each of the individuals working under him whether he likes or dislikes them - as a tremendous effect on the rating of their
performances.
7. Spillover Effect:
The present performance is evaluated much on the basis of past performance.
The person who was a good performer in distant past is assured to be okay at
present also.
8. Recency Effect:
Rating is influenced by the most recent behavior ignoring the commonly
demonstrated behaviors during the entire appraisal period.

Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction or employee satisfaction has been defined in many different ways. Some believe
it is simply how content an individual is with his or her job, in other words, whether or not they
like the job or individual aspects or facets of jobs, such as nature of work or supervision.

What Are the Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction?


An employee's overall satisfaction with his job is the result of a combination of factors -- and
financial compensation is only one of them. Management's role in enhancing employees' job
satisfaction is to make sure the work environment is positive, morale is high and employees have
the resources they need to accomplish the tasks they have been assigned.

Working Conditions:
Because employees spend so much time in their work environment each week, it's
important for companies to try to optimize working conditions. Such things as providing
spacious work areas rather than cramped ones, adequate lighting and comfortable work
stations contribute to favorable work conditions.
Opportunity for Advancement:
Employees are more satisfied with their current job if they see a path available to move
up the ranks in the company and be given more responsibility and along with it higher
compensation. Many companies encourage employees to acquire more advanced skills
that will lead to the chance of promotion.
Workload and Stress Level:
Dealing with a workload that is far too heavy and deadlines that are impossible to reach
can cause job satisfaction to erode for even the most dedicated employee. Falling short of
deadlines results in conflict between employees and supervisors and raises the stress level
of the workplace. The office operates in a crisis mode because supervisors don't allow
enough time for employees to perform their assigned tasks effectively or because staff
levels are inadequate.
Respect from Co-Workers:
Employees seek to be treated with respect by those they work with. A hostile work
environment -- with rude or unpleasant coworkers -- is one that usually has lower job
satisfaction. Employees may need to be reminded what behaviors are considered
inappropriate when interacting with coworkers.
Relationship with Supervisors:
Effective managers know their employees need recognition and praise for their efforts
and accomplishments. Employees also need to know their supervisor's door is always
open for them to discuss any concerns they have that are affecting their ability to do their
jobs effectively and impeding their satisfaction at the office
Financial Rewards:
Job satisfaction is impacted by an employee's views about the fairness of the company
wage scale as well as the current compensation she may be receiving. Opportunities to
earn special incentives, such as bonuses, extra paid time off or vacations, also bring
excitement and higher job satisfaction to the workplace.
References
Wikipedia
MANAGEMENT STUDY GUIDE (MSG)

Brian Hill

Importance of Effective Performance Appraisal in an


Organization.

Introduction:Managing performance is an important issue with the public and other stakeholders expecting as
the norm and not the exception, good service, integrity, transparency and accountability.
Government institutions are often held to a higher level of accountability, and understandably so
as the public requires value for taxes paid. People implement plans, programs and policies and
therefore the contribution of human effort to an organizations success is as important as any
other resource input. The quality of the performance of civil servants is critical to achieving the
outcomes sought by government, the general development of the country and the expectations of
the people. In light of this, the Performance Management and Appraisal System (PMAS) have
been introduced as a means of managing and improving staff performance and accountability in
the Public Service.
The PMAS is an improved system of performance management and evaluation. It clearly
defines how your work contributes to the achievement of the organizations goals and identifies
what needs to be done to ensure each person is given the opportunity for personal growth and
development in their work life. Properly implemented, this is a win-win system. The employees
skills, talents and interest will be honed and guided for maximum performance and the
organization will benefit from the combined performance of all staff. Proper management of the
System is therefore critical to ensure that the expected benefits are realized. The Human

Resource Management Division is a key guardian of the system as well as an important conduit
for feedback that will inform changes to the System.

Performance management:
Performance management is a holistic process that ensures employees performance contributes
to business objectives. It brings together many of elements of good people management practice,
including learning and development, measurement of performance, and organizational
development.
Performance Management can be defined as a strategic and integrated approach to delivering
sustained success to organizations by improving the performance of the people who work in
them and developing the capabilities of teams and individual contributors. " (Armstrong and
Barron: 1998).(1)

Fletcher (1993: 35) pointed out that the real concept of performance management was associated
with an approach to creating a shared vision of the purpose and aims of the organization, helping
employees to understand and recognize their part in contributing to them and, in so doing,
enhancing the performance of both individuals and the organization.
In 2000, Armstrong identified two senses in which performance management is integrated;
vertical integration which links objectives with core competencies and horizontal integration
which links different aspects of human resource management to achieve a consistent approach to
the management and development of people. He later renamed horizontal integration as HR
Integration and identified two other senses in which it can be integrated; functional integration
which links functional strategies in different parts of the business and lastly, the integration of
individual needs with those of the organization (2001).
Elements of Performance Management
Armstrong identifies the five elements of performance management as agreement (of employee,
unit, and organizational goals), measurement, feedback, positive reinforcement and dialogue (2).
These elements ensure that the performance management process is positive, successful and a

spur to employee improvement. Key to the performance management process are continued
feedback and assessment, depicted shown in the performance management cycle (Figure 1).

Figure 01:- Cycle of Performance Management.

Armstrong identifies that performance assessment can include the following:

discussing what the job holder has done and achieved;

identifying any shortfalls in achieving objectives or meeting standards;

establishing the reasons for any shortfalls, including changed circumstances;

agreeing to any changes required to objectives and work plans in response to changed
circumstances;

agreeing to any actions required by the individual or the manager to improve


performance.

Performance appraisal:
Performance appraisals are reviews of employee performance over time, so appraisal is just one
piece of performance management. A performance appraisal (PA) is a method by which the job
performance of an employee is documented and evaluated. Performance appraisals are a part of
career development and consist of regular reviews of employee performance within
organizations. PA also referred as a performance review, performance evaluation, development
discussion, or employee appraisal.
A performance appraisal is a systematic and periodic process that assesses an individual
employee's job performance and productivity in relation to certain pre-established criteria and
organizational objectives (4).Other aspects of individual employees are considered as well, such
as organizational citizenship behavior, accomplishments, potential for future improvement,
strengths and weaknesses, etc.

Importance of Performance Appraisals:


The most challenging aspect of a performance appraisal is measuring the actual performance of
the employee. Since the performance is measured by tasks performed, there is a continuous
process that must be administered in order to monitor the performances throughout the appraisal
cycle.

Thus, its very important to choose the correct measuring techniques. Its also important to focus
on a desired performance (standardized performance) and then compare the desired performance
to the actual performance of the employee. Although the process may be tedious, the end result is
one of great importance. Some of the positive results of performance appraisals are:

It encourages employees to perform better in the future

It presents an opportunity for employees to leverage positive performance for an


increase in salary or promotion

During the appraisal, employees can discuss strengths and weaknesses with a
supervisor, in effect, allowing employees to discuss personal concerns
It provides communication between a supervisor and employee on a regular basis to
discuss job duties and issues with work performance
It allows employees to identify what skills may be lacking and need to be acquired or
improved upon. There are instances when education provided by the company is a
necessity to advance success overall
It holds employees accountable for their job performance, and since the employee
knows that an appraisal is coming, the employee has the opportunity to prepare in
advance
It provides the opportunity for managers to explain organizational goals and the ways
in which employees can participate in the achievement of those goals

Performance Appraisal Methods

Encourage Discussion:Employees are also more likely to feel that the appraisal process is fair if they are given a chance
to talk about their performance.

Constructive Intention:it is very important that employees recognize that negative appraisal feedback is provided with a
constructive intention, i.e., to help them overcome present difficulties and to improve their future
performance. Employees will be less anxious about criticism, and more likely to find it useful,
when they believe that the appraiser's intentions are helpful and constructive.

Set Performance Goals:


Goals can stimulate employee effort, focus attention, increase persistence, and encourage
employees to find new and better ways to work.

Appraiser Credibility:It is important that the appraiser (usually the employee's supervisor) be well-informed and
credible. Appraisers should feel comfortable with the techniques of appraisal, and should be
knowledgeable about the employee's job and performance.

Conclusion:Performance management, unlike traditional annual evaluation, provides employees with


feedback throughout the year. The system allows constant re-evaluation of goals, progress and
performance. Performance appraisals can be one of the good way for organizations to boost
employees motivation and hone their competitive edge. But creating useful performance
appraisals and making sure they are used effectively throughout an organization is not easy. To
do so organization should follow some rule so that it will help organization move close to
appraisals as well as that help staff perform their best.

Appendix:[1] Performance management: the new realities, Michael Armstrong, Angela Baron, Institute of
Personnel and Development, Institute of Personnel and Development, Aug 1, 1998
[2] Evans, G. Edward. Performance Management and Appraisal: a How-to-Do-It Manual for
Librarians. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers, 2004.
[3] Muchinsky, P. M. (2012). Psychology Applied to Work (10th ed.). Summerfield, NC: Hyper
graphic Press.
[4] Manasa, K. & Reddy, N. (2009). Role of Training in Improving Performance. The IUP
Journal of Soft Skills, 3, 72-80
[5] Understanding the Importance of Performance Appraisals BY ATESSA BENEFITS ON
SEPTEMBER 20, 2012

Appraisal Interview

Introduction
A performance appraisal interview is the first stage of the performance
appraisal process and involves the employee and his or her manager sitting
face to face to discuss threadbare all aspects of the employees performance
and thrash out any differences in perception or evaluation. The performance
appraisal interview provides the employee with a chance to defend himself
or herself against poor evaluation by the manager and also gives the
manager a chance to explain what he or she thinks about the employees
performance.
In a nutshell, the performance appraisal interview precedes the
normalization process and is subsequent to the employee filling up the
evaluation form and the manager likewise doing so. The interview is the
stage where both sides debate and argue the employees side of the story as
well as the managers perception.

Definition:
An appraisal interview is a two-way formal communication process between an employee and
his/her manager. It is one of the best ways for an employee to increase productivity and change
work habits. It varies in nature from company to company but one of the most common uses is
for the manager to provide feedback for an employee.

An appraisal interview gives the employee the chance to shield himself/herself from poor
evaluation by the manager. It also gives the manager an opportunity to spell out his/her reviews.
It helps the employees to determine whether there is a need for training if they lack in any
particular skill and who will be promoted, demoted, retained or fired.

Types:
1. Satisfactory-Promotable: The employees performance is satisfactory and there is a
promotion ahead. This interviews objective is to develop is to discuss the employees career
plans and to develop a specific action plan for the professional development that he/she needs to
move up.
2. Satisfactory-Not promotable: The employees performance is satisfactory but there is no
possibility for promotion. This interviews objective is to motivate the employee enough so that
the performance satisfactory.
3. Unsatisfactory-Correctable: The interviews objective is to find a way to correct the
unsatisfactory performance.
4. Unsatisfactory-Uncorrectable: This interview is usually to warn the employee about his/her
performance. The worst case would be that the employee is fired.
How does the Appraisal Interview work?
From the managers perspective
A managers success depends on how well an employee can carry out his or her tasks. The Appra
isal Interview enables the manager to fulfill his/her leadership role. The manager
Agrees on goals with the employee therefore providing the employee with a direction to go to
Facilitates important information regarding the University and/or the organizational unit
Evaluates goals together with the employee and conducts causal research

Receives information regarding himself, his employees and organizational unit (mutual exchang
e of expectations and desires)
Assists and promotes his/her employees
From the employees perspective
An employees success and career depend on how well he/ she develops his/her skills and compe
tencies, performance and job satisfaction as well as how well he/she prepares for possible future t
asks and new requirements. The employee
Receives, via the Appraisal Interview, a guideline on the basis of which criteria he/she will be e
valuated.
Receives feedback on his/her performance
Receives information regarding the University and the organizational unit
Can influence his/her area of work and set goals
Can get information on possible paths for development, requirements and training and can also
voice his/her wishes regarding training.

Appraisal Interview work?


The date for the interview should be agreed upon at least two weeks ahead. The interview
takes place during work time. Schedule approx. one to two hours in an appropriate and qu
iet environment
Manager and employee prepare for the interview independently.
Employee and direct supervisor carry out the interview
Manager and employee commonly stipulate the agreement (Attachment Appraisal Intervi
ew Agreements)

Steps in conducting appraisal


Step 1: Prepare
Preparing for the interview is very important, having a prepared interviewer will make the
interviewee more confident that the review of their performance is being done properly and this
in turn will make them more likely to listen to advice given. To prepare for an appraisal the
interviewer needs to make sure there are no distractions, by removing the phone etc., make sure
Agreements remain with

Information, that the

Information regarding

the manager (confidential), Appraisal Interview was

required training are sent to

a copy is given to the

the Human Resource

carried out is entered in VIS

employee
development department
the room is set up so that the person being reviewed is comfortable, both mentally and
physically.
As well as this its important that the last appraisal done with this person is looked at, so that
objectives which should have been achieved can be checked and its then possible to easily build
upon what has already been covered over the years with this employee. It also means that the
person being reviewed will be more confident that the reviewer is trying to do everything
properly. Information should also be gathered from any of managers supervising this person.
The most important aspect of being prepared is that both sides of the appraisal know what the
point of the meeting is, what will be happening and why it will benefit them and the
organization. A good way to get to know what will be happening in a specific appraisal is to get
both parties to fill in a form and then exchange them so that issues and talking points can be
identified and some more preparation can be put into the interview.

Step 2: Clear Communication


Appraisals are all about clearly communication within an organization, getting across the point
of objectives and then reviewing them when the time comes. Although most of the time senior
management decide upon objectives, appraisals are a good time to discuss what objectives to be.
This allows management to get an idea of what employees think they will achieve and in turn it
allows them to see how they can push their staff so that they achieve greater heights.
During appraisals individuals need to engaged in the thinking, meaning that the reviewer needs
to use appropriate language and techniques to try and come across in the best light and find out
the information that they need.
Its not what you say, its the way that you say it

This quote tells us that it is the communication which needs to be watched, not the actual content
of the review. Obviously the content is the ultimate goal in this situation, but to get to that we
need to concentrate on getting that content out of people, which is done by communicating in the
correct way.

Step 3: Interviewing Based on the Person


Another important aspect of doing an appraisal interview is to make sure that you interview the
person in a way which is relevant to them. For example, most appraisals will be done with
people who have been in the department for a while, and know whats going on, therefore they
have more to say and the appraisal should be done in a two-way, equal way. On the other hand, if
the person is new to the department, and doesnt know much at the current moment in time, then
they wont have as much to say and therefore the interviewer needs to take more of a center role.

The interview also needs to be conducted in-line with the way the organization is run. If the
culture of the organization is Power then the interview needs to be more direct and set up so that
people dont get suspicious, if you suddenly start being very open then employees may wonder
why the culture has changed. If the organizations culture is Task then it may be the employee
doing more talking, as they are in-charge of tasks and are just meant to get on with them,
showing that they should be quite aware of themselves.
Tips for Answering your Performance Appraisal Questions:
1. Involve others in your answer: When an employee is asked about the achievements in the
past few months, the employee should remember to talk about all the people involved in it rather
than him. The answer should talk about colleagues as well as boss during answering. In the same
manner the employee can talk about the benefits of the stock holders from a development point
of view. The answer should be honest and an impact on the performance should be reflected in
the answer.

2. Handling fault or issues: When asked about any complaint or issue, the employee should first
accept that they know what the problem is and be responsible for it, instead of defending. The

problem may be a failure due to holding hands with other colleagues but blaming them
completely may not be right. The employee should answer in a way that the solution is a
common one which is suitable for everyone and not only for them.
3. Speaking about goals: While answering appraisal questions the boss expects for many
aspects when discussing about goals. The boss looks out for the goals the employee has reached
and how. In the same manner the boss expects the interested areas of the employee and his
development in the last few years. In such scenarios the employee should remember to speak
about the goals he has accomplished, how he accomplished and ways to succeed with future for
new goals.

4. Regarding extra work: A small business usually has a number of projections during the
initial period of development. In that aspect the employee may be asked to take up more duties.
The boss explains the rationale and also the benefits in taking up more duties. Since the boss has
explained the intention for extra work the employee should understand and accept the work
instead of neglecting it.

5. Honest answers: During the appraisal session, the employee should remember that the
employer already has the performance appraisal report and hence providing honest answers are
mandatory. This would be a stepping stone if the employee is looking for internal appointment.

6. Being balanced and positive: The good aspects of the appraisal and achievement of positive
aspects are to be spoken in an appraisal session. Remember to minimize focusing just on one
aspect and also do not travel more detailed into negative aspects.
7. Speak about your performance till date: You can speak about how your ideas are and how
valuable you are to the organization. The role you have played till date and travelled with success
can be spoken out. In the same manner your hard work can be spoken of and your key
accomplishments which has made few projects successful can be highlighted.

8. Implemented ideas: When asked for implemented ideas in the past, prepare an idea of your
which was implemented and made successful. In case you had offered an idea in the past to your
company and your company ended in bankruptcy then it may not be a perfect idea either. Share
successful and good ideas that can add value and make the company successful.
9. Focus on mandatory details: While answering an appraisal question, the most important
details are to be mentioned avoiding unnecessary ones. By mentioning vital details, the appraisal
is set as a powerful one. The appraisal should also possess relevant examples which link to the
functions of the job. By this way the appraisal in interesting and goes on well without boredom.
10. About weakness: When an employee is asked about his weakness in a performance
appraisal, he needs to answer in a smart way. When the employee says that he has no weakness
then he is lying. It is required to be realistic and answer the question in a positive trait by
mentioning small work related faults.
11. About skills and talent: In an appraisal session it is important to speak about the skills and
experience and how you can use them in an effective way in the organization. You can also
mention that you like to face challenges and motivated to handle them with your skill and
knowledge. You can also mention a few examples of the challenges that you have met and
handled.
12. About facing a conflict: There may be situations where the employee is asked about any
past conflict. The employee can open up the true situation and answer in an honest manner. The
employee can mention that there were few disagreements and not major conflicts. It can also be
said that the employee learned from the conflict that he needs to understand from the opponent
point of view and understand their perspective. This can be a smooth way to answer this type of
question in an appraisal session.
13. Attitude as key: It is always good to maintain a positive attitude during the appraisal session.
The employee can be in any mood such as angry, upset or defensive, all these should be kept
within at time of appraisal session. It is important for the employee to remember that an appraisal
is conducted to make the employee better. The questions are asked to make out what differently
the employee has done or what he can do in future to handle various situations. The answers are

to be truthful and the employee should take ownership for any hassles that has happened
previously.
14. Practice before answering: To ensure confident conveyance of answers, practicing is the
right way. A list of questions can be reviewed and answers can be practiced accordingly. You can
also seek a friends help to monitor your performance or you can record and review your
performance too. It is mandatory that you answer each and every question and you also provide
each answer along with facts, figures and related information that makes your answer strong.
Also remember to focus on the tone of answers, your tone should be positive, and calm
irrespective of the topic being discussed.
15. Prepare and perform: For an appraisal session be prepared before you perform, the
achievements and failures that you have crossed in the past should be reviewed and a brief note
can be penned down. By this way you can come up with outcomes rather than irrelevant details.
When youre prepared you are able to answer the right answer for the right question.

Conclusion
Surveys have shown that nearly 70% of the employees who leave organizations cite the bad rating that
they have got as the reason for quitting and often voice their disappointment at the process in the exit
interview. Hence, there is a need for organizations to smoothen the performance appraisal process and
since the performance appraisal interview is the first step; the beginning must be made well. Since the
career progression of employees depends on the ratings that they get, the whole process must be taken
seriously by all the stakeholders.

Sample Appraisal Interview Forms

Appendix
http://www.myhrmbook.com/conducting-the-appraisal-interview/
https://www.uibk.ac.at/.../the-appraisal-interview

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Performance_appraisal
http://smallbusiness.chron.com/appraisal-interview-downfalls-11518.html
http://www.tutor2u.net/

Performance appraisal & Job satisfaction


Introduction to Performance Appraisal:
The history of performance appraisal is quite brief. Its roots in the early 20th century can be
traced to Taylor's pioneering Time and Motion studies. But this is not very helpful, for the same
may be said about almost everything in the field of modern human resources management.
As a distinct and formal management procedure used in the evaluation of work performance,
appraisal really dates from the time of the Second World War, about seventy years ago.
There is, says Dulewicz (1989), " a basic human tendency to make judgments about those one is
working with, as well as about oneself." Appraisal, it seems, is both inevitable and universal. In
the absence of a structured system, people will tend to judge the work performance of others,
including subordinates, informally and arbitrarily. Performance appraisal began as an attempt to
rationally correlate rewards and outcomes. That is, appraisal was used to decide whether or not
the salary or wage of an individual employee was justified.

Modern Performance Appraisal:


Performance appraisal may be defined as a structured formal interaction between a subordinate
and supervisor, that usually takes the form of a periodic interview (annual or semi-annual), in
which the work performance of the subordinate is examined and discussed, with a view to
identifying weaknesses and strengths as well as opportunities for improvement and skills
development. In many organizations - but not all - appraisal results are used, either directly or
indirectly, to help determine reward outcomes. That is, the appraisal results are used to identify
the better performing employees who should get the majority of available merit pay increases,
bonuses, and promotions.
By the same token, appraisal results are used to identify the poorer performers who may require
some form of counseling, or in extreme cases, demotion, dismissal or decreases in pay.

(Organizations need to be aware of laws in their country that might restrict their capacity to
dismiss employees or decrease pay.)
Whether this is an appropriate use of performance appraisal - the assignment and justification of
rewards and penalties - is a very uncertain and contentious matter.
The process by which a manager or consultant (1) examines and evaluates an employee's work
behavior by comparing it with preset standards, (2) documents the results of the comparison, and
(3) uses the results to provide feedback to the employee to show where improvements are needed
and why.
Performance appraisals are employed to determine who needs what training, and who will be
promoted, demoted, retained, or fired.

According to different author, Performance appraisal :


C. D. Fisher L. F. Schoenfeldt and J. B. Shaw have defined as: The process by which an
employees contribution to the organization during specified period of time is assessed.
Gary Dessler defined Performance appraisal as means of evaluating aim employees current
and or past performance relative to his or he performance standards
Bellows said: Performance appraisal is defined as a systematic periodic evaluation of the worth
of an individual of an organization, usually mad by a superior or someone in position to observe
his performance.
Beach said: Performance appraisal is the systematic evaluation of the individual with respect to
this performance on the job and his potential of development
William B. Weather and Keith Davis said: Performance appraisal is the process by which
organization evaluate individual job performance
Douglas, Stuart Klein and David Hunt defined:Performance appraisal as a systematic
evaluation review of employees meaningful job behavior with respect to their effectiveness in
meeting their job requirements and responsibilities

Leon C. Megginson has defined: Performance appraisal is the process an employer uses to
determine whether an employee is performing the job as intended. (Merit rating, efficiency
rating, service rating and employee appraisal arc others frequently used terms for performance
appraisal)
Wayne F. Cascio: Performance appraisal as the systematic description of an employees jobrelevant strengths and weaknesses

All items are measured on a 5-point Likert scale (1= Strongly Disagree, 2 = Disagree, 3=
Neutral, 4=Agree, 5 = Strongly Agree).

Objectives of Performance Appraisal:


Performance Appraisal can be done with following objectives in mind:

To maintain records in order to determine compensation packages, wage structure,


salaries raises, etc.

To identify the strengths and weaknesses of employees to place right men on right job.

To maintain and assess the potential present in a person for further growth and
development.

To provide a feedback to employees regarding their performance and related status.

To provide a feedback to employees regarding their performance and related status.

It serves as a basis for influencing working habits of the employees.

To review and retain the promotional and other training programmes.

Advantages of Performance Appraisal:

It is said that performance appraisal is an investment for the company which can be justified by
following advantages:
1. Promotion: Performance Appraisal helps the supervisors to chalk out the promotion
programmes for efficient employees. In this regards, inefficient workers can be dismissed or
demoted in case.
2. Compensation: Performance Appraisal helps in chalking out compensation packages for
employees. Merit rating is possible through performance appraisal. Performance Appraisal
tries to give worth to a performance. Compensation packages which include bonus, high
salary rates, extra benefits, allowances and pre-requisites are dependent on performance
appraisal. The criteria should be merit rather than seniority.
3. Employees Development: The systematic procedure of performance appraisal helps the
supervisors to frame training policies and programmes. It helps to analyze strengths and
weaknesses of employees so that new jobs can be designed for efficient employees. It also
helps in framing future development programmes.
4. Selection Validation: Performance Appraisal helps the supervisors to understand the
validity and importance of the selection procedure. The supervisors come to know the
validity and thereby the strengths and weaknesses of selection procedure. Future changes in
selection methods can be made in this regard.
5. Communication: For an organization, effective communication between employees and
employers is very important. Through performance appraisal, communication can be sought
for in the following ways:
a. Through performance appraisal, the employers can understand and accept skills of
subordinates.
b. The subordinates can also understand and create a trust and confidence in
superiors.
c. It also helps in maintaining cordial and congenial labor management relationship.

d. It develops the spirit of work and boosts the morale of employees.


All the above factors ensure effective communication.
6. Motivation: Performance appraisal serves as a motivation tool. Through evaluating
performance of employees, a persons efficiency can be determined if the targets are
achieved. This very well motivates a person for better job and helps him to improve his
performance in the future.

Job satisfaction:
The concept of job satisfaction has been developed in many ways by many different
researchers and practitioners. One of the most widely used definitions in organizational
research is that of Locke (1976), who defines job satisfaction as "a pleasurable or positive
emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences"
A more recent definition of the concept of job satisfaction is from Hulin and Judge (2003), who
have noted that job satisfaction includes multidimensional psychological responses to an
individual's job, and that these personal responses have cognitive (evaluative), affective (or
emotional), and behavioral components.[2] Job satisfaction scales vary in the extent to which they
assess the affective feelings about the job or the cognitive assessment of the job. Affective job
satisfaction is a subjective construct representing an emotional feeling individuals have about
their job.
Job satisfaction is the level of contentment a person feels regarding his or her job. This feeling is
mainly based on an individual's perception of satisfaction. Job satisfaction can be influenced by a
person's ability to complete required tasks, the level of communication in an organization, and
the way management treats employees.
Job satisfaction falls into two levels: affective job satisfaction and cognitive job satisfaction.
Affective job satisfaction is a person's emotional feeling about the job as a whole. Cognitive job
satisfaction is how satisfied employees feel concerning some aspect of their job, such as pay,
hours, or benefits.

Some factors of job satisfaction may rank as more important than others, depending on each
worker's needs and personal and professional goals. To create a benchmark for measuring and
ultimately creating job satisfaction, managers in an organization can employ proven test methods
such as the Job Descriptive Index (JDI) or the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ).
These assessments define job satisfaction objectively.
Typically, five factors can be used to measure and influence job satisfaction:
1. Pay or total compensation
2. The work itself (i.e., job specifics such as projects, responsibilities)
3. Promotion opportunities (i.e., expanded responsibilities, more prestigious title)
4. Relationship with supervisor
5. Interaction and work relationship with coworkers

5-Step Method for Defining Job Satisfaction


At the core of job satisfaction is an understanding of what it is you enjoy most. To understand
what it is you enjoy most, you have to define ALL you enjoy, from most to least; an exercise that
will help lead to a decision regarding not only your major, but internships and future job
development.
Sound enticing? Thats why we approach this not as an exercise to pick a major but to define job
satisfaction (we begin with the end in mind). Afterward, we will see how it can lead you back to
defining your major, so lets begin!
1. Determine What Job Satisfaction Means to You
For some, job satisfaction stems from the challenges in the job or a sense of purpose. For others,
its more extrinsic and may be measured by the money they make. Or, it may come from the
learning that takes place or from knowing their work matters. Finally, for others, simply having a

job to go to everyday in order to have other things in life is fine, and its from accepting that they
derive their satisfaction.

2. Define Factors For Your Job Satisfaction


Defining the factors for your own job satisfaction requires you jumping all the way back to the
beginning. This could be your first job as, for example, a life guard in a day camp at 16 or a
paper route at 12. However, instead of identifying duties, responsibilities, and job descriptions
as you might for a resume, look at your successes and the underpinnings of those successes.
Underpinnings such as:

Instinctive skills the automatic, the intuitive, creative skills that you drew upon at that
time

Learned skills that might be customer service, inventory control, basic accounting or
program management

Dont limit yourself to jobs either. You have successes from other experiences that may be
relevant and transferable. An example is leading a youth group or charitable work through a
church or synagogue, or writing a newsletter for your bowling league. Maybe even helping a
parent or friend put together a website for a business.
3. Consider Other Successes Outside The Workplace
When you take this walk-through, consider the following: alumni associations, community and
civic organizations, councils with which you may have been involved, teams on which you
played, or Boards on which you served.
4. Identify Success Attributes
Once you have all these successes on the table, you can identify (a) actual skills, (b) personal
characteristics, (c) professional characteristics and (d) knowledge areas, inherent or learned that

you drew upon to succeed. These are the underpinnings or as I refer to them, success attributes,
many of which may be derived from core competencies you possess. Dont stop here!

5. Divide Motivated And Unmotivated Successes


On a piece a paper, set up a T-Chart with Motivated and Unmotivated Successes written across
the top of your sheet as your left and right headings, respectively. Next, divide and list your
success attributes defined in step 4 above, into your two groups under the headings.

Motivated successes those you are interested in perpetuating

Unmotivated success though they are successes, they are those which you have little or
no interest in perpetuating

Relation between performance appraisal & job satisfaction:


Employee outcomes in the form of work performance, affective organizational commitment and
turnover intention are very crucial to support the overall growth of an organization. Therefore,
the management should pay more attention on the level of satisfaction in performance appraisal
to ensure that employees are satisfied and will continuously contribute to their organization
throughout their employment with the organization. Exists between satisfaction with
performance appraisal and employee outcomes distinguish by in the form of work performance,
affective organizational commitment and turnover intention.
The measure of employees satisfaction with performance appraisal was adopted based on prior
work by Meyer & Smith (2000). The scale consist of seven items concerning the overall
satisfaction with PA activities within an organization (e.g. I am satisfied with the way my
organization provides me with feedback), the adequacy of feedback employees receive (e.g. the
feedback I receive on how I do my job is highly relevant), and employees perceptions of their
organizations commitment to conducting developmental performance appraisal (e.g. My
organization seems more engaged in providing positive feedback for good performance than

criticizing poor performance and I think that my organization attempts to conduct performance
appraisal the best possible way.

. References:
http://www.performance-appraisal.com/intro.htm
http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/performance-appraisal.html#examples
http://bankofinfo.com/definition-of-performance-appraisal/
http://www.managementstudyguide.com/performance-appraisal.htm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Job_satisfaction
Source: Boundless. Defining Job Satisfaction.Boundless Management. Boundless,
21 Jul. 2015. Retrieved 30 Mar. 2016 from
https://www.boundless.com/management/textbooks/boundless-managementtextbook/organizational-behavior-5/drivers-of-behavior-44/defining-job-satisfaction231-7247/