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Advertising is a message that tries to sell something. Companies advertise everything from cars to candy.
Advertising is also used to change peoples ideas. For
example, an ad could try to
make voters choose a certain candidate for president. Ads appear almost everywhere you look. You find them on the
radio and on TV, in magazines, shop windows, on T-shirts, inside elevators, on school buses etc. Advertising does two
main jobs: it tells people about something, like a product or a service and it also works to make people want to buy the
product or service.
Thus, advertising is the promotion of a companys products and services carried out primarily to drive sales
of the products and services but also to build a brand identity and communicate changes or new products /services to
the customers.
There are several reasons for advertising, some of which are as follows:
increasing the sales of the product/service;
creating and maintaining a brand identity or brand image;
communicating a change in the existing product line;
introduction of a new product or service;
increasing the value of the brand or the company.
There are four rules which serve as a sound guide when planning advertising. They should be examined before
any form of advertising is prepared.
1. Aim: What is the primary purpose of the advertisement? Is it to inform, sell, or improve the firm's image?
2. Target: Who is the target? From which sector of the public are you trying to achieve response (for example,
the investor, the pensioner, the career mother, the teenager)?
3. Media: Bearing the aim and target in mind, which of the media available is the most suitable (brochures,
press, television, radio etc.)?
4. Competitors: How are your competitors approaching their advertising needs? Are they successful? Can you
improve on their approach and beat them in competition?
Once an advertisement has been planned and created it is important to test its effectiveness before publication
or broadcasting. An ad should satisfy all the following well-tried principles (AIDA principles):

Does it catch the eye, i.e. does it attract attention?

Does it arouse interest?
Does it create desire?

Does it lead to action?

Although large companies could easily set up their own advertising departments, most companies hire
special advertising firms advertising agencies that specialize in making ads. These are likely to have more
resources, and are more knowledgeable about all aspects of advertising and advertising media than a single company.
The first step in making ads is to learn about the product and understand who uses it. Then people in the
advertising agency (or advertising department) develop ideas and themes. They prepare photos or images if an ad is to
appear in newspapers or magazines as well as jingles and slogans if it appears on radio or TV. Thus, they create
advertisements and develop a media plan specifying which media (newspapers, magazines, radio, television, cinema,
posters, mail etc.) will be used and in which proportions. When the ad is ready it goes to the media organization where
it is run.
Advertising Techniques

Ads do their jobs in many different ways. Many printed ads have headlines or boldly printed words that make
people stop and read them. The headline may promise something that the reader wants, like a good price.
Other headlines may carry the announcement of a new product.
Some ads use slogans that are used over and over again. They are easy to remember and often use a
catchy phrase. Sometimes slogans are not related to the product.
In many ads a famous person talks about a product and tells why they use it. This person may be an actor, a
model or a well-known athlete. Or they may just be an average user of a product.
Ads also compare a product with another one of the same type. The ad points out why a product is better.
Some ads feature cartoon or product characters. They may appear in an ad over a long time. The characters
become well known and people identify them with a product.
Repetition is one of the most basic techniques used in the advertising business. Advertisers broadcast their
commercials several times a day for days or weeks to get the message across. When people see an ad more often they
may be more likely to accept the message and want the product.

Pros and Cons of Advertising

There are many contrasting opinions about advertising. Those in favor say that advertising educates
consumers about new products and services that can help them improve their lives. It also increases sales so that
companies can produce things at lower costs and make things cheaper. They say that advertising helps the
economy and gives jobs to many people. Without advertising some free radio and TV channels wouldn't be able to
exist. Sporting and other events are sponsored by ads. Ticket prices would be higher without advertisements.
On the other side, critics say that consumers pay for advertising through higher product prices. They say that
small companies sometimes have to close because they cannot compete with larger ones. Through advertising, people
sometimes buy products that they may not need and often cannot afford. This leads to a higher personal debt. It also
leads to a throwaway society goods are thrown away and more pollution and waste is produced. Children are very
often the main target of advertisers. They sometimes don't know which products are good for them and buy the wrong
things (e.g. fast food and snack companies show ads, which lead to obesity and diabetes).
It is important to note that advertising is a powerful marketing tool. But advertising alone cannot guarantee
success. Market research, product or service features and benefits, price, after sales service and other promotional
tools are all critical elements in ensuring that customers needs are identified and satisfied profitably.


Answer the following questions:

What is advertising?
What does advertising do?
What are some of the reasons for advertising?
What key rules should be kept in mind when planning an advertisement?
In what cases is an advertisement considered to be efficient?
Why do most companies use the services of advertising agencies?
What are the basic steps in the process of making ads?
What advertising techniques can you name?
What is the impact of advertising on people and economy?
What other promotional tools, besides advertising, should be used to satisfy customers needs better and in a
more profitable way?

to drive sales
brand identity
reason for sth.
(in bold type)
throwaway society
to broadcast
a commercial

to stimulate sales
brand image, brand individuality
cause of/for sth.
effective, reliable
a short phrase, usually with music, that is easy to
remember, used for advertising sth. on the radio or TV
the title of a newspaper/magazine story that is printed
in large letters
printed using darker or thicker letters than others
if a tune or phrase is catchy it attracts your attention
and is easy to remember
disposable society
to send out messages or programmes to be received
by radios or televisions
a condition in which someone is too fat in a way that
is dangerous for their health
an advertisement for a film or TV programme that
shows a short part of that film or programme
someone whose job is to write the words for
advertising that consists of comments that people
make to each other in an informal way
a symbol that represents a company, used for example
in its advertisements or on its products
a short phrase that is easy to remember and is used to
advertise sth.
an advertisement on radio or TV


Use the words from the above table to complete the following sentences.
Children are very often the main .. of advertisers.
Advertising agencies should make sure that the ads created by them are financially .. .
Advertising is carried out primarily to .. of the products and services but also to build a
. is important for every business, as each happy customer can provide you with
dozens of new ones.
There are several .. for advertising.
A .. usually works as part of a creative team.
.. are meant to represent companies brands or corporate identities and foster their immediate
customer recognition.
A .. is a short tune used in advertising and other commercial uses.
Many printed ads have .. or words printed in .. type that make people stop and read
The company unveiled its new advertising .. this week. Its really a .. phrase that
will be remembered by everybody!
Their new .. will be .. on all national radio and TV channels.
Fast food and snack companies show ads, which lead to .. and diabetes.
On our site you can watch the latest movie .. for current and upcoming releases.

14) Advertising of cheap, short-lived items leads to development of . .

2. Choose the right variant.
1. Ads can be imaginative and can use humour, cartoons and slogans but these devices must not be ______________
or deceptive.
a) leading
b) mislead
c) misleading
2. Advertising is often placed by an advertising agency on ____________ of a company or other organization.
a) half
b) behalf
c) behalves
3. Non-profit organizations are not typical advertising clients, and may ____________ on public service
a) apply
b) rely
c) supply
4. While advertising can be seen as necessary for economic ____________, it is not without social costs.
a) growth
b) loaf
c) upgrade
5. Advertising is increasingly invading public _____________, such as schools, which some critics argue is a form
of child exploitation.
a) views
b) scenario
c) spaces
6. Mobile displays are used for various situations in metropolitan areas ____________ the world.
a) trough
b) throughout
c) thorough
7. Advertising techniques can be used to inform, educate and motivate the public about non-commercial
____________, such as AIDS, political ideology etc.
a) issues
b) valuables
c) aims
8. Marketers need _______________ goals that can guide them in developing their total advertising program.
a) specialist
b) specialty
c) specific
9. An advertising _____________ can be focused on the product, on the institution, or on some public service.
a) message
b) massage
c) messy
10. Dont ______________ your time trying to convince him. He has already decided to hire another advertising
a) throw
b) waste
c) make
3. Fill in the gaps.
Children and advertising





Children nowadays are ___________ to more and more adverts on television. Many people believe that this
represents a problem because young people are easily ___________ by television ___________ . One danger this
presents is that children will actually believe in the ___________ claims frequently made in advertisements. This is
particularly serious in the case of adverts for ___________ such as junk food that are actively unhealthy.
Regulation of advertising





There is little doubt that there should be some ___________ of advertising, but it is unclear who should be
responsible for this and how the regulations should apply. On the one hand, in the free market, companies should be
allowed to ___________ their products and ___________ as they see fit. On the other hand, however, there surely
should be some instances to set ___________ on advertising. For example, tobacco and alcohol companies should not
be allowed to buy advertising ___________ on television and radio.
4. Look at what some people have said when discussing their ad campaigns. Match the underlined words of
phrases with their synonyms from the box.
a) change perceptions

c) have an emotional appeal

e) rebrand

b) generate a buzz

d) have a rational appeal

f) reinforce the existing image

1) White Noises portable music players arent popular because theyre the cheapest or even the most
technologically advanced products out there. Rather, theyre popular because, quite simply, people love them.
The new ad campaign should attract people based on how they feel.
2) We want to get people talking about our product.
3) Choritos are currently thought of as a high-fat snack. We need to reinvent our product as healthy and convenient.
4) The ads should transform peoples ideas about Germany.
5) The advertisements should make a logical argument. Viewers should buy our toothpaste because its scientifically
proven to be the best in the industry.
6) Our minivans already dominate the market, and theyre still in the growth stage of their life cycle. So the ads
should simply emphasize what people already think: that theyre both safe and fun to drive.


Choose the right variant.

Its hard to develop a campaign for a product that many people perceive (negative / negatively / bad).
Weve been trying to create a new method of ad (effectiveness / affectation / affliction).
We should target the group with the highest (potential / potency / patent).
The current economic conditions are creating an even (big / stronger / harder) demand for our products.
In this case, it would be wiser to concentrate on existing customers, instead of trying to ( access / accord /
acquire) new ones.
Which audience (segment / selection / section) are you aiming for? Teenagers?
We need to do a better job at (commuting / communicating / competing) what the brand is about.
(Respondents / Ads / Sponsors) will be spending billions of dollars on Olympics-related advertising.
This advertising campaign is (centered / concerned / called) on the concept of family.
Our biggest creative (challenge / call / check) is to associate the product characteristics with the spirit of
The agency got it (incorrect / all wrong / improper). Thats not the direction we wanted to go with.
I dont think their ads are visually (accepted / appalling / appealing).
(Keep / Keep it / Arrange it) simple. The client doesnt want an ad thats too complicated.
This type of advertisement has (performed well / gone the distance / marginalized) in the past.

Fill in the blanks with the words from the box.

Advertising tells people about products and _____________ and tries to make them buy a
_____________ . Ads do their jobs in many different ways. _____________ are words in big
letters that try to get the _____________ of the readers.
Some ads use slogans or _____________ phrases that are easy to _____________ .
Advertising agencies often get a famous person, like an actor or _____________ , to talk about a
product. _____________ characters are often connected to a certain product and become
_____________ with it.
One of the most important techniques of advertising is _____________ . Ads are
_____________ many times a week for weeks or months. When people see them they might
want the product.
Advertising is often done by _____________ firms. First they try to get information about
buying _____________ of their _____________ ; who buys a certain product and why. The age,
sex and social _____________ of a _____________ are also important.
The people in the _____________ department _____________ ideas and themes. They
prepare images, photos and text and _____________ where the ad should _____________ .



Discuss the following claims.


Advertising is essential for business, especially for launching new consumer products.
A large reduction of advertising would decrease sales.
Advertising often persuades people to buy things they do not need or want.
Advertising raises prices.
Advertising does not present a true picture of products.
Advertising has a bad influence on children.


Advertising is a form of communication that typically attempts to persuade potential customers to purchase or
to consume more of a particular brand of product or service. Advertising gets to people through different forms of
communication. There are many ways to spread an advertising message. A good ad campaign incorporates several
advertising media to get maximum success. The advertising media are the various forms of communication through
which advertising reaches its audience. They include:
Print advertising (newspapers, magazines, brochures, fliers, leaflets, catalogs etc.)
The print media has always been a popular advertising medium. Advertising products via newspapers or
magazines is a common practice. In addition to this, the print media also offers options like promotional brochures
and fliers for advertising purposes. Often the newspapers and the magazines sell the advertising space according to the
area occupied by the advertisement, the position of the advertisement (front page / middle page), as well as the
readership of the publications. For instance, an advertisement in a relatively new and less popular newspaper would
cost far less than placing an advertisement in a popular newspaper with a high readership.
Outdoor advertising (billboards, kiosks, tradeshows and events)
Outdoor advertising is also a very popular form of advertising, which makes use of several tools and
techniques to attract the customers outdoors. The most common examples of outdoor advertising are billboards,
kiosks, and also several events and tradeshows organized by the company. The billboard advertising is very popular,
however, it has to be really terse and catchy in order to grab the attention of the passersby. The kiosks make for an
effective advertising tool to promote the companys products. The company can organize trade fairs or exhibitions for
advertising their products. If not this, the company can organize several events that are closely associated with their
field. For instance, a company that manufactures sports utilities can sponsor a sports tournament to advertise its
Digital signage (electronic billboards) is a newer method of advertising that is growing in popularity. Digital
signage is where monitors / plasma TVs are placed in strategic locations and display advertisements directed at their
targeted customer. Digital signage can deliver messages in the form of text and digital video. You can find digital
signage in such places as sport arenas, retail stores, department stores, malls, schools etc. Electronic billboards are the
most expensive kind of outdoor signs.
Broadcast advertising (television, radio and the Internet)
Broadcast advertising is a very popular advertising medium that is constituted of several branches like
television, radio or the Internet.
Television is one of the most expensive forms of advertising, but on the other hand it reaches a very wide
audience. Advertisers buy time from TV stations to broadcast their commercials. This time is cheaper at times when
fewer people watch TV, as in the early morning hours and gets very expensive during prime time evening shows.

Sometimes advertisers pay a lot of money to get their ads on TV during special programmes, like the Olympic Games.
In general, the cost of television advertising depends on the duration of the advertisement, the time of broadcast and,
of course, the popularity of the television channel on which the advertisement is going to be broadcast.
Infomercials are another form of television advertising. They have become very popular in the last few years.
They are normal TV shows that focus on sales of certain products. They describe, display, and often demonstrate
products and their features, and commonly have testimonials from consumers and industry professionals. Details on
how to buy the product (e.g. telephone numbers) are repeated many times during the programme. There are two types
of infomercials: long form infomercials have a time length of 30 minutes and short form infomercials are 30 seconds
to 2 minutes long.
The radio might have lost its charm owing to the new age media however it remains to be the choice of smallscale advertisers. An advantage of the radio is that people listen to it while doing other things. In some cases radios are
on the whole day.
Internet advertising is becoming more and more important. Especially young people spend less time
watching TV and more time on the Internet. The Internet has the advantage of being available to people around the
world at all times. Online advertising consists of small ads, text ads, video ads, banners and pop-ups, and reciprocal
linking to other websites. Businesses also have their own websites as an advertising tool. Sometimes ads are
sent via email. Because a lot of unwanted emails (spam) are sent throughout the world, many people dont like this.

Covert advertising (advertising in movies, TV shows, video games etc.)

Covert advertising (or product placement) is a unique kind of advertising in which a product or a particular
brand is incorporated in some entertainment and media channels like movies, television shows or even sports. There is
no commercial in the entertainment but the brand or the product is subtly (or sometimes evidently) showcased in the
entertainment show or a movie. Some of the famous examples for this sort of advertising have to be the appearance of
brand Nokia which is displayed on Tom Cruises phone in the movie Minority Report, or the use of Cadillac cars in
the movie Matrix Reloaded.
Celebrity advertising
This type of advertising focuses upon using celebrity power, fame, money, popularity to gain recognition for
the products and promote specific stores or products. Advertisers often advertise their products, for example, when
celebrities share their favourite products or wear clothes by specific brands or designers. Celebrities are often involved
in advertising campaigns such as television or print adverts to advertise specific or general products.


1. Place the following tools and techniques of advertising media in the correct part of the table.

cinema and television adverts; the backs of event tickets and supermarket receipts; taxicab doors; newspapers;
subway platforms and trains; bus stop benches; billboards; web pop-ups; shopping cart handles; printed flyers; web
banners; human billboards; magazines; sides of buses; Yellow Pages; radio adverts; posters; town criers

print advertising

outdoor advertising

broadcast advertising

2. Match part of each section to make a full sentence.

Billboards are owned
An ad could try
Product placements are ads
Some ads use slogans
Newspapers sell advertising space
Advertisers often broadcast
Some mailing lists
Television can reach
Many stores have their own department
It is very important to find out

that can be used

a lot of people
send information
in charge of creating
that appear
by companies
to make voters choose
which type of media
in all sections

of their papers.
shop windows.
that rent them to advertisers.
a candidate for president.
can advertise the product best.
only to a certain group of people.
many times a day.
very quickly.
in a TV show or series.
over and over again.

3. Fill in the gaps.

Different forms of advertising








In the modern world, we are ___________ with advertising in many different forms. There are, of course, the
obvious examples such as television commercials, radio ___________ , ___________ by the roadside and the
___________ signs that light up the cities at night. In addition to these, however, there are other less evident ways in
which companies attempt to promote their products. For example, when you sit down to watch a football match, you
will see the ___________ and slogans of companies that ___________ the shirts or even nowadays the stadium.
Product ___________ works in much the same way in the cinema. You think you are sitting down to watch a film, but
advertising ___________ will make sure that their clients' latest products are on display too.
How advertising works




Advertising works in many different ways, but it is safe to say that most successful advertisements are in some
way ___________ . Unless we can remember what the advert was about it, it failed. Likewise, many adverts try to
make the product or service seem ___________: this may be achieved by getting a star from the world of
entertainment to ___________ the product. The idea is that if Brad Pitt says that he uses this shaving gel, then men all
around the world will follow suit. Finally, there is the category of the ___________ or humorous advert a clever
advert can make the product itself seem "intelligent", even when it is no more than a washing-up liquid.

LISTENING. Joys of Germany is an organization in charge of promoting tourism in Germany. One of their
staff is in London to meet Red Arrow, an advertising agency.
A. Listen and find out why they want to advertise.

to introduce a new product

to promote a special price


to create or maintain awareness for a product

to remarket a product

B. Listen again and answer the questions.

1) According to Joys of Germany, what sort of image does Germany have abroad?
2) What do they say are the stereotypes associated with Germany?
3) What kind of visitors does Joys of Germany want to attract to Germany?
4) Why is it important to design advertising which is specific to a certain country?
C. Complete the sentences from the dialogue with the words from the box.

appeal (2)






Tell me what you are for.

But thats why its important for us to a new image.
We think that someone from will have a fresh .
We want to make sure that our ads to people in the UK.
I understand what you are trying to .
You need an insider to design an ad with the maximum .

Advertising crossword: