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EPI21

Valve Application, Maintenance,


and Repair Guide

Effective March 21, 2008, this report has been made publicly available in accordance with Section
734.3(b)(3) and published in accordance with Section 734.7 of the U.S. Export Administration Regulations.
As a result of this publication, this report is subject to only copyright protection and does not require any
license agreement from EPRI. This notice supersedes the export control restrictions and any proprietary
licensed material notices embedded in the document prior to publication.

Volume I

Valve Application, Maintenance, and


Repair Guide
Volume 1
TR-105852v1

Final Report, February 1999

Effective March 21, 2008, this report has been made publicly available in accordance with Section
734.3(b)(3) and published in accordance with Section 734.7 of the U.S. Export Administration Regulations.
As a result of this publication, this report is subject to only copyright protection and does not require any
license agreement from EPRI. This notice supersedes the export control restrictions and any proprietary
licensed material notices embedded in the document prior to publication.

EPRI Project Manager


V. Varma

EPRI 3412 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304 PO Box 10412, Palo Alto, California 94303 USA
800.313.3774 650.855.2121 askepri@epri.com www.epri.com

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITIES


THIS PACKAGE WAS PREPARED BY THE ORGANIZATION(S) NAMED BELOW AS AN ACCOUNT OF
WORK SPONSORED OR COSPONSORED BY THE ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, INC.
(EPRI). NEITHER EPRI, ANY MEMBER OF EPRI, ANY COSPONSOR, THE ORGANIZATION(S) NAMED
BELOW, NOR ANY PERSON ACTING ON BEHALF OF ANY OF THEM:
(A) MAKES ANY WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION WHATSOEVER, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, (I) WITH
RESPECT TO THE USE OF ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM
DISCLOSED IN THIS PACKAGE, INCLUDING MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE, OR (II) THAT SUCH USE DOES NOT INFRINGE ON OR INTERFERE WITH PRIVATELY OWNED
RIGHTS, INCLUDING ANY PARTY'S INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, OR (III) THAT THIS PACKAGE IS
SUITABLE TO ANY PARTICULAR USER'S CIRCUMSTANCE; OR
(B) ASSUMES RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING
ANY CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, EVEN IF EPRI OR ANY EPRI REPRESENTATIVE HAS BEEN ADVISED
OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES) RESULTING FROM YOUR SELECTION OR USE OF THIS
PACKAGE OR ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN
THIS PACKAGE.
ORGANIZATION(S) THAT PREPARED THIS PACKAGE
Kalsi Engineering, Inc.

ORDERING INFORMATION
Requests for copies of this package should be directed to the EPRI Distribution Center, 207 Coggins Drive, P.O.
Box 23205, Pleasant Hill, CA 94523, (925) 934-4212.
Electric Power Research Institute and EPRI are registered service marks of the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc.
EPRI. POWERING PROGRESS is a service mark of the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc.
Copyright 1999 EPRI, Inc. All rights reserved.

CITATION
This report was prepared by
Kalsi Engineering, Inc.
745 Park Two Dr.
Sugarland, TX 77478
Principal Investigators
Bahir H. Eldiwany
Daniel Alvarez
and
EPRI Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center (NMAC)
1300 W.T. Harris Blvd.
Charlotte, NC 28262
This report describes research sponsored by EPRI. The report is a corporate document
that should be cited in the literature in the following manner:
Valve Application, Maintenance, and Repair Guide, Volume 1, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 1998.
TR-105852-V1.

iii

REPORT SUMMARY

The Valve Application, Maintenance, and Repair Guide is a two-volume series that provides
a generic overview of valve application, selection, maintenance, and repair. Volume 1
of the series is a comprehensive reference on the application and use of valves that
provides guidance on the selection of specific types of valves on the basis of functional
and system requirements. This document is based on an earlier EPRI document (NP6516, Guide for the Application and Use of Valves in Power Plant Systems). Extensive
illustrations and sample calculations make the guide useful to a wide range of
personnel. This volume has been expanded to include general maintenance
requirements and diagnostics for different valve types.
Information on valves and valve operators, where other comprehensive NMAC
documents are available (such as Air Operated Valves, Solenoid Valves, Check Valves, Safety
and Relief Valves, and the Technical Repair Guide series on Limitorque operators), have
been referenced without duplicating the contents in this volume.
Background
The improper application, incorrect use, and ineffective maintenance of valves in
power plant systems cause significant losses in plant availability. Over the last several
years, EPRI, the U.S. NRC, and the electric utilities have conducted many valve and
actuator research projects to improve plant safety and availability by reducing valve
and actuator problems. These projects resulted in many proprietary and nonproprietary documents that deal with the various specialized areas of valve/actuator
sizing, performance characteristics, maintenance, repair, testing, and diagnostic
techniques. However, information to aid plant personnel in resolving these problems is
difficult to glean from scattered sources, and access may be restricted by proprietary
considerations.
Objective
To provide a comprehensive and authoritative guidebook on the application, use, and
maintenance of valves, in which information is readily accessible and understandable
by a wide range of plant personnel.
v

Approach
The project team was selected from a group of specialists who were heavily involved in
recent valve and actuator research projects. The project team determined the scope of
this project using the initial release of this guide (EPRI NP-6516) and all of the
significant reports from the recent research projects. This guide outline was revised to
eliminate topics that were either irrelevant or covered in greater depth elsewhere. The
scope of this guide was expanded to include maintenance, troubleshooting, and
diagnostic equipment. An overview of other key documents is provided to assist the
reader in quickly finding sources of additional information. Numerous illustrations
and examples of applications, valve sizing, and strategies for use and maintenance
were incorporated to make the guide easier to use.
Results
The guide contains a thorough treatment of the application of valves on the basis of
their functional requirements. It covers gate, globe, butterfly, ball, plug, and diaphragm
valves and manual, hydraulic, and electro-hydraulic actuators, including their
installation, operation, maintenance, and most common problems. For other types of
valves and actuators not covered in this guide, references to pertinent EPRI/NMAC
documents are given. The guide presents information in a clear and understandable
manner to those with little knowledge of the factors involved in successful valve
applications. For those who have extensive experience with valves and actuators, this
guide provides easy access to specific information that is pertinent to specific needs
with references.
EPRI Perspective
Although the information contained in the guide focuses on the application and
maintenance of valves in power plant systems, it is also directly applicable to
comparable system applications in the chemical, petroleum, marine, and similar
industries. The intended audience of the guide includes system designers; engineers
who establish specification requirements for valves; personnel who install, operate,
maintain, and repair valves; plant training instructors; and others for whom a more indepth knowledge of valves could lead to improved valve performance. The guide will
be helpful in evaluating valve/actuator applications in existing systems, selecting new
and replacement valves/actuators, and developing/updating valve maintenance
programs and procedures.
Interest Categories
Valves
Plant Support Engineering

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EPRI Licensed Material

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The original Guide for the Application and Use of Valves in Nuclear Power Plant Systems
(NP-6516), published by EPRI in 1990, was developed by Stone & Webster Engineering
Corporation of Massachusetts and Kalsi Engineering, Inc., of Texas. They received wide
cooperation from experienced nuclear utility personnel and service industries. This
revision was created on the solid framework of the earlier publication.
We wish to extend our thanks to the individuals who spent many hours performing
detailed reviews of this revision, so necessary to produce a quality document. In
particular, we thank Kenneth Hart of Pennsylvania Power & Light for his extensive
comments and input on valve packing and maintenance program issues. Other
reviewers include Chris Hansen of Vermont Yankee, Greg Harttraft of GPU, John
Holstrom of Duke Engineering Services, Eric Cartwright of PECO, and Jim Wilson and
Eugene Phillips of Wisconsin Electric Co.

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CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION/SUMMARY HOW TO USE THE GUIDEBOOK ....................................... 1-1


1.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................... 1-1
1.2 Summary/How to Use the Guidebook........................................................................... 1-2
1.2.1 General .................................................................................................................. 1-2
1.2.2 Valve Functions...................................................................................................... 1-3
1.2.3 Specific Valve Types by Function .......................................................................... 1-4
1.2.4 Actuator Types ....................................................................................................... 1-5
1.2.5 General Design Requirements for Valves and Actuators ....................................... 1-6
1.2.6 Valve Pressure Boundary and Structural Integrity.................................................. 1-6
1.2.7 Valve Maintenance and Inspection Programs........................................................ 1-6
1.2.8 Troubleshooting and Recommended Corrective Actions ....................................... 1-7
1.2.9 Installation, Testing, and Maintenance Requirements............................................ 1-7
1.2.10 Diagnostic Equipment and Methods..................................................................... 1-7
1.2.11 Valve Selection Chart........................................................................................... 1-7
1.2.12 References and Bibliography ............................................................................... 1-8
1.2.13 Appendices .......................................................................................................... 1-8
2 GENERAL VALVE DESIGN................................................................................................ 2-1
2.1 Nomenclature/Glossary of Terms ................................................................................. 2-1
2.1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 2-1
2.1.2 Glossary of Terms .................................................................................................. 2-1
2.2 Common Valve Construction Features ....................................................................... 2-19
2.2.1 Body-to-Bonnet Connections ............................................................................... 2-20
2.2.2 Seat and Seat Rings ............................................................................................ 2-23
2.2.3 Disc-to-Stem Connection ..................................................................................... 2-34
2.2.4 Disc/Stem Guide Arrangements........................................................................... 2-35

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2.3 Accessories and Special Features.............................................................................. 2-37


2.3.1 Manual Override Handwheels or Levers .............................................................. 2-37
2.3.2 Stem Leak-Off Connection................................................................................... 2-39
2.3.3 Limit Switch .......................................................................................................... 2-40
2.3.4 Internal and External Bypass ............................................................................... 2-40
2.3.5 Remote Position Sensor ...................................................................................... 2-41
2.3.6 Bonnet Extension................................................................................................. 2-41
2.3.7 Impact, Hammerblow, and Chain-Operated Handwheels .................................... 2-42
2.3.8 Stem Backseating Feature................................................................................... 2-42
2.3.9 Fire Safety Feature .............................................................................................. 2-43
2.4 Valve Trim................................................................................................................... 2-43
2.4.1 Trim Components and Materials .......................................................................... 2-43
2.4.2 Design Practices to Minimize Corrosion ............................................................... 2-45
2.4.3 Design Practices to Minimize Erosion .................................................................. 2-47
2.4.4 Design Practices to Minimize Wear and Galling................................................... 2-49
2.4.5 Cobalt-Free Alloys for Hard-Surfacing of Trim...................................................... 2-52
2.4.6 Design Practices to Minimize the Effects of Temperature .................................... 2-54
2.5 Valve Stem Seals ....................................................................................................... 2-55
2.5.1 Flexible Metal Seals ............................................................................................. 2-56
2.5.2 Valve Stem Packings ........................................................................................... 2-59
2.6 Gasket Types and Materials ....................................................................................... 2-77
2.6.1 Gasket Types ....................................................................................................... 2-77
2.6.2 Flat Metal Gaskets ............................................................................................... 2-81
2.6.3 Flat Non-Metallic and Metal Clad Gaskets ........................................................... 2-81
2.6.4 Spiral Wound Gaskets ......................................................................................... 2-81
3 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF VALVES ................................................................... 3-1
3.1 General ......................................................................................................................... 3-1
3.2 Isolation Valves............................................................................................................. 3-3
3.3 Modulating/Throttling Valves......................................................................................... 3-5
3.4 Pressure Relief Valves.................................................................................................. 3-8
3.5 Check Valves.............................................................................................................. 3-10
4 GATE VALVES ................................................................................................................... 4-1

EPRI Licensed Material

4.1 Introduction and Application ......................................................................................... 4-1


4.2 Design........................................................................................................................... 4-1
4.2.1 General .................................................................................................................. 4-1
4.2.2 Solid Wedge........................................................................................................... 4-3
4.2.3 Flexible Wedge ...................................................................................................... 4-5
4.2.4 Split Wedge............................................................................................................ 4-6
4.2.5 Parallel-Expanding Gate ........................................................................................ 4-8
4.2.6 Parallel Slide Double-Disc.................................................................................... 4-11
4.2.7 Westinghouse Flexible Wedge............................................................................. 4-13
4.2.8 Slab Gate ............................................................................................................. 4-15
4.2.9 Pressure Locking in Gate Valves ......................................................................... 4-17
4.2.10 Options to Mitigate Pressure Locking in Gate Valves ........................................ 4-21
4.2.11 Thermal Binding in Wedge Gate Valves ............................................................ 4-21
4.3 Installation Practices ................................................................................................... 4-23
4.4 Operation Practices and Precautions ......................................................................... 4-24
4.5 Common Problems ..................................................................................................... 4-24
4.6 Maintenance Methods ................................................................................................ 4-27
4.7 Recent Improvements in Flexible Wedge Gate Valve Designs ................................... 4-28
5 GLOBE VALVESISOLATION FUNCTION....................................................................... 5-1
5.1 Introduction and Application ......................................................................................... 5-1
5.2 Design........................................................................................................................... 5-1
5.3 Installation Practices ..................................................................................................... 5-5
5.4 Operation Practices and Precautions ........................................................................... 5-5
5.5 Common Problems ....................................................................................................... 5-5
5.6 Maintenance Methods .................................................................................................. 5-6
6 GLOBE VALVESMODULATING/THROTTLING FUNCTION .......................................... 6-1
6.1 Introduction and Application ......................................................................................... 6-1
6.1.1 General .................................................................................................................. 6-1
6.1.2 System Differential Pressure versus Control Valve Differential Pressure............... 6-2
6.1.3 High Pressure Drop Applications ........................................................................... 6-8
6.2 Design........................................................................................................................... 6-8
6.2.1 General .................................................................................................................. 6-8

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6.2.2 Single-Port (Single-Seated) Valves........................................................................ 6-8


6.2.3 Double-Port (Double-Seated) Valves ................................................................... 6-10
6.2.4 Cage-Style Valves: Balanced and Unbalanced.................................................... 6-12
6.2.5 Angle Valves ........................................................................................................ 6-13
6.2.6 Y-Style Valves...................................................................................................... 6-13
6.2.7 Three-Way Valves................................................................................................ 6-14
6.2.8 High Pressure Drop Service Control Valves......................................................... 6-15
6.2.9 Flow Characteristics ............................................................................................. 6-18
6.2.10 Rangeability ....................................................................................................... 6-27
6.2.11 Stability .............................................................................................................. 6-28
6.3 Installation Practices ................................................................................................... 6-30
6.4 Operation Practices and Precautions ......................................................................... 6-30
6.5 Common Problems ..................................................................................................... 6-31
6.6 Maintenance Methods ................................................................................................ 6-31
7 BUTTERFLY VALVESISOLATION FUNCTION .............................................................. 7-1
7.1 Introduction and Application ......................................................................................... 7-1
7.2 Design........................................................................................................................... 7-4
7.2.1 General .................................................................................................................. 7-4
7.2.2 Symmetric (Lens Type) Disc with Concentric Shaft................................................ 7-7
7.2.3 Nonsymmetric Disc with Single Offset Shaft .......................................................... 7-9
7.2.4 Nonsymmetric Disc with Double Offset Shaft ....................................................... 7-11
7.2.5 Nonsymmetric Disc with Triple Offset Design....................................................... 7-11
7.2.6 Special Disc ......................................................................................................... 7-12
7.2.7 Valve Shaft, Shaft Connections, and Seal ........................................................... 7-13
7.2.8 Valve Bearings ..................................................................................................... 7-14
7.2.9 Valve Seats.......................................................................................................... 7-15
7.3 Installation Practices ................................................................................................... 7-19
7.3.1 Valve-to-Pipe Connections................................................................................... 7-19
7.3.2 Valve Orientation.................................................................................................. 7-19
7.3.3 Valve Location ..................................................................................................... 7-19
7.3.4 Shaft Orientation .................................................................................................. 7-21
7.4 Operation Practices and Precautions ......................................................................... 7-22
7.5 Common Problems ..................................................................................................... 7-22

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7.6 Maintenance Methods ................................................................................................ 7-24


8 BUTTERFLY VALVESMODULATING/THROTTLING FUNCTION.................................. 8-1
8.1 Introduction and Application ......................................................................................... 8-1
8.2 Hydrodynamic Torque Characteristics .......................................................................... 8-2
8.3 Effect of Hydraulic System Characteristics on Peak Hydrodynamic Torque ................ 8-3
8.4 Torque Characteristics of Butterfly Valves .................................................................... 8-5
8.5 Common Problems ....................................................................................................... 8-7
8.6 Maintenance Methods .................................................................................................. 8-7
9 BALL VALVESISOLATION FUNCTION.......................................................................... 9-1
9.1 Introduction and Application ......................................................................................... 9-1
9.2 Design and Materials .................................................................................................... 9-1
9.2.1 General .................................................................................................................. 9-1
9.2.2 Floating Ball ........................................................................................................... 9-2
9.2.3 Trunnion Mounted Ball ........................................................................................... 9-4
9.2.4 Wedged Ball........................................................................................................... 9-6
9.3 Installation Practices ..................................................................................................... 9-8
9.4 Operation Practices and Precautions ........................................................................... 9-8
9.5 Common Problems ....................................................................................................... 9-8
9.6 Maintenance Methods .................................................................................................. 9-9
10 BALL VALVESMODULATING/THROTTLING FUNCTION ......................................... 10-1
10.1 Introduction and Application ..................................................................................... 10-1
10.2 Design....................................................................................................................... 10-1
10.3 Installation Practices ................................................................................................. 10-4
10.4 Operation Practices and Precautions ....................................................................... 10-4
10.5 Common Problems ................................................................................................... 10-5
10.6 Maintenance Methods .............................................................................................. 10-5
11 PLUG VALVES ............................................................................................................... 11-1
11.1 Introduction and Application ..................................................................................... 11-1
11.2 Design....................................................................................................................... 11-1
11.3 Installation Practices ................................................................................................. 11-4
11.4 Operation Practices and Precautions ....................................................................... 11-4

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11.5 Common Problems ................................................................................................... 11-4


11.6 Maintenance Methods .............................................................................................. 11-5
12 DIAPHRAGM VALVESISOLATION FUNCTION ......................................................... 12-1
12.1 Introduction and Application ..................................................................................... 12-1
12.2 Design....................................................................................................................... 12-1
12.3 Installation Practices ................................................................................................. 12-4
12.4 Operation Practices and Precautions ....................................................................... 12-4
12.5 Common Problems ................................................................................................... 12-4
12.6 Maintenance Methods .............................................................................................. 12-4
13 VALVE ACTUATORSGENERAL INFORMATION....................................................... 13-1
13.1 General ..................................................................................................................... 13-1
13.2 Actuator Types.......................................................................................................... 13-4
13.2.1 Manual Actuators ............................................................................................... 13-4
13.2.2 Motorized Actuators ........................................................................................... 13-4
13.2.3 Pneumatic Actuator............................................................................................ 13-7
13.2.4 Hydraulic Actuators ............................................................................................ 13-8
13.2.5 Electrohydraulic Actuators................................................................................ 13-11
13.2.6 Solenoid Actuator............................................................................................. 13-11
13.2.7 Process Medium Actuators .............................................................................. 13-13
13.3 Considerations in Actuator Selection ...................................................................... 13-13
14 MANUAL ACTUATORS .................................................................................................. 14-1
14.1 Introduction and Application ..................................................................................... 14-1
14.2 Design Considerations.............................................................................................. 14-3
14.2.1 Operating Force ................................................................................................. 14-3
14.2.2 Lever Position Control........................................................................................ 14-3
14.2.3 Chain-Wheel Operators...................................................................................... 14-3
14.2.4 Hammerblow or Impact Handwheels.................................................................. 14-4
14.2.5 Gear Operators .................................................................................................. 14-4
14.3 Installation Practices ................................................................................................. 14-4
14.4 Operation Practices and Precautions ....................................................................... 14-5
14.5 Common Problems ................................................................................................... 14-5
14.6 Maintenance Methods .............................................................................................. 14-5

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15 GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR VALVES AND ACTUATORS.................... 15-1


15.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 15-1
15.2 Fluid Parameters....................................................................................................... 15-2
15.2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 15-2
15.2.2 Flow Media......................................................................................................... 15-2
15.2.3 Pressure/Temperature ....................................................................................... 15-3
15.2.4 Velocity .............................................................................................................. 15-3
15.2.5 Viscosity ............................................................................................................. 15-4
15.2.6 Density, Specific Gravity .................................................................................... 15-4
15.2.7 Radiation............................................................................................................ 15-4
15.2.8 System Contaminants ........................................................................................ 15-4
15.3 Operating Modes and Transients.............................................................................. 15-5
15.3.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 15-5
15.3.2 Plant Condition................................................................................................... 15-5
15.3.3 System Condition ............................................................................................... 15-7
15.4 Fluid Transients ........................................................................................................ 15-9
15.4.1 General .............................................................................................................. 15-9
15.4.2 System Fluid Transients..................................................................................... 15-9
15.4.3 Fluid Transients Caused by Valves.................................................................. 15-11
15.5 Environmental Considerations and Natural Hazards .............................................. 15-13
15.5.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................... 15-13
15.5.2 Environmental Conditions ................................................................................ 15-14
15.6 Valve Performance Requirements .......................................................................... 15-17
15.6.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................... 15-17
15.6.2 Speed of Operation or Stroke Time.................................................................. 15-17
15.6.3 Flow Rate and Pressure Drop .......................................................................... 15-18
15.6.4 Leak Rate......................................................................................................... 15-18
15.6.5 Frequency of Operation ................................................................................... 15-19
15.6.6 Nuclear Valve Qualification .............................................................................. 15-19
16 PRESSURE CONTAINMENT AND STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY REQUIREMENTS....... 16-1
16.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 16-1
16.2 Codes and Standards ............................................................................................... 16-1
16.2.1 General .............................................................................................................. 16-1

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16.2.2 Pressure/Temperature Ratings .......................................................................... 16-5


16.2.3 Codes and Standards for Pressure Relief Valves ............................................ 16-11
16.3 Materials ................................................................................................................. 16-12
16.3.1 Material Compatibility ....................................................................................... 16-12
16.3.2 General Discussion of Pressure Boundary Materials ....................................... 16-12
16.3.3 Body Materials ................................................................................................. 16-15
16.3.4 Special Considerations for Material Selection for Valves in Raw Water,
Especially Seawater.................................................................................................... 16-17
16.4 Corrosion Allowance ............................................................................................... 16-19
16.5 Valve End Connections .......................................................................................... 16-22
16.5.1 General ............................................................................................................ 16-22
16.5.2 Threaded Ends ................................................................................................ 16-22
16.5.3 Welding Ends ................................................................................................... 16-23
16.5.4 Brazing Ends.................................................................................................... 16-25
16.5.5 Solder Ends ..................................................................................................... 16-25
16.5.6 Flanged Ends................................................................................................... 16-25
16.5.7 Flared Ends...................................................................................................... 16-27
16.5.8 Hub Ends (Bell and Spigot).............................................................................. 16-27
16.6 System/Valve Interactions ...................................................................................... 16-27
16.6.1 General ............................................................................................................ 16-27
16.6.2 Pipeline End Loads .......................................................................................... 16-27
16.6.3 Leakage ........................................................................................................... 16-28
16.6.4 Vibration........................................................................................................... 16-28
16.7 Shop Tests.............................................................................................................. 16-29
16.8 Structural Integrity and Valve Operability................................................................ 16-30
17 VALVE MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROGRAMS ............................................ 17-1
17.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 17-1
17.2 Definitions ................................................................................................................. 17-2
17.3 Objective and Scope of Valve Maintenance Programs............................................. 17-2
17.3.1 Objective and Maintenance Philosophy ............................................................. 17-3
17.3.2 The Maintenance Rule (MR) .............................................................................. 17-3
Methodology to Select Plant SCCs to Be in the MR Scope ...................................... 17-4
Establishing Criteria and Goals ................................................................................. 17-4

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Maintenance Preventable Functional Failures (MPFFs)............................................ 17-5


Controlling Equipment Removal of Service ............................................................... 17-5
Periodic Effectiveness Assessment........................................................................... 17-5
17.3.3 Scope................................................................................................................. 17-5
17.4 Valve Maintenance Group ........................................................................................ 17-6
17.5 Valve Categorization and Prioritization ..................................................................... 17-7
17.6 Coordination between Maintenance Group and Other Groups................................. 17-9
17.7 Involvement of Valve Maintenance Group with Other Activities................................ 17-9
17.8 Inspection Frequency and Scope ........................................................................... 17-10
17.9 Maintenance Schedule ........................................................................................... 17-10
17.10 Spare Parts Inventory and Control........................................................................ 17-11
18 TROUBLESHOOTING AND RECOMMENDED CORRECTIVE ACTIONS ..................... 18-1
18.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 18-1
18.2 Gate Valve Problems ................................................................................................ 18-3
18.2.1 Solid, Flex, and Split Wedge Gate Valve Problems ........................................... 18-3
18.2.1.1 Excessive Packing Leaks............................................................................ 18-3
18.2.1.2 Valve Will Not Respond to the Actuation Signal.......................................... 18-4
18.2.1.3 Valve Will Not Fully Open............................................................................ 18-6
18.2.1.4 Valve Will Not Fully Close or Properly Seat................................................. 18-6
18.2.1.5 Excessive Flange Leaks.............................................................................. 18-7
18.2.2 Double-Disc Gate Valve Problems ..................................................................... 18-8
18.2.2.1 Excessive Packing Leaks............................................................................ 18-8
18.2.2.2 Valve Will Not Respond to the Actuation Signal.......................................... 18-8
18.2.2.3 Valve Will Not Fully Open............................................................................ 18-9
18.2.2.4 Valve Will Not Fully Close or Properly Seat................................................. 18-9
18.2.2.5 Excessive Flange Leaks.............................................................................. 18-9
18.2.3 Westinghouse Gate Valve Problems.................................................................. 18-9
18.3 Globe Valve Problems ............................................................................................ 18-10
18.3.1 Excessive Packing Leaks................................................................................. 18-10
18.3.2 Valve Will Not Respond to the Actuation Signal............................................... 18-10
18.3.3 Valve Will Not Fully Open................................................................................. 18-10
18.3.4 Valve Will Not Fully Close or Properly Seat...................................................... 18-11
18.3.5 Excessive Flange Leaks .................................................................................. 18-11

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18.4 Butterfly and Ball Valve Problems........................................................................... 18-11


18.4.1 Excessive Packing Leaks................................................................................. 18-11
18.4.2 Valve Will Not Respond to the Actuation Signal............................................... 18-12
18.4.3 Valve Will Not Fully Open................................................................................. 18-13
18.4.4 Valve Will Not Fully Close or Properly Seat...................................................... 18-13
18.4.5 Excessive Flange Leaks .................................................................................. 18-14
18.5 Plug Valve Problems............................................................................................... 18-14
18.6 Diaphragm Valve Problems .................................................................................... 18-15
18.7 Inspection and Repair Checklists:........................................................................... 18-15
19 INSTALLATION, TESTING, AND MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS ........................... 19-1
19.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 19-1
19.2 Installation Requirements ......................................................................................... 19-1
19.2.1 General Valve Installation Requirements ........................................................... 19-1
19.2.2 Bypasses ........................................................................................................... 19-3
19.3 Testing and Inspection Considerations..................................................................... 19-5
19.3.1 Shop Performance Testing ................................................................................ 19-5
19.3.2 Pre-Operational Tests ........................................................................................ 19-6
19.3.3 In-Service Test Requirements............................................................................ 19-6
19.4 Maintenance Requirements .................................................................................... 19-15
19.4.1 Separation and Maintenance ........................................................................... 19-15
19.4.2 General Good Maintenance Practices ............................................................. 19-22
20 DIAGNOSTIC EQUIPMENT AND METHODS ................................................................. 20-1
20.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 20-1
20.2 Equipment................................................................................................................. 20-2
20.2.1 Boroscopes ........................................................................................................ 20-2
20.2.2 Radiography....................................................................................................... 20-2
20.2.3 Acoustics............................................................................................................ 20-2
20.2.4 Temperature Monitoring ..................................................................................... 20-3
20.2.5 Ultrasonics ......................................................................................................... 20-3
20.2.6 Stem Thrust/Torque Measurement Devices....................................................... 20-4
20.3 Methods for Measuring Stem Thrust/Torque ............................................................ 20-4
20.3.1 Spring Pack Displacement ................................................................................. 20-4

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20.3.2 Strain Measurement of the Yoke Legs ............................................................... 20-5


20.3.3 Strain Measurement of the Stem........................................................................ 20-5
20.3.4 Load Measurement at the Actuator Base........................................................... 20-6
20.3.5 Electric Motor Power Monitor ............................................................................. 20-7
20.3.6 Diaphragm/Piston Pressure ............................................................................... 20-7
20.3.7 Data Acquisition ................................................................................................. 20-7
20.4 Summary .................................................................................................................. 20-8
21 VALVE SELECTION GUIDELINE CHARTS ................................................................... 21-1
22 REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................................................ 22-1
22.1 EPRI / NMAC Reports .............................................................................................. 22-1
22.2 Proprietary Documents Developed under EPRI MOV Performance Prediction
Program ............................................................................................................................ 22-3
22.3 Proprietary Documents Developed under Utility-Sponsored Generic Thrust and
Torque Overload Qualification Program for Limitorque Actuators.................................... 22-4
22.4 NRC Generic Letters, Information Notices, and Related References ....................... 22-6
22.5 Books, Magazines, Technical Meetings, and Journal Articles .................................. 22-8
22.6 Codes and Standards ............................................................................................. 22-13
23 APPENDIX A: RECENT ADVANCES IN VALVE AND ACTUATOR TECHNOLOGY..... 23-1
23.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 23-1
23.2 Background............................................................................................................... 23-1
23.3 Motor-Operated Valve Performance Prediction Methodology................................... 23-2
23.3.1 System Flow Model ............................................................................................ 23-3
23.3.2 Solid and Flex Wedge Gate Valve Model........................................................... 23-3
23.3.3 Methodologies for Special Design Gate Valves ................................................. 23-6
23.3.4 Butterfly Valve Model ......................................................................................... 23-6
23.3.5 Globe Valve Model............................................................................................. 23-7
23.4 EPRI/NMAC Application and Maintenance Guides................................................... 23-7
23.5 Generic Thrust and Torque Qualification Program for Limitorque Actuators.......... 23-14
23.5.1 Background...................................................................................................... 23-14
23.5.2 Technical Approach ......................................................................................... 23-15
23.5.3 Highlights of Results and Conclusions ............................................................. 23-16

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24 APPENDIX B: CONTROL VALVE SIZING METHODS AND EXAMPLES...................... 24-1


24.1 General Methods, Definitions, and Evaluation .......................................................... 24-1
24.1.1 Introduction to Control Valve Specification, Sizing, and Selection ..................... 24-1
24.1.2 Definitions .......................................................................................................... 24-2
24.1.3 Sizing Formulas and Procedures for Liquid Flow ............................................... 24-9
24.1.4 Sizing Formulas and Procedures for Gas Flow ................................................ 24-29
24.2 Examples of Sizing for Special High Pressure Drop Applications ........................... 24-42
24.2.1 Feedwater Recirculation................................................................................... 24-42
24.2.2 Atmospheric Steam Dump and Turbine Bypass............................................... 24-47
24.2.3 Attemperator Spray Control.............................................................................. 24-50
24.2.4 Deaerator Level Control ................................................................................... 24-52
24.2.5 Feedwater Pump Flow Control......................................................................... 24-56
25 APPENDIX C: VALVE PROCUREMENT SPECIFICATION............................................ 25-1
25.1 General ..................................................................................................................... 25-1
25.2 Specific Elements ..................................................................................................... 25-2
25.3 Data Sheets .............................................................................................................. 25-6

26 APPENDIX D: TRANSLATED TABLE OF CONTENTS................................................... 26-1


26.1 Franais (French)....................................................................................................... 26-2
26.2 (Japanese)............................................................................................................... 26-14
26.3 Espaol (Spanish).................................................................................................... 26-24

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2-1 Globe Valve Typical Valve Nomenclature.............................................................. 2-2
Figure 2-2 Gate Valve Typical Valve Nomenclature ............................................................... 2-3
Figure 2-3 Screwed Bonnet .................................................................................................. 2-20
Figure 2-4 Flanged (Bolted) Bonnet...................................................................................... 2-21
Figure 2-5 Welded Bonnet.................................................................................................... 2-22
Figure 2-6 Pressure-Sealed Bonnet ..................................................................................... 2-22
Figure 2-7 Seat Joint Mating Surfaces (Lay of Roughness Concentric) ............................... 2-23
Figure 2-8 Seat Plane Distortion under Vertical and Horizontal Bending Moments .............. 2-24
Figure 2-9 Typical Globe Valve Seating Configurations ....................................................... 2-27
Figure 2-10 Cross Ring Indentation ...................................................................................... 2-28
Figure 2-11 Soft Seat Retention Methods............................................................................. 2-29
Figure 2-12 Methods for Attaching Seat to Body .................................................................. 2-31
Figure 2-13 Flexible Seat...................................................................................................... 2-32
Figure 2-14 Floating Seat ..................................................................................................... 2-32
Figure 2-15 Spring-Loaded Packing Seals ........................................................................... 2-33
Figure 2-16 Stem Connections ............................................................................................. 2-34
Figure 2-17 Gate Valve Gate Guide ..................................................................................... 2-36
Figure 2-18 Manual Override Lever on Pressure-Relief Valve.............................................. 2-38
Figure 2-19 Manual Override Handwheel on Motor-Operated Valve .................................... 2-38
Figure 2-20 Steam Leak-Off Connection .............................................................................. 2-39
Figure 2-21 External Bypass................................................................................................. 2-41
Figure 2-22 Bonnet Extension .............................................................................................. 2-42
Figure 2-23 Trim Components .............................................................................................. 2-44
Figure 2-24 Bellows Seal ...................................................................................................... 2-56
Figure 2-25 Bellows on Butterfly Valve ................................................................................. 2-57
Figure 2-26 Metal Diaphragm Stem Seal.............................................................................. 2-58
Figure 2-27 Basic Types of Stem Seals................................................................................ 2-60
Figure 2-28 Packing Gland Details ....................................................................................... 2-62
Figure 2-29 Distribution of Stresses in the Packing and Location of Actual Sealing Point.... 2-63
Figure 2-30 Live Loading of Valve Packing Using Disc Springs ........................................... 2-73

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Figure 2-31 Packing Compressive Stress Versus Consolidation .......................................... 2-74


Figure 2-32 Lantern Ring / Stem Leakoff Connection........................................................... 2-76
Figure 3-1 Valve Classification by Function ............................................................................ 3-2
Figure 4-1 Inside Screw Stem Thread Configurations ............................................................ 4-2
Figure 4-2 Rising Stem Design, Outside Screw ...................................................................... 4-2
Figure 4-3 Wedge Gate Valve ................................................................................................ 4-4
Figure 4-4 Anchor/Darling Double-Disc Gate Valve................................................................ 4-8
Figure 4-5 W-K-M Through-Conduit Double-Wedge Parallel Expanding Gate Valve ............. 4-9
Figure 4-6 Parallel Slide Double-Disc Gate Valve................................................................. 4-11
Figure 4-7 Through-Conduit Parallel Slide Double-Disc Gate Valve..................................... 4-12
Figure 4-8 Westinghouse Flexible Wedge Gate Valve ......................................................... 4-14
Figure 4-9 Slab Gate Valve .................................................................................................. 4-16
Figure 4-10 Gate Valve Bonnet Overpressurization ............................................................. 4-18
Figure 4-11 Typical Seat and Guide Damage Locations in Conventional Flexible Wedge
Gate Valves Under High Flow Conditions ..................................................................... 4-25
Figure 5-1 T-Pattern Globe Valve ........................................................................................... 5-2
Figure 5-2 Angle-Pattern Globe Valve .................................................................................... 5-2
Figure 5-3 Y-Pattern Globe Valve........................................................................................... 5-3
Figure 5-4 Velan 2" (5.1 cm), 1500# Globe Valve (Guide-Based) Model: Figure No.
137132 ............................................................................................................................ 5-4
Figure 6-1 Pressure Drop Through a Control Valve at Minimum, Design, and Maximum
System Flows.................................................................................................................. 6-2
Figure 6-2 Control Valve Sizing Example ............................................................................... 6-5
Figure 6-3 Single-Port Control Valve ...................................................................................... 6-9
Figure 6-4 Double-Seated Globe Valve ................................................................................ 6-11
Figure 6-5 Balanced Disc Cage Style Valve ......................................................................... 6-13
Figure 6-6 Y-Style Body Valve.............................................................................................. 6-14
Figure 6-7 Three-Way Valve for Flow Diverting Service Unbalanced Disc ........................... 6-14
Figure 6-8 Three-Way Valve, Balanced Plug........................................................................ 6-15
Figure 6-9 Low Noise, Anti-Cavitation Trim........................................................................... 6-16
Figure 6-10 High Pressure Drop Multiple Step Plug and Cage............................................. 6-17
Figure 6-11 High Pressure Drop Control Valve, Labyrinth Design ........................................ 6-18
Figure 6-12 Inherent Flow Curves for Various Valve Plugs with Constant Delta P Across
the Valve ....................................................................................................................... 6-19
Figure 6-13 Comparison of Installed Characteristics versus Inherent Characteristics .......... 6-20
Figure 6-14 Typical Pump Characteristics ............................................................................ 6-22
Figure 6-15 Flow Schematic without Piping Losses.............................................................. 6-22
Figure 6-16 Installed Characteristics without Piping Losses ................................................. 6-24

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Figure 6-17 Flow Schematic with Piping Losses................................................................... 6-25


Figure 6-18 Installed Characteristics with Piping Losses ...................................................... 6-27
Figure 6-19 Force Balance Diagram for Control Valves........................................................ 6-29
Figure 7-1 Typical Motor-Operated Butterfly Valve ................................................................. 7-2
Figure 7-2 Most Common Butterfly Valve Disc Shapes Used in Nuclear Power Plants .......... 7-5
Figure 7-3 Typical Variations in Butterfly Disc Designs........................................................... 7-6
Figure 7-4 Typical Symmetric Disc Design with Elastomer Lined Body .................................. 7-8
Figure 7-5 Cross-Section of a Typical Nonsymmetric Butterfly Valve ................................... 7-10
Figure 7-6 Valve Disc Flow Orientation Terminology ............................................................ 7-11
Figure 7-7 Triple Offset Butterfly Valve ................................................................................. 7-12
Figure 7-8 Fishtail Disc ......................................................................................................... 7-13
Figure 7-9 Special Disc Design for Noise and Cavitation Reduction..................................... 7-13
Figure 7-10 Typical Seat Designs......................................................................................... 7-16
Figure 7-11 Inflatable Seat Butterfly Valve ........................................................................... 7-17
Figure 7-12 Effect of Upstream Disturbance, Shaft Orientation, and Disc Opening
Direction on Hydrodynamic Torque ............................................................................... 7-20
Figure 7-13 Hydrostatic Torque Component in a Horizontal Shaft Installation...................... 7-21
Figure 8-1 Flow Through a Symmetric Disc Butterfly Valve .................................................... 8-2
Figure 8-2 Variation in Location of Peak Hydrodynamic Torque for Constant Head and
Pumped Systems ............................................................................................................ 8-4
Figure 8-3 Typical Opening Torque Characteristics of a Symmetric Disc Butterfly Valve
under High Flow Conditions ............................................................................................ 8-6
Figure 9-1 Floating Ball........................................................................................................... 9-4
Figure 9-2 Trunnion-Mounted Ball .......................................................................................... 9-5
Figure 9-3 Wedged Ball Design .............................................................................................. 9-7
Figure 10-1 Eccentric Rotating Plug/Ball Control Valve ........................................................ 10-2
Figure 10-2 Segmented Ball with Tubular Resistance Trim .................................................. 10-3
Figure 10-3 Multistage Anticavitation Ball Valve ................................................................... 10-4
Figure 11-1 Nonlubricated Plug Valve .................................................................................. 11-2
Figure 11-2 Lubricated Plug Valve........................................................................................ 11-2
Figure 11-3 Lubricated Tapered Plug Valve ......................................................................... 11-3
Figure 12-1 Saunders Pattern Flexible Diaphragm Valve ..................................................... 12-2
Figure 12-2 Straightway Flexible Diaphragm Valve .............................................................. 12-3
Figure 12-3 Full Bore Body Flexible Diaphragm Valve ......................................................... 12-3
Figure 13-1 Types of Valve Actuators................................................................................... 13-2
Figure 13-2 Limitorque SMB-0 Motor Operator Cutaway View ............................................. 13-5
Figure 13-3 Simplified Motor Operator.................................................................................. 13-6
Figure 13-4 Hydraulic Actuator with Fail-Safe Operation Using a Mechanical Spring........... 13-9

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Figure 13-5 Hydraulic Actuator with Fail-Safe Operation Using a Gas Spring .................... 13-10
Figure 13-6 Solenoid Actuator ............................................................................................ 13-12
Figure 14-1 Manual Lever..................................................................................................... 14-1
Figure 14-2 Worm Gear Actuator.......................................................................................... 14-2
Figure 16-1 Butt Weld End Connection .............................................................................. 16-24
Figure 16-2 Socket Weld End Connection.......................................................................... 16-24
Figure 16-3 Butterfly Valve End Connections ..................................................................... 16-26
Figure 19-1 Test Valve Arrangement for Maintained Flowrate Test...................................... 19-9
Figure 19-2 Globe Valve Reverse Air Test (Test Pressure Under Seat)............................. 19-10
Figure 19-3 Globe Valve Reverse Air Test (Test Pressure Above Seat) ............................ 19-11
Figure 19-4 Gate Valve Reverse Air Test (With Body Vent Test Connection) .................... 19-12
Figure 19-5 Gate Valve Through Body Air Test (LOCA pushes disc toward outboard
seat. Through body pressurization measures leakage by both seats.) ....................... 19-12
Figure 19-6 Required Valve Maintenance Clearance for Typical Installation...................... 19-19
Figure 19-7 Required Maintenance Clearance for Chain-Operated Valve.......................... 19-20
Figure 19-8 Human Factors Clearance-General ................................................................. 19-21
Figure 21-1 Valve Selection Chart (This figure is located in a pouch inside the back
cover of this report.) ...................................................................................................... 21-1
Figure 23-1 Tilted Disc Contact Mode Resulting in Point Contact with the Downstream
Seat............................................................................................................................... 23-5
Figure 23-2 Limitorque Actuator Test Fixture...................................................................... 23-15
Figure 24-1 Pressure Profile of Fluid Passing through a Valve............................................. 24-3
Figure 24-2 Pressure Profile through Restriction .................................................................. 24-4
Figure 24-3 Effects of Vaporization....................................................................................... 24-5
Figure 24-4 Globe Valve FL Values..................................................................................... 24-11
Figure 24-5 High Performance Butterfly/Ball FL Values....................................................... 24-12
Figure 24-6 Liquid Critical Pressure Ratio Factor Curve ..................................................... 24-13
Figure 24-7 Globe Valve Liquid Incipient Cavitation Factor (Fi) Values .............................. 24-17
Figure 24-8 Reynolds Number Factor................................................................................. 24-18
Figure 24-9 Compressibility Factors for Gases with Reduced Pressures from 0 to 40 ....... 24-34
Figure 24-10 Compressibility Factors for Gases with Reduced Pressures from 0 to 6 ....... 24-35
Figure 24-11 Conventional Method of Recirculation Control: Control Valve (On-Off) in
Series with a Breakdown Orifice ................................................................................. 24-44
Figure 24-12 Method of Recirculation Control Using High Pressure, Modulating AntiCavitation Valve .......................................................................................................... 24-44
Figure 24-13 Globe Angle Control Valve with Anti-Cavitation Trim..................................... 24-45
Figure 24-14 Globe Control Valve with Low Noise Trim ..................................................... 24-48
Figure 24-15 Typical Condensate System .......................................................................... 24-53
Figure 24-16 Typical Condensate System Curve ............................................................... 24-54

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Figure 24-17 Globe Control Valve with Anti-Cavitation Variable Resistance Trim .............. 24-54
Figure 24-18 Main Feedwater System ................................................................................ 24-57
Figure 25-1 Suggested Manual Valve Data Sheet by Purchaser.......................................... 25-8
Figure 25-2 Suggested Manual Valve Data Sheet by Bidder/Seller ................................... 25-11
Figure 25-3 Suggested Motor-Operated Valve Data Sheet by Purchaser .......................... 25-13
Figure 25-4 Suggested Motor-Operated Valve Data Sheet by Bidder/Seller ...................... 25-17
Figure 25-5 Control Valve Data Sheet ................................................................................ 25-20
Figure 25-6 Relief Valve Data Sheet .................................................................................. 25-24
Figure 25-7 Rupture Disc Data Sheet................................................................................. 25-26

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LIST OF TABLES
Table 2-1 Corrosion Ranking for Materials Selection............................................................ 2-46
Table 2-2 Critical Variables for Accelerated Erosion-Corrosion ............................................ 2-49
Table 2-3 Chart of Wear and Galling Resistance of Material Combinations ......................... 2-52
Table 2-4 Typical Properties of Plastics and Elastomers Used in Valves for Soft Seats,
Seals, and Gaskets ...................................................................................................... 2-68
Table 2-5 Typical Radiation Resistance of Plastics .............................................................. 2-70
Table 2-6 Gasket Materials and Contact Facings, Gasket Factors M for Operating
Conditions, and Minimum Design Seating Stress y...................................................... 2-79
Table 3-1 Control Valve Seat Leakage Classifications (In Accordance with ANSI/FCI
70-2-1976........................................................................................................................ 3-6
Table 3-2 Seat Leakage Criteria ............................................................................................. 3-7
Table 6-1 Valve Cv and Pressure as a Function of Flow Rate without Line Losses .............. 6-23
Table 6-2 Valve Cv and Pressure as a Function of Flow Rate with Line Losses ................... 6-26
Table 13-1 Normal Application of Power Actuators for Valves.............................................. 13-3
Table 14-1 Maximum Recommended Rim Pull as a Function of Handwheel Diameter ........ 14-3
Table 16-1 Valve Design Codes ........................................................................................... 16-2
Table 16-2 Typical Valve Standards ..................................................................................... 16-3
Table 16-3 Safety Classes and Applicable Standards .......................................................... 16-5
Table 16-4 Pressure/Temperature Ratings for Steel Valves. Source: ANSI B 16.34 1981 .............................................................................................................................. 16-6
Table 16-5 Cast Iron Gate Valve Ratings Source: MSS-SP-70 ............................................ 16-8
Table 16-6 Bronze Gate, Globe, and Check Valve Ratings Source: MSS-SP-80................. 16-9
Table 16-7 Commonly Used Pressure Boundary Materials ................................................ 16-13
Table 18-1 Inspection Checklist for Solid and Flexible Wedge Gate Valves....................... 18-17
Table 18-2 Inspection Checklist for Butterfly Valves........................................................... 18-25
Table 19-1 Valve Maintenance Clearance Data ................................................................. 19-16
Table 20-1 Comparison of Selected Diagnostic Methods ..................................................... 20-9
Table 21-1 Valve Selection Matrix ........................................................................................ 21-2
Table 24-1 Typical Valve Recovery Coefficients (FL) and Incipient Cavitation Factors (Fi) . 24-10
Table 24-2 Typical Critical Pressure Values ....................................................................... 24-14
Table 24-3 Typical Values of Cv: Globe Valve, Flow over the Seat..................................... 24-20

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Table 24-4 Typical Values of Cv: Globe Valve, Flow under the Seat .................................. 24-21
Table 24-5 Typical Piping Geometry Factors, Fp : Valve with both Reducer and
Expander..................................................................................................................... 24-22
Table 24-6 Typical Piping Geometry Factors, Fp: Valve with Outlet Expander Only ........... 24-23
Table 24-7 Terminal Pressure Drop Ratios (xT)................................................................... 24-31
Table 24-8 Gas Physical Data ............................................................................................ 24-32

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1
INTRODUCTION/SUMMARY HOW TO USE THE
GUIDEBOOK

1.1

Introduction

The purpose of this guide is to present, in a comprehensive manner, information and


methods that have been successfully utilized in the application, use, maintenance, and
repair of valves in power plant systems. The information presented in this guide
provides state-of-the-art valve and actuator technology in use in U.S. power plants,
including:

The latest advances in the application, use, and maintenance of valves and actuators

Current techniques used for both in situ and off-line repairs

Guidelines for troubleshooting valve and actuator problems

New and emerging technologies for diagnostic systems and equipment

Requirements for valve maintenance programs that provide significant


improvements in valve reliability and plant availability

Recent regulatory issues concerning the performance of valves and actuators in


nuclear power plant applications

Over the last several years, EPRI, the U.S. NRC, and electric utilities have conducted
many research projects to improve plant safety and availability by reducing valve and
actuator problems. These projects resulted in many proprietary and nonproprietary
documents, which deal with various specialized areas of valve/actuator sizing,
performance characteristics, valve and actuator maintenance/repair as well as testing
and diagnostic technologies. However, information to aid plant personnel in resolving
these problems is difficult to glean from scattered sources, and access may be restricted
by proprietary consideration. Brief summaries along with a comprehensive listing of
key documents are included in this guide to assist the reader to quickly find additional
sources of information.
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EPRI Licensed Material


Introduction/Summary How to Use the Guidebook

This is Volume 1 of a two-volume guide. In this volume, the focus is on the application,
use, maintenance, and troubleshooting of gate, globe, butterfly, plug, and diaphragm
valves in power plant applications. Volume 1 is a revision of NMAC NP-6516, issued in
August 1990. Apart from the technical update (which is very extensive), several topics
were eliminated from this revision because they are covered in great depth in other
recent EPRI/NMAC publications. For example, check valves are not discussed in this
revision because they are covered in two very detailed documents [1.20,1 1.21]. Airoperated valves and solenoid valves are also omitted because they are covered in
References 1.2 and 1.7 respectively. Only minimum discussions of motor operators are
included because detailed discussions are given in other EPRI documents [1.22, 1.23,
1.24, 1.25, and 1.26].
Volume 2 of this guide [1.1] provides detailed discussions about most current valve
repair techniques both in situ and off-line for gate, globe, and check valves. The
discussions in Volume 2 cover component repair, flaw removal techniques, material
selection, machining, welding, heat treatment guidelines, final inspection and testing
requirements, which are also applicable to other valve types.
This guide was developed for persons who prepare valve specifications, install and
operate valves in various applications, and perform required valve maintenance and
repairs. The guide will also be useful to system designers, plant management,
engineers, and others who need in-depth understanding of the capabilities and
limitations of valves that affect performance and system availability. For readers with
little valve background, the guide is intended to provide basic understanding of valve
technology. For readers with extensive valve experience, the guide is a reference book,
which provides easy access to specific valve information as well as guidance to other
sources of specialized areas.

1.2

Summary/How to Use the Guidebook

1.2.1 General
This section provides the reader with a road map to the information presented in this
guide and to facilitate easy access to it. The Table of Contents provides a fairly
descriptive title for each section. Section 2 provides the nomenclature and glossary of
terms that are common in the industry and used throughout the text. Aspects of
component construction common to several different types of valves and actuators are
discussed in Section 2. Figures are used extensively to illustrate the different types of
valves and specific component details and features.

Numbers in brackets denote technical references given in Section 22.

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Introduction/Summary How to Use the Guidebook

1.2.2 Valve Functions


Section 3 provides the basic valve functions and the features necessary to perform these
functions. These functions generally fall into one of the following four categories:
Isolation. The valve is used to isolate portions of a system, an entire system from other
systems, or a given piece of equipment (such as a heat exchanger) within a system. To
achieve isolation, the valve is typically closed and is expected to exhibit a very low seat
leakage.
Modulating/Throttling. In performing a modulating function, the position of the valve
closure element (gate, plug, disc, or ball) is varied between the fully open and the fully
closed positions. The position of the closure element is controlled by an actuator that is
an integral part of the valve or is attached to the valve stem. The position of the valve
closure element is automatically controlled by a feedback signal to the actuator to
achieve a desired condition (for example, flow rate, fluid level, temperature, pressure)
within the system. Modulating valves are used where automatic, repeatable, and
accurate control of a system fluid parameter is required.
A throttling function is similar to the modulating function except that the position of
the valve closure element is manually controlled either locally or remotely (using a
power source to the actuator). The valve closure element is positioned at a fixed
percentage of valve opening to satisfy a specific system flow requirement. The valve
then provides a constant hydraulic resistance to achieve a fixed pressure drop at a
given system flow rate. When the system flow requirement changes, the valve is
manually repositioned to provide the necessary hydraulic resistance and pressure drop.
In this guide, the discussions of air-operated valves and solenoid valves are kept to a
minimum because these valves are discussed in great detail in References 1.2 and 1.7
respectively.
Check (Non-Return). Check valves are located in a hydraulic system to ensure that the
process medium flows in one direction only. A common application for check valves is
at the discharge of multiple pumps in parallel that provide flow and pressure head to a
common manifold. In the event that one of the pumps ceases to produce flow and
pressure head, a check valve located in its discharge line prevents a flow reversal
through the non-operating pump caused by the pressure head produced by the
operating pump(s). Another typical application is at system interfaces where the intent
is to allow flow in one direction only from one system into another. Check valves are
not normally considered isolation valves because they may exhibit higher leakage rates
than usually required for isolation applications.

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Introduction/Summary How to Use the Guidebook

In this volume of the guide, the discussion of check valve application, use and
maintenance is kept to a minimum because these subjects are discussed in great detail
in References 1.20 and 1.21. Volume 2 of this guide provides detailed guidance for
check valve repair.
Pressure-Relief. Pressure-relief valves are used to protect piping systems and
components from overpressurization by dissipating excess system pressure to a
pressure suppression system or to the atmosphere. Pressure relief is performed in a
number of ways including:

The valve opens automatically to discharge system media when pressure at valve
inlet (acting directly on valve disc) exceeds a predetermined level. No external
power source is needed.

A pilot valve opens automatically when pressure at the inlet of the pilot valve
exceeds a predetermined level. The opening of the pilot valve subsequently opens
the main valve. Alternatively, the pilot valve may be opened at any inlet pressure
by the application of an external power source.

The valve opens when the actuator power source receives a signal that the valve
inlet pressure exceeds a predetermined level.

The valve opens when the actuators power source receives a signal that other
system conditions or events have occurred that will cause a pressure rise to occur
(for example, power failure to a pump or the sub-normal pressure preceding a
pressure surge or water hammer).

In this guide, the discussions of pressure relief valves are eliminated because these
valves are discussed in great detail in Reference 1.4.

1.2.3 Specific Valve Types by Function


Sections 4 through 12 provide information on specific types of valves commonly used
to perform isolation and modulating/throttling functions. The specific types addressed
are gate, globe, butterfly, ball, plug, and diaphragm valves. The information provided
focuses on a number of areas pertinent to the application of each specific valve type.
These are as follows:
Introduction and Application. Performance features and capabilities of the specific valve
type are discussed with respect to the stated function, together with other application
considerations. For example, for flow isolation, fully open gate valves offer minimal
flow resistances and pressure drops (thus reducing pumping costs). However, gate
valves require a relatively long stem travel to open and close. Therefore, stroke times
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Introduction/Summary How to Use the Guidebook

for gate valves are relatively longer than for globe valves, which could adversely affect
the system performance. On the other hand, globe valves, while satisfying stroke time
requirements, introduce high flow resistances and pressure drops, which may be
unacceptable in some applications.
Design. Using a valve cross-sectional drawing, the design features of the specific valve
type are discussed.
The effect of different variants of the valve type (for example, solid wedge versus
flexible wedge gate valves) on valve performance is noted. The advantages and
disadvantages of the variants are discussed.
Installation Practices. The proximity of other components (pumps, piping connections,
etc.) may affect valve performance. Installation configuration, direction of flow, forces,
and moments applied to the valve by the connecting pipe, orientation to vertical, and
accumulation of debris/biological growth inside the valve are typical installation
considerations. These are discussed as they apply to each specific valve type and
function, and an assessment is provided where a particular sensitivity to any of these
exists. General guidelines for valve installation are given in Section 19.
Operation Practices and Precautions. Methods to improve the functional reliability of
valves through correct operational practices are discussed. Practices that may adversely
affect the performance of valves are presented. Such practices include applying
excessive actuator loading thrust to reduce seat leakage and using of valves for other
than the intended function (for example, long-term throttling with a gate valve).
Common Problems. For each valve type, a section is devoted to provide a concise list of
the common valve problems and malfunctions. Wherever possible, suggested corrective
and preventive actions are given. Detailed repair procedures are given in Volume 2
[1.1].
Maintenance. General discussions of maintenance methods and practices for specific
valves are provided. The focus is on areas that are considered critical to achieve
satisfactory valve performance. General discussions of other valve maintenance issues
including programmatic consideration, troubleshooting, corrective action, maintenance
requirements, and diagnostic equipment are given in Sections 17 through 20.

1.2.4 Actuator Types


Section 13 provides a general introduction to the different types of valve actuators.
Section 14 is dedicated to manual actuators. For other types of actuators, the reader is
referred to other EPRI documents [1.2, 1.4, 1.7, and 1.22 through 1.26].

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1.2.5 General Design Requirements for Valves and Actuators


Deficient performance and valve failures result from the use of valves under operating
conditions for which they were not intended. A complete knowledge of all of the
conditions to which the valve will be subjected is extremely valuable in avoiding
problems. This includes system start-up, shutdown, and anticipated transient
conditions. All verified pertinent valve data should be recorded and filed for future
reference. Section 15 provides detailed discussion of general design requirements that
need to be defined and applied to valves during the original or replacement
procurement cycle.

1.2.6 Valve Pressure Boundary and Structural Integrity


The valve is an integral part of the system pressure boundary and must be designed so
that the integrity of the system is maintained. Section 16 discusses pressure boundary
and structural integrity requirements including:

Applicable codes and standards

Pressure temperature ratings

Materials and material compatibility

Pressure boundary materials and their proper selection

Corrosion allowance

Valve end connections

Pipeline loads and vibrations

Leakage, and shop hydrostatic testing

Structural integrity and valve operability

1.2.7 Valve Maintenance and Inspection Programs


In the last few years, there has been ever-increasing pressure on the electric power
industry to improve plant efficiency, shorten plant outages, and cut costs. Under this
environment, valve maintenance groups are required to improve the efficiency of valve
repairs and reliability. Section 17 discusses the different factors that affect valve
maintenance and have direct impact on valve reliability and plant availability.
Recommendations to enhance maintenance programs and procedures are also included
in Section 17.
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1.2.8 Troubleshooting and Recommended Corrective Actions


One of the most important responsibilities of plant maintenance and operation
personnel is to quickly identify valve problems and determine the necessary corrective
actions. In many cases, the root cause is simple but not obvious. Section 18 provides
guidance on troubleshooting and recommended corrective actions for gate, globe,
butterfly, ball, plug, and diaphragm valves. The use of checklists can improve the
quality and the effectiveness of the maintenance activities and are recommended in this
guide (see Section 18 for sample checklists).

1.2.9 Installation, Testing, and Maintenance Requirements


Valve installation, testing, and maintenance must meet certain code and regulatory
requirements. For nuclear power plants, these requirements are more stringent than in
any other application. Section 19 provides a detailed discussion of these requirements
and identifies the governing codes that should be reviewed for additional information.

1.2.10 Diagnostic Equipment and Methods


Recent advances in computers and measurement equipment coupled with innovative
solutions for measurement problems resulted in a surge in valve diagnostic equipment
and methods. Section 20 provides a summary of the state of the art of valve and
actuator diagnostic equipment and methods. It is expected that these advances will
continue and new equipment will be developed while existing equipment will be
further refined. Thus, the reader is encouraged to continue to obtain new information
from diagnostic equipment vendors and service companies that develop and maintain
the equipment. However, the information provided in Section 20 can be used as a
starting point to identify the specific plant needs.

1.2.11 Valve Selection Chart


Section 21 provides information on using the Valve Selection Chart shown in Figure 211. The chart is in the form of an algorithm and is provided for use as a wall chart. It
provides a structured path of the mental process of selecting a new valve or evaluating
an existing valve. Caution should be exercised in using the chart because it is not a
go/no-go device, but rather one that suggests options to be evaluated and points to
the direction of needed additional investigation. Some of the options shown may not
always be available to the user. Decisions such as the type of valve end connections,
valve body/bonnet material, etc., may be mandated by overall system considerations.
Several typical valve applications are presented in the text to assist the reader in the use
of the Valve Selection Chart.

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1.2.12 References and Bibliography


As mentioned above, the vast amount of information/documents developed over the
last few years makes it difficult for plant personnel to locate the applicable documents
for a particular need. In this guide, a listing of the key references, codes, and standards
are provided to enable the reader to locate additional documents for further study. In
Section 22, the references and bibliography are listed according to their categories in six
different groups. Proprietary documents (available only to certain program
participants) are included in separate sections and clearly identified. Most of these
references provide additional references for specific information such as valve test
reports and friction coefficient data.

1.2.13 Appendices
Appendices are provided to broaden the scope of knowledge presented in the text.
References in the text are made to specific appendices where additional information is
given on the subject being discussed.
Section 23 provides a brief discussion of recent advances in the valve and actuators
technology along with latest regulatory requirements. Section 23 also provides a brief
summary of some key EPRI/NMAC documents that are believed to be of particular
interest to the reader.
Section 24 provides a brief discussion of control valve sizing methods based on the
Instrument Society of America (ISA) approach. Several examples are provided to
further clarify the methods used and to understand their limitations. It should be noted
that several computer programs have been developed by valve manufacturers and
others to perform control valve sizing calculations. Evaluation and discussion of these
computer programs are outside the scope of this guide. It is recommended, however,
that the reader seek information about such software from the developing
organizations.
Section 25 provides valve procurement specifications. Suggested data sheets for use by
the purchaser and bidder/seller are included for convenience.
Finally, complete reading of the entire guide, including the appendices, should provide
the reader with an overall view of the current state of the art of valve and actuator
technology.

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2
GENERAL VALVE DESIGN

2.1

Nomenclature/Glossary of Terms

2.1.1 Introduction
This section covers commonly used valve terminology and nomenclature. As an
example, Figures 2-1 and 2-2 show a globe and a gate valve along with typical
nomenclature used for these valve types. Reference is given, where appropriate, to
figures found in later sections which depict the term being defined. Many terms used in
this document are defined in the following standards and technical textbooks.

Glossary of Valves Terms, Grove Valve Regulator Company, Oakland, CA, 1980.

ASME Standard 112, Diaphragm Actuated Control Valve Terminology, American


Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, NY.

ISA Handbook of Control Valves, Second Edition, Instrument Society of America, 1976.

Control Valve Handbook, Second Edition, Fisher Control Company, Marshalltown,


Iowa, 1977.

ANSI B95.1, Terminology for Pressure Relief Devices.

2.1.2 Glossary of Terms


Active Valve
A valve that is required to change obturator position to accomplish its required
function(s).
Actual Discharge Area
The minimum net area that determines the flow through a valve.

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Actuator Spring (Diaphragm Actuator) (Figure 2-1)


A spring that moves the actuator stem in a direction opposite to the direction created by
diaphragm pressure.
Actuator Stem (Diaphragm Actuator) (Figure 2-1)
A rod-like extension of the diaphragm plate to permit convenient external connection
(usually to the valve stem).

Figure 2-1
Globe Valve Typical Valve Nomenclature

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Figure 2-2
Gate Valve Typical Valve Nomenclature

Backpressure
Pressure on the downstream side of the valve.
Backseat (Figure 2-1)
A shoulder on the stem disc of a valve that seals against a mating surface inside the
bonnet to act as a back-up seal to the packing to limit stem seal leakage.

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Belleville Spring
A cone-shaped washer/disc spring used where small deflections and relatively high
loads are required.
Bellows Seal Bonnet (Figure 2-24)
A bonnet that uses metal bellows for sealing against leakage of controlled fluid around
the valve stem.
Block and Bleed
The capability of obtaining a pressure seal across the upstream and downstream seats
of a valve, usually a gate valve, when the body pressure is bled off to the atmosphere
through blowdown valves or vent plugs. This is useful in testing the integrity of seat
shut-off and in accomplishing minor repairs under line pressure. It is also useful in
keeping different process fluids separated. See Double Block and Bleed.
Body (Figures 2-1 and 2-2)
The principal pressure-containing part of a valve where the closure element and seats
are located.
Bonnet (Figures 2-1 and 2-2)

The separable portion of the valve pressure boundary that permits access to the
internals.

The major part of the bonnet assembly, excluding the sealing means.

The top pressure-containing part of a valve, attached to the body, that guides the
stem and adapts to extensions or operators.

Bonnet Assembly
An assembly that includes the part through which a valve plug stem moves and a
means for sealing against leakage around the stem. It usually provides a means for
mounting the actuator.
Bore (or Port)
The inside diameter, or other control configuration, of the flow passage through a valve
(for example, the diameter of the hole in the ball of a ball valve, the inside diameter of

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seat rings). The bore is usually the minimum flow area when the disc is in the fully
open position.
Boss (Figure 2-1)
A localized projection on a valve surface provided for various purposes, such as
attachment of drain connections or other accessories.
Breaking Pin
See Shear Pin.
Breaking Pin Device
See Shear Pin Device.
Breaking Pressure
The value of inlet static pressure at which a breaking pin or shear pin device functions.
Terms such as breaking pressure, force, load, or torque are used to identify the
load for which the intentional section of weakness is designed to fail.
Bubble-Tight Shut-Off
A phrase used in describing the sealing ability of a valve. During air pressure testing of
a valve in the closed position, leakage past the seats is bubbled through water. To
qualify as bubble-tight, no bubbles should be observed in a prescribed time span.
Burst Pressure
The value of inlet static pressure at which a rupture disc functions.
Bypass (Figure 2-21)
A system of pipes and valves intended to permit the diversion of flow or pressure
around a line valve or to communicate the body cavity to either the upstream or
downstream side.
Cage. (Figure 6-9A)
A hollow cylindrical trim element that is a guide to align the movement of a valve disc
with a seat ring and also to retain the seat ring in the valve body. Often the walls of the
cage contain openings that determine the flow characteristics of a control valve.

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Capacity
Rate of flow through a valve under stated conditions of pressure drop and fluid
density.
Chatter
Rapid reciprocating or vibrating motion of the valve disc during which the disc
contacts the seat. In mid-stroke, a valve may chatter on its guides or cage without
touching the seat.
Closing Pressure
The value of the decreasing inlet static pressure at which the valve disc of a safety valve
re-established contact with the seat or at which lift becomes zero.
Closure Element (Figures 2-1 and 2-2)
The moving part of a valve, positioned in the flow stream, that controls flow through
the valve. Ball, gate, plug, clapper, disc, etc., are specific names for closure elements.
Coefficient of Discharge
The ratio of the measured flow capacity to the theoretical flow capacity.
Control Valve
A power-operated device that modifies the fluid flow rate in a process control system.
It consists of a valve connected to an actuator mechanism that is capable of changing
the position of a flow-controlling element in the valve in response to a signal from the
controlling system.
Cv (Valve Flow Coefficient)
The number of gallons of water at 60F (15.6C) that will flow through a given valve
within 1 minute, with a pressure drop (loss) of 1 psi (6.9 kPa).
Dead Band (Diaphragm Actuator)
The amount that the actuating pressure on the diaphragm can be varied without
initiating valve disc motion.

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Design Pressure
The pressure used in the design of a valve and other pressure-retaining components for
the purpose of determining the minimum permissible wall thickness. When applicable,
static head should be added to the design pressure to determine the thickness of the
pressure-retaining components. There are slight differences in the exact definition of
the design pressure used by different codes; therefore, the definition from the
applicable code, such as ASME, must be used.
Design Temperature
The temperature that is used to determine allowable stresses for the purpose of design
calculations. Generally, the design temperature is set at a value higher (or further from
ambient) than the operating temperature and includes allowances for upsets and
variation in operating conditions.
Diaphragm (Figure 2-1)
A flexible pressure responsive element that transmits force to the diaphragm plate.
Diaphragm Actuator (Figure 2-1)
An assembly utilizing fluid pressure acting on a diaphragm to develop a force to move
the actuator stem. It may or may not have a spring for positioning and return of the
actuator stem.
Diaphragm Pressure Span (or Range)
Difference between the high and low values of the diaphragm pressure range. This
may be stated as an inherent or installed characteristic.
Direct Acting Actuator (Figure 6-19)
A diaphragm actuator in which the actuator stem extends with increasing diaphragm
pressure.
Disc (Figure 2-1 and 2-2)
The closure element of a gate, globe, check, butterfly, safety, or relief valve. The disc in
different valve designs may be referred to as gate, wedge, poppet, or plug.
Discharge Area
See Actual Discharge Area.
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Double Block and Bleed


The capability of a valve to isolate the body cavity from line pressure when the valve is
in either the fully closed or fully open position. (See Block and Bleed for this operation
with the valve in only the closed position.) In open position, pressure energized seatball valves and through-conduct gate valves can effectively shut off the system pressure
from entering the valve body cavity from either the upstream or downstream side,
permitting the integrity of the seats to be checked with the closure member in the open
position.
Dynamic Unbalance
The net force produced on the valve disc in any stated open position by the fluid
pressure acting upon it.
Effective Area
In a diaphragm actuator, the effective area is that part of the diaphragm area that is
effective in producing a stem force. (The effective area of a diaphragm may change as it
is stroked, usually being maximum at the start and minimum at the end of the travel
range. Molded diaphragms that incorporate convolutions have less change in effective
area than flat sheet diaphragms.)
Equal Percentage Flow Characteristic
An inherent flow characteristic that, for an equal increment of rated travel, will ideally
give an equal percentage change of the flow coefficient.
Explosion Rupture Disc Device
A type of rupture disc device designed for use at high rates of pressure rise.
Extension Bonnet (Figure 2-22)
A bonnet with an extension between the packing box assembly and bonnet flange to
thermally isolate the stem packing from the process fluid.

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Fail-As-Is1
A characteristic of a particular type of actuator that, upon loss of power supply, will
cause the valve plug, ball, or disc to remain in the position attained at the time of the
loss of external actuating power.
Fail-Closed

A condition wherein the valve disc will move to the closed position upon loss of
external actuating power.
Fail-Indeterminate

A characteristic of a particular type of actuator that, upon loss of power supply, can
move to any undefined position.
Fail-Open1
A condition wherein the valve disc will move to the open position upon loss of external
actuating power.
Fail-Safe1
The selection of fail-as-is, fail-closed, or fail-open action that avoids an undesirable
consequence in a fluid system.
Field Serviceable
A statement indicating that normal repair of the valve or replacement of operating
parts can be accomplished in the field without return to the manufacturer.
Fire Safe
A statement associated with a valve design that is capable of passing certain specified
leakage and operational tests during and after exposure to fire of specified conditions.

In addition to the loss of actuator power, a loss of actuator signal should be considered in determining the failure
position of the valve disc.

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Flow Characteristic
Relationship between flow through the valve and percent rated travel as the latter is
varied from 0 to 100%. This is a special term. It should always be designated as either
inherent flow characteristic or installed flow characteristic.
Flow Coefficient
See Cv.
Flow Rating Pressure
The inlet static pressure at which the relieving capacity of a pressure relief device is
measured for rating purposes.
Flutter
Rapid reciprocating motions of the valve disc during which the disc does not contact
the seat or body.
Fusible Plug Device
A type of non-reclosing pressure relief device designed to function by yielding or
melting a plug of suitable melting temperature material.
Gate (Figure 2-2)
The closure element of a gate valve.
Globe Valve (Figure 2-1)
A basic control valve type that gets its name from the globular shape of its body. It
normally uses the basic valve disc as its valve closure member.
Hard Facing
A surface preparation in which an alloy is deposited on a critical valve surface (for
example, seat, guide, disc), usually by weld overlay or spray coating techniques, to
increase resistance to wear, galling, abrasion, and corrosion.
High-Recovery Valve
A valve design that dissipates relatively little flow stream energy due to streamlined
internal contours and minimal flow turbulence. Therefore, pressure downstream of the
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valve vena contracta recovers to a high percentage of its inlet value. (Straight-through
flow valves, such as rotary-shaft ball valves, are typically high-recovery valves.)
Inherent Diaphragm Pressure Span (or Range)
The high and low values of pressure applied to the diaphragm to produce rated valve
plug travel with atmospheric pressure in the valve body. (This range is often referred to
as a bench set range since it is the range over which the valve will stroke when it is
set on the work bench.)
Inherent Flow Characteristic
Flow characteristic when constant pressure drop is maintained across the valve.
Inherent Rangeability
Ratio of maximum to minimum flow coefficient within which deviation from the
specified inherent characteristic does not exceed some stated limit.
Inlet Size
The nominal pipe size of the inlet of a valve, unless otherwise designated.
Installed Diaphragm Pressure Span (or Range)
The high and low values of pressure applied to the diaphragm to produce rated valve
plug travel with stated conditions in the valve body. (It is because of forces acting on
the valve plug that the installed diaphragm pressure range can differ from the inherent
diaphragm pressure range.)
Installed Flow Characteristic
Flow characteristic, when pressure drop across the valve varies, as dictated by flow and
related conditions in the system in which the valve is installed.
Lantern Ring (Figure 2-20)
A spacer installed between packing sets to permit injection of sealant or lubricant into
the packing area, or as a leak-off collection chamber from which leakage past the first
set is piped to a safe location.

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Leak Test Pressure


The specified inlet static pressure at which a quantitative seat leakage test is performed
in accordance with a standard procedure.
Leakage
Quantity of fluid passing through an assembled valve when the valve is in the closed
position under stated closure forces with pressure differential [6.12].
Linear Flow Characteristic
An inherent flow characteristic that can be represented ideally by a straight line on a
rectangular plot of percent of related flow coefficient (Cv) versus percent rated travel.
(Equal increments of travel yield equal increments of flow at a constant pressure drop.)
Live Loading (Figure 2-30)
A term used in reference to stem packing stuffing box arrangements to denote that the
packing gland follower is loaded through springs in order to minimize loss of packing
load due to packing consolidation and wear.
Lock-Up Valves
A device used to retain air pressure on a pneumatic actuator or chamber upon loss of
air supply, causing the valve to fail as is.
Low-Recovery Valve
A valve design that dissipates a considerable amount of flow stream energy due to
turbulence created by the contours of the flow path. Consequently, pressure
downstream of the valve vena contracta recovers to a lesser percentage of its inlet value
than is the case with a valve having more streamline flow path. (Although individual
designs vary, conventional globe-style valves generally have low pressure recovery
capability.)
Lower Valve Body
A half housing for internal valve parts having one flow connection. For example, the
half housing of a split body valve.

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Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP)


The maximum pressure permissible in a pressure-retaining component at a designated
temperature. This pressure is based on the nominal thickness of the component,
exclusive of allowances for corrosion and thickness required for loadings other than
pressure. Maximum allowable working pressure is also used as the basis for the
pressure setting of the pressure relieving devices protecting the component.
Maximum Allowable Pressure Drop
The maximum flowing or shutoff pressure drop that a valve can withstand. While the
maximum inlet pressure is commonly dictated by the valve body, maximum allowable
pressure drop is generally limited by the internal controlling components (plug, stem,
disc, shaft, bearings, and seals).
Non-Rising Stem Gate Valves (Figure 4-1B)
A gate valve having its stem threaded into the gate. As the stem turns, the gate moves
(for example, from the closed to the opened position), but the stem does not rise. Stem
threads are exposed to line fluids.
Outlet Size
The nominal pipe size of the outlet of a valve, unless otherwise designated.
Outside Screw And Yoke (OS&Y) (Figure 4-2)
A valve in which the fluid does not come in contact with the stem threads. The stem
sealing element is between the valve body and the stem threads.
Packing (Stuffing) Box Assembly (Figure 2-28)
The part of the bonnet assembly used to seal against leakage around the valve stem,
including various combinations of all or part of the following: packing gland, packing
nut, gland follower, lantern ring, packing spring, packing flange, packing flange studs
or bolts, packing flange nuts, packing ring, packing wiper ring, and felt wiper ring.
Packing Gland (Figure 2-28)
The piece that compresses the packing.

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Passive Valve
A valve that maintains obturator position and is not required to change obturator
position to accomplish its intended function(s).
Piston Actuator
A fluid pressure operated piston and cylinder assembly for positioning the actuator
stem in relation to the operating fluid pressure or pressures.
Pilot Valve
An auxiliary valve that, when actuated, causes the actuation of a main valve.
Plug
See Closure Element.
Port
The flow control orifice of a control valve. It is also used to refer to the inlet or outlet
openings of a valve.
Port Guided (Figures 5-1, 5-2)
A design in which the valve plug is aligned by the body port or ports only.
Pressure-Containing Member
A part of the component that is in actual contact with the pressure media.
Pressure-Retaining Member
A part of the component that is stressed due to its function in holding one or more
pressure-containing members in position.
Push-Down-to-Close Construction
A globe-style valve construction in which the valve plug is located between the
actuator and the seat ring, so that extension of the actuator stem moves the valve plug
toward the seat ring, finally closing the valve.

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Push-Down-to-Open Construction
A globe-style valve construction in which the seat ring is located between the actuator
and the valve plug, so that extension of the actuator stem moves the valve plug away
from the seat ring, opening the valve.
Quick Opening Flow Characteristic
An inherent flow characteristic in which there is maximum change in flow coefficient
with minimum stem travel.
Rangeability
Ratio of maximum to minimum flow coefficient (Cv) within which the deviation from
the specified flow characteristics does not exceed stated limits.
Rated Cv
The value of Cv at the rated full-open position.
Rated Lift
The design lift at which a valve attains its rated flow capacity.
Rated Travel
Linear movement of the valve plug from the closed position to the rated full-open
position. (The rated full-open position is the maximum opening recommended by the
manufacturer.)
Reseating Pressure
The pressure at which the pressure relief valve reseats after discharge.
Reverse-Actuating Actuator
A diaphragm actuator in which the actuator stem retracts to the actuator with
increasing diaphragm pressure.
Rising Stem (Figure 4-1A)
A valve stem that rises as the valve is opened.

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Seat (Figures 2-1 and 2-2)


That portion of the valve internals contacted by a valve closure member to achieve a
shutoff.
Seat Angle (Figure 2-9)
The angle between the axis of the valve stem and the seating surface. A flat seated
valve has a seat angle of 90.
Seat Area
The area determined by the inside and outside diameters of the seat.
Seat Diameter
The smallest diameter of contact between the fixed and moving portions of the pressure
containing element of a valve.
Seat Load
The contact force between the seat and the valve plug.
Seat Ring (Figures 2-1 and 2-2)
A separate piece inserted in a valve body to form a valve seat.
Secondary Orifice
The ring-shaped opening at the exit of the huddling chamber of a safety valve.
Separable Flange
A removable flange that fits over a valve body flow connection, generally held in place
by a retaining ring.
Set Pressure
The value of increasing inlet static pressure at which a pressure relief valve displays
one of the operational characteristics as defined under opening pressure, popping
pressure, or start-to-discharge pressure, depending on service or as designated by the
applicable code or regulation. It is one value of pressure stamped on the pressure relief
valve.
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Shear Pin
The load-carrying element of a shear pin device. It is an intentional section of weakness
or minimum strength used to protect other valve or actuator components. It should be
easily identifiable and replaceable with minimum effort.
Shear Pin Device
A type of non-reclosing pressure relief device actuated by inlet static pressure and
designed to function by shearing a load-carrying pin that supports a pressurecontaining member.
Static Unbalance
The net force produced on the valve disc in its closed position by the fluid pressure
acting upon it.
Stem (Figures 2-1 and 2-2)
A rod or shaft transmitting force/torque from an operator to the closure element of a
valve to change its position.
Stem Connector (Figure 2-1)
A fitting to connect the actuator stem to the valve stem.
Stem Guided (Figure 2-1)
A special case of top guided construction in which the valve disc is aligned by a guide
acting on the valve stem.
Stem Unbalance, Stem Rejection Force, or Piston Effect
The net force produced on the valve disc stem in any position by the fluid pressure
acting upon it.
Stuffing Box (Figure 2-28)
The annular chamber provided around a valve stem in a sealing system into which
deformable packing is introduced.

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Through Conduit
An expression characterizing valves that, in the open position, present a smooth
uninterrupted interior surface across the seat rings and through the valve port, thus
affording minimum pressure drop. There are no cavities or large gaps in the bore
between seat rings and body closures or between seat rings and ball/gate.
Top Guided (Figure 2-1)
A design in which the valve plug is aligned by a single guide in the body, adjacent to
the bonnet or in the bonnet.
Top and Bottom Guided (Figure 6-4)
A design in which the valve plug is aligned by guides in the body or in the bonnet, and
in the bottom flange. The plug is guided above and below the seat.
Top and Port Guided
A design in which the valve plug is aligned by a guide in the bonnet or body, and the
body port.
Trim
The internal parts of a valve that are in contact with line fluid other than the body and
bonnet (usually consisting of the seat ring, valve plug, stem, valve plug guide, guide
bushing, and cage.)
Trunnion
A trunnion is a reinforced area, similar to a boss, that houses opposing pivots, journals,
and other mechanical devices (for example, packing), generally cylindrical in shape
and projecting from the exterior of each side of the piece. In butterfly, ball, and plug
valve bodies, trunnions provide the support for the shaft journal bearings, thrust
bearings, packing, and actuator mounting. (The ball in a ball valve may have trunnions
that mate with the sleeve bearings).
Upper Valve Body
A half housing for a split-body type valve.
Valve Body Assembly
An assembly of a body, bonnet assembly, and bottom flange.
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Valve Plug (Figure 2-1)


A movable part that provides a variable restriction in a port.
Valve Plug Guide (Figure 6-5)
That portion of a valve plug that aligns its movement in either a seat ring, bonnet,
bottom flange, or any two of these.
Valve Plug Stem (Figures 2-1 and 2-2)
A rod extending through the bonnet assembly to permit positioning the valve plug.
Vena Contracta
The location where the cross-sectional area of the flow stream is at its minimum size,
where fluid velocity is at its highest level, and fluid pressure is at its lowest level.
Wire Drawing
Erosion caused by small high velocity jets in closely spaced surfaces, or by cavitation or
liquid droplet impingement. Usually occurs when the disc is closed, but some
unintentional gap due to local damage or particulates causes the surfaces to not be in
intimate contact.
Yield Temperature
The temperature at which the fusible material of a fusible plug device becomes
sufficiently soft to extrude from its holder and relieve pressure.
Yoke (Figures 2-1 and 2-2)
A structure by which the valve actuator assembly is supported rigidly on the bonnet
assembly.

2.2

Common Valve Construction Features

Details of construction common to most valves are related to the minimum required
components to achieve pressure and seating integrity and to actuate the valve.
Although some variance may be found between manufacturers, these common
construction feature serve the same basic functions of connecting the body and bonnet,
shutting off pressure, connecting the stem to the disc, and sealing around the movable
stem.
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2.2.1 Body-to-Bonnet Connections


The bonnet can be a removable portion of a valve connected to the body by screwing,
flange bolting, welding, or a pressure sealing mechanism. In some cases, the bonnet
may be an integral part of the valve body. Removal of the bonnet generally provides
access to the valve trim, except in end-entry valves such as ball and butterfly valves.
For the end-entry valves, access to the trim is through the inlet or outlet ports or
through the body joint.
Screwed Bonnet: The screwed-in bonnet type valve, shown in Figure 2-3, is one of the
simplest and least expensive constructions; it is commonly limited to valve sizes up to 3
inches. In valves larger than 3 inches, the tools and torque required to tighten the joint
become too cumbersome. Threaded joints should be avoided where thread corrosion or
galling can make disassembly difficult. There are two variations of the threaded joint:
one where the bonnet is screwed directly onto the body, the other where a union is
used. Screwing the bonnet directly onto the body requires that the gasket or ground
joint accommodate itself to rotating faces, and frequent unscrewing the bonnet may
damage the joint faces. Another disadvantage of these joints is the variability in the
circumferential alignment between the bonnet and body, because the final assembly
position is dependent on the number of turns required during threading. Threaded
joints, however, offer the advantage of being easily seal welded to provide a redundant
seal or to eliminate the joint seal altogether.
Joining the bonnet to the body using a union ring offers the advantage of preventing
motion between the joint faces as the two are being made up, thereby permitting
repeated unscrewing of the bonnet without damaging the joint faces or seals. Unions
also prevent accidental unscrewing of the bonnet by the operator.

Figure 2-3
Screwed Bonnet

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Flanged (Bolted) Bonnet: Flanged bonnet joints, such as those found in valves shown in
Figure 2-4, have an advantage over the screwed joint in that smaller tools and lower
torque are required to tighten the joint. Flanged joints can be used on any size valve,
under any operating pressure, but they become very bulky and heavy when used on
very large valves and under high operating pressures. At temperatures above 650F
(343C), creep relaxation can, in time, noticeably lower the bolt load and allow the joint
to leak. If the application is critical, the flanged joint can be seal welded.

Figure 2-4
Flanged (Bolted) Bonnet

Welded Bonnet: Welding the bonnet to the body effectively provides a very economical
and long-term seal regardless of size, operating pressure, and temperature. This
arrangement can be used to achieve both a sealing function and a load carrying
function, as shown in Figure 2-5. When coupled with screwed or flanged joints, the
weld joint is designed to seal only against pressure and requires minimal weld
material. Except for cast iron, welding can be performed on most materials.
This arrangement is used where the valve is expected to be maintenance-free for long
periods, where the valve is a throw-away design due to its relative cost to replace
versus repair, or where the required sealing reliability of the valve far outweighs the
difficulty of gaining access to valve internals, such as in bellows-sealed stem valves.

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Figure 2-5
Welded Bonnet

Pressure Sealed Bonnet: The pressure sealed bonnet design, shown in Figure 2-6,
provides the advantage of reduced weight and size over flanged connections and
allows the internal bonnet pressure to increase the joint sealing contact stress instead of
unloading it as in bolted designs. This joint is most attractive in larger valves and high
pressure applications where the pressure forces are high enough to generate the
required contact stress to seal at the metal-to-metal joint. This type of bonnet seal is
usually available only on valves of pressure class 600 or higher. It is particularly suited
to high temperature applications (660F or 348.9C) where bolted bonnet joints can
loosen due to bolt creep. One of the disadvantages of this type of bonnet joint is that it
provides no positive mechanical location between the bonnet and body and often
allows misalignment to occur, which can cause stem binding. Binding can lead to stem
galling, leakage through stem packing, and potential valve inoperability. In large
valves, proper assembly of the bonnet usually requires the valve to be installed with
the stem vertical and pointing upward.

Figure 2-6
Pressure-Sealed Bonnet

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Another drawback of the pressure seal bonnet joint is that it can start to leak in
applications where frequent pressure or temperature fluctuations are experienced;
therefore, the bonnet cannot be safely tightened under pressure when a leak occurs
because of the possibility of making the leakage more severe when attempting
corrective action. In addition, if a leak should occur, it is more difficult to repair and
reassemble the valve than with a bolted bonnet due to the required careful alignment
and tightening sequence procedures during assembly.
Graphite pressure seals have seen wide acceptance in the valve industry because they
can eliminate many of the problems associated with metal pressure seals. Most major
valve manufacturers offer graphite pressure seals for their product lines. Utilizing
graphite pressure seals requires special precautions to prevent extrusion and to ensure
adequate loads to effect a seal.

2.2.2 Seat and Seat Rings


The seat is the fixed pressure-containing portion of a valve that comes in contact with
the closure member of the valve. The valve seat material(s) must be consistent with any
material restrictions for the valve application. The seat can be all metal construction or
may incorporate soft conforming seat inserts, such as elastomers or plastics, to make a
tighter seal or to reduce the required load to seal.
For seat tightness, the objective is to block off, or minimize, the path formed by the
valleys on the seating surface. An enlarged view of the valleys in mating surfaces is
shown in Figure 2-7. Filling in the valleys requires that the compressive stresses in the
mating surfaces be of sufficient magnitude to elastically or plastically deform the
mating surfaces until the leak path is blocked off.

Figure 2-7
Seat Joint Mating Surfaces (Lay of Roughness Concentric)

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In addition to the basic design of the seat itself, other factors that directly affect seating
and operability are distortions that can occur at the disc/seat interface due to pressure,
thermal gradients, and mechanical loads transmitted to the valve body by the adjacent
piping. As shown in Figure 2-8, applied bending moments on gate valve bodies cause
the seat plane to tilt and distort, which can result in leakage and gate pinching in
wedge-type valves. Gate pinching can also be caused by thermally induced deflections
(see Section 4.2.10). In globe valves, body distortions produce ovality in the seat, which
leads to mismatch with the circular seating area on the tapered seated plugs.
Distortions caused by line loads become more severe when venturi-type valves or
valves that are smaller than the pipeline size are installed with upstream and
downstream reducers.

Figure 2-8
Seat Plane Distortion under Vertical and Horizontal Bending Moments

To avoid leakage or binding problems caused by line loads, valves should not be
located at points of large line loads. Also, the section modulus of the valve body should
be significantly greater than the pipe to keep the stresses and distortions within
acceptable limits. Axisymmetric type valves, such as ball and butterfly, tend to be
stiffer and are less sensitive to line loads.
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Metal-to-Metal Seating: When using metal-to-metal seating, the high compressive


stresses required to produce surface conformance between the two seating surfaces are
achieved by making narrow line-to-line contact between the disc or plug and the seat.
Narrow line-to-line contact should provide for a certain minimum width in order to
establish a tight seal and prevent indentation type of damage caused by the plug on the
seat. In addition, the seat should have enough base width to provide adequate backup
cross-section capable of supporting the high compressive stress at the disc-seat interface
without yielding the base material. In control valves, seat loading is usually expressed
as pounds of force per linear inch of mean seat joint circumference. For globe type
control valves using line-to-line contact, loading may vary from 25 to 600 pounds per
inch (4.4 to 105 N/mm), and most manufacturers rely on their own tests to develop
specific magnitudes. Based on the ISA Handbook of Control Valves [5.1], typical values
are:
1. 25 pounds per inch (4.4 N/mm) - Low pressure drop service, leak-tight shut-off is
not required.
2. 50 pounds per inch (8.8 N/mm) - Moderate pressure drop service, slight leakage
expected (0.1% Cv maximum).
3. 100 pounds per inch (17.5 N/mm) - Nearly drop-tight service (0.1% Cv maximum)
will seal 3,000 psi (20.7 MPa) pressure drop on 0.015 inch (0.381 mm) width, 30
joint of 316 SS.
4. 300 pounds per inch (52.5 N/mm) - Drop tight service (will seal 6,000 psi (41.4 MPa)
on 0.025 inch (0.635 mm) width, 20 joint of AISI 440-C SS, hardness 55 Rc).
5. 600 pounds per inch (105 N/mm) - Pressure service greater than 6,000 psi (41.4
MPa).
Although the apparent average compressive seating stress on Items 3 and 4 is 13,000 psi
(89.6 MPa) and 35,000 psi (241.3 MPa), which is less than the yield strength of the
material, localized contact stresses at the peaks of the surface irregularities are much
higher, thus providing the surface yielding needed to accomplish a seal.
The required degree of seat tightness and accompanying stem thrust should be
reasonably selected. Specifying high seat tightness increases the size and cost of the
actuator needed to develop the higher loads.
As an alternative to using high contact forces, the mating surfaces can be
superfinished to achieve a good seal. However, this superfinish can degrade quickly
in applications where fluid contaminants are present that can get trapped between the
mating surfaces during opening and closing action. Another common method used to

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accomplish a seal is to lap the disc and seat during assembly; however, lapping the
surfaces should be limited so that a wide contact band does not develop.
Developing high compressive stress to achieve good seating should be weighed against
potential damage due to galling or gross surface yielding. Surfaces that slide under
load, such as the disc of a gate valve, should be sized so that contact stress is
maintained below the galling threshold for the material combination. Depending on the
mating materials and the details of the actual geometry, the calculated average contact
stress to gall can vary from as low as 2,000 psi (13.8 MPa) for some stainless steels to as
high as 47,000 psi (324 MPa) for cobalt-based materials such as Stellite 6 [5.39]. In
reality, the contact stress at the surface is not uniform due to the irregular and uneven
loading encountered in actual application; therefore, the average contact stress should
be limited to lower values. Typically, the contact stress for Stellite 6 is limited to 20,000
psi (137.9 MPa) to avoid galling in sliding applications.
In gate valves, the sliding surfaces may encounter one or more of the following contact
modes during an opening or a closing stroke: flat-on-flat, edge-on-flat, edge-on-edge
(nonscissoring), and edge-on-edge (scissoring) [2.1, 2.2, 2.9, 2.10]. The contact mode
depends primarily on the edge geometry of the seats and guides, and on the length and
location of the body guides with respect to the disc guides. The magnitude of contact
stress and associated wear/damage is proportional to the valve internal clearances (for
example, guide rail-to-guide slot clearance and stem head-to-gate clearance) and to the
valve operating conditions. Some contact modes may cause severe damage to the
seating surfaces and result in seat leakage.
Typical seating configurations employed in globe valves are shown in Figure 2-9. The
seat design shown in Figure 2-9A, used in low pressure globe applications, provides
the advantage of not requiring precise alignment between the disc and seat, and it
eliminates galling because the surfaces move normal to each other during loading. The
seat design shown in Figures 2-9B, 2-9C, and 2-9D allows higher contact stress to be
developed due to the narrower contact band between the mating surfaces; however, it
requires better control of alignment between the disc and seat. As shown in Figures 29C and 2-9D, taper angles (half-cone angle) between 15 and 45 are in use in various
disc designs. Even though small taper angles (as low as 15) have been used in some
valves, they should be avoided because it has been found that for reliable nonsticking
operation of the disc, magnitudes of 30 and higher should be used.

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Figure 2-9
Typical Globe Valve Seating Configurations

When selecting the disc/seat contact geometry and materials, the potential for cross
ring indentation type damage should also be considered. Seat ring indentation, as
shown in Figure 2-10, is caused when a hard narrow surface and a soft wider surface
contact, and the softer material yields. Indentation left on the softer component can
create leakage during subsequent shut-off if the normal clearances present in the
assembly of the plug-to-seat components allow the new seating band to cross the
previous indentation. Cross ring indentation damage and its adverse effect on shutoff
can be prevented by making the narrower component of a softer material than the
wider component.

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Figure 2-10
Cross Ring Indentation

Soft Seating: Soft seats are used to accomplish good seating with much lower contact
force than in metal-to-metal seats. It is easier to deform the softer materials and fill out
the valleys in the mating surfaces with considerably lower forces. In most designs, the
soft seat rings provide the primary seating with metal-to-metal closure acting as a
secondary seal in case of damage or failure of the soft seal material. This secondary
metal-to-metal contact also makes the seats fire safe and allows some degree of seat
tightness should the resilient seat ring fail. Whenever the temperature, radiation, and
pressure environment permit, soft seals should be strongly considered because of the
ease in accomplishing good seating with low contact force.
Since soft seat ring materials do not have the required strength and stiffness to resist
rupture against pressure and blowout against differential pressure, they must be
securely clamped in the seat. Several methods of restraining the seat ring in globe
valves are shown in Figure 2-11. Similar restraint methods are employed in some gate
and butterfly valves.

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Figure 2-11
Soft Seat Retention Methods

At operating temperatures, the material properties to be considered in the selection of a


soft seat ring are:
1. Fluid compatibility including chemical reaction, swelling, loss of hardness,
permeability, degradation
2. Room for thermal expansion
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3. Hardness
4. Permanent set and extrusion under load
5. Rate of recovery upon removal of the load
6. Tensile, compressive, and tear strength
7. Radiation resistance
8. Abrasion resistance
9. Wear resistance
10. Thermal resistance
The material properties of seals, soft seats, and gasket materials are discussed in detail
in Section 2.5.
Seat Attachment: The method of attachment and sealing of the leakage path between the
seat and the body is as important as the seat itself. Methods of attaching fixed seats to
the body (Figure 2-12) include screwing, welding, interference fitting the seat ring into
the body or seat pocket using press or shrink fits, bolting, clamping between two
pieces, and welding and machining the seat face into the body. Sealing at the body is
achieved using elastomers, gaskets, soft metals, metal-to-metal sealing by interference,
and seal welding.

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Figure 2-12
Methods for Attaching Seat to Body

The seat-to-body restraint should be independent of the seat loading and should not
depend on the seat load to achieve a seal. Inherent in fixed seat designs is the problem
that body distortions, caused by pressure, thermal gradients, and line loads, are
transmitted directly to the seat. These distortions create leakage paths between the discto-seat mating surfaces in metal-to-metal seating unless some flexibility is designed into
the disc (as in flex disc gate valves) or globe valve seat, as shown in Figure 2-13. The
type of attachment to the body should also consider maintenance that may be required
on the seat.

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Figure 2-13
Flexible Seat

When using gaskets, the seat should incorporate a metal-to-metal stop as shown in
Figure 2-11B to limit the amount of compression applied to the gasket since repeated
stress cycling of the gasket will lead to relaxation of the joint seal and eventual leakage.
Metal type gaskets should not be reused unless explicitly permitted by the gasket
vendor.
Floating seats, such as those used in trunnion-mounted ball valves, do not require
independent restraints but are held in place by the ball itself. Sealing of the floating
seat in the body is accomplished using elastomeric or packing seals, as shown in Figure
2-14.

Figure 2-14
Floating Seat

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One ball valve design for high temperature service applications uses spring-loaded
packing seals as shown in Figure 2-15.

Figure 2-15
Spring-Loaded Packing Seals

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2.2.3 Disc-to-Stem Connection


The disc-to-stem connection joint, which transmits the load from the actuator to the
disc, should be designed to have equal or greater strength than the stem itself.
However, only the American Petroleum Institute (API) Code imposes this requirement,
but several valve manufacturers supplying valves to the power industry do not follow
this guideline. Depending on valve type, the joint can be fixed, be free to rotate, or
allow freedom for the disc to float laterally, as shown in Figure 2-16.

Figure 2-16
Stem Connections

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Fixed Joints: Typical fixed joint disc-to-stem connections commonly used are integral,
welded, and screwed. These connections are normally used in non-rotating stem
applications where the stem and seat maintain their axial alignment. When this joint is
used in a globe valve application, an external means to prevent stem rotation should be
provided. This is necessary to prevent galling at the disc-seat interface. When used in
wedging-type gate valves, precautions should be taken to ensure that excessive lateral
displacement of the stem would not cause binding of the stem in the bonnet stuffing
box area.
Free to Rotate Connections: Free to rotate connections should be used in rotating stem
applications or when disc-to-seat rotation is undesirable. These joints are frequently
found in globe valves and non-rising stem gate valves. In non-rising stem gate valves,
the disc-to-stem joint is threaded so that the rotation of the stem in the disc opens and
closes the valve (Figure 4-1). Most free to rotate connections provide some limited
lateral disc displacement to prevent stem binding and allow the disc to align itself with
respect to the seat face. Free to rotate connections should incorporate some means of
preventing the disc from spinning. Asymmetric flow created by multiple elbows
upstream can cause the disc to spin; in fact, this has occurred in some swing check
valve designs [1.20]. Spinning discs can damage the disc and seat upon contact, and can
cause premature failure of the connection due to excessive wear.
Laterally Floating Connections:. Floating connections are generally T-slot designs that
permit assembly of the joint by simply sliding the parts together in a lateral direction.
The T-slot is usually oriented in the direction of the flow (that is, in line with the
expected disc displacement) to permit sliding to occur without causing stem binding.
These joints are most commonly found in gate valve applications where the gate
receives its alignment from guides in the body during the complete open to close cycle.
These joints incorporate an anti-rotation type feature, such as a square head, to prevent
stem rotation.
As shown in Figure 2-16C, another type of design found in power plants uses a double
articulated link type stem-to-disc connection to allow the wedge to float freely in the
lateral direction.

2.2.4 Disc/Stem Guide Arrangements


Guides are required for certain valve types to provide proper alignment of moving
parts to prevent poor valve performance or inoperability. These guides are
manufactured from soft materials or from very hard anti-wear or anti-galling materials,
depending on the application and service.

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Wedge Gate Guides: Gate guides (Figure 2-17) are provided specifically on wedge gate
valves to keep the gate away from the seat faces, except for a small distance very near
the fully-closed position, so as to minimize wear on the seating faces. The disc can slide
on the guide in either flat or tipped orientation, depending upon the details of the valve
internal geometry (for example, guide length and guide clearance), the severity of the
P load across the disc at mid-stroke positions, and the magnitude of the friction
coefficient at the sliding interfaces. Typically, the sliding surfaces on the gate and guide
are overlaid with hard-facing materials to prevent galling of the sliding interfaces, due
to the load generated by the differential pressure acting across the gate as the valve is
being closed or opened. Under certain conditions, the localized guide stresses can cause
plastic deformation as well as galling/gouging of the sliding surfaces. In some extreme
cases, the guide rail may break and cause the gate to stick in midstroke.

Figure 2-17
Gate Valve Gate Guide

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Stem Guides: Stem guides (Figure 2-23) are most commonly found in globe valves. Stem
guides, which provide alignment for the plug, are typically manufactured from softer
materials to provide some lubricity and to prevent galling of the stem. Stem guides
should be provided where significant side loads on the plug are present. These forces
can be generated by side discharge such as in angle globe valves. Stem guides are also
provided when the stem is relatively long and flexible, such as in extended bonnet
globe valves.
Disc Guides: Disc guides (Figures 6-7, 6-8, and 6-9) are most commonly found in control
valves and relief and safety valves. These guides provide alignment between the disc
and seats and offer lateral support for uneven fluid discharge forces.

2.3

Accessories and Special Features

The selection of accessories and special features for a valve can be as important as the
valve itself and, in some cases, actually controls the type of valve selected. Control
valves have a larger selection of accessories and options available because they are
often placed in special service. Although some accessories can be used in any type of
valve, they are suitable only for certain applications.
Accessories common to valves of all types are discussed below.

2.3.1 Manual Override Handwheels or Levers


Handwheels and levers are treated as accessories when their function is not necessary
to the normal operation of the valve. They are provided as alternatives to the normal
means of actuation, whether it is self-actuation (Figure 2-18) or power actuation (Figure
2-19). These accessories provide the means to locally actuate the valve during abnormal
valve operation, when the actuator malfunctions, or during valve testing or
maintenance. Manual handwheels or levers, whether used as an accessory or as the
primary means of actuating the valve, should be sized so that no more than 150 pounds
(667 N) of force is required during any period of the actuation. Manual handwheels or
levers should be sized so that normal access to the valve is not hindered. Handwheel
rim force limit, as a function of the handwheel size, is given in Table 14-1 in Section 14.
Section 14 also provides further guidance on manual actuator sizes and access
requirements.

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Figure 2-18
Manual Override Lever on Pressure-Relief Valve

Figure 2-19
Manual Override Handwheel on Motor-Operated Valve

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2.3.2 Stem Leak-Off Connection


Stem leak-off connections (Figure 2-20) are used when it is necessary to keep the system
fluid, such as radioactive contaminated water, from leaking into the atmosphere. In
some applications, stem leak-off connections are used in reverse direction to provide
vacuum seal for valves connected to the condenser by injecting water into the lantern
ring. A fitting is provided adjacent to the lantern ring location, between the upper and
lower packing sets. Fluid leaking past the lower packing set is captured and piped off
to a collection reservoir before having a chance to escape to the ambient environment.
The leak-off connection is also used in some applications to periodically check packing
leakage. In these applications, the upper packing set is designed to the same
requirements as the lower set but is usually not expected to seal against full bonnet
gage pressure under normal operation.

Figure 2-20
Steam Leak-Off Connection

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As discussed in Section 2.5.2, recent advances in valve packing technology show that
the presence of lantern rings doubles the required number of packing rings and the
packing thrust/torque. Furthermore, leak-free packing with lower packing
thrust/torque can be achieved by eliminating the lantern ring (see Section 2.5.2 for
details).

2.3.3 Limit Switch


Externally mounted-limit switches are installed on manually operated valves to
provide an indirect indication of the open/closed position of the stem and may be used
to provide a signal for alarms, relays, and/or indicating lights. In addition to the above
functions, the limit switches on valves with pneumatic or hydraulic actuators are used
to control the stem travel. In motor-operated valves, the limit switches are internally
mounted within the actuator [1.22, 1.23, 1.24, 1.25, and 1.26].

2.3.4 Internal and External Bypass


Bypasses, whether internal or external, perform the function of equalizing pressure.
Bypasses can be installed from the upstream side of the valve to the downstream side.
Bypasses can be installed between the body and the upstream or downstream side to
prevent pressure locking (see Section 4.2.8).
External bypasses can be specified to include manual valves, remotely actuated valves,
relief valves, or check valves (Figure 2-21). When bypasses are installed internally, they
perform the function of communicating the body cavity pressure to either the upstream
or downstream side of the disc. Internal bypasses are sometimes equipped with relief
valves or check valves to accomplish specific functions. In some gate valves, a hole is
drilled in the upstream (or downstream) side of the gate to equalize the body pressure
to the upstream (or downstream) pressure, thus eliminating pressure locking
conditions [4.2, 5.30]. Bypasses can result in valve leakage in one direction, thus
rendering the valve unidirectional.

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Figure 2-21
External Bypass

2.3.5 Remote Position Sensor


Remote position sensors are typically displacement transducers consisting of linear
voltage differential transformer (LVDT) or potentiometer devices, which remotely
indicate the open or closed position of the valve closure member. These sensors are
used where a positive indication of the control valve stem position is required in
response to a command signal. Various other electronic (digital/analog) and pneumatic
devices are also used.

2.3.6 Bonnet Extension


Bonnet extensions (Figure 2-22) are most commonly used when the stem packing
requires easier access or when the system temperature is very cold or very hot. Bonnet
extension, when used in extreme temperature applications, provides a thermal barrier
so the packing can perform under more suitable temperature conditions. Bonnet
extensions are also used to locate the actuator at a location further removed from the
valve or the local environment, which may be difficult to reach, hazardous, or
uncomfortable to the operator.

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Figure 2-22
Bonnet Extension

2.3.7 Impact, Hammerblow, and Chain-Operated Handwheels


Impact handwheels are used to create higher starting torques than can be achieved by a
gradual application of force. Handwheels incorporate slack in the drive mechanism to
permit some initial velocity to develop and to cause an impact upon engaging the stem
nut. The effective impact force can be as much as two to four times the normally
applied force. This hammerblow action can sometimes eliminate the need for reduction
gears on valves. This action can be taken advantage of in both the opening and closing
direction of the valve. Chain-operated handwheels are used primarily where access to
the actuator is difficult or hazardous, and where operation of the valve is infrequent.

2.3.8 Stem Backseating Feature


Rising stem valves may have a backseat that can be used to seal the stem to the bonnet
when the valve is in the fully open position. The backseat is provided for maintenance
purposes and should not be relied on to fulfill safety functions. In general, valves
should not be backseated with power because the backseat might not be designed to
withstand high stem thrust and damage may occur.

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The valve is opened until a shoulder on the stem or disc bears firmly against a
prepared beveled surface below the packing, provided on the underside of the bonnet.
This provides a metal-to-metal seal against leakage through the stem. Stem backseating
is available on both rotating and nonrotating stem valves and is commonly found on
gate and globe valves. This feature is not found on 90 turn valves such as plug, ball,
and butterfly.

2.3.9 Fire Safety Feature


Fire safety is a special feature that is available in many types of valves, including those
which use resilient materials. Fire safety means that the valve provides limited
sealing and seating in the event of fire for a period of time sufficient to permit
emergency shutdown of the system. In power plants, most valves that use metal-tometal seats and have high temperature stem packing materials, such as graphite, are
fire safe. Where resilient seats are used, there is a backup metal-to-metal seat that takes
over when the resilient member is consumed by the fire.

2.4

Valve Trim

2.4.1 Trim Components and Materials


Components of the valve considered to be trim consist of the removable or in-line
repairable internal parts contacting the flowing fluid. For example, in a globe valve the
plug or disc, seats, stem, guides, bushings, and cages are trim components (Figures 2-23
and 6-5). Other components considered as trim but that do not come into direct contact
with the fluid are components making up the stuffing box: packing gland, spring,
lantern ring, and packing retainer ring. Secondary trim parts are stem-to-disc
attachment, seat retaining rings, seat-to-body seals, spacers, etc. Parts not included as
trim are components that define the valve pressure boundary: body, bonnet, body
closures, and bonnet and body bolts and nuts.

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Figure 2-23
Trim Components

Closure gaskets and seals are neither pressure boundary components nor trim
components but maintain leak-tightness integrity of the valve.
Stainless steels 316 SS, 410 SS, and 17-4 PH SS are the most commonly used materials
for valve stems and other valve trim materials. Although not as corrosion resistant as
316 SS, the higher strength and correspondingly higher allowable stresses make the 410
SS and 17-4 PH materials much more attractive for larger sizes and higher pressure
rated valves since smaller diameter stems can be used. Cobalt-free trim materials are
discussed in Section 2.4.5.
In general, trim material selection should consider all of the important factors discussed
below, in addition to mechanical strength considerations. Additional discussions are
provided in Section 15.

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2.4.2 Design Practices to Minimize Corrosion


Corrosion in valves can be minimized or eliminated by selecting materials that do not
react with the fluid or with the material around them. There are different types of
corrosion, and the corrosion type will dictate the selection of material required.
Corrosion control is especially important in valves that are subjected to fluids that pose
a hazard if allowed to leak into the environment.
Corrosion is the deterioration of a metal by reaction with the environment. Corrosion is
generally controlled by selecting corrosion resistant materials. Corrosion resistance of a
component can be improved by plating, cladding, overlaying, or heat-treating of the
wetted surfaces. The rate of corrosion is influenced by the fluid velocity media and
temperature. Table 2-1 lists some commonly used trim materials and their suitability
for power plant applications.
Galvanic corrosion is often found in valves due to the use of dissimilar materials for the
body and trim. Listed below is the relative galvanic series of materials, presented in the
order of most corroded (anodic) to least corroded (cathodic). Copper and platinum
materials are included in this series for reference.

Carbon steel

Cast iron

Ni-resist

Type 440-C SS

17-4 PH SS

Type 316 SS

Stellite and Colmonoy

Nickel

Inconel

Copper Bronze

Monel

Platinum

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Table 2-1
Corrosion Ranking for Materials Selection
(Condensed from Reference 5.1)

Boric Acid

Chlorine Gas

Chlorine Liquid

Freon, Wet

Freon, Dry

Hydrogen

Oxygen

Sodium Chloride

Sodium Chromate

Sodium Hydroxide

Sodium Hypochloride

B-C

B-C

Water, Boiler Feed

Water, Distilled

Water, Sea

Key:

A Can be or is being successfully used


B Proceed with caution
C Should not be used
X Information lacking

In the above listing the electrolytic potential and the rate of galvanic corrosion between
trim and body material is proportional to their separation.
Area differences also affect galvanic corrosion. A larger anodic area, compared to the
cathodic area, is preferred because it reduces the amount of corrosion. As an example, a
stainless steel bolt in carbon steel body will usually cause the carbon steel to corrode at
only a slightly increased rate, whereas a carbon steel bolt in a stainless steel body will
corrode at a rapid rate because the stainless steel acts as a large cathode.

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2.4.3 Design Practices to Minimize Erosion


Erosion is wear damage in which loss of material occurs due to the action of moving
particles carried in a fluid stream. This action is most severe when the velocity of the
fluid is high, such as during valve throttling or closing and opening under high
pressure drops. Entrained sand, slurries, catalyst fines, and liquid particles in flashing
flow are sometimes associated with this type of wear. The selection of materials for the
pressure containment parts (that is, the body and bonnet) is rather limited from the
standpoint of their ability to withstand erosion; and the use of sacrificial liners at the
areas of impingement has been successful. There are four principal types of erosion:

Abrasive particle

Cavitation

High liquid velocity impingement

Erosive-corrosive

These types of erosion and specific guidance regarding how to improve the resistance
of the trim materials to their effects are discussed in the following paragraphs.
Abrasive Erosion: In abrasive erosion, small particles which are harder than the trim
surface are carried at high velocity in the fluid stream and impinge upon and scour
away the trim metal. Resistance of materials to impingement erosion varies with the
angle of impingement. At low impingement angles (<15 with respect to the surface),
hard-facing materials with large amounts of carbides, such as Stellite 1, are
recommended. At high impingement angles (>80), hard-facing alloys with large
amounts of relatively ductile matrix material, such as cobalt in Stellite 21, are
recommended.
Stellite 6, however, has been found to provide the best combination of erosion
resistance and wear resistance as a trim material for the widest range of valve
geometries that have large variations in impingement angles. However, Stellites with
their cobalt content will be activated if they are in fluids that are transported through
the reactor core region, thus creating a radiation concern in that the cobalt may plate
out on the interior walls of a piping system or be captured in crevices. Cobalt-face
alternatives are discussed in Section 2.4.5.
Cavitation Erosion: Cavitation occurs as the result of vapor bubbles forming when the
pressure of a liquid flowing in the restricted passages of a valve becomes less than the
vapor pressure of the liquid at that temperature. The bubbles then collapse as the flow
area enlarges and the pressure recovers. The implosion of bubbles produces shock
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waves and very high localized stresses at the surface of the metal, causing the material
to fail and detach from the surface.
Since no known material can withstand continuous severe cavitation service without
failure, ease of trim replacement should be a strong consideration for service in
cavitating conditions. Cobalt-based hard-facing alloys, such as Stellite 6 and Stellite 21,
have found extensive use for resisting cavitation erosion. Other materials used are Type
440C, No. 6 Colmonoy, hardened tool-steel, Deloro 50, NOREM 02, NOREM B4, and
sintered tungsten carbide with a nickel binder.
Cavitation erosion may be reduced by system design or by selecting the hardest trim
material that will not crack from the impact of repeated valve closure and thermal
shock; using multiple valves to distribute the total pressure drop by providing back
pressure; and using valves that incorporate multiple pressure drop stages designed to
prevent cavitation through any one stage.
High Velocity Fluid Impingement Erosion: High velocity fluid impingement erosion occurs
when extremely high velocity fluid jets turn abruptly, bouncing off one surface to
impinge and erode the adjacent part. Impingement erosion may be a form of erosioncorrosion, whereby the high velocity fluid jet blasts away the protective surface coating
as rapidly as it forms.
Fluid impingement erosion can be prevented or reduced using the same techniques and
materials for improving resistance to abrasive erosion and cavitation erosion.
Combined Erosion and Corrosion: Both erosion and corrosion may occur in a piping
system, although not simultaneously. The erosion strips away the protective coating of
corrosion, thus allowing additional corrosion to occur by repeating the cycle.
Accelerated failures of carbon steel piping and fittings have occurred in feedwater
service due to a combined erosion-corrosion phenomenon. Valves and other
components installed in these systems are subjected to the same degradation mode. The
failures are attributed to a single phase erosion-corrosion phenomenon that occurs to
plain carbon steel when exposed to flowing water having a low dissolved oxygen
content (less than 10 ppb) in combination with a pH value less than about 9.3.
As reported in References 1.10 and 1.20, erosion-corrosion is essentially a flow-assisted
dissolution process of the magnetite corrosion film normally present under
deoxygenated feedwater conditions. This phenomenon results in much higher metal
corrosion rates than would normally be encountered. Loss rates can be greater than
0.040 inch (about 1 mm) per year in severe cases. The worst attack occurs in areas of the
feedwater system where temperatures are between 260F and 400F (125C and 200C).
The phenomenon is critically dependent on a number of variables, particularly flow
velocity, temperature, pH and oxygen content of the feedwater, and the elemental
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composition of the steel. A comparison of the critical operational variables to typical


PWR feedwater conditions is provided in Table 2-2.
Table 2-2
Critical Variables for Accelerated Erosion-Corrosion
Critical Operational Variables for
Accelerated Erosion-Corrosion

Typical PWR
Feedwater Condition

pH less than 9.3

pH between 8.8 and 9.6

Temperatures between 212F and 525F


(100C and 275C), with worst attack between
260F and 400F (125C and 200C)

Varies depending on location in system, typically


between 100F and 450F (35C and 230C)

Dissolved oxygen content less than 10 ppb

Dissolved oxygen content less than 5 ppb in hot


standby, and less than 3 ppb in power operation

Turbulent hydrodynamic conditions (high fluid


flow velocities)

Fluid flow velocity varies throughout the system.


High localized velocities in fittings and valves are
common.

Valve parts intended for PWR feedwater applications, particularly parts exposed to
highly turbulent flow, should not be constructed of plain carbon steel. The use of low
alloy steel, with at least 0.5% chrome, has been shown to significantly reduce erosioncorrosion attack and should be used as a replacement material whenever possible.
Typical replacement materials would be 1/2 Cr-1/2 Mo Plate (A-387, Type 2), 1/2 Cr1/2 Mo Plate (A-387, Type 12), 1/2 Cr-1/2 Mo Forging (A-182, Type F12 and A-336,
Class F12), 1-1/4 Cr-1/2 Mo Casting (A-217, Type WC6) and 1-1/4 Cr-1/2 Mo Bar (A739, Type Bll).

2.4.4 Design Practices to Minimize Wear and Galling


Wear and galling of materials is responsible for many valve problems, especially
involving operability. Depending on the extent of the damage, the valve may require
more force than normal to actuate it or damage may even make the valve inoperable. In
some cases, the damage may be so severe that the structural integrity of the valve is
compromised.
Galling is a condition that occurs on the rubbing surfaces of mating parts where
material transfer results in localized cold welding, with subsequent spalling and a
further roughening of the surfaces. Galling causes the upset material to:

Jam the valve during stroking

Ruin the seat joint

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Increase the operating force

In the worst case, make the valve inoperable

Factors affecting galling include the type of materials in contact, temperature, surface
finish, hardness, contact pressure, and the line fluid. Higher temperature will generally
anneal or soften the metals, increasing their galling potential.
Test data show that hardness is the most significant factor affecting wear; the harder
the material, the less the wear.
Galling, like wearing, can be prevented by:

Using hard materials.

Selecting pairs of material with low galling potential (Table 2-3). Using different
materials for components in contact rather than the same material.

Assuring a 5- to l0-Rc difference in the hardness of the materials.

Designing a reasonable loading. As a rule of thumb, 10,000 psi (70 MPa) average
contact stress provides adequate margin against galling when using Stellite material
pairs.

Designing adequate operating clearances.

Using an appropriate lubricant between the sliding surfaces, breaking in these


components by cycling under low loads before subjecting them to the full loads.

One of the most common methods used to prevent wear and galling is hard-facing.
Hard-facing is the process of applyingby welding, plasma spraying, or flame
sprayinga layer, edge, or point of wear-resistant metal onto another metal to increase
its resistance to abrasion, erosion, or galling. In a few cases hardfacing is applied to
impart some corrosion resistance to the base metal. It is used when external lubrication
is not feasible or is inadequate to give the desired service life, and is usually applied
only to the critical surfaces. As opposed to heat treatment to achieve high surface
hardness, hard-facing can be used effectively in very large components where the
contact area is small and heat treatment of the entire component would be impractical.
Also, because hard-facing is a welding technique, it can be used for in-line repair or to
refurbish large components without dismantling. No particular restrictions are
imposed when using a base metal of carbon steel, but there are some restrictions when
using other metals, including stainless steels. For most metals it is desirable to preheat
the base metal to prevent cracking of the hard-facing, as well as the base metal, as
cooling occurs.
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Stellite, Colmonoy, and tungsten carbide are the principal materials used in hardfacing; however, tungsten carbide has limited corrosion resistance and is subject to
thermal shock failure. Hard-facing on valves is typically used on the plug or disc-toseat joint to maintain a tight seal. Other areas that are overlaid include the stem,
bushing, and disc or plug guides.
The most popular hard-face materials are Stellites, which are patented alloys of hard
tungsten and chromium particles in a softer cobalt matrix. Stellite 6 is used on valve
seats, while the slightly harder, but more brittle, Stellite 12 may be used on plugs. For
field repair of worn surfaces, Stellite 21 offers more ductility and lower cracking
tendencies, making its use more practical, even though its wear properties are not as
good as Stellite 6. The erosion resistance of Stellites is higher than indicated by their
surface hardness, which is a measure of the matrix rather than micro particle hardness.
For smaller valve parts, the disc or plug and seats may be made of solid Stellite
material.
In contrast to Stellite, Colmonoy and tungsten carbides are usually applied to all trim
shapes by the spray welding process and are then fused to give a non-porous surface.
Colmonoy has high hot-hardness and holds this hardness with thermal cycling. When
using tungsten carbide, service temperature and thermal shock must be given careful
consideration. Loading the valve seat must be uniform, and impact forces during
closure should be low to prevent cracking of tungsten carbide.
For wear resistance, hardness is required only on the surface of the metal. Additionally,
hard facing may be achieved by case hardening techniques such as carburizing and
nitriding. These superficial hardness treatments usually produce case depths of less
than 0.025 inch (0.635 mm) that are normally not detected by conventional hardness
measurement such as Brinell and Rockwell tests but require microhardness testing
methods.
Table 2-3 lists the wear and galling resistance of various combinations of materials. In
addition to these materials, plastic lined bushings have been found to be effective when
service conditions permit their usage. More quantitative information on wear and
galling can be found in References 5.15 and 5.40.

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Table 2-3
Chart of Wear and Galling Resistance of Material Combinations (Reference 5.1)

304 ss

316 ss

Bronze

Inconel

Monel

Hastelloy B"

Hastelloy "C"

Titanium 75A

Nickel

Alloy 20

Type 416 Hard

Type 440 Hard

17-4 Ph

Alloy 6 (co-cr)

ENC*

Cr Plate

AL Bronze

Key:

S Satisfactory
F Fair
P Poor
* Electroless Nickel coating

2.4.5 Cobalt-Free Alloys for Hard-Surfacing of Trim


Cobalt-60 has been identified as the principal isotope responsible for out-of-core
radiation contamination problems plaguing the nuclear power industry. Cobalt-60 is an
activation product of natural cobalt, which is found in cobalt-based alloys. Cobaltbased alloys, such as Stellite, are used as hardfacing material on valves, mostly on seats,
but also for disc guide surfaces and gate faces. These surfaces wear over time. In
addition, valve repair, such as seat lapping to improve seat leakage performance, has
been identified as producing significant amounts of cobalt grinding debris.
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Natural cobalt in these alloys is 100% cobalt-59, having a thermal neutron absorption of
34 barns and, if it is in a pathway to the reactor vessel, will pass through the core, be
exposed to thermal neutron flux, and be activated to cobalt-60, having a half life of 5.25
years and emitting 1.3 meV gamma rays. These small particles accumulate in the piping
system in crevices and cracks where the flow velocity is small and in stagnant pockets
or crud traps, which are inherent in the design of some valve bodies. The strength of
these radioactive sources thus grows with time and becomes a major hindrance to
access for maintenance work.
Several years ago, primarily because of high price and uncertain availability, there had
been some effort by manufacturers to develop hardsurfacing using cobalt-free alloys
such as ASTM A565, Gr616, Deloro-Cabot 40 and 50, and Colmonoy 5. Because these
alloys did not exhibit the same mechanical and corrosion-resistant attributes of
Stellite and because the price and source of cobalt stabilized, most of these efforts
were discontinued.
Recently, there have been renewed efforts to develop low-cobalt or cobalt-free alloys to
replace cobalt-base alloys to reduce the exposure of service personnel to radiation due
to cobalt-60. Several EPRI-sponsored efforts have been conducted to evaluate the
release of cobalt from PWR valves and from valve repair, evaluate low-cobalt alloy or
cobalt-free hardfacing, and to develop cobalt-free alloys as a valid alternative to cobalt
alloys for hardfacing.
A family of cobalt-free alloys named NOREM emerged as a good candidate for
further evaluation and testing. For nuclear power plant applications, cobalt-free alloys
should meet several requirements including:
1. Material should have high resistances to erosion, corrosion, wear, and galling under
typical plant conditions which may include high flow velocities,
cavitation/flashing, high contact stresses, and large temperature variations.
2. Material should have multi-layer hardfacing deposit capability for various base
materials typically used in power plant applications. The hardfacing should be
homogenous, not subject to cracking, and capable of being applied with little or no
preheat. The deposits should be economical to apply using existing
equipment/machinery and should be repairable on a localized basis.
3. Material should be available in different forms such that it can be used in spare
parts and other repairs.
Extensive testing and evaluation by EPRI [5.27] and some utilities showed that some of
the NOREM alloys meet the above requirements and in general are equivalent to or
better than those of the cobalt-base Stellite. Several utilities and manufacturers are
currently using NOREM in field repairs and as replacement of the Stellite hardfacing
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material. EPRI's Welding Repair Guide [1.1] provides detailed discussion for the selection
and application of welding filler materials including NOREM alloys. Interested valve
users should consult the manufacturers for the latest technical information and test
results.

2.4.6 Design Practices to Minimize the Effects of Temperature


High or low temperature cycling can have a detrimental effect on operation of the valve
due to differential expansion between various parts of the valve, but problems
associated with high temperatures are more common in power plant applications. The
material property most affected by low temperatures is impact strength, but, in the
range of low temperature service expected in power plants, it is usually of no concern.
Trim materials begin to lose impact strength below 0F (-17.8C), with most other
properties remaining about the same. Low and moderate temperature applications,
however, do permit the use of plastics and other nonmetals for soft seat inserts and
seat-to-body seals not possible in high temperature service.
Geometry-dependent design features in thermal cycling service include ensuring
adequate clearances between moving parts; preventing loosening of interference fitted
parts caused by differential rate of thermal expansion of their respective materials; and
galling of material related to temperature, loading, and degree of contact, such as
repeated impact from closing or vibration. Other factors to be considered are thermal
cycling effects on valve sealing, seat gasket sealing, and loosening of components such
as guides, bushings, and seats during service.
The material properties considered for establishing high temperature operating limits
are tensile, yield, creep and rupture, hot hardness, impact strength, and aging. Equally
important in high temperature service is oxidation resistance, heat treating
temperature, and galling resistance of the trim materials at operating temperatures. In
general, yield, tensile, and compressive strengths decrease when temperature is
increased. Above 800F (427C), creep and rupture also become important factors in
material selection. In high temperature service, trim undergoes an initial elastic
deformation and then continues to deform or creep with time under load. Hot hardness
is necessary to prevent damage to seating surfaces, to prevent galling, and to minimize
wear. Scaling resistance is the ability of a material to withstand oxidation on thermal
cycling without repeated scaling or flaking of the surface.
Other aspects of temperature effects are pressure locking, thermal binding, and disc
pinching in gate valves. Section 4 provides detailed descriptions of these phenomena
along with design practices to minimize or eliminate their effects on valve performance.
Finally, changes in the stem diameter due to temperature changes affect stem sealing
and packing performance, as will be discussed in the next section.
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2.5

Valve Stem Seals

This section presents the different types of stem seal arrangements typically used in
nuclear power plants. It also presents the major factors that affect stem seal
performance.
The stem seal performance discussion is included here for the following reasons:
1. Stem leakage is a common problem in all valve designs discussed in the following
sections.
2. Stem leakage is one of the major factors that affect equipment reliability and plant
availability/productivity.
3. Recent advances in valve packing technology resulted in eliminating many valve
leakage problems. However, solving stem leakage problems requires a good
understanding of the stem sealing mechanism and correction of the misconceptions
carried over from the older and obsolete technology.
There are two basic ways of sealing the fluid around the stem: using flexible seals such
as diaphragms or bellows, or using packings. Flexible seals experience no sliding
between the stem and the seal and depend on flexure of the sealing member to
accommodate the stem movement. Packings allow the stem to slide through them and
depend on radial pressure between the packing and the stem to achieve a seal.
Flexible seals are available in either elastomers or metals, depending on the fluid media
and pressure to be sealed, and are either a diaphragm or bellows design. Flexible seals
provide better sealing and are used where external leakage or periodic maintenance is
not permissible. Flexible seals are available in either elastomers or plastic and metal,
but the pressure and temperature limitations of the elastomeric and plastic seals
prevent them from being used to any great extent in power plant applications. The
flexible elastomeric seals are found primarily in diaphragm valves (see Section 12).
Packings are found most commonly in valve applications because they can
economically seal against some of the harshest environments and can permit virtually
unlimited axial, as well as rotational, movement of the stem. Packings are typically
made of flexible materials, which can be compressed to generate the required radial
pressure to seal against the stem. Unlike metal bellows and diaphragms, packings
require periodic maintenance and replacement to maintain their effectiveness.

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2.5.1 Flexible Metal Seals


The two basic shapes of flexible metal seals used for providing zero external leakage
are the bellows and metal diaphragm. Bellows seals are used in valves where longer
strokes and larger flow capacity are required, whereas metal diaphragms are used in
valves that have very limited stroke and flow capacity.
Bellows Seals: A bellows seal (Figure 2-24) consists of multiple convolutions in a thin
metal sheet that surrounds the valve stem and forms a complete seal between the
moving valve stem and the stationary valve body. This multiple convolution
construction is obtained by either hydroforming a thin metal sheet or by welding the
edges of flat circular sheets, which are called leaf-type bellows.

Figure 2-24
Bellows Seal

Bellows seals are of either internal pressurized or external pressurized design. In the
internal pressurized version, only the inner surface of the bellows is subjected to the
fluid pressure, thus permitting the use of non-corrosion resistance materials for the
outer extension bonnet. A well-designed bellows seal has an anti-rotation device
preventing torsion-induced damage during operation, assembly, or disassembly.

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Single-ply bellows are limited to low internal pressure, and multilayer designs increase
the useable range to as high as 3,000 psi (20.7 MPa) differential pressure.
Bellows are ideal for service where the fluids are highly toxic, radioactive, volatile, or
extremely expensive and external leakage cannot be tolerated. Another example where
bellow applications are particularly suited is in borated water where even a minute
leakage of fluid past a seal can result in the formation of abrasive crystals. Conventional
packing rings are rapidly worn away in such applications. For high temperature
applications, bellows are seal welded onto the stem and bonnet, thus eliminating the
need for elastomeric or plastic seals at these joints.
Bellows seals are relatively expensive, require a long length, have limited fatigue life,
and have a shorter stroke, which restricts their use to services that cannot be served by
conventional seals. Since bellows do have a finite life, they should be inspected
frequently. A conventional packing is customarily used as backup to prevent external
valve leakage in case of bellows failure.
Bellows are normally used on valves having non-rotating rising stems, such as globe
valves, gate valves, and safety valves, where the stem travel is relatively short. Recently
bellows have been used in quarter-turn valves (Figure 2-25) in low pressure and
vacuum service.

Figure 2-25
Bellows on Butterfly Valve

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Metal Diaphragm Seals: Metal diaphragm seals (Figure 2-26) are either single- or
multiple-ply thin flexible members installed between the stem and the valve plug to
seal the system fluid. The diaphragm is attached to the bonnet by either clamping or
seal welding. Movement of the plug in the closed direction is provided by the stem
force acting through the diaphragm, and the return stroke is provided by the system
pressure and/or springs.

Figure 2-26
Metal Diaphragm Stem Seal

Metal diaphragm seals are used for the same applications as bellows seals but have the
disadvantages of having a much shorter stroke and no physical connection between the
stem and plug. Lack of a physical connection between the stem and plug prevents
positive indication of the plug position and mechanical operation of the valve in the
opening direction. Valves using this type stem seal rely on the fluid pressure to open
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the plug and, therefore, can be used only in the fluid flow to open orientation, and
preferably with the stem vertical. Since metal diaphragms have no physical connection
to the stem, they cannot be mechanically pulled open. Metal diaphragms should not be
used in throttling applications because they can flutter, due to fluid/structure
excitation, which can cause rapid fatigue failure.
Metal diaphragms have a finite life and should be inspected or replaced at regular
intervals. Conventional packing should be installed as backup in the event of
diaphragm failure.

2.5.2 Valve Stem Packings


In many nuclear power plants, valve stem leakage continues to be a major problem that
contributes to high maintenance cost, low reliability, and loss of plant availability.
A basic understanding of the packing systems sealing function is crucial to its proper
application and reliable performance as a valve stem seal. Even though the stuffing box
design is simple and has been used as a valve stem seal for decades, its principle of
operation is not adequately understood by many valve users and even some
manufacturers. Over the years, this lack of understanding has led to several variations
in packing designs and gland configurations which, in some cases, even degrade the
performance instead of providing the anticipated improvement.
The following sections present a summary of the fundamentals of sealing mechanism in
stem packing glands, a historical review of the important research, and a discussion of
the new guidelines that have resulted from stem packing improvement programs.
Basic Types of Stem Packings: There are three basic types of stem packings (Figure
2-27), which rely on soft sealing material for their sealing action but are fundamentally
different in their principles of operation:

Compression packings or jam-type packings

Lip-type, pressure-energized packings

Interference-type seals (O-rings)

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Figure 2-27
Basic Types of Stem Seals

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The most commonly used packing in valve stems is compression-type packing rings of
braided or precompressed flexible sealing material, usually of square or rectangular
cross section, which are placed into a packing box and compressed by a packing gland.
This type of packing relies on externally applied compressive force to achieve a seal.
Such packings require periodic adjustment or some other means (discussed later) to
continue to supply the necessary packing pressure to maintain a seal.
Lip-type packings, usually called V-packing or chevron type, rely on a relatively low
external force to effect an initial seal and a pressure energizing action due to their crosssectional shape. As the system pressure increases, the force at the sealing edge
increases, thus maintaining a positive seal. Such seals usually require little or no
adjustment during operation. In order to prevent binding and over-adjustment, a
compression stop ledge is often used to limit the minimum packing height.
The interference type of seal (for example, O-rings) relies on the radial cross-sectional
squeeze and system pressure to effect a seal and on the elasticity of the seal material to
maintain the sealing preload. This type of stem seal also requires no adjustments in
service.
Packing Gland Construction and Sealing Mechanism: Figure 2-28 shows a cross-sectional
view of a typical packing gland design. The assembly consists of a packing gland
flange, gland follower, and a number of packing rings. The packing flange transmits
the applied bolt force through a spherical contact surface to the follower, which, in
turn, axially compresses the packing rings. The spherical contact interface prevents side
loading of the follower against the stem under the unavoidable misalignment of the
gland flange during tightening the bolts.

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Figure 2-28
Packing Gland Details

The axial compressive load transmitted to the packing rings tends to expand them in
the lateral, or radial, direction. This lateral expansion tendency of the packing crosssection is prevented by its confinement against the stem and the stuffing box inside
wall. This causes a radial contact pressure to be developed between the packing and
stem interface, as well as the packing and stuffing box wall. Friction losses in the upper
packing rings (due to friction with the stem and the stuffing box wall) reduce the axial
compression load on the lower rings, which in turn results in a decrease in the radial
contact pressure between the lower packing rings and the stem.
Fluid pressure can migrate between the packing rings and the stem up to a point where
its magnitude exceeds the radial pressure between the packing and the stem. Sealing is
achieved at a point where the radial packing pressure just exceeds the fluid pressure
trying to force its way across this interface. All the packing rings below the sealing
point are essentially ineffective in providing a seal around the stem. However, many
valve manufacturers have employed deep stuffing boxes in their designs in the past.
The first and most significant documented research towards understanding the sealing
mechanism of flexible packings was conducted by White and Denny under the
sponsorship of the British Ministry of Supply during the war and published in 1947
[5.41]. One of the important contributions from their work was a simple apparatus that
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allowed the radial contact pressure distribution between the packing and the stem to be
determined. The apparatus used a small diameter radial hole in the stem, through
which an externally adjustable pressure could be introduced at the sealing surface. This
pressure was gradually increased until it reached the magnitude necessary to overcome
the contact packing pressure between the packing and the stem. By positioning the
stem with the balancing hole at various locations along the packing length, detailed
static pressure distributions were obtained for a number of packing configurations.
Two other notable fundamental research contributions that led to further
understanding of contact pressure distribution in packings under static as well as
dynamic conditions were made by Turnbull [5.42] and Denny and Turnbull [5.43] in
1958 and 1960, respectively. The major finding from these research studies was that the
packing ring closest to the gland follower has the highest radial pressure, and this
radial pressure decays exponentially as the distance from the gland increases (Figure 229). They also found that under dynamic conditions this radial pressure tends to
redistribute itself, tending to decrease in the packing rings farther away from the gland
follower and concentrating near the top rings.

Figure 2-29
Distribution of Stresses in the Packing and Location of Actual Sealing Point

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For nuclear power applications, considerable research has been done by many different
organizations, including EPRI, valve manufacturers, packing manufacturers, material
suppliers, research institutes, and nuclear power utilities in the USA, Canada, U.K., and
France.
In recent years [5.44 through 5.50], the performance of valve stem packing has been
enhanced as a result of:

Improvements in gland loading arrangements that eliminate the need for packing
adjustments in service. Live loading has become an accepted term for such an
arrangement.

Development of improved packing materials, compositions, and various forms in


which they are manufactured including flexible graphite rings precompressed by
die molding in square, chevron V-packing, or wedge shapes; braided graphite; and
braided carbon.

Extensive testing of several arrangements of flexible graphite in combination with


braided graphite or braided carbon rings stacked in different sequences in the
stuffing box.

Testing to determine the optimum number of packing rings and range of gland
loads for different applications. Comparative testing of various shapes of packing
rings such as square, chevron, and wedge cross-section.

Development of better corrosion inhibitors to eliminate stem pitting, which can


cause rapid degradation of stem packing.

Collection of a vast amount of valve diagnostic data over a long period of time with
different valve designs and under different operating conditions.

Common Packing Materials: Common packing materials include:


Asbestos. In the past, the most commonly used packing material in power plants was
braided asbestos with impregnated graphite or mica to provide lubrication at
temperatures up to 1,000F (540C). One of the most popular braided asbestos packing
material used was John Crane 187I, which is reinforced with Inconel wire mesh for
high pressure, high temperature strength, and contains a zinc inhibitor to prevent stem
corrosion. However, in high temperature service and sometimes even in storage, the
braided material hardens due to loss of volatile binder material in packing. The loss of
resiliency causes leakage and prevents further adjustment. Additionally, the braided
asbestos material swells when exposed to process fluid and shrinks when drying up.
These volume changes cause premature stem leakage and require frequent packing
adjustment. Because of health hazards posed to the public, asbestos is generally
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prohibited and is presently being eliminated as a packing material. Most manufacturers


have stopped manufacturing asbestos-based packings in the United States.
Graphite. In recent years an intensive effort has gone into the development of suitable
alternatives to asbestos packing and gasket materials. At a conference organized by
Valve Manufacturers Association of America (VMA) in 1986, several material suppliers,
gasket/packing manufacturers, valve companies, petrochemical industry groups, and
power industry groups concluded that graphite is the only acceptable substitute for
asbestos for high temperature applications.
In the 1970s, Union Carbide developed flexible graphite using a process that introduces
no organic or inorganic binders, additives, fillers, or other potentially fugitive
ingredients [1.15]. The process employs a high quality particulate graphite, chemical
treatment, and rapid heating to produce flexible graphite sheets (or tapes). Packing
rings die-formed from flexible graphite tape have become the preferred graphite
packing. Graphite material is now widely used in pressure seals, spiral wound gaskets,
and other metal-clad gasket configurations. Die-formed flexible graphite packing offers
the following advantages over asbestos-based packing rings:

Low coefficient of friction (less than 0.1)

Self-lubricating

Contains no binders, fillers, or resins

Impermeable to gases and fluids

Flexible, yet free of cold flow or high temperature flow problems (low creep
relaxation)

Corrosion resistant

Excellent resistance to temperature changes

Anisotropic, having high thermal conductivity along the plane of the sheet

Suitable for temperatures to 1,000F (540C) in oxidizing environment and to


5,500F (3,000C) in inert or reducing environment

Asbestos free

High chemical resistance - operates in fluid pH range 1 through 14

Nuclear grade with typical leachable chloride content of less than 50 ppm available
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3

Available in high density (70 to 110 lb/ft ; 1,120 to 1,760 kg/m ) die-formed rings
(which have excellent flexibility) or ribbon form

Highest radiation resistance of all packing materials

Available with passivating corrosion inhibitors which prevent stem pitting without
loss of packing stress, as encountered with sacrificial inhibitors

The above factors, along with misconceptions carried over from the era of asbestosbased packings, resulted in many packing problems in the early stages of employing
flexible graphite packing. Reference 5.44 provides an excellent discussion of these
misconceptions and shows that proper application of graphite packing can eliminate
many of the packing problems. These misconceptions, along with recommendations for
proper application of flexible graphite packing, are summarized as follows:
1. Myth: Valves require periodic repacking.
Asbestos packing required periodic repacking (at some periodic frequency) because
of the loss of packing flexibility and elasticity that is caused by the depletion of the
various binders and fillers under pressure and temperature. Flexible graphite, on
the other hand, does not contain binders or fillers and tends to maintain its elasticity
throughout its life. However, flexible graphite packing must be contained with
upper and lower anti-extrusion rings to prevent extrusion outside the packing box.
In the absence of live loading, retorquing may be occasionally required to
compensate for packing consolidation.
2. Myth: Valve sealing is accomplished by pressure breakdown mechanisms.
With asbestos packing, it was assumed that sealing is accomplished by a series of
pressure breakdowns, similar to the labyrinth seal design. This assumption led to
deep stuffing box designs to accommodate a large number of packing rings,
especially for higher pressure systems. Testing has shown that only one die-formed
graphite ring is required to provide adequate sealing. However, to ensure backup
protection, the graphite packing set typically includes several die-formed rings in
addition to anti-extrusion rings on the top and bottom. Graphite bushings are also
used to fill the space previously occupied by excessive packing rings.
3. Myth: Valve packing will leak.
Because asbestos packing is harder to consolidate (due to higher friction and stiffer
Inconel reinforced rings), packing leakage at start-up was considered normal. With
proper installation and adequate consolidation of flexible graphite packing, valve
packing will not leak.
4. Myth: Lantern ring prevents packing leakage.
Lantern rings do not serve a good function in modern packing designs. They can
corrode to the stuffing box, damage the stem and at best require an additional set of
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packing rings. With lantern rings, it is extremely difficult (if not impossible) to
adequately load and consolidate the lower rings. Utilization of lantern rings also
doubles the packing drag on the stem.
5. Myth: Every mechanic knows the right amount of torque to tighten a packing.
Packing loads depend on several factors including system pressure, friction
coefficient, stem diameter, packing height, and the ability of the packing material to
transfer axial load to radial pressure. The 1,000-pounds-per-inch of stem diameter
rule does not differentiate between different applications or operating conditions.
Packing loads should be predicted using analytical or empirical formulas that
account for all packing parameters as well as operating conditions.
6. Myth: Packing is not part of the valve pressure boundary.
Although the ASME Pressure Vessel Code views valve packing as outside the scope
of the valve pressure boundary, packing failure can have a significant impact on
personnel/plant safety and on the environment. Recent advances in packing
technology will eventually lead to leak-free packing designs. Additional research
will be needed if valve packing is to be considered part of the valve pressure
boundary.
Plastics and Elastomers. Several plastics and elastomers are used in valve stem
packings for temperatures lower than those requiring graphite. Teflon in virgin form or
as filler materials is used extensively in valves because of its low coefficient of friction
and excellent chemical resistance for temperatures up to 400F (200C). Teflons main
limitation is lower radiation resistance (maximum 104 rads) than other plastics and
elastomers used as packing, gasket, and soft seating insert materials. However, Teflon
is used in many applications in power plants where radiation levels and temperatures
are low.
An important development in elastomers came from the Department of Energys
funding to develop high temperature elastomers for geothermal applications. One
formulation of EPDM (ethylene propylene family) capable of withstanding 600F
(315C) water or steam environment has been developed and is in commercial use.
EPDMs main limitation is its inability to tolerate any exposure to petroleum-based
fluids, which cause excessive swelling, degeneration, and sticking to metal surfaces,
especially copper alloys. EPDM is particularly unsuited for solenoid-operated valves in
air systems, which invariably transmit some lubricant mist. In nuclear power
applications, some grades of EPDM are likely to make strong inroads and extend the
temperature limits of soft seating materials. EPDM is commercially supplied by several
seal manufacturers in O-ring, chevron, V-packing, or other special forms.

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Tables 2-4 and 2-5 give a summary comparison of properties of various plastics and
elastomers used as gaskets and seals.
Table 2-4
Typical Properties of Plastics and Elastomers Used in Valves for Soft Seats, Seals,
and Gaskets
(Source: Reference 5.51)
TEFLON
(Halon, TFE, Fluon)

TEFLON
(Glass Filled)

NYLON
(Zytel, Nypel, Fosta)

KEL-F
(CTFE)

TEFZEL

POLYETHYLENE

NATURAL GUM RUBBER

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Radiation resistance - maximum 104 rads


Low coefficient of friction
High chemical resistance

Temperature limit of 400F (200C)

Susceptible to abrasion

Radiation resistance - maximum 104 rads


Low to moderate coefficient of friction
High chemical resistance

Temperature limit of 450F (230C)

Susceptible to abrasion, but better than unfilled Teflon

Radiation resistance - 106 rads


Moderate coefficient of friction
Moderate to low chemical resistance

Temperature limit of 250F (120C)

Not susceptible to abrasion

Radiation resistance - 107 rads


Low coefficient of friction
Good chemical resistance

Temperature limit of 300F (150C)

Susceptible to abrasion

Radiation resistance - 107 rads


Low coefficient of friction
High chemical resistance

Temperature limit of 300F (150C)

Moderate resistance to abrasion

Radiation resistance - 108 rads


Low to moderate coefficient of friction
High chemical resistance

Temperature limit of 180F (80C)

Not susceptible to abrasion

Radiation resistance - 107 rads


High coefficient of friction
Moderate to low chemical resistance

Temperature limit of 130F (54C)

Not susceptible to abrasion

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General Valve Design

Table 2-4 (cont.)


Typical Properties of Plastics and Elastomers Used in Valves for Soft Seats, Seals,
and Gaskets
(Source: Reference 5.51)
BUNA-N

VITON

ETHYLENE,
PROPYLENE,
TERPOLYMER

Radiation resistance - 106 rads


High coefficient of friction
Moderate to low chemical resistance
High resistance to petroleum products

Temperature limit of 210F (100C)

Not susceptible to abrasion

Radiation resistance - 107 rads


High coefficient of friction
Good chemical resistance

Temperature limit of 400F (200C)

Not susceptible to abrasion

Radiation resistance - 10 rads


High coefficient of friction
Moderate to low chemical resistance

Temperature limit of 300F (150C)

(Has been placed in valve service


with temperature of 400450F (200230C)
but no operating data available as yet)
Not susceptible to abrasion
See discussion on high temperature

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Table 2-5
Typical Radiation Resistance of Plastics
(Source: Reference 5.51)
GROUP 1

GROUP 2

GROUP 3

GROUP 4

GROUP 5

GROUP 6

Plastics retaining satisfactory properties after exposure to 1010 rads

Phenolic, glass laminate

Phenolic, asbestos filled

Polyurethane
Plastics retaining satisfactory properties after exposure to 109 rads

Epoxy, aromatic curing agent

Furane resin (Duralon)

Polyester, glass filled

Polyester, mineral filled

Polystyrene (Amphenol, Styron)

Polyvinyl carbazole (Polectron)

Silicone, glass filled

Silicone, mineral filled


Plastics retaining satisfactory properties after exposure to 108 rads

Polyethylene

Polyester film, unfilled (Mylar)

Polyvinyl chloride* (PVC, Tygon, Pliovac)

Polyvinyl formal (Formvar)

Silicone, unfilled

Polypropylene
Plastics retaining satisfactory properties after exposure to 107 rads

Aniline - formaldehyde (Cibanite)

Cellulose acetate (Tenite, Celanese)

Melamine - formaldehyde (Melmac)

Monochlorotrifluoroethylene* (Kel-F, Polyfluoron Fluorothen)

Phenol formaldehyde, fabric filler (Bakelite)

Phenolic, unfilled

Polycarbonate (Lexan, Merlon)

Polyvinylidene chloride* (Saran)

Urea - formaldehyde

PVF (Polyvinyl fluoride)

PVDF (Polyvinyl difluoride)


Plastics retaining satisfactory properties after exposure to 106 rads

Polyamide (Nylon, Zytel)

Polyester, unfilled

Polyformaldehyde (Delrin, Celcon)

Polymethyl alpha - chloracrylate (Gafite)

Vinyl chloride - acetate


Plastics retaining satisfactory properties after exposure to 104 rads

Tetrafluoroethylene* (Teflon)

* Tests have shown these materials to evolve halogenated gases due to radiation exposure, possibly at lower doses than
indicated here; their use should be restricted.

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Guidelines for Stem Packings: One of the most significant activities in the United States in
this area was EPRI research project RP2233-3, Valve Stem Packing Improvements,
initiated in early 1984. The work performed under this project culminated in the
development of specific guidelines for improving the stem packing performance in
nuclear power plants. EPRI Report NP-5697 [1.15] provides a comprehensive
description of effort under this project. Subsequent testing and field experience by
several utilities [5.44] and packing companies [5.45] provided new insights into
understanding and predicting valve packing performance. These efforts resulted in the
development of effective valve packing programs and prediction models that
eliminated many packing problems [5.44, 5.45, 5.46]. This in turn resulted in:

Eliminating periodic valve repacking

Achieving leak-free valve operation

Reducing radiation exposure

Improving valve reliability and plant availability

Relaxing post-maintenance test requirements

Savings in maintenance costs and work load

Minimizing packing loads

Maximizing operational margins for power-operated valves

Stem sealing problems are generally caused by either packing-related problems or


other valve problems outside the packing area (such as bent stem or disc-to-seat
misalignment). Thus, if unexpected stem leakage occurs, it is necessary to determine
the root cause before retorquing or repacking the valve.
The major factors that can affect the performance of valve stem packings are:

Misalignment

Packing gland pressure level and distribution

Packing composition and configuration

Surface finish of stem and stuffing box

Radial stem guidance

Stem taper and dimensional variation (including temperature effects)

System pressure, temperature, and fluid medium


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Frequency of stem movement

Stuffing box depth and diameter

Valve stem orientation (horizontal or vertical)

Vibration

Installation practices and procedures

In the following sections, some of the important findings from recent developments are
summarized. However, the reader is encouraged to refer to the original references for
more detailed discussions.
Packing Assembly and Consolidation [5.46]: Proper packing assembly and consolidation is
a determinant factor in obtaining leak-free packing. Packing consolidation should be
performed by retorquing and stroking to ensure uniform radial loading of the entire
valve packing set. Better load transfer is obtained by reversing stem direction between
retorquing. Recommendations of packing manufacturers should be followed.
Break-Away vs. Running Packing Friction [5.50]: Field and laboratory testing show that
break-away packing friction can be as low as 5% higher than running friction and as
high as two times higher than running friction. In designing or modifying a valve
packing, the break-away packing friction should be kept as close as possible to the
running friction.
Higher break-away packing friction reduces operating margins in MOVs and causes
control problems, especially in air-operated valves. Packing material, stem finish, and
temperature are the main factors affecting the ratio of break-away packing friction to
running packing friction.
Maintaining Gland Load by Live Loading: Conventional packings progressively
consolidate and wear in service, thereby causing a loss of gland load which is initially
applied to achieve a good seal. Eventually, this leads to leakage when the radial
packing stress due to reduced gland load falls below the fluid pressure to be sealed.
Periodic adjustment of the packing gland has been an accepted practice in conventional
applications to maintain adequate gland loading and to prevent leakage. Some utilities
have found that periodic retorque every three to four years provides good packing
performance. However, this approach is not preferred in some nuclear power
applications due to higher reliability requirements and the additional radiation
exposure that complicates maintenance activities. The regulatory aspects of plant
operation may dictate plant shutdown or reduced power operation to correct leakage if
operating limits are exceeded.

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By applying load to the packing rings through a spring-loaded gland follower


arrangement (see Figure 2-30 for typical arrangement), the loss of gland load with the
consolidation or wear of the packing is minimized. Figure 2-31 shows the performance
advantage of a live-loaded packing over the conventional packing arrangements.
Without live loading, a very small amount of consolidation results in a large reduction
in the packing compressive stress, which quickly reduces to a level below which an
effective stem seal can be maintained. With live loading, the magnitude of the
consolidation that can be tolerated without leakage can be increased by a factor of 15 to
20 in most applications. An additional advantage of the live-loading arrangement is
that it minimizes the potential problem of inadvertently creating high stem friction and
making the valve inoperable by over-tightening the bolts in conventional packing
glands that require manual adjustment.

Figure 2-30
Live Loading of Valve Packing Using Disc Springs

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Figure 2-31
Packing Compressive Stress Versus Consolidation

Improved Packing Composition and Configuration: The improved packing gland design
utilizes a square cross-section, precompressed flexible graphite material packing rings
in the middle of the packing box, in combination with braided graphite or braided
carbon anti-extrusion rings at the top and bottom. It has been found that an
arrangement consisting of three or four flexible packing rings and one end ring at top
and bottom locations gives good performance. The anti-extrusion rings prevent
extrusion of the flexible graphite material into the relatively large radial clearance
usually present between the stem and gland follower. The anti-extrusion rings also act
as scraper rings, preventing the loss of graphite material, which has a tendency to
adhere to the stem, during cycling.
It may be possible to adjust packing configuration to improve performance. For
example, running load may be reduced by using two die-formed rings (instead of three
or four) or by using narrow rings instead of the square design. Another packing
configuration utilizing wedge rings that can convert axially applied gland load more
efficiently in the radial sealing direction has also been developed as a result of this
EPRI project. Instead of relying upon the gland load alone, this configuration also
utilizes the system pressure to increase the radial sealing load as pressure is increased.
Specific values of gland compression details for various types of packings should be
obtained from the valve/packing manufacturer.
Retrofit Considerations: To install the live-loading as a retrofit to existing valves requires
careful evaluation of several factors. The space needed to incorporate a spring stack
that provides sufficient force throughout the anticipated range of deflection is limited
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in both the vertical and radial clearances in the valve stuffing box area. This can make
retrofitting particularly difficult in the smaller valves. New and longer gland studs are
usually needed to install the spring stack, and adequate guiding of the individual
Belleville spring must be provided to ensure proper performance. To get the proper
benefits from the live loading arrangement, the guidelines established in EPRI Report
NP-5697 [1.15] should be followed. Several manufacturers have utilized guidelines to
make recommendations for specific installations with proper consideration to the
maximum and minimum gland loads that can be achieved within the space constraints
and the expected in-service packing consolidation that can be tolerated without
leakage.
Stuffing Box Spacers: For many years, some valve designers have erroneously considered
deep stuffing boxes to be more effective in controlling stem leakage; stuffing boxes with
twelve packing rings were not uncommon. As discussed earlier, since the gland
pressure decays exponentially as a function of distance away from the follower, it has
been found that only three to four packing rings are essential to accomplish a good seal,
and the use of additional rings contributes to an unnecessary increase in stem friction.
One of the primary reasons for packing leakage is inadequate gland load. As packing
wears and consolidates with usage and time, the gland load decays, which eventually
results in leakage. Deeper stuffing boxes with a larger number of packing rings results
in more consolidation of packing and a greater loss of gland load. Deep stuffing boxes
are also more difficult to clean and repack.
To overcome these deficiencies, metal or carbon spacers can be installed in the bottom
of the stuffing box to reduce the number of packing rings. A set of five rings, consisting
of three die-formed graphite packing rings (which accomplish the sealing function) and
two braided graphite end rings (which confine the loose graphite particles within the
sealed gland), has been found to work well (5.44, 5.45, 5.46). Hardened carbon spacers
on the top and bottom of the packing set can also improve stem alignment and provide
additional radial support.
Lantern Ring/Stem Leak-Off Connection: Deep stuffing box designs were inherited from
other industries, and they usually employ lantern rings in the center. In petrochemical
and other non-nuclear power applications, lantern rings are used to allow injection of a
grease or sealant material through an external connection in the middle of the packing
ring stack to provide a secondary backup seal (Figure 2-32). Lantern rings can be used
to effectively seal off a leaking stem when additional gland load cannot successfully
overcome the leakage. Relatively high viscosity sealants, capable of performing at high
temperatures, are available. Since the pressure sealing capability using viscous sealant
is increased by an increase in the length of the resistance path, deep stuffing boxes do
provide an advantage when sealant injection is permissible. However, in most nuclear
power applications, this is not acceptable.
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Figure 2-32
Lantern Ring / Stem Leakoff Connection

In some nuclear power plant applications, the lantern ring and associated leakoff
connection, in conjunction with double packing arrangement, is used to collect leakage
of contaminated water past the lower packing ring set and allow contaminated water to
be piped off to a remote location. It should be pointed out that in double-packing
arrangements, the gland load has to be high enough (typically higher than in a single
packing arrangement) to transmit sufficient compressive load to the lower packing set
to achieve a seal.
Stem Corrosion and Use of Inhibitors: Stem corrosion and pitting can cause quick failure of
the packing by abrading away the packing material. It has been found that low
chromium content stainless steel stem materials (400 series) are more prone to pitting
corrosion than high chromium materials (300 series steel) in the presence of moisture.
In general, properly heat-treated 17-4 PH material has been found to be very resistant
to pitting corrosion.
When the valve is hydrostatically tested with water and then stored without taking
precautions to avoid corrosion, stem packing failures are often encountered during the
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first cycle of operation due to severe pitting of the stem during storage. Both asbestos
and graphite, the most commonly used packing materials, can cause corrosion of the
stem, even though graphite packing material has less corrosion-inducing impurities
and is, therefore, less aggressive than asbestos. One of the practices used to avoid stem
corrosion during storage is to specify that valves be shipped with packing removed.
Historically, most valve manufacturers use generous quantities of grease when
installing stem packings for many non-nuclear applications. The greases used provide
reasonable protection against pitting corrosion of the stem during storage by
preventing intrusion of water or moisture into the packing material during hydrostatic
testing, especially at the interface between the stem and packing. The level of protection
provided by this approach is not very reliable. In nuclear power plants, the use of
grease is unacceptable in most stem packing applications.
Corrosion inhibitors are employed in stem packings to provide a positive protection
against stem pitting. The most frequently used inhibitors have been sacrificial types
which undergo oxidation corrosion instead of allowing the stem material to be
attacked. This effectively prevents pitting corrosion of the stem, while the sacrificial
anode is consumed. Zinc and aluminum in various forms have been the most
commonly employed sacrificial corrosion inhibitors. Zinc has been found to be more
effective than aluminum. Both have been used in the form of washers in the packing
set, as well as in a powder form uniformly distributed in the packing material itself.
The protection obtained by using the powdered form, even with best attempts to
achieve uniform dispersion and the use of binding or tacking agents to keep the
powder particles in place, has been found inadequate. Solid zinc washers have been the
preferred sacrificial corrosion inhibitor by most users.
One recent development has been the use of passivating corrosion inhibitors that form
a protective film on the stem that inhibits corrosion. Some manufacturers offer flexible
graphite packings impregnated with barium molybdate; other manufacturers are
offering nonmetallic, inorganic inhibitors that are an integral part of the graphite sheet
itself. An advantage of the passivating type of inhibitor over the sacrificial type is that
there is no loss or increase of material in the packing box; therefore, there is no change
of packing compressive stress due to the inhibitor material being consumed.

2.6

Gasket Types and Materials

2.6.1 Gasket Types


As contrasted to stem packings which provide a dynamic seal, gaskets are used for
static sealing applications. Several types of gasket designs are used in valve
construction, many of which are of the same type as those used at flanged ends.
Classification of the most commonly used gasket materials and types is shown in
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Table 2-6, taken from ASME Section VIII, Division 1, Appendix 2, which also provides
design rules for bolted flange connections using gaskets. The differences between the
actual gasket width furnished and the effective width recommended should be taken
into account, as discussed in these standards, to avoid either over-stressing the gasket
or having insufficient stress, causing leakage.
Table 2-6 lists the types of gaskets in the order of increasing minimum design seating
stress required. The Code-suggested design values of the gasket factors (m) (m is the
multiple of pressure to develop sufficient compression load to ensure a tight joint) and
the minimum design seating stress (y) are not mandatory. Gasket manufacturers can
suggest lower values which still provide a satisfactory static seal at lower bolt loads.
There are other commercially available gasket materials that are not included in the
ASME Pressure Vessel Code Table 2-6. For gasket materials other than those given in
this table, the supplier should be contacted to obtain y and m values.

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Table 2-6
Gasket Materials and Contact Facings, Gasket Factors M for Operating Conditions,
and Minimum Design Seating Stress y
(Extracted from the ASME Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII Division 1)

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Table 2-6 (cont.)


Gasket Materials and Contact Facings, Gasket Factors M for Operating Conditions,
and Minimum Design Seating Stress y
(Extracted from the ASME Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII Division 1)

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Types of gaskets most frequently used in valves are described below.

2.6.2 Flat Metal Gaskets


Soft metals (for example, soft aluminum, copper, brass, iron, or stainless steel) can be
used as solid flat metal gaskets. These gaskets are designed to deform plastically and
conform to the irregularities of the sealing surface during installation. Therefore, these
gaskets require relatively high unit seating stress and correspondingly high bolt loads.

2.6.3 Flat Non-Metallic and Metal Clad Gaskets


For lower seating stress, rubber or polymeric material gaskets can be used, but they are
not suitable for high pressures and temperatures. They are typically limited to ANSI
Class 300 valve ratings and temperatures of 250F (120C) or less. For higher pressures
and temperatures, metal-clad asbestos substitute material is used.

2.6.4 Spiral Wound Gaskets


Spiral wound gaskets have the distinct advantage of high elastic deformability over
simple flat gaskets. This makes them suitable for use in sealing joints between
components that can have differential thermal expansion where the spiral wound type
gaskets can elastically accommodate the changes in dimensions. Spiral wound gaskets
are made out of a V-shaped metal strip that is spirally wound on edge and a soft filler
material such as graphite, Teflon or asbestos substitute, or rubber is inlaid between the
laminations. Such gaskets are best used in construction in which the compression of the
gasket is controlled to within the manufacturers recommendations by solid metal-tometal contact between the mating parts.
Some gaskets are supplied with an integral ring of a specific thickness on either the
outside diameter or the inside diameter to limit the compression of the resilient metal
V-shaped rings to the desired limits, thus preventing crushing of the gasket. The filler
materials used limit the temperatures to about 450F (230C) with Teflon. These gaskets
are also available with flexible graphite as a filler, which can be used in applications
exceeding 1,000F (540C).

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3
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF VALVES

3.1

General

Many different types of valves are used in power plants to perform various functions.
Valves are used for on-off service, modulating/throttling service, to protect
components against overpressure, and to prevent backflow from occurring. Many
different types of valve designs and valve body styles can be used to perform these
functions. Some of the valve types in common use are:

Gate valves

Ball valves

Butterfly valves

Globe valves

Check valves

Plug valves

In general, valves may be categorized within the following four groups (Figure 3.1):

Isolation Valves: Used for on-off service (including throttled position) with local or
remote actuation. Depending on the particular application and operating conditions,
isolation valves can be either gate, globe, butterfly, ball, plug, or diaphragm valves.

Control Valves: Used for modulating or throttling service. Their operation is


automatic in response to continuous monitoring of some parameter in the controlled
system. In general, control valves require no manual operator action. A control
valve functions as a variable resistance in a pipeline.

Pressure Relief Valves: Used to provide protection against excessive pressure. The
valve opens automatically when pressure exceeds a preset level and closes after
pressure recedes below a preset level. Power-operated relief valves that open or
close in response to command signals are also utilized.
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Check Valves: Used to allow flow in the normal flow direction and to prevent flow
in the opposite flow direction (reverse flow). Check valves are typically opened and
closed by the flow forces.

Figure 3-1
Valve Classification by Function

Some types of valves are capable of performing an on-off function as well as a


modulating function, making them suitable for either line valve or control valve
applications. Globe valves, ball valves, and butterfly valves are examples of this type of
valve.
Another distinction that can be made between valves, based on their principle of
operation, is that some require an external supply of power to actuate them, and others
are self-contained. Check valves, pressure relief valves, and self-regulating valves are
examples of the self-contained type; whereas gate valves and control valves are not selfcontained.
Most valve applications can be satisfied by more than one type of valve. Successful
valve selection requires a thorough review and analysis of the functions the valve is
required to perform and its suitability over the entire range of operating conditions.
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Proper selection of a valve is complex and requires consideration of such factors as


safety function, design, operating method (for example, manual or remote, including
electric, air, and hydraulic), reliability, space limitations, ease of installation,
maintenance, installed life, and cost. Proper selection requires knowledge of the various
types of valves that are available, differences in their design and principles of
operation, their advantages, and their limitations. In the past, the final selection may
have been personal preference, based on satisfactory past experience with a certain type
of valve or manufacturer, since two or more valve styles may satisfy the particular
application.
With the objective of familiarizing the reader with the various functions that valves
must perform, this section introduces four major functional categories (Figure 3-1).

3.2

Isolation Valves

Valves are categorized as isolation valves when their function requires them to be
either closed or open (including partially open positions). Isolation valves, both manual
and power operated, are typically used to isolate a system component or a section of
the piping system for:

Maintenance

Testing (for example, hydrostatic, pneumatic, operational, or functional)

Diversion of flow from one system component or piping section to another to


facilitate load adjustments and/or to balance equipment duty hours

When an isolation valve is fully closed, it normally exhibits a very low leakage rate
across its closed port(s).
Isolation valves may be required to perform some safety functions such as shutting
down the plant and maintaining the plant in a safe shut-down condition under design
basis conditions. Containment isolation valves are a special subset of isolation valves
used in nuclear power plants. The selection of containment isolation valves must meet
the following requirements:

Operating/design fluid conditions

Periodic performance of a low pressure air leak rate test

U.S. Code of Federal Regulations 10CFR50, General Design Criteria 54, 55, 56,
and 57

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For containment isolation applications, manufacturers tests should include, in addition


to those required by the applicable codes, seat leak tests representing the accident
conditions against which the valves must isolate. The manufacturers test pressures
should be the same as the pressures at which the valves will be periodically tested at
the plant.
The selection, design, and installation of isolation valves should take into account the
following considerations:

Resilient seats should be mechanically retained (instead of vulcanized or epoxy


bonded) to ensure better seat reliability and to facilitate seat replacement.

Selection of metal seated valves should consider the ease of seat repair. For example,
in situ repair of globe valve seats is easier than the repair of gate valve seats.

In valve selection, attention should be given to design features which provide better
leak-tightness. For example, some pressure-energized seat designs and triple-offset
disc butterfly valves can provide better leak-tightness as compared to conventional
disc butterfly valves.

Where off-line maintenance is expected, flanged-end valves should be used.

Globe and nonsymmetric-disc butterfly valves used as containment isolation valves


should be installed such that the packing is on the side of the seat away from the
penetration. With this orientation, the valve seat provides the primary seal, and the
valve packing is not required to seal against containment pressure.

The valve and actuator should have adequate access to facilitate maintenance and
repair activities.

Some valve designs (such as double disc gate valves) must be installed with stem
vertical.

Valve installation with stem vertical and up significantly facilitates in-line


maintenance and/or repair.

Local drains should be a Y-pattern globe, gate, ball, plug, or straightway diaphragm
valve in the system pressure/temperature rating to make provision for cleaning out
the drain.

Root connections for flow, pressure, or differential pressure instruments should be


globe or diaphragm valves to avoid rapid application of pressure to the instrument.
For standpipes and liquid level gauges, other valve types may be used. (Note: Gate
valves are not readily available in sizes 2 inch (51 mm) and smaller in ANSI ratings
above 1,500 pounds).

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It is suggested that instrument root valves be 3/4-inch (19-mm) valves, except for
orifice flanges.

3.3

Modulating/Throttling Control Valves

A modulating control valve is a device used to automatically throttle process fluids as


required by changes in a variable such as pressure, temperature, flow, or liquid level.
Modulating control valves differ from isolation valves in that modulating control
valves must continuously modulate to control fluid flow at precise, intermediate
openings. The control valve must be vibration-free and reliable under a wide range of
operating conditions.
In a modulating service, the valve is usually partially open, and the position of the
valve disc is varied between the open and closed position. Modulation of the disc is
achieved by an actuator, which is either mounted to or integral with the valve body.
Valve position is proportional to a signal or a condition to achieve a desired system
parameter (for example, flow rate, temperature, pressure).
A throttling function is similar to the modulating function, except that the valve is
usually positioned at a fixed percentage open, but may require periodic manual
repositioning of the valve, either directly using manual handwheels or remotely using a
power actuator to meet system requirements. This type of throttling occurs in
applications where variations in the parameters of concern are not critical and may
permit a long period of adjustment, or they may be adjusted to suit seasonal changes in
temperatures.
Typical of a rough throttling application would be cooling water flow to a coil in the oil
sump of a ring-oiled bearing. The bearing must be kept warm, neither too hot nor too
cold, but the allowable range is fairly wide.
Leakage for control valves in the fully closed position varies with the construction type.
The leakage class achievable for various types of control valves can be defined in
accordance with ANSI/FCI 70-2-1976 [6.12]. Tables 3-1 and 3-2 summarize control
valve seat leakage classification from this standard.

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Table 3-1
Control Valve Seat Leakage Classifications
(In Accordance with ANSI/FCI 70-2-1976 [6.12]

Maximum
Class

Leakage
Allowable

Test
Medium

Test Pressures

3-6

Testing
Procedures
Required for
Establishing
Rating
No test required, provided
user and supplier so agree

II

0.5% of rated
capacity

Air or water
at 50125F
(1052C)

4560 psig (310414


kPa) or max.
operating differential, whichever
is lower

Pressure applied to valve


inlet, with outlet open to
atmosphere or connected to
a low head loss measuring
device, full normal closing
thrust provided by actuator

III

0.1% of rated
capacity

As above

As above

As above

IV

0.01% of rated
capacity

As above

As above

As above

0.0005 ml per
minute of water
per inch of port
diameter per psi
differential

Water at
50125F
(1052C)

Max. service
pressure drop across
valve plug, not to
exceed ANSI body
rating. (100 psi/690
kPa pressure drop
min.)

Pressure applied to valve


inlet after filling entire body
cavity and connected piping
with water and stroking
valve plug closed. Use net
specified max. actuator
thrust, but no more, even if
available during test. Allow
time for leakage flow to
stabilize.

VI

Not to exceed
amounts shown in
Table 3-2 based
on port diameter

Air or nitrogen
at 50125F
(1052C)

50 psig (345 kPa) or


max. rated
differential pressure
across valve plug,
which ever is lower

Actuator should be adjusted


to operating conditions
specified with full normal
closing thrust applied to
valve plug seat. Allow time
for leakage flow to stabilize
and use suitable measuring
device.

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Table 3-2
Seat Leakage Criteria
Nominal Port Diameter
Millimeters

Inches

ml per

Bubbles per

Minute

Minute*

25

0.15

38

1-1/2

0.30

51

0.45

64

2-1/2

0.60

76

0.90

102

1.70

11

152

4.00

27

203

6.75

45

* Bubbles per minute as tabulated are a suggested alternative based on a suitable


calibrated measuring device; in this case, a 1/4-in. (6.3-mm) OD x 0.032-in. (0.8mm) wall tube submerged in water to a depth of from 1/8 to 1/4 in. (3 to 6 mm). The
tube end shall be cut square and smooth with no chamfers or burrs, and the tube axis
shall be perpendicular to the surface of the water. Other apparatus may be
constructed and the number of bubbles per minute may differ from those shown as
long as they correctly indicate the flow in ml per minute. Provisions should be made
to avoid overpressuring of measuring devices resulting from inadvertent opening of
the valve plug.

A control valve assembly consists of a valve body subassembly and an actuator subassembly. Many different styles of control valve bodies are in common use, each having
certain advantages and limitations for a given service requirement.
Valve styles typically used in control valve service include globe valves, ball valves,
plug valves, butterfly valves, and diaphragm valves. Variations of these styles are used
to provide a higher degree of accuracy, as well as linear flow to valve position
indication. These variations are discussed in the section dealing with a particular valve
and function.
There has been a growing trend in recent years toward the use of rotary valves in
control applications. The major reasons for this are that rotary valves:

Require less space

Provide high flow capacity with low pressure drop

Can provide good throttling control, especially with special shaped or contoured
closure elements

Are very economical, particularly in larger sizes


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Leading control valve manufacturers estimate that most existing control valve
application problems can be resolved and could have been averted if accurate
application data and operating conditions had been provided prior to the selection and
sizing of the valve. Recent studies [1.6, 5.38] show that an accurate prediction of valve
performance requires a detailed study of the entire hydraulic system including
pressure/flow sources (for example, pumps, upstream tanks/reservoirs, surge tanks,
accumulators); flow resistances in the hydraulic system (such as heat exchangers,
strainers, other valves, orifice plates, pipes, elbows, tees); piping layout (single-line
flow or parallel-line flows); fluid type (water, steam, air, nitrogen); and operating
conditions.
The reason is that, as the control valve disc position changes, the total system flow
resistance changes. In a pumped system for example, the pump operating point on the
pump curve will also change to a new equilibrium point where the total system
pressure drop at the new flow rate matches the head developed by the pump at the
new operating point. Thus, analyzing a control valve problem should involve
examination of the entire hydraulic system (see Reference 1.6 for additional discussion).

3.4

Pressure Relief Valves

Pressure relief valves are discussed in great detail in Reference 1.4 and are only briefly
discussed here.
Valves provided to function as pressure relief devices are used to dissipate excessive
system pressure to a pressure suppression system or to the atmosphere, thus avoiding
overpressurization of the protected system. This pressure relief function can be
performed by:

Installation of a valve that opens automatically to discharge system media when


pressure at the inlet of the valve, acting directly on the main valve disc, exceeds a
predetermined level. No external power source is needed.

Use of a pilot valve that opens automatically when pressure at the inlet of the valve
exceeds a predetermined level. The opening of the pilot valve subsequently causes
the main valve disc to open by action of the inlet pressure. The pilot valve may
alternately be provided with means to be opened at any inlet pressure by the
application of an external power source.

Installation of a power-operated valve where the main valve disc is opened by the
application of external power to the actuator.

The term pressure relief valve encompasses relief valves, safety valves, and safetyrelief valves.
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Functional Requirements of Valves

Relief, safety, and safety-relief valves are used to provide protection for both system
components and operating personnel. These valves were originally designed using
weights mounted on the valve stem. The weights established the set point at which the
valve would automatically open to protect against overpressure. The valve would then
close automatically when pressure dropped below the set point. This design has the
disadvantage of being sensitive to system vibration, as well as lacking proper enclosure
to provide protection of valve components.
The disadvantages associated with the use of weights led to the use of springs for
controlling system pressure. Springs resulted in a more compact design, which is
highly desirable in large volume, high pressure applications. Although the use of
springs to control force on the valve disc is preferable to weights, springs are
susceptible to changes in force applied as system temperature is elevated. As an
alternative to the spring-type relief device, pressure may be controlled using pilotoperated valves.
Pilot-operated relief valves are a type of pressure relief valve that utilizes either the
process pressure or an external power source through a pilot mechanism to actuate the
valve. Since the valve operating mechanisms (pilots) have static and moving seals with
small clearances, the process fluid must be extremely clean. Some of these pilotoperated valves offer the advantage of allowing independent adjustment of both
accumulation and blowdown external to the valve.
A rupture disc is a unique type of overpressure protection device, consisting of a
membrane held between flanges, which is designed to burst at a predetermined
pressure. The major difference between rupture discs and pressure relief valves is that
the rupture disc does not re-close. It will remain tight until it bursts, at which time it
must be replaced. Since the rupture disc is operated by a pressure differential, it is
sensitive to back pressure; therefore, the burst pressure of a rupture disc will vary as
the back pressure or downstream pressure varies. Rupture discs can be used to
supplement relief valves. They can also be used at the inlet of a pressure relief valve to
protect the valve from the corrosive effects of the process fluid.
Power-operated relief valves (PORVs) are used in conjunction with spring-loaded relief
valves. PORVs are actuated at a system pressure well below the set point of springloaded valves to eliminate unnecessary operation of spring-loaded valves that often
leak after reseating.
Proper selection of pressure relief valves requires an understanding of the relieving
requirements of the system or component that is to be protected and the environmental
conditions associated with that installation. The system relieving requirements include
considerations such as response time and discharge capacity.

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Typical process areas that must be protected are low-pressure storage tanks, pressure
vessels, heat exchangers, pumps or compressors, and piping systems.
Low-pressure storage tanks must be protected when liquid is pumped into or out of the
tank. This is required to prevent overpressurizing or collapsing the tank when liquid is
being moved from or to the tank.
Heat exchangers that have valves on both the inlet and outlet can be isolated if both
valves are shut. Safety/relief valves should be provided to protect the heat exchanger
from the effects of thermal expansion of the liquids that may be isolated within the heat
exchanger. Consideration should also be given to protection of equipment on the low
pressure side if a tube within the heat exchanger should rupture.
Positive displacement pumps and reciprocating compressors should have pressure
relief valves on their discharges to relieve the fluid if the discharge should be blocked.

3.5

Check Valves

This section provides an overview of check valves (also called non-return valves).
Detailed information on selection, installation, troubleshooting, and maintenance of
check valves is given in EPRIs Application Guide for Check Valves [1.20] and EPRIs Check
Valve Maintenance Guide [1.21].
Check valves are self-actuated valves whose functions include:

Prevention of reverse flow

Keeping lines full of fluid

Prevention of loss of fluid when the system is not in operation

Prevention of reverse rotation of pumps

Prevention of outflow of fluid from vessel

Prevention of water column separation

Check functions are generally satisfied by using lift, swing, tilting disc, double disc, or
silent (nozzle) check valves. These valves are best installed in a horizontal line and are
opened by the velocity head of the flowing fluid in the normal flow direction. In almost
all cases, the impetus to close the disc is initiated by the weight of the valve disc or by
springs with the primary seating force generated by the system differential pressure. In
some instances, auxiliary external weights, springs, dashpots, or other actuation means
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are used to aid closing, decrease slamming action against the seats, or to prevent
closing when servicing.
Check valves are used to ensure that the process medium flows in one direction only.
Typical applications are at the discharge of multiple pumps that provide flow and
pressure head to a common manifold. In the event that one of the pumps ceases to
produce flow and pressure head, the check valve at its discharge prevents a flow
reversal through that pump caused by the pressure head produced by the other
pump(s). Other applications include feedwater lines to boilers and, in general, a means
to minimize the loss of process media in the event of a pipe line rupture.
Even though good shut-off can be provided by some check valves (especially when soft
seats are used), the main function of these valves should be to prevent flow reversal.
Check valves should not normally be considered as a suitable replacement for isolation
valves.
Check valves should not be oversized and should be located a safe distance from any
flow disturbance (such as pumps, elbows, tees, or other valves). Over-sizing and
turbulence caused by upstream flow disturbances create instability of the closure
member and may result in premature degradation or failure of the valve. Some designs
are available in right angle patterns. Almost all check valves are top entry designs and
allow servicing without removal from the line.
Various manufacturers, architect engineers, nuclear steam supply system suppliers, and
users have developed their own criteria for selecting the type of check valve to be used
in a particular service. In general, the selection criteria have been qualitative, and more
than one type of check valve can be chosen to successfully meet the requirements of a
given application, provided all the important technical factors are properly taken into
consideration during sizing and selection. Therefore, it is not uncommon to see swing,
tilting disc, or lift checks being used in similar applications and performing
successfully at different plants and sometimes even within the same plant. The
application and use of check valves in power plants has been the subject of a
comprehensive study, the results of which are documented in Reference 1.20. This
study was prompted by the unexpected failure of several check valves in nuclear
power plants, which resulted in significant loss of plant availability, as well as
equipment damage.
Recently, EPRI published the Check Valve Maintenance Guide [1.21] to provide nuclear
utilities with detailed discussions of check valve maintenance issues. Check valves are
not discussed further in this Guide, and the reader is referred to References 1.20 and
1.21.

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4
GATE VALVES

4.1

Introduction and Application

Gate valves, the most commonly used valves in power plants, are primarily used for
on-off service. Gate valves are available in a variety of materials; therefore, they are
suitable for the toughest applications in high pressure and high temperature systems.
Gate valves, ranging in size from 1/4 inch (6 mm) to sizes exceeding 48 inches (1200
mm), offer the lowest pressure drop during fluid flow conditions, approaching that of
an equal length of straight pipe when fully open, but tend to have more operability
problems and a higher seat leakage rate than globe valves.

4.2

Design

This section provides general descriptions, advantages, and disadvantages of most gate
valve designs in nuclear power plants. Other gate value designs not commonly used in
nuclear power plants (such as knife gate valves) are not discussed here.

4.2.1 General
Gate valves can be either rising stem or non-rising stem design (Figure 4-1). Rising stem
designs, utilizing an outside screw and yoke (OS&Y) (Figure 4-2), provide the
advantage of having the power threads outside the fluid, thus minimizing thread
damage from exposure to the fluid. Rising stem action allows the incorporation of an
optional backseating feature to assist in isolating the packing from the process fluid by
pulling the stem up against the inside of the bonnet (see Section 2.3.8).

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Figure 4-1
Inside Screw Stem Thread Configurations

Figure 4-2
Rising Stem Design, Outside Screw

Another rising stem option utilizes a power screw inside the valve body that exposes
the threads to the fluid. A non-rising stem configuration requires the power screw to be
inside the valve disc or wedge. Since the stem rotates in the packing without axial
motion, packing wear and damage resulting from abrasive contaminants and
undesirable materials being dragged across the packing is minimized. The
disadvantages of the non-rising stem are that the threads are exposed to the fluid, the
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stem cannot be backseated, and the disc position cannot be judged by the stem position
from the outside. Additionally, inside screw and non-rising stem configurations are
usually limited to low pressure and low temperature applications. These designs are
generally used in fluids with good lubrication properties and without abrasive
components because the working fluid lubricates the stem threads.
Most gate valve designs are offered with metal-to-metal seating at the gate-to-seat
interface. Metal-to-metal seating allows valves to operate at a much higher temperature
than would be possible with elastomeric or polymeric-type seat materials. Metal-tometal seating also makes the valve fire safe for most applications. The types of gate
valves available include:

Solid wedge

Split wedge

Flexible wedge

Parallel expanding

Parallel slide double-disc

Slab

Knife

4.2.2 Solid Wedge


Solid wedge gates (Figure 4-3B) are of a simple, one-piece construction characterized by
a V-shaped wedge that converts the axial stem thrust to a high seat load, normal to the
seat faces. The seats can be separate pieces held firmly in the valve body by press
fitting, welding, or threading; or they can be machined into the body. Typically, the
body of a wedge gate valve has gate guides on the sides (as shown in Figure 2-16) that
mate with guide slots on the sides of the disc. These guides support the load caused by
differential pressure across the wedge and keep the wedge away from the seat faces,
except for a small distance very near the fully closed position, so as to minimize seat
wear.
In small valves, the seat loading caused by the closing force applied through the stem
to the gate is much higher than the seat loading created by the pressure differential
across the gate. Therefore, seating effectiveness is not significantly increased by
increasing the differential pressure across the gate. In larger valves, the differential
pressure acting on the gate provides the primary load against the seat, and the
mechanical force from the stem is used to enhance the seating action.
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Figure 4-3
Wedge Gate Valve

The solid wedge design is preferred in smaller sizes where the stiffness of valve body
and disc is much higher than that of the adjacent pipe. The increased stiffness
minimizes seat distortion which can increase seat leakage or gate pinching, due to pipe
loads transmitted to the valve ends. The solid wedge gate design is not suited for large
valves, especially in high temperature applications where differential expansion and
distortion of the gate, body, and seats, due to mechanical and thermal loads, can cause
loss of seat tightness and/or binding of the gate, which can either increase the
operating thrust required or, in some cases, cause complete inoperability.

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The following list identifies some of the advantages and disadvantages of the solid
wedge gate.
Advantages:

Sealing can be improved by increasing stem force.

Simple construction.

Bi-directional operation due to symmetrical construction.

Disadvantages:

Sensitive to line loads: bending moment, torsion, and axial loads that are
transmitted by the adjacent pipe to the valve ends. The sensitivity increases with the
size of the valve.

Seating is sensitive to thermal distortions because the solid wedge gate does not
have the ability to easily conform to the seat face plane distortion.

Lack of disc flexibility makes solid wedge gate valves more susceptible to thermal
binding (see Section 4.2.10).

Difficult to perform in-line repair because of the difficulty in achieving accurate


matching of seat angles during lapping.

Depending on the clearance in the gate area, the gate could tilt under flow forces
and create galling or high wear at the disc/seat faces.

4.2.3 Flexible Wedge


Flexible wedge gate design (Figure 4-3A) was introduced to minimize leakage or gate
binding and sticking problems caused by distortion of the valve body due to thermal
and pipeline stresses transmitted to the valve ends. The flexible wedge design, a simple
variation of the solid wedge, is constructed in one piece composed of two discs
connected with an integral boss that permits independent flexure of the discs. Because
the flexible wedge is simple and has no separate components that could become loose
in service, it is widely used in power plants.
The following list identifies some of the advantages and disadvantages of the flexible
wedge design.

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Advantages:

Better immunity to line loads than solid wedge design, minimizing sticking and
leakage.

Simpler in construction than the split wedge.

Sealing can be improved by increasing stem force.

Simultaneous seating of both discs can be used to check body seat integrity, without
line pressure, by pressurizing the body between the seats.

Easier to repair seat faces in line than the solid wedge since the flexible wedge
design can tolerate more angular mismatch.

Flexible wedge gate valves are less susceptible to thermal binding than solid wedge
gate valves.

Disadvantages:

Both wedge pieces can independently seat simultaneously, thus trapping pressure
in the body. This can cause inadvertent overpressure in the body during pressure or
thermal transients and an increase in thrust required to open the valve due to the
combined friction from the two wedge pieces, in some cases rendering the valve
inoperable. This condition is often referred to as pressure locking or double-disc
drag (see Section 4.2.9).

Depending on the clearance in the gate guide area, it is possible for the gate to tilt
under flow forces and create galling or high wear at the disc/seat faces.

4.2.4 Split Wedge


Split wedge gates (Figure 4-3C) are composed of two separate pieces. The split wedge
construction permits the gate assembly to more easily tolerate line loads and
temperature transients by allowing each wedge piece to align with its mating seat. This
feature is used in larger gate valves to overcome sticking problems encountered with
the solid wedge. Because of the ability of each gate wedge to align itself independently
against its respective seat, this type of construction allows both wedge pieces to seat
simultaneously; consequently, fluid pressure can be trapped in the body. Under a
temperature increase, the thermal expansion of this trapped fluid can cause very high
pressures in the body, which can damage the pressure boundary. The trapped fluid
increases the thrust required to open the valve (also called pressure locking), and
occasionally results in complete inoperability. Provisions to relieve the body pressure
must be made in such valves to eliminate these problems (see Sections 4.2.9 and 4.2.10
for details).
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Gate Valves

The following list identifies the advantages and disadvantages of split wedge type gate
construction.
Advantages:

Better immunity to line loads than solid wedge design, minimizing sticking and
leakage.

Can provide simultaneous shut-off against pressure on both the upstream and the
downstream seats (block and bleed).

Sealing can be improved by increasing stem force.

Simultaneous seating of both discs can be used to check body seat integrity without
line pressure by pressurizing the body between the seats.

Easier to repair seat faces in line than the solid wedge because the split wedge
design can tolerate more angular mismatch.

Disadvantages:

Both wedge pieces can independently seat simultaneously, thus trapping pressure
in the body. This can cause inadvertent overpressure in the body during pressure or
thermal transients and an increase in thrust required to open the valve due to the
combined friction from the two wedge pieces, in some cases rendering the valve
inoperable. This condition is often referred to as pressure locking or double-disc
drag.

The two-piece construction is more expensive and somewhat more complex than a
solid wedge. It also has the potential for allowing disengagement between the gate
pieces and the stem.

Depending on the clearance in the gate guide area, it is possible for the gate to tilt
under flow forces and create galling or high wear at the disc/seat faces.

Valve cannot be used for throttling, and disc assembly cannot be left in midstroke
position for any extended period of time.

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4.2.5 Parallel-Expanding Gate


Parallel-expanding gate valves are of multiple-piece construction with the faces of the
gate pieces that contact the seat parallel to each other. Two different designs are
discussed in this section:

The Anchor/Darling double-disc gate valve, shown in Figure 4-4

The W-K-M parallel expanding gate valve, shown in Figure 4-5

Figure 4-4
Anchor/Darling Double-Disc Gate Valve

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Figure 4-5
W-K-M Through-Conduit Double-Wedge Parallel Expanding Gate Valve

When going from open to closed position, the wedge pieces move down together, as an
assembly, without any relative motion between them until, at the very end of the
stroke, one of the pieces contacts the bottom stop. Continued motion of the stem after
this contact causes a climbing action of one wedge piece on the other at the inclined
plane interface between them, which in turn expands them laterally against their
respective seats. Parallel-expanding gate valve designs can provide simultaneous
seating against both the upstream and downstream pressures. This can be an advantage
because of the redundancy in seating available in such design. However, the double
seating feature can also be a disadvantage because the body can trap fluid, which can
cause inadvertent high pressure during thermal transients.
The W-K-M parallel-expanding gate valve designs employ special mechanisms that
kinematically prevent premature gate expansion when the gate assembly is in the midtravel position. Expansion of the gate before reaching the end of the stroke may prevent
the gate from closing completely. This design is also made in a through-conduit
double-wedge arrangement that permits expansion of the gate in the open position as
well as the closed position (Figure 4-5). The valve preferred flow direction is with gate
downstream (segment upstream).
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As part of EPRIs Performance Prediction Mehodology (PPM), the required thrust


prediction methodologies were developed for the Anchor/Darling double-disc gate
valves (see Reference 2.14) and for the W-K-M parallel expanding gate valves (see
Reference 2.17). The methodology for the W-K-M valve shown in Figure 4-5 shows that
(under certain conditions) premature wedging in the closing direction can occur in the
non-preferred orientation (or under reverse flow conditions with the valve in the
preferred orientation). Premature wedging may prevent the valve from achieving full
flow isolation.
The following list identifies some of the advantages and disadvantages of parallel
expanding gates.
Advantages:

Can provide a positive, simultaneous shut-off against pressure on both the


upstream and the downstream seats.

Through-conduit double-wedge design can double block and bleed, that is, provide
block and bleed in closed position and also prevent the line pressure from entering
the body cavity through both seats simultaneously in the open position.

Sealing can be improved by increasing stem force.

Double-disc seating can be used to check integrity of both seats simultaneously by


pressurizing the body between the seats.

Disadvantages:

Depending on the actual construction and stiffness of the gate, the parallelexpanding gate design can be very intolerant of line loads and thermal transients.

Normally unidirectional or has a preferred flow direction for best performance. The
two wedge pieces are usually asymmetrical, and one of the two pieces has better
ability to self-align with respect to the seat face.

Both wedge pieces can independently seat simultaneously, thus trapping pressure
in the body. This can cause inadvertent overpressure in the body during pressure or
thermal transients and an increase in thrust required to open the valve due to the
combined friction from the two wedge pieces, in some cases rendering the valve
inoperable. This condition is often referred to as pressure locking or double-disc
drag.

More complex and requires special mechanism to prevent inadvertent mid-travel


expanding movement of the discs toward the seating surfaces.

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Depending on the clearance in the gate guide area, it is possible for the nonthrough-conduit gate designs to tilt under flow forces and create galling or high
wear at the disc/seat faces. The through-conduit gate design, shown in Figure 4-5, is
not susceptible to this problem.

Valve cannot be used for throttling, and disc assembly cannot be left in midstroke
position for an extended period of time.

4.2.6 Parallel Slide Double-Disc


The parallel slide double-disc gate, also called a parallel expanding double-disc gate
(Figures 4-6 and 4-7), is constructed in two pieces, with each disc allowed to float
independently and mate with its seat. The individual pieces are not mechanically
wedged against their respective seat but are preloaded by a spring between them that
provides initial seating force. The flexibility of the spring allows distortion and changes
in dimensions between the seat faces to be easily accommodated without pinching the
gate, which provides complete immunity from sticking and binding under line loads
and thermal transients. The pressure differential across the gate increases the
downstream seat contact force and provides a tighter seal. Parallel slide double-disc
types of gates can provide only a downstream seal and are most effective in the larger
valve sizes in applications where at least moderate differential pressure exists. The selfwiping action of the gate against the seat during operation deeps the seat face clean of
any foreign material and provides good sealing action over a long time, especially in
clean fluid service.

Figure 4-6
Parallel Slide Double-Disc Gate Valve

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Figure 4-7
Through-Conduit Parallel Slide Double-Disc Gate Valve

The following list identifies some of the advantages and disadvantages of the parallel
slide double-disc gate valve.
Advantages:

Of all the gate valve designs discussed, parallel slide double-discs are most tolerant
of, and virtually immune to, line loads due to the ability of the spring between the
gate pieces to absorb large seat deflections with virtually no change in seat contact
force.

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They are tolerant of temperature changes during operation. The gate will not bind
due to differential thermal expansion effects because of the resilient spring between
the discs.

They are tolerant of a lack of parallelism between the two seat faces because of the
ability of the two independent gate pieces to align themselves. This feature also
provides a good shut-off under bending moments transmitted to the valve ends by
the adjacent pipe, which causes tilting of the seat faces. The ability to absorb large
variations in dimensions between the seat faces, without any adverse effect on the
valve performance, allows more economical fabrication tolerances to be used than in
wedge gate valves.

Less tendency to galling due to smaller changes in seat loading under line loads and
thermal transients.

Can be used bidirectionally due to symmetrical design.

Double-disc seating can be used to check body seat integrity without line pressure
by pressurizing the body between the seats.

Disadvantages:

Sealing cannot be improved by increasing stem force as in wedge gate valves.

Downstream sealing only, upstream disc does not seal against line pressure.

Floating gate pieces can trap body pressure and effect double-disc seating, allowing
inadvertent overpressure in the body during pressure or thermal transients.

Gate has constant spring load over entire stroke creating nominally higher running
torque.

Depending on the clearance in the gate guide area, it is possible for the nonthrough-conduit gate designs to tilt under flow forces and create galling or high
wear at the disc/seat faces. The through-conduit gate design, shown in Figure 4-7, is
not susceptible to this problem.

4.2.7 Westinghouse Flexible Wedge


The features of the Westinghouse flexible wedge gate valve design that make it unique
from other flexible wedge gate valve designs are the stem, disc assembly, and guide
rails. The stem and disc assembly (Figure 4-8) includes the stem, double-pinned
linkage, and flexible wedge. The upper portion of the stem is threaded with ACME
threads that engage mating threads of the operator nut. The bottom of the stem is a
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clevis-type stem head to which the linkage system is connected. The double-pinned
linkage allows the disc to translate relative to the stem in a direction parallel to fluid
flow. The upper portion of the disc contains a keystone-shaped slot that retains the
bearing block of the stem-to-disc connection. The disc is a one-piece flexible wedge
with hardfaced sealing surfaces and guide slot surfaces.

Figure 4-8
Westinghouse Flexible Wedge Gate Valve

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Two guide rails are installed in parallel slots in the body cavity to guide the disc during
opening and closing strokes. The upper portion of the guide rails is wider than the
lower portion with a tapered transition between the two portions. This design results in
a smaller disc-to-guide clearance in the vicinity of the fully open position that keeps the
disc from rattling under flow turbulence. The larger disc-to-guide clearance in the
vicinity of the fully closed position allows the disc to contact the downstream seat
earlier during the closing stroke than a valve with tighter clearance.
As part of EPRIs PPM, the required thrust prediction methodology was developed for
the Westinghouse flexible wedge gate valves [2.15]. Apart from the complexity of the
connection between the stem and the disc assembly, the advantages and disadvantages
of the typical flexible wedge gate valve design given in Section 4.2.3 also apply to the
Westinghouse design.

4.2.8 Slab Gate


The slab gate design features a very simple one-piece parallel gate (Figure 4-9), which
is matched flat on both sides. The slab type of gate requires axially movable seats
between the seat and body and a soft-type seat insert to allow seating without the high
contact stresses required in metal-to-metal seats. Seating between the gate and seat
faces is accomplished in both upstream and downstream locations. Both seats are
designed to float freely in their respective seat pockets which are machined into the
valve body, and are forced against the gate by springs. When the gate is closed, the
upstream seat is axially forced against the gate by the springs, and the differential
pressure is acting on the unbalanced annular area of the seat. Downstream seating is
achieved by floating the gate against the downstream seat, due to the differential
pressure acting across the entire area defined by the seat bore.

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Figure 4-9
Slab Gate Valve

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The following list identifies some of the advantages and disadvantages of slab-style
gate valves.
Advantages:

Can tolerate line loads better than wedging type gate valves without binding or seat
degradation. Virtually immune to line loads if sufficient clearances are present, due
to the spring-loaded seat design that can absorb large changes in dimensions of the
seat pocket area caused by line loads transmitted to the valve ends by the adjacent
pipe.

Easy to maintain because of the removable seat design.

Will self-relieve body overpressure to the high pressure side by pushing the spring
energized seats away from the gate. This eliminates the high pressure build-up in
the body cavity associated with most of the other gate valves under temperature
increases.

Disadvantages:

Seating effectiveness cannot be increased by the application of additional force to


the stem as in wedge gate valves.

Service conditions limited to 400F (200C) with conventional soft seating materials
made of elastomers and plastics. Some designs utilize higher temperature seat
materials, for example, carbon or graphite for higher temperature applications.

Where applicable, cannot compete with butterfly valve in size or cost.

4.2.9 Pressure Locking in Gate Valves


Normal operation of most gate valves requires that the force needed to actuate the
valve consider only the effects of single seating where the primary seat load and
associated friction occur at the downstream seat. In some instances, due to valve
construction and operating procedures, double seating (on both the upstream and
downstream seats) can occur, thus increasing the force required to actuate the valve.
Pressure locking in gate valves is associated with the increase in the required opening
thrust due to trapped body pressure. The double seating occurs when the pressure
trapped inside the valve body (or bonnet) exceeds the upstream and downstream
pressures and can be hydraulically induced or thermally induced (see References 4.2,
5.30, 5.52 and 5.53 for detailed discussions).

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Thermally induced pressure locking occurs when the temperature of the liquid trapped
in the valve body increases above its initial value. Hydraulically induced pressure
locking occurs when the upstream and downstream pressures drop, leaving the
trapped body pressure at its initial level.
Hydraulically induced pressure locking can also be caused by system pressure
surges/transients that increase the body pressure. Pressure locking is not limited to
liquid flow and can occur in steam applications where valve configuration permits
condensate to collect and enter the bonnet.
Double seating or pressure locking is most common in double-disc gate and flexible
wedge gate valves, where each side of the gate can make contact with its respective
seat, as shown in Figure 4-10. Operating problems associated with this phenomenon
prompted the U.S. NRC to issue Generic Letter 95-07 [4.2], requesting nuclear utilities
to review safety-related, power-operated (including motor-, air-, and hydraulically
operated) gate valves for susceptibility to pressure locking and thermal binding.
Concerns about pressure locking and fluid entrapment in the valve bonnet have been
recognized for over 20 years [4.27].

Figure 4-10
Gate Valve Bonnet Overpressurization

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Recent research identified the major factors that affect required opening thrust under
pressure locking conditions. Some limitations in the previous pressure locking
calculation methodologies developed by Commonwealth Edison [5.53] and Entergy
Operations [5.54] have been addressed in a later study [5.30]. It should be noted that a
calculation methodology to predict required opening thrust under pressure locking
conditions is needed to solve pressure locking problems when physical valve
modifications cannot be performed due to operational or time constraints. The main
factors that affect the required opening thrust under pressure locking conditions are
summarized as follows [5.30]:
Disc Flexibility: Disc flexibility is one of the major factors responsible for increased
thrust requirements under pressure locking conditions. In double-disc designs (such as
split wedge and parallel-expanding disc designs), the trapped bonnet pressure acts on
the entire upstream and downstream disc areas and results in increased seat contact
force and friction. In flexible wedge disc designs, the trapped bonnet pressure acts on
each disc less the disc hub area and results in pressure, bending, and shear deflections
that are resisted by the body seats.
Valve Body Flexibility: Valve body flexibility is another major factor that contributes to
pressure locking, especially for low pressure class valves. For a solid wedge gate valve
where the disc is relatively rigid, body flexibility is the main factor that causes the seat
load changes under varying pressure conditions.
Strain Energy in Stem and Valve Topworks: A self-locking stem and gear train can store a
significant amount of elastic strain energy in the stem and valve topworks during
wedging. Spring-loaded actuators (such as Limitorque models SB and SBD) can store
even more strain energy due to their higher flexibility. The stored strain energy can
drive the disc deeper into the seat when the valve body expands under pressure. A
subsequent pressure drop will cause disc pinching and an increase in unwedging
thrust.
Sequence of Pressure Changes: The actual sequence of pressure changes (including short
duration pressure surges) that occur in the bonnet, upstream pipes, or downstream
pipes when the valve is closed can result in hydraulically induced pressure locking,
which affects the opening thrust (see Reference 5.30).
Thermally Induced Pressure Locking: Idaho National Engineering and Environmental
Laboratory (INEEL) performed pressure locking tests to investigate the effect of
temperature on bonnet pressure and opening thrust [5.52]. INEEL found pressure to
increase rapidly with temperature in a water-solid bonnet. The tests show that
pressurization of the bonnet might not occur if seat leakage is high. However, such
leakage is not reliable in preventing pressurization. These tests also showed that the
opening thrust increases linearly with bonnet pressure.
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Bonnet Entrapped Air: The INEEL testing mentioned above showed that pressurization
curves of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% of entrapped air by volume are similar to those with no
entrapped air, except that initial pressurization begins at higher temperatures.
Furthermore, the temperature at which initial pressurization begins increases with the
increase of percentage entrapped air (up to 2%). Subsequent pressurization following
depressurization occurs immediately, as in the case of tests with no entrapped air. The
fact that the presence of an air pocket delays first pressurization but not subsequent
pressurization suggests that the air pocket is either collapsed or forced into solution by
the first pressurization cycle.
Packing Leakage: Packing leakage can prevent pressure locking from occurring.
However, as the bonnet pressure increases, the packing pressure increases and sealing
capability tends to improve. Furthermore, an increase in bonnet pressure and packing
contact pressure will likely increase the packing force, which will further increase the
opening thrust.
Even though a lack of bubble-tight seating would reduce the amount of pressure
generated in the body, there are cases of catastrophic failure of the valve body or
bonnet due to pressure locking. Provisions must be made to eliminate the possibility of
this excessive pressure build-up in the body cavity to avoid structural damage to the
pressure boundary.
When a relief valve is used to prevent overpressure in the body cavity, the actual
pressure in the body may still be higher than in the upstream or downstream piping.
This condition should be considered when sizing actuators. The differential pressure
across each seat must be considered to arrive at the total frictional resistance.
The required operating thrust/torque can also increase under another scenario that
involves thermally induced pressurization in the piping between two valves with tight
seats [4.30]. The heating of water-filled piping between two closed block or isolation
valves can increase both the trapped pressure between the two valves and the required
opening thrust/torque for both valves. This phenomenon can occur inside or outside
the containment and is not limited to gate valves. In some applications, the installation
of a pressure relief valve in the piping between the two valves may be required to
prevent fluid pressurization.

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4.2.10 Options to Mitigate Pressure Locking in Gate Valves


One or more of the methods itemized below can be used to prevent trapping body
pressure:

Drill a hole in the upstream disc.

Install external bypasses to connect the body cavity to the upstream or downstream
pipe or nozzle. These bypasses often incorporate manually operated valves that can
be used during valve or system testing.

Incorporate external bypass in the body to communicate the body cavity to the
upstream or downstream conduit.

Install a non-functioning upstream seat (for example, with a notch across the face).

Install a relief valve to vent excessive pressure from the body cavity.

Install an internal relief valve in the upstream disc to limit the amount of differential
pressure between the body and the upstream side.

Implement administrative controls to relieve pressure in the body cavity by opening


a remotely actuated valve before opening the valve.

The method selected will depend on the desired end result and on the particular
function of the valve. External or internal bypasses on the body make the valve body
unidirectional and, when connected to the downstream side, require that the valve be
capable of achieving upstream seating. Modifying the upstream disc makes the gate
unidirectional, and special attention needs to be given when initially installing the
valve and when reassembling after maintenance. Relief valves installed in the upstream
disc may corrode, leak, or get stuck open or closed with line debris, thus rendering
them ineffective. Block valves that isolate two fluid media are better served by using
administrative controls to energize power-operated relief valves to vent the pressure in
the body before actuation begins.

4.2.11 Thermal Binding in Wedge Gate Valves


Thermal binding is generally associated with a wedge gate valve that is closed while
the system is hot and then is allowed to cool before attempting to open the valve.
Mechanical interference occurs because of different expansion and contraction
characteristics of the valve body and disc. Thus, reopening the valve might be
prevented until the valve and disc are reheated. Solid wedge gate valves are most
susceptible to thermal binding. However, flexible wedge gate valves experiencing
significant temperature changes or operating with significant upstream and
downstream temperature differences may also thermally bind. Some parallel disc gate
valve designs are not susceptible to thermal binding (see Figure 4.6 for an example).
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Differential thermal expansion of components should be carefully considered in high


temperature valve design. Problems created by differential thermal expansion can be
caused by both temperature differences and coefficient of thermal expansion
differences.
Thermal binding refers to an increase in wedge gate valve opening thrust when the
temperature distribution in the valve during opening is different from that when the
valve was closed. The increase in opening thrust can cause the valve to fail to open
because the required stem thrust exceeds the actuators capability or the structural
strength of the valve/actuator weak link. Because of disc stiffness, solid wedge gate
valves are more susceptible to thermal binding than flexible wedge gate valves.
Thermal binding in gate valves can be caused by many factors including:

The coefficient of thermal expansion of the gate material (gate) is different from the
coefficient of thermal expansion of the valve body material (body). The opening
thrust tends to increase when:

The valve temperature during opening is lower than the valve temperature
during closing and gate < body.

The valve temperature during opening is higher than the valve temperature
during closing and gate > body.

Under either of these conditions, the change in temperature tends to increase the
disc-to-seat interference and opening thrust.

The average temperature of the gate is less than the average temperature of the
body. As the temperature of the gate increases after closing, the gate expands
causing additional gate-to-seat interference, which increases the opening thrust.

The stem temperature during closing is less than the stem temperature after closing.
As the stem temperature increases, the stem compressive force increases, and the
disc is forced deeper into the seat.

When hot fluid enters a cold valve, it immediately surrounds the valve trim. The trim
expands quickly, causing differential thermal expansion between the trim and body
due to the relatively lower mass of some of the trim components. For moving parts, this
expansion results in reduced working clearances causing accelerated wear, high
actuation forces, or binding and galling. For interference fit parts, such as seats and
bushings or guides, thermal cycling can cause loosening. These parts must be screwed,
welded, or brazed in place in applications where high thermal gradients and cycling
are present.

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EPRI is currently conducting a research project to develop a mathematical model to


quantify the opening thrust requirements under thermal binding conditions. This
project may also provide some recommendations for means to mitigate the effects of
thermal binding. In the meantime, the following suggestions may be useful in
addressing thermal binding:

For existing valves, Attachment 2 of the NRC Generic Letter 95-07 [4.2] provides
potential resolutions for gate valves susceptible to thermal binding which include:

Replacing a wedge gate valve with a parallel-disc gate valve.

When allowed, procedure modifications to prevent thermal binding from taking


place. This may include using limit switch control in the closing direction or
cracking open the disc before a large temperature change takes place.

For new valves, the valve operating conditions should be considered in the material
selection of valve components and in disc shape design. Detailed finite element
analyses may be performed to ensure that thermal binding will not occur under any
plant operating conditions. Alternatively, parallel-disc gate valves may be used in
applications where thermal binding is a concern.

4.3

Installation Practices

General valve installation practices are discussed in Section 19. The ideal orientation for
any valve is to have the stem (or bonnet) vertically up in a horizontal run of piping to
obtain optimal wear characteristics and operability. This orientation cannot always be
accommodated when considering overall plant design and arrangements. There are
also precautions that should be taken with certain valves relative to proximity of other
equipment or pipe fittings. Valves should always be installed in an orientation in which
they are seismically qualified, when seismic qualification is required.
Regardless of the type of gate valve used, with the stem in other than the vertical
upright orientation, uneven, unpredictable wear can occur on guides, guiding surfaces,
stems, T-slots, and seats, and packing life can be shortened. In addition, testing,
disassembly, and maintenance become more difficult.
If the stem (and thereby the bonnet) is oriented at an angle below the horizontal, the
relatively large volume of the bonnet acts as an unflushable accumulator and traps any
insoluble material passing through the valve. The bonnet can also act as a cold trap
(that is, it can precipitate out material that is held in solution by the heat of the fluid).
This precipitate material can shorten valve life, packing life, and can hamper
disassembly. If the material is radioactive, the disassembly procedure becomes even
more difficult.
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Valves that require manual operation or frequent maintenance and repair should be
readily accessible. Valves and actuators should have sufficient clearance for repair or
removal and reinstallation. Large and heavy valve/actuator assemblies may require
additional supports. Power supply equipment (such as power cables or air lines)
should be routed in such a way as to not interfere with maintenance activities.
Valve/actuator assemblies should be protected from corrosive drippings from other
equipment and should not be subjected to extreme temperatures and/or radiation
beyond design limits.

4.4

Operation Practices and Precautions

Because of the potential for seat erosion and/or damage to the gate, gate valves should
not be used for long term throttling unless specifically designed for that service.
Double-disc valves should never be used for throttling.
Never use anything other than the handwheel to operate a manual valve. For example,
the use of a cheater bar to open or close a valve may damage the operator or the valve
internals. On a motor-operated valve where the handwheel is used, care should be
taken to limit the amount of handwheel torque or force to avoid damage to the valve or
actuator.
Care must be used when backseating a valve to reduce packing leakage, especially in a
hot valve. If the line is hot, the portion of the stem that is withdrawn from the body will
cool to ambient temperature, causing the stem to shrink and possibly causing damage
to the stem and/or backseat. When backseating to reduce packing leakage, avoid
backseating a valve with motor operation, because damage to the backseat, stem, or
motor might occur. Instead, carefully use the handwheel. (See Section 2.3.8 for cautions
on backseating.)

4.5

Common Problems

In conventional wedge gate valves, fluid force during intermediate disc travel
imposes a moment on the disc that tends to cause disc tipping, which in turn is
responsible for high edge loading and damage to the disc and seat faces as well as
the lower guide surfaces as shown in Figure 4-11. The fluid-induced moment on the
disc for any given flow and P condition is zero in the fully open and fully closed
positions with a maxima at an intermediate disc travel position. The magnitude of
the fluid-induced moment on the disc and the potential for damage increases with
an increase in flow velocity. Under high energy blowdown conditions, damage to
the disc and seat faces and/or the guide surfaces has been observed with many
conventional wedge gate valve designs and parallel disc designs [5.55].

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Figure 4-11
Typical Seat and Guide Damage Locations in Conventional Flexible Wedge Gate
Valves Under High Flow Conditions

Normally open valves with high turbulence flows (such as downstream of pumps,
control valves, orifices, strainers, and elbows) may be subject to high wear rates due
to the turbulence-induced motion between internal components. In solid and
flexible disc valves (with single-piece discs), wear typically occurs at two locations:
(1) stem head and disc T-slot and (2) body and disc guides.
In other gate valves with multiple-piece discs, additional wear can occur between
the disc components. Excessive wear can cause valve failure, including stem
separation from disc and disc sticking at an intermediate position.

Seat leakage is a common problem in gate valves and can be caused by several
factors:

Insufficient wedging loads

Sediment or scale in the seat area

Disc and seat erosion

Wire drawings or steam cuttings caused by high flow velocities between the disc
and seat

High pipe loads and moments, especially with low pressure class valves

Excessive wedging forces which cause high deformations

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Reversed installation of unidirectional valves (for example, double-disc valves


installed with flow in the non-preferred direction)

Stem packing leakage is a common problem.

Leakage through the bonnet flange is also a frequent problem. Body-to-bonnet joints
utilizing a spiral wound gasket may exhibit leakage if gasket surfaces are not
cleaned properly or have not been properly dressed. Occasionally, the dimensions
of the joints do not provide for proper gasket compression, or the bolts are not
torqued properly.

The increase in the required opening thrust under pressure locking and/or thermal
binding conditions can cause the valve to fail to open. The common modes of failure
to open under pressure locking and/or thermal binding conditions include
insufficient actuator output and failure of the weak link (in the valve or the
actuator).

Stem thrust may become smaller under higher disc friction loads due to increase in
stem factor or stem coefficient of friction. This phenomenon (called rate of loading
effect or load sensitive behavior) was observed during EPRIs testing, NRC-sponsored
testing at INEEL, and valve operations in nuclear plants. These tests show that
conversion of actuator output torque to stem thrust became less efficient at higher
thrust levels. For the same actuator torque switch setting, the stem output thrust
under high P condition can be lower by as much as 25% of its value under static
conditions. The rate of loading effect must be accounted for in evaluating required
stem thrust under load.

Static and fatigue failures in internal valve and actuator components can occur due
to excessive stem thrust values. In particular, during programs to verify MOV
design basis capability, the opening/closing thrust levels for many valves had to be
increased significantly to ensure MOV capability. During in situ testing and control
switch activities, some valves and actuators were inadvertently overloaded beyond
their thrust ratings. Failures include broken stems, stripped stem threads, broken or
severely deformed gate T-slots, and bent or broken guide rails. Such failures can be
prevented by appropriate stress/fatigue analyses of the weak link components.

In some service situations, isolation valves may stay in one position for long periods
of time. If left in the open position for a long time, deposits and particulates can
accumulate in the gate guides and recesses of the valve, preventing full closure and
possibly resulting in damage to the disc or seat if the valve is forced closed.

Threads often bind due to corrosion and foreign matter, especially in gate valves
with inside threads. Outside threads also become corroded and crusted with

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deposits, but the deposits are easily seen and can be removed to make the valve
operable.

The use of gate valves in throttling service is a basic misapplication, and this
practice usually leads to damage of the valve or the valve seats.

Some valve vendors underpredicted thrust and torque requirements for some gate
valves by underestimating friction coefficients, flow effects, and metal-to-metal
interactions.

Some MOV problems are caused by overestimation of motor actuator output


torque/thrust capability.

Weak link failure can be caused by under-predicting the actuator output thrust,
which can be caused by overpredicting stem friction coefficient (stem factor) or
ignoring inertia overshoot.

Many valve problems are caused by improper maintenance and/or repairs. For
example, elastomeric and non-metallic components can be damaged by improper
solvents and cleaners. The use of counterfeit and low-quality, commercial grade
spare parts can also cause valve failures.

4.6

Maintenance Methods

General good maintenance practices are discussed in Section 17. Always follow the
manufacturers maintenance instructions. Valves should be stroked at least once every
six months to ensure proper operation and to detect internal or external leakage such as
in the seat, packing, or bonnet-gasket.
Lapping or grinding of disc and seats are the most common corrective maintenance
actions taken (see Reference 1.1 for detailed discussion). When these operations are
done with a lapping machine or lapping plate, ensure that the original angle of the
sealing surface is maintained.
During disassembly of the valve, match mark the bolted joint or pressure seal pressure
boundary parts to assure proper orientation upon reassembly. Improper orientation of
pressure boundary parts will often result in joint leakage or malfunction due to
misalignment upon return to service.
In body-to-bonnet joints, ensure that gasket surfaces are cleaned properly and properly
dressed and that the bolts are torqued properly.
A procedure for valve assembly should include proper cleaning of the sealing surfaces,
a check of the dimensions and surface finish of joints, and require that bolts be torqued
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to a given value, with proper sequencing and in at least three increments.


Manufacturers recommended torque values should be followed unless other values
can be justified.
For pressure seal bonnet valves, the use of a detailed procedure is recommended. The
body and bonnet surfaces, where the seal ring contacts them, require an extremely
good surface finish and must be free of corrosion products. After reassembly and initial
pressure buildup, the bonnet should be retightened.
Threaded-in seat rings that do not have a provision for seat welding tend to loosen,
causing seat leakage. Extreme caution must be used to avoid thread damage while
reinstalling the seats.
Gaskets or seals should not be re-used unless specifically permitted by the
manufacturer.
Practice good cleanliness, and remove all debris and foreign materials from the valve
after performing maintenance. Allowing flow through a valve with the gate in the nearclosed position helps to flush debris and foreign particles from the valve body cavity.

4.7

Recent Improvements in Flexible Wedge Gate Valve Designs

The research activities conducted in response to the U.S. NRC GL 89-10 revealed
several problems with many flexible wedge gate valves from different valve
manufacturers. These problems relate to lack of reliable operation under design basis
conditions including higher than anticipated stem thrust requirements, unpredictable
valve behavior, damage to the valve seats and guides under blowdown/high flow
conditions, failure of some internal components (weak links) under high thrust
conditions, significant degradation of performance when cycled under P and flow,
thermal binding and pressure locking. With good understanding of these problems and
their causes, many valve manufacturers started implementing design changes in order
to minimize and hopefully eliminate these problems. For example, in a joint effort
between General Electric Company and Kalsi Engineering, Inc., an improved flexible
wedge gate valve design was developed [5.55]. The new design (called Sentinel
Valve) incorporates several features to address known problems such as pressure
locking, thermal binding, seat leakage, disc/guide gouging, structural strength
margins, and fatigue life.

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5
GLOBE VALVESISOLATION FUNCTION

5.1

Introduction and Application

A globe valve can be used full open, full closed, or for throttling within limits of the
disc and seat configuration.
Globe valves are normally metal or hard-seated, but they can be furnished with
resilient disc inserts or seats that are suited for compressed air, compressed gas, or
fluids that contain small particles of foreign material.
Globe valves have fewer operability problems as compared to gate valves and normally
provide excellent seat leak tightness, but they do so at the penalty of a higher pressure
drop. Globe valves also require large actuators.

5.2

Design

There are three basic body shapes in globe valves:

Standard pattern (also called T-pattern), which is the most common shape
(Figure 5-1).

Angle pattern (Figure 5-2).

Y-pattern (Figure 5-3), in which the stem is inclined at an angle (for example, 45)
with respect to the pipe axis. The Y-pattern body is designed to reduce the flow
resistance of the globe valve. The flow resistance of the angle valve is between that
of the standard globe and Y-pattern.

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Figure 5-1
T-Pattern Globe Valve

Figure 5-2
Angle-Pattern Globe Valve

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Figure 5-3
Y-Pattern Globe Valve

In contrast to the gate valves disc-to-seat sealing action (which is accompanied by


sliding and friction), the globe valve plug or disc approaches or moves away from the
seat in a direction perpendicular to the seat plane without sliding. Thus, relatively high
seat contact stresses can be developed to get very tight shut-off without galling the
seating surfaces.
Globe valve stems are either a rising and nonrotating design or a rising and rotating
design. Some rising and rotating stem globe valves have an integral stem-to-disc
connection that causes sliding at the seat face during the final closing action.
Globe valves are available in a wide variety of materials with both metal-to-metal
seating components and soft seating options. Due to its relatively short stroke to
achieve the full open position (as compared to gate valves), globe valves can easily
incorporate diaphragm or bellows-type stem seals to provide zero external leakage.
Other options available in globe valves are dual and balanced plug designs to reduce
actuator force requirements, cage guiding, and anti-cavitation and noise control trims
for high pressure drop applications and gas services. Special details pertinent to control
applications are discussed further in Section 6.
Guidance of the plug in the mid-travel position can be achieved by either a stem guide
or plug guide, as discussed in Section 2.2.4. Plug guidance is preferred for larger valves
to avoid stem/plug vibrations due to fluid dynamic forces.
For globe valves with unbalanced discs, the major component of required stem thrust is
the differential pressure load on the disc, which in turn depends on the differential
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pressure area. Testing has shown that, for common valve designs under incompressible
flow conditions, there are two possible areas that need to be considered: (1) the area
based on disc seating diameter (seat-based valves), and (2) the area based on disc guide
diameter (guide-based valves).
The required thrust prediction methodology for globe valves is given in Reference 2.3
along with a detailed criterion for determining whether a valve is seat-based or guidebased. Figures 5-1, 5-2, and 5-3 show typical seat-based designs. A guide-based design
is shown in Figure 5-4.

Figure 5-4
Velan 2" (5.1 cm), 1500# Globe Valve (Guide-Based)
Model: Figure No. 137132

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5.3

Installation Practices

Installation practices noted for gate valves in Section 4.3 apply to globe valves as well.
Additionally, installation of globe valves with the stems vertically upright is even more
critical than for gate valves, as proper guidance of the disc into the seat is needed to
achieve tight closure. If the stem and valve body are other than vertical, the disc tends
to cock or go off center, and the disc seating surface, when going into the seat, will have
little tendency to compensate to effect the correct seating angle. Y-pattern globe valves
are normally provided with improved guidance to permit valve operation with the
stem at an angle to vertical.
Flow Direction
Globe valves are normally installed so that flow is from under the seat. In some
applications, however, it is more important that stem packing be isolated from pressure
or vacuum from the downstream side when the valve is closed. For example, a valve
used as a containment isolation valve in a line with normal flow into the containment,
but with containment accident flow out of the containment, should be installed with
normal flow over the seat. In addition, valves connected directly to a vacuum
condenser should be installed so that the packing is not exposed to vacuum when the
valve is shut.

5.4

Operation Practices and Precautions

The operation practices and precautions for gate valves indicated in Section 4.4 also
apply to globe valves.
Globe valves may be used for rough throttling. However, if the valve was not specified
for throttling, cavitation, chattering, and vibration may occur in the throttled position.

5.5

Common Problems

Most problems noted for gate valves in Section 4.6 also apply to globe valves.

Globe valves improperly applied for throttling will cause damage to the valve
and/or adjacent piping (for example, erosion, cavitation damage, flow-induced
vibration, and high wear).

Thrust requirements for some globe valves may be greater than predicted by valve
vendors. The required thrust for globe valves can be alternatively calculated using
EPRIs PPM [2.1, 2.3].

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Some globe valve designs may experience stem guide or plug damage due to high
side loads caused by high midstroke differential pressures. This most often occurs
under high flow rates such as during blowdown events.

Typical problems of isolation globe valves include stem/disc separation, sticking


solenoids, pneumatic system failures, and seat leakage.

Antirotation arms in globe valves cause several problems including binding,


rotating, and breaking.

Similar to gate valves, globe valves operated by motor actuators are susceptible to
load-sensitive behavior (see Section 4.5).

Metal diaphragm sealed globe valves (Figure 2-25) do not have their stem connected
directly to their disc and rely on a spring to open the valve when the stem is
withdrawn. Therefore, these valves should not be used as throttle/control valves,
nor should they be used in dirty service.

5.6

Maintenance Methods

Always follow the manufacturers instructions.


The maintenance methods for gate valves discussed in Section 4.6 generally apply to
globe valves.
Threaded-in seat rings that do not have a provision for seal welding tend to loosen,
causing seat leakage. Extreme caution should be used to avoid thread damage while reinstalling the seats.
Re-surfacing the seats of a large Y-pattern globe whose stem is not vertical is very
difficult due to gravity effects causing tool misalignment and setup difficulty. Use
extreme care and proper tooling when performing this maintenance activity (see
Reference 1.1 for detailed guidance on globe valve repair).

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6
GLOBE VALVESMODULATING/THROTTLING
FUNCTION

6.1

Introduction and Application

6.1.1 General
Globe valves are the most extensively used valves for modulating service, due in part
to the adaptability of the basic design to accommodate difficult conditions such as high
pressure, temperature, and differential pressure applications. Compared to ball and
butterfly valves, globe valves present a higher flow resistance. The flow capacity of
globe valves is about one-third that of low-resistance valves such as ball and butterfly.
However, as flow capacity decreases, resistance to cavitation and noise increases.
This section presents a general discussion of globe valve designs used in modulating
and throttling applications along with their performance characteristics and limitations.
As will be shown, most control valve problems are caused by improper selection,
sizing, and/or installation. Leading control valve manufacturers estimate that most
existing control valve application problems can be resolved and could have been
avoided if accurate application data and operating conditions were established and
provided before selecting and sizing the valve.
Technical papers and standards have been published by control valve manufacturers,
individuals, and organizations such as the Instrument Society of America (ISA) to aid
the user in the sizing, specification, selection, and testing of control valves. ISA-S75.01
[6.37] provides flow equations for sizing control valves. Derivation of the various
factors that appear in the sizing formulas, as well as representative values of valve
capacity factors, are included in this standard. Alternatively, these factors can be
measured using the control valve test procedures given in ISA-S75.02 [6.38].
Additional information can be found in other EPRI documents (see Sections 22.1 and
22.2). The following information highlights areas that cause recurrent control valve
sizing problems.

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6.1.2 System Differential Pressure versus Control Valve Differential Pressure


Control valve P is the difference between the pressure at the control valve inlet and
the pressure at the control valve outlet for a given flow rate. The control valve pressure
drop varies with flow rate. Inlet pressure is the pressure available after piping and
equipment resistance losses between the source and the control valve are subtracted
from the source pressure at a given flow rate. Outlet pressure is the pressure which
results after piping and equipment resistance losses between the receiver (final element
in the loop) and the control valve are added to the receiver pressure at a given flow
rate. This is depicted in Figure 6-1.

Figure 6-1
Pressure Drop Through a Control Valve at Minimum, Design, and Maximum
System Flows

The control valve represents a variable flow resistance in the hydraulic system. A
control valve will change the total flow resistance of the entire hydraulic system until
the total system pressure drop is equal to the system head imparted by the pressure
source (for example, centrifugal pump) at a given flow rate.

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Moore [5.57, 5.1] has developed guidelines for the allocation of pressure drop across the
control valve, acknowledging that the choice of pressure drop is a complex problem
which cannot be defined by a set of numerical rules. The guidelines should thus be
used more as benchmarks than design criteria. They are as follows:
1. In a pumped circuit, the pressure drop allocated to the control valve should be
equal to 33% of the dynamic loss in the system at the rated flow or 15 psi, whichever
is greater.
2. The pressure drop allocated to a control valve in the suction or discharge line of a
centrifugal compressor should be 5% of the suction absolute pressure or 50% of the
dynamic losses of the system, whichever is greater.
3. In a system where static pressure moves liquid from one pressure vessel to another,
the pressure drop allocated to the valve should be 10% of the lower terminal vessel
pressure, or 50% of the system dynamic losses, whichever is greater.
4. Valves in steam lines to turbines, reboilers, and process vessels should be allocated
10% of the design absolute pressure for the steam system or 5 psi, whichever is
greater.
Some confusion exists in differentiating between assigned P and actual P. There is a
tendency to assume that because a P is assigned to a valve, the valve creates that P;
however, this is not the case. The assigned pressure drop is the pressure that is added
to the system resistance to ensure that sufficient P is available to permit the control
valve to perform its function. This assigned P is a design number, necessary in
determining requirements for motive force, such as the pump in a liquid handling
system. Thus, assigned P has no significance under actual operating conditions.
Under actual operating conditions, the control valve is throttled to dissipate energy
developed in excess of system equipment losses (actual system P).
Most often, the size of the control valve is too large for the application, which results in
control problems including instability (Section 6.2.11). Furthermore, oversized control
valves may have to be throttled to small openings, which can result in cavitation,
flashing, and/or choking.
Control valves are, by design, capable of controlling over a wide range of conditions.
However, a sizing error usually results in higher energy consumption. Control
requirements, both minimum and maximum, are usually met.
Under some circumstances, however, the following factors may result in an installed or
actual P so high that control under minimum flow requirements may become
impossible:
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Conservative published manufacturers data.


Example: A pump with flow capacity greater than that required will develop a
higher discharge head than anticipated for a given flow.
Result: Control valve pressure drop is higher than expected, and flow control at
low flow rates becomes difficult.

Conservative (high) surface roughness used for determining friction losses in pipe.
Example: The use of high friction factors in the formula for determining line loss
in a piping system will indicate a friction head loss of as high as twice the loss
through clean new pipe. Losses through pipe and fitting, when the installation is
new, could be only half of that anticipated after a period of service (that is, actual
piping causes lower pressure loss at a given flow).
Result: Control valve pressure drop is higher than expected, and flow control at
low flow rates becomes difficult.

The design margin imposed on system head to compensate for anticipated piping or
equipment additions that never materialize will increase actual P across the control
valve.

Addition of safety factors to flow requirements will increase actual P to the system.

In summary, the control valve does not dictate the P in a fluid handling system, but it
provides a variable restriction to dissipate the difference between the system head (by a
pump or upstream tank) and the system head loss (other than the control valve) at a
given flow rate. Thus, for a given flow rate, the pressure drop across the control valve
should satisfy the following equation:
Pcontrol valve = Psource - Psystem
If the actual pressure drop across the control valve (at a given disc opening) is smaller
than the above value, the valve is oversized.
If the P assigned for the control valve during system design is less than the P
available in the actual installation, the valve could be oversized. Control valve
oversizing, which results in oversizing the pressure source (for example, pump), can
result in a considerable waste of energy over the life of the system.
In the illustration shown in Figure 6-2, there are two sets of conditions given: calculated
and actual. The calculated inlet and outlet pressures are the result of applying line
losses based on old pipe. Actual inlet and outlet pressures are based on conditions that
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could exist in a new installation. That is, they exclude the increase in the friction losses
associated with old pipe, resulting in a higher P across the control valve.
CALCULATED
FLOW

ACTUAL

Max

Nor

Min

Pi psia

620

640

672

Pf psia
Lto in ft
Lfrom in ft

387
200
132

P1 psia

600

625

671

672

679

738

748

P2 psia

400

397

388

394

392

387

15

200

228

283

278

287

351

733

3000
350
0.89
200

2500

600

3000

2500

600

156

34

170

137

30

200
100
0.99
8

P psid
Q gpm
T F
Specific Gravity
Cv

Max

Nor

Min

683

687

739

Start-Up
748
15

111
70

Figure 6-2
Control Valve Sizing Example

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The normal and maximum flow rates remain unchanged; however, minimum flow rate
for the actual condition is lowered to 200 gpm. This is not unusual, particularly in the
early stages of a project when production is low or under test or startup conditions.
Finally, should temperatures differ from those anticipated, serious complications could
result. In this case, cavitation would occur at the startup/test condition. This problem
may not be worth designing for if the conditions that result in cavitation are short term;
however, cavitation should be considered in the application. Valve styles other than
globe could and should be considered for this application, but for purposes of this
illustration, the discussion is limited to globe style valves.
The valve flow coefficient (Cv in gpm/ psi ) is defined as the flow rate in U.S. gallons
per minute of 60F water that flows through a valve with a pressure drop of one psi.
The valve flow coefficient for each flow rate is calculated as follows (see C v results in
the table of Figure 6-2):
Cv

= Q

(62.4 )

where
Q

Flow rate, gpm

Valve pressure drop, psi

Fluid density at operating temperature, lb/ft3

Referring to the percent travel versus Cv curves, shown in Figure 6-2, for typical 4- and
6-inch valves, the Cv of 200 required for the maximum flow rate of 3000 gpm exceeds
the capacity of the 4-inch valve, indicating that the 6-inch valve will be required. This
would seem to satisfy the capacity requirements in that the 6-inch valve will be
throttled from between approximately 8% travel to 50% travel under the calculated
conditions.
If, however, the installed valve is to operate under the conditions marked startup, a
Cv requirement of 8 falls somewhat below the point of control in the 6-inch valve.
For the 6-inch valve, the Cv at 10% travel is 40, and the valve will have a Cv of 8 at a
travel of somewhere between 10 and 0%. This point is difficult to predict and will not
be repeatable below approximately 2% travel. Refer to Section 6.2.10 for a detailed
discussion on rangeability.

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One approach that should be considered in applications such as that illustrated in


Figure 6-2 is to confirm that meeting the specified flow is an absolute necessity.
Occasionally, maximum conditions are based on an arbitrary value, which is somewhat
flexible, or on one that must be passed through the valve, but not controlled. In either
case, the conditions should be reconciled between the specifying engineer and the
system design engineer to ensure the best possible selection.
If the maximum flow of 3000 gpm in the previous example is somewhat arbitrary and
represents an approximate uncontrolled maximum (valve full open) and if a somewhat
lower flow could be accepted, then the 4-inch valve could be a better selection. The 4inch valve would throttle the normal flow at between 60 and 80% travel and would
meet the minimum flow requirement at between 2 and 25% travel. A maximum full
open flow of approximately 2900 gpm could be expected.
If a maximum uncontrolled flow (valve full open) of no less than 3000 gpm is required,
then the 6-inch valve is a necessity, but, to ensure control at the possible minimum flow
condition of 200 gpm, a 6-inch valve with reduced trim could be specified, resulting in
a Cv versus stroke curve that approximates the 4-inch full area curve. The maximum Cv
would be somewhat higher than the 4-inch valve, while minimum Cv would be
approximately the same as the 4-inch valve.
If it is required that 3000 gpm be a controlled flow, the 6-inch full area trim must be
used. Control under minimum conditions must be handled in some other manner, such
as by adding a second but smaller valve in parallel to the 6-inch valve to control the
low flows. The important point is that all options will have been considered and all
parties concerned are aware of the various options available.
Another point to consider is the selection of the P which was made in specifying the
pump in Figure 6-2. A P of 200 for this case is excessive by whatever criteria for
selection is used. A more reasonable selection of 50 to 75 P would result in a
maximum required Cv of 200 to 325 and, by applying the same criteria as above in the
determination of worst-case minimum conditions of 600 to 200 gpm, the minimum C v
required of 34 to 14 would fall within the range of the 6-inch valve.
The selection of the control valve and the pump motive requirements can be optimized
using a detailed system analysis. Computer programs can provide detailed flow results
(including flow rates, pressure drops, cavitation/choking status, etc.) throughout the
control valve stroke using the detailed hydraulic system resistances and the system
head data. Valve and pump manufacturers can provide recommendations for control
valve sizing, selection, and installation.

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6.1.3 High Pressure Drop Applications


The following applications, common to many power plants, illustrate the use of some of
the more specialized control valves used for high pressure drop applications:

Feedwater recirculation

Atmospheric steam dump and turbine bypass

Attemperator spray control

Deaerator level control

Feedwater pump flow control

Examples of control valve sizing for these applications are shown in Section 24.

6.2

Design

6.2.1 General
In order to meet the ever changing requirements of fluid flow control, several styles of
globe valves have been developed. This section describes the available styles.

6.2.2 Single-Port (Single-Seated) Valves


The simplest and the most commonly used control valve body style is a globe valve,
shown in Figure 6-3. This figure shows a single-port, top-guided design in which the
valve disc is guided within the lower portion of the valve bonnet. This single-port valve
is generally specified for applications where tight shutoff is required.

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Figure 6-3
Single-Port Control Valve

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Since the high pressure fluid acts across the entire area of the disc defined by the seat
port diameter, the resultant unbalanced force on the disc can be quite large and is the
dominant component in sizing the actuator. Because of relatively high actuator thrust
requirements, single-port globe valves are most commonly used in 3-inch (75-mm) and
smaller valves, even though they may also be used in 4-inch to 8-inch (100-mm to 200mm) sizes with high thrust actuators.
The flow direction in globe valves can be either over the plug or under the plug. These
different flow directions produce different plug force and actuating force requirements.
The plug force versus travel curve, as the plug is moved away from the fully closed
position, plays an important role in determining the stability of valve operation at any
given position. A flow over the plug control valve configuration exhibits the highest
degree of control instability when operating near the fully closed position, due to a
relatively steep negative plug force versus travel gradient in this type of construction.
See Section 6.2.11 for a discussion on valve stability.

6.2.3 Double-Port (Double-Seated) Valves


Double-port valve bodies shown in Figure 6-4 are used to balance the forces acting on
the disc as high pressure fluid tends to exert opening force on one seat and closing
force on the other. The net force is lower than in single-port valves, which permits a
smaller actuator to be used for a given size valve. The smaller actuator also provides for
more stable control operation due to the absence of large plug force versus travel
gradients. Double-port valves are most commonly used in sizes 6 inches (150 mm) or
larger and are generally of top- and bottom-guided construction. Since it is difficult to
close the two seats simultaneously, particularly due to differential thermal expansion
effects in operation, double-port valves should not be required to perform a tight
shutoff function.

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Figure 6-4
Double-Seated Globe Valve

It should be pointed out that the double-seated valves use slightly different diameters
for the top and bottom seat to allow assembly and removal of the smaller disc through
the larger seat. This difference in seat areas contributes to some unbalanced force on the
disc. Additionally, complete cancellation of forces on the disc when it is off the seat is
not possible because of the difference in fluid dynamic forces for flow under the disc
versus flow over the disc in the two ports. The total imbalance forces can reach as high
as 40% of the equivalent single-port valve value in some designs.

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6.2.4 Cage-Style Valves: Balanced and Unbalanced


The valve disc is closely guided inside a cylindrical cage in cage-style valve
construction, which has the advantage of easy trim removal and maintenance. The
cage-style construction offers the choice of using balanced or unbalanced disc design
and easy interchangeability of internal parts to provide special low noise, high
differential pressure, or anticavitation cage trims.
The cage has a number of specially shaped flow ports that uniformly distribute flow
around the disc and also serve to provide the desired flow characteristics. Uniform
distribution of the flow around the disc tends to balance horizontal side loads. The disc
is guided at a large diameter, which makes it more suitable for high pressure drop
service without causing lateral disc vibrations in throttling positions, which can occur
in some top-guided designs.
Balanced-disc cage-style valves provide a good choice in many applications, providing
the advantages of a balanced disc that are otherwise available only with more bulky
and complex double-port bodies. The cage-type trim provides valve disc guiding, seat
ring retention, and flow characterization through specially shaped ports in the cage.
The main difference between the unbalanced and balanced disc cage valves is the use
of balancing holes that equalize pressure above and below the disc area, thereby
nullifying most of the static imbalance forces.
A sliding piston ring-type seal between the upper portion of the valve disc and the
inside of the cage wall is required to prevent leakage of upstream high pressure fluid
into the lower pressure region on the downstream side. For service temperatures of
400F (200C) or less, a variety of elastomeric and polymeric materials can be used for
this sliding seal application. Because these piston seals cannot be mechanically loaded
to compensate for wear and to improve their seal tightness, piston seals often permit
some leakage past the plug and should not be called upon to provide the tight shutoff
that single-seat valves provide.
As shown in Figure 6-5, the piston sliding-seal diameter is usually a little larger than
the sealing diameter at the seat port, which results in a plug area that is not 100%
balanced when the disc is in the closed position. This should be taken into account
when calculating the net static unbalanced forces in sizing the actuators. Reduced
unbalanced force across the disc permits the use of smaller actuators than necessary for
conventional single-port (unbalanced disc) bodies. The net axial force due to flow
dynamic effects and its variation as a function of valve travel is also much lower than in
conventional single- or double-port valves, enabling cage style valves to provide a very
stable operation, even under very high differential pressures.

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Figure 6-5
Balanced Disc Cage Style Valve

The standard direction of flow is through the cage openings and down through the seat
ring. Standard shutoff performance meets ANSI/FCI-70-2 Class III requirements, and
Class IV or better shutoff is offered in some designs (see Table 3-1). Due to reduced disc
forces and smaller actuator requirements, these valves are used in sizes up to 16 inches
(400 mm) and pressure ratings up to ANSI Class 2500.

6.2.5 Angle Valves


Angle valves are single-seated valves having a body configuration in which the axes of
the valve inlet and outlet connections are at 90 to each other (Figure 5-2). Angle valves
offer an advantage of lower pressure drop than a standard T-pattern valve (Figure 5-1).
Both top-guided and cage-guided body constructions are available. Cage-guided
balanced disc designs permit the angle valve body to be used in large sizes and high
pressure service. Angle valves can also serve the purpose of elbows.

6.2.6 Y-Style Valves


The Y-style body construction shown in Figure 6-6 offers the advantage of higher flow
capacity than the T-pattern globe or angle body styles. A disadvantage of Y-style valves
is that they have a high side thrust component on the valve disc due to a non-uniform
fluid flow, especially at low lift and in high pressure drop applications. Special design
features have been incorporated by various manufacturers to reduce the side thrust by
preventing the fluid from flowing behind the disc. In addition to its use as a control
valve, the Y-pattern design has been widely used for main steam isolation service,
providing low pressure drop capability under full flow condition.
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Figure 6-6
Y-Style Body Valve

6.2.7 Three-Way Valves


Three-way valves use a double-port body construction for diverting or mixing service
and require three pipeline connections. Since the pressure differentials across the two
seats are different, actuator selection requires careful consideration, especially when
unbalanced valve construction, as shown in Figure 6-7, is used. For higher pressures
and larger sizes, another option is to utilize cage-style trim, shown in Figure 6-8, for
more positive disc guiding and to keep the actuator size small.

Figure 6-7
Three-Way Valve for Flow Diverting Service Unbalanced Disc

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Figure 6-8
Three-Way Valve, Balanced Plug

6.2.8 High Pressure Drop Service Control Valves


Cage-guided construction lends itself to adaptation of the special features necessary to
handle high pressure drops across the valve without causing cavitation and noise in
liquid service and high aerodynamic noise in steam or gas service.
In general, all of the designs for high pressure drop service employ a series of tortuous
paths for the fluid flow, which creates a high head loss. This irrecoverable pressure
head loss reduces the final velocity at each stage. Due to lower velocity, the fluid
pressure is never allowed to drop below the vapor pressure of the liquid at the
operating temperature, thus greatly reducing the possibility of cavitation or flashing.
This principle has been employed in many design variations that effectively handle
pressure drops as high as 3,000 psi (20.7 MPa) without cavitation and noise damage.
Figure 6-9 shows some of the typical designs utilizing a high pressure drop cage
cartridge. In general for liquid service, the flow can be from inside the cage to the
outside or vice versa, whereas in compressible fluid service, such as steam, the usual
arrangement is to have the flow from the inside of the cage to the outside to
accommodate the larger increase in volume associated with the compressible media as
it goes through pressure reduction.

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Another type of disc and seat design, which does not utilize a cage-type construction
but is also suitable for high pressure drop service, is shown in Figures 6-10 and 6-11.
This design consists of a series of expansion chambers along the length of the disc that
act as a labyrinth passage from the high pressure side to the low pressure side.

Figure 6-9
Low Noise, Anti-Cavitation Trim

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Figure 6-10
High Pressure Drop Multiple Step Plug and Cage

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Figure 6-11
High Pressure Drop Control Valve, Labyrinth Design

6.2.9 Flow Characteristics


Flow characteristics, the relationship between flow coefficient and valve stroke, depend
on the shape of the disc/plug as well as the valves internal geometry. The three most
common types of flow characteristics are equal percentage, linear, and quick opening
[5.1, 5.2]. Figure 6-12 shows the ideal inherent characteristic curve for each of the flow
characteristics. These characteristics can be approximated by contouring the plug.
However, the real curves often deviate considerably from these ideal characteristics
because there are body effects and other uncontrollable factors, in addition to the need
for maximizing the flow capacity for a particular valve.

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Figure 6-12
Inherent Flow Curves for Various Valve Plugs with Constant Delta P Across the
Valve

A brief synopsis of each of the three flow characteristics is given below:

Equal Percentage. Equal percentage is the characteristic most commonly used in


process control. The change in flow per unit of valve stroke is directly proportional
to the flow occurring just before the change is made. While the flow characteristic of
the valve itself may be equal percentage, most control loops will produce an
installed characteristic approaching linear when the overall system pressure drop is
large relative to that across the valve.

Linear. An inherently linear characteristic produces equal changes in flow per unit
of valve stroke, regardless of plug position. Linear plugs are used on those systems
where the valve pressure drop is a major portion of the total system drop.

Quick Open. Quick open plugs are used for on-off applications designed to produce
maximum flow quickly.

Inherent versus Installed Characteristics: When a constant pressure drop is maintained


across the valve, the characteristic of the valve alone controls the flow; this
characteristic is referred to as the inherent flow characteristic. Installed characteristics
include both the valve and pipeline effects. The difference can best be understood by
examining an entire system.
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When placed into service in actual systems and the pump characteristics and piping
loss are accounted for, equal percentage, linear, and quick open inherent flow
characteristics change significantly to what is referred to as installed characteristics. The
deviation of the installed characteristics from the inherent characteristics depends on
the system flow resistance and system head source. In systems with very small flow
resistance and constant head (such as between constant pressure upstream and
downstream reservoirs), the difference between installed characteristics and inherent
characteristics is small.
A typical example is containment isolation valves where the containment represents an
infinite reservoir. In systems with high flow resistance and variable head source (such
as a centrifugal pump), the difference between installed characteristics and inherent
characteristics can be very significant (see Figure 6-13 for a typical example). In Figure
6-13, the inherent equal percentage trim exhibits a nearly linear installed characteristic,
while the inherent linear trim appears to be almost quick opening when installed.
Figure 6-13 contrasts inherent characteristics with installed characteristics. The curves
in Figure 6-13 show, from the standpoint of proportional band, that in the low flow
operating region, for a given flow change, a very small change in lift is required for the
linear trim, compared with the equal percentage trim. Thus, the flow rate is sensitive to
valve opening in the low flow rate region.

Figure 6-13
Comparison of Installed Characteristics versus Inherent Characteristics

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Operating in the higher flow region, the opposite is true; that is, a larger change in lift
is required for the same change in flow for the equal percent trim, while the linear trim
requires an even higher change in lift. Consequently, overall sensitivity will be
decreased for both trims. The equal percentage trim would exhibit an almost constant
sensitivity over the entire operating range, thus requiring only one proportional band
setting in the controller. Because the linear trim does exhibit a nonlinear change in flow,
as a function of lift, it would require several proportional bands.
In deciding whether an inherent linear characteristic or an inherent equal percentage
characteristic should be chosen, the general rule is that if the valve is the primary
pressure loss mechanism and the inlet pressure is constant, the linear characteristic
should be chosen. However, such a system (having very little system pressure loss
and/or constant inlet pressure) is not typical. On the other hand, if pipe and fitting
resistance are major factors in the system, equal percentage would be the appropriate
choice (which is the case in the majority of applications).
In actual practice, control instruments can be adjusted to handle normally anticipated
flow changes without having to be readjusted. It is difficult to determine from control
performance whether the valve has linear or equal percentage trim, unless manual
control is required, then there will be a tremendous difference.
To illustrate the above flow characteristics, assume that a centrifugal pump supplies
water to a system in which a control valve is used to maintain the downstream pressure
at 80 psig. The pump characteristics and system flow schematic for this set of
conditions are given in Figures 6-14 and 6-15, respectively. Assuming a maximum flow
rate of 200 gpm with a pump discharge pressure (P1) of 100 psig and that pipe friction
losses are negligible, the flow coefficient (Cv) can be determined to be 45, using the ISA
liquid sizing formula (see Section 24). A 2-inch valve would provide this flow capacity.

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Figure 6-14
Typical Pump Characteristics

Figure 6-15
Flow Schematic without Piping Losses

To determine the plug valve characteristics that should be specified, analyze the
installed flow characteristic of equal percentage and linear trim for this 2-inch valve.
Based on the typical pump characteristic in Figure 6-14, Table 6-1 shows several values
of flow, the required valve Cv and the percent of maximum Cv that the valve must have
to control flow.
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The inherent percentage of total valve lift for equal percentage and linear plugs can be
determined using Figure 6-12. The installed characteristic, plotted as valve lift versus
flow in gpm, is shown in Figure 6-16. A study of Figure 6-16 shows that either installed
characteristic would provide good control for this situation.
Table 6-1
Valve Cv and Pressure as a Function of Flow Rate without Line Losses
Q Flow Rate
(gpm)

P1 Pump Discharge
Pressure (psig)

P Across
Valve (psid)

Cv
Required

Percent of Required
Maximum Valve Cv

200

100

20

45*

100

150

125

45

22

49

100

150

70

12

27

50

170

90

5.2

11

* Cv = 45 is assumed to be maximum Cv

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Figure 6-16
Installed Characteristics without Piping Losses

In the previous idealized example, the downstream pressure was held constant and
pressure drop variations were due to the pump only. A more realistic installation exists
where the delivered pressure must be held constant after passing through the valve
with some line restriction (R) in series with the valve. This installation is shown
schematically in Figure 6-17.

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Figure 6-17
Flow Schematic with Piping Losses

To find the installed characteristic of equal percentage and linear trim in a suitably
sized valve, a pressure drop distribution must be determined. The pressure drop across
the control valve, Pv, is given by:

v = 1 R 80
where
P1

Pump discharge head, psig

PR

Pressure drop across the restriction, R, psi

CR

CR

Flow coefficient of the restriction, R, gpm

Let

CR

(for water flow at room temperature)

50 gpm

psi

psi

At maximum pump flow rate of 200 gpm, the control valve pressure drop is given by:
2

200
v = 100
80
50
= 4.0 psi

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The corresponding valve flow coefficient is given by:


Cv =

200

4
gpm
= 100
psi

The control valve can then be sized for the maximum required Cv of 100 gpm/ psi .
A 3-inch control valve would be chosen to handle these maximum flow conditions.
Since the pressure drop across the restriction will vary with flow in accordance with the
square root law Q = C R , the available pressure drop across the valve at various
flowing quantities can be determined, keeping in mind the pump characteristics. This is
shown in Table 6-2. As before, the percent of maximum C v that the valve must have to
control flow is calculated, and the installed characteristic is plotted, as shown in Figure
6-18.
Table 6-2
Valve Cv and Pressure as a Function of Flow Rate with Line Losses
Percent of
Required
Maximum
Valve Cv

Q
Flow Rate
(gpm)

P1
Pump
Discharge
Pressure
(psig)

PR
Across
Restriction
(psid)

Pv
Across Valve
(psid)

200

100

16

100*

100

150

125

36

25

25

100

150

66

12

12

50

170

89

*Cv = 100 is assumed to be maximum Cv.

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Required Cv
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Figure 6-18
Installed Characteristics with Piping Losses

6.2.10 Rangeability
The Instrument Society of America (ISA), in Standard S75.05, Control Valve
Terminology (6.39), defines inherent rangeability as the ratio of the largest flow
coefficient (Cv) to the smallest flow coefficient (Cv) within which the deviation from the
specified inherent flow characteristic does not exceed the stated limits.
Permissible deviation values between actual and manufacturer-specified inherent flow
characteristics for globe and butterfly valve specimens are published in ISA S85.11,
Inherent Flow Characteristics and Rangeability of Control Valves. These deviations
(or acceptable limits) vary from approximately 10% at 100% Cv to 18% at 10% Cv.

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A quick opening plug has a fairly linear characteristic over the first 80% of its flow
range (Figure 6-12), and the linear characteristic is maintained down to a point close to
its seat. Rangeability is generally in excess of 100 to 1, with higher values observed on
the larger sizes with plugs having low seating angles.
Linear and equal percentage plugs follow their intended characteristic down to a plug
position, at which the flow is a function of the proximity of the seating surfaces rather
than of the plug contour. This point generally occurs at around 5% flow in the smaller
plugs and drops to about 1% in the larger sizes, giving rangeabilities from 20:1 to as
high as 100:1.
This inherent rangeability should not be confused with the range of loads over which it
will operate satisfactorily in service. If, for example, a linear plug is selected with a
rangeability of 100:1 for a liquid pressure control application, a narrow range of loads
would be available over which optimum control could be obtained within the
capability of the controller. An equal percentage plug, even with a lower rangeability
than the quick opening plug, would perform well over a wide range of loads. On the
other hand, a liquid level loop might operate satisfactorily over a wider range of loads
with a quick opening plug than a high rangeability equal percentage plug. Only where
the valve characteristic is well matched to the application will the valve rangeability
correspond to the range of loads (with constant relative stability) observed in service.

6.2.11 Stability
Valve stability must be given consideration while sizing a control valve actuator. When
stability criteria for actuator sizing (discussed in Appendix D1 in Reference 1.2) are not
fulfilled, certain valve/actuator combinations can lead to unstable operation. Unstable
operation is characterized by oscillations of the stem, sometimes at a very high
frequency, around the desired travel position. In addition to causing poor control (or
loss of control), rapid stem cycling can cause quick degradation of the stem packing,
actuator rubber diaphragm failure due to fatigue, or damage to the plug and seat areas.
Valve stability is achieved when the actuator rate of change of forces exceeds the rate of
change of forces acting on the valve plug. Figure 6-19 shows a typical control valve
force balance diagram.

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Figure 6-19
Force Balance Diagram for Control Valves

Criteria for stability have been well established for different types of valve internal
designs and actuators. In general, increasing the actuator spring stiffness to well above
the force gradients, due to fluid forces across the plug, eliminates instability problems.
See Appendix D1 in Reference 1.2 for more detailed quantitative criteria specific to the
valve and actuator combination of interest.

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6.3

Installation Practices

Valve sizing coefficients are usually determined by the manufacturer from tests with
the valve mounted in a straight run of pipe that is the same diameter as the valve body.
If the installed process piping configurations are different from the standard test
manifold, the valve capacity is changed.
Control valves are often smaller than the line size in which they are installed, and care
should be exercised to ensure proper alignment in the pipeline to avoid overstressing
the valve.
Care should be used when laying out piping adjacent to control valves to avoid
interference between the control valve operator and the piping.
The valve should be installed with the stem vertical and up. With the stem in other than
the vertical orientation, uneven and unpredictable wear can occur on the guides,
guiding surfaces, and seats. The stem packing life will also be shortened. In addition,
maintenance becomes more difficult with the stem shifted from the vertical.
Long air lines leading to the air-operated actuator may result in poor control and
response.
Changes from the installation design should not be made without first ascertaining that
the change will not have an adverse impact on valve operation or seismic integrity,
where applicable.

6.4

Operation Practices and Precautions

Unlike most isolation valve operations, control valve operation is automatic and
requires no special instructions to the operator. Theoretically, all of the operating
parameters are addressed at the outset and are incorporated into the selection and
specification so that the final installation will function in a satisfactory manner with no
additional operator intervention required.
Unfortunately, there are occasions when, due to improper or incomplete specification,
control valves cannot meet the actual system requirements and must be manually
operated until such time as replacement parts or a replacement valve can be
substituted. Under these conditions, concerns should be for proper system operation,
with the understanding that there is no automatic compensation for process deviations
in the control process parameter.

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6.5

Common Problems

Common problems encountered with improperly sized and/or specified control valves
include:

Erosion resulting from excessive flow velocities and cavitation.

Wire drawing caused by operating the plug close to the seat over extended periods.
This most often is the result of oversized trim in the valve.

Broken, worn parts resulting from excessive vibration.

Malfunctioning positioners.

Instability, which may result in poor control, high packing wear, and actuator
component wear. See Appendix D1 in Reference 1.2 for a detailed discussion of
valve stability.

Chattering and seat damage when throttling near the seat.

All of the above problems can be the result of operation of the valve beyond the
conditions for which it was designed. This may be due to changes made to the system,
incomplete specification data, poor communication between designers and suppliers,
or a combination of the above.

6.6

Maintenance Methods

For a general discussion of good maintenance practices, see Sections 17, 18, and 19.
Most control valve manufacturers have highly skilled service engineers available for
maintenance and repair of their valves and actuators. Many recurring valve problems
are the result of improper maintenance and/or the use of substandard or counterfeit
parts. It is recommended that all service and maintenance work be performed by
qualified personnel, using authorized parts furnished by the control valve
manufacturer. Training programs are available through the manufacturer to train
personnel in the operation, maintenance, and service of the equipment. When ordering
replacement parts, always include the model and serial number of the valve being
repaired. Periodic inspections should be made to ensure that biasing springs have not
vibrated out of adjustment.

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7
BUTTERFLY VALVESISOLATION FUNCTION

7.1

Introduction and Application

Butterfly valves are high pressure recovery valves (also called high capacity and high
area ratio valves) with relatively small overall pressure drop in the fully open position
as compared to globe valves. Butterfly valves are used for both isolation and throttling
service. This section provides general discussions of butterfly valves in typical nuclear
power plant applications. Special considerations related to butterfly valves in
modulating/throttling service are given in the next section. The Butterfly MOV
Application Guide [1.6] provides detailed discussions for the design, installation,
operation, and torque requirements for butterfly valves in nuclear power plants.
Reference 1.6 should be consulted for additional details not covered here.
Figure 7-1 shows an overall assembly of a motor-operated butterfly valve in which the
following principal components are identified:

Butterfly valve

Limitorque HBC gear operator for quarter-turn operations

Limitorque SMB actuator

Motor

Switch compartment

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Figure 7-1
Typical Motor-Operated Butterfly Valve

Butterfly valves offer several advantages over other types of valves, especially in
applications where soft seats are acceptable. Their advantages include:

Reduced initial installation cost, weight, and space requirements, particularly in


large sizes

Reduced operating energy cost because of high flow capacity (Cv) and low pressure
drop in the full open position

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Reduced maintenance cost even when handling dirty fluids and fluids with
suspended solids (for example, in service water applications)

Improved sealing capability with seat tightness up to Class VI [6.12], particularly


with high performance valve designs

Versatility in material selection, which extends butterfly valve applications to higher


operating pressures (typically up to Class 600) and temperatures (typically up to
400F; 200C) and lower leakage (typically up to Class VI) requirements

Generally self-closing hydrodynamic torque characteristics that make some


butterfly valves a good choice for fail-close operation

Flow characteristics that make butterfly valves well suited for throttling service

Proper sizing, selection, and installation techniques result in years of trouble-free


butterfly valve service. Most problems with butterfly valves in nuclear power plant
systems result from misapplication and improper sizing rather than deficiencies in
valve or actuator designs.
Butterfly valves use circular, flat discs that can be rotated approximately 90 from fully
closed to fully open positions. The disc rotation of some valves is limited to 60 to 70.
Some angle seated butterfly valve designs close at angles other than 0. The disc is
attached to a shaft that extends outside the body and can be rotated by an actuator.
In nuclear power plants, butterfly valves are most commonly used in low pressure and
low temperature water systems and in containment purge and venting systems.
Although they are most often used in pressure service of ANSI Class 300 or less, higher
pressure designs are available up to ANSI Class 1500 in smaller sizes. Sealing these
valves is accomplished by rotating the valves flat disc into the flow stream until it is
approximately perpendicular to the flow axis of the connecting pipe, thus effectively
blocking the flow area. Butterfly valves are available in a variety of materials and end
connections, but are generally limited to 400F (200C) because of the soft seats
commonly used to achieve an effective seal.
Some butterfly valve designs accomplish a metal-to-metal seat along a tapered seating
surface, making these valves suitable for high temperature service. Butterfly valves are
compact, lightweight, and relatively inexpensive, and they are available in sizes
exceeding 72 inches (1,800 mm).
The pressure drop across butterfly valves is small, but not as small as in gate valves or
ball valves which have no obstruction in the flow stream when in the wide-open
position. Because the butterfly disc is always in the flow stream, erosion of the disc
must be considered.
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7.2

Design

7.2.1 General
Butterfly valves are typically installed as line size valves where valves and inlet/outlet
pipes have the same nominal diameters. Alternatively, butterfly valves may be
installed in larger diameter pipes using inlet reducers and outlet increasers in order to
enhance the low-flow/throttling characteristics and to reduce the cost of the MOV and
its installation.
The overall population of butterfly valves in a U.S. nuclear power plant are divided
into two broad categories:
AWWA Design Butterfly Valves. A large population of ASME Class 2 and 3 nuclear
safety-related as well as nonsafety-related valves in U.S. nuclear power plants are
limited to maximum shutoff differential pressure of 200 psi or less (1,379 kPa), a
maximum normal service temperature of 300F (150C), and a one-time faulted
temperature capability of 350F (175C). Many valves for these service conditions are
basically designed in accordance with requirements of ANSI/AWWA Standard for
Rubber-Seated Butterfly Valves [6.36]. Henry Pratt, Fisher, Allis-Chalmers, and BIF are the
major suppliers of this type of design.
High Performance Butterfly Valves. In the 1960s, a new class of butterfly valves
emerged with a higher pressure/temperature envelope and shutoff capability
conforming to the full pressure ratings of ANSI B16.34 Class 150, 300, and 600 [6.24].
This class of valves is now commonly referred to as high performance butterfly
valves. Posi-Seal, Rockwell (McCanna), and Jamesbury are the major suppliers of high
performance butterfly valves to U.S. nuclear power plants.1
Butterfly valve bodies are generally very stiff in comparison to the adjacent piping,
making them virtually immune to line loads (axial, bending moment, or torsion). They
are also insensitive to thermal gradients through the body due to their symmetric axis
and stiff construction.
The torque required to fully seat the disc can be minimized by using pressureenergized seats (see Section 7.2.9). Butterfly valves have no body cavities that can trap
solids or contaminants. Servicing any of the major components of the valve requires
removal of the valve from the line. Because the shaft rotates without axial motion, the
butterfly valve shaft cannot be backseated. However, some designs can be furnished

It should be noted that some manufacturers provide both American Water Works Association
(AWWA) and high performance designs.

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with secondary shaft seals inboard of the shaft bearing to protect the bearing from
contamination.
The most common butterfly valve disc shapes used in U.S. nuclear power plants are
shown in Figure 7-2, and can be divided into two basic disc designs: conventional
symmetric (concentric) disc and nonsymmetric disc designs (Figure 7-3).

Figure 7-2
Most Common Butterfly Valve Disc Shapes Used in Nuclear Power Plants

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Figure 7-3
Typical Variations in Butterfly Disc Designs

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7.2.2 Symmetric (Lens Type) Disc with Concentric Shaft


The symmetric disc type design (Figure 7-3a) is generally referred to as the standard
disc, conventional disc, or lenticular disc. Flow and torque characteristics of a
symmetric disc valve do not depend on the flow direction, and the valve has no
preferred flow direction. Symmetric disc design is typically furnished with a rubberlined body to provide a seal in the fully closed position, as shown in Figure 7-4. In this
design, the shaft penetrates the rubber liner, and an enlarged hub area around the shaft
is provided with interference against the rubber liner to prevent leakage around the
shaft in the fully closed position. The disc hub area maintains a continuous contact
against the body liner throughout the disc rotation, which has a tendency to cause
higher wear in this region.
The main advantages and the disadvantage of the use of symmetric disc butterfly
valves are summarized below.
Advantages:

Simple and compact construction compared to nonsymmetric disc butterfly valves

Suitable for bi-directional service due to the symmetric disc shape.

Requires smaller dynamic torque in the closing direction than in the opening
direction because the hydrodynamic torque is typically self-closing [1.6]. This is
particularly beneficial in applications where the isolation valve is required to close.

Disadvantage:

Sliding action under interference between the seat and disc causes higher seat wear
than in nonsymmetric disc valves.

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Figure 7-4
Typical Symmetric Disc Design with Elastomer Lined Body

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7.2.3 Nonsymmetric Disc with Single Offset Shaft


In the single offset nonsymmetric disc design (Figure 7-3b), the shaft centerline (and the
center of disc rotation) is offset axially from the plane of the valve seat along the pipe
centerline. In this shaft/disc design, the valve seat is continuous, and the shaft does not
penetrate the seat as shown in Figure 7-5. This design is available in resilient as well as
metal-to-metal seat. The disc face away from the shaft is typically flat or has a small
curvature and is commonly referred to as the flat face. The other disc face is generally
convex and contoured to accommodate the shaft. This face is generally referred to as
the curved face.
Flow and torque characteristics of the valve depend on the flow direction with respect
to the disc. When the shaft is on the downstream side (or the flat face of the disc is on
the upstream side) of the flow direction, the installation is commonly referred to as shaft
downstream or flat face forward (Figure 7-6). Similarly, when the shaft is on the upstream
side (or the curved face of the disc faces the upstream side), the installation is referred
to as shaft upstream or curved face forward.

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Figure 7-5
Cross-Section of a Typical Nonsymmetric Butterfly Valve

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Figure 7-6
Valve Disc Flow Orientation Terminology

7.2.4 Nonsymmetric Disc with Double Offset Shaft


In this disc design, the shaft has a seat offset (similar to the single offset design) and a
relatively small lateral shaft offset (Figure 7-3c). The magnitude of the shaft offset in
typical high performance valves varies from 1/32 inch to 1/8 inch (0.794 mm to 3.175
mm). This design is available with resilient seats as well as metal seats. The double
offset provides a cam-like action that is claimed to reduce seat wear and enhance
sealing capability in certain applications. In double offset design, the resultant force
due to differential pressure across the disc in the closed position does not pass through
the shaft centerline. An external torque may be required to prevent disc opening due to
differential pressure in double offset designs that have large disc offset.

7.2.5 Nonsymmetric Disc with Triple Offset Design


Another variation in disc design that is relatively uncommon in U.S. nuclear power
plants is the triple offset seat design, shown in Figure 7-7. The main feature of this
design is that, in addition to the seat and shaft offsets described above, the shaft has an
additional (third) offset with respect to the disc centerline. This geometry provides a
stronger camming action between the disc and seat, which provides a tight metal-tometal seal, even in large valves. The triple offset design is torque seated, as contrasted
to the other three disc designs shown in Figure 7-3, which are position seated.

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Figure 7-7
Triple Offset Butterfly Valve

7.2.6 Special Disc


Butterfly valves with special disc designs are used primarily in throttling service or to
decrease the torque required to actuate the valve. These special designs include fishtail
discs (Figure 7-8) for torque control and serrated edge or orifice discs (Figure 7-9) for
flow, noise, and cavitation control. In general, these valves are not required to give zero
leakage in the fully closed position and are used primarily in a fully open or partially
open position. In most cases, the shape of the disc makes the valve unidirectional.

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Figure 7-8
Fishtail Disc

Figure 7-9
Special Disc Design for Noise and Cavitation Reduction

7.2.7 Valve Shaft, Shaft Connections, and Seal


Butterfly valve shafts are designed to transmit actuator output torque to the valve disc
and to support the disc against fluid-induced forces. The valve shaft may be a one-piece
design extending through the valve disc, which is commonly found in small valves. A
two-piece shaft design (stub-shaft type) is used in some designs. The engagement
length of the shaft-to-disc connection is approximately 1.5 shaft diameters in two-piece
shaft designs.
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As shown in Figure 7-5, the shaft is supported on both sides of the disc by sleeve
bearings and is connected to the disc by dowel pins, taper pins, or other means. The
other end of the shaft is connected to the actuator by a single key, double key, spline,
square head connection, or other special design.
Sealing of the shaft in butterfly valves (and quarter-turn valves in general) is relatively
easier than that for rising shaft valves such as gate and globe valves. This is due to the
fact that the rotary shaft motion does not have a tendency to transfer and create a loss
of the packing material to the environment outside the packing box area. The most
commonly used butterfly valve shaft seals are:

Pull-down packing gland (stuffing box). Both live loaded packing (for example, with
Belleville springs) and conventional bolt torque preloaded pull-down packing
glands (as shown in Figure 7-5) are used with butterfly valves. The stuffing box is
usually designed to accept a minimum of four packing rings. Flexible graphite
packing rings with composite carbon/graphite end rings are commonly used in this
type of design.

V-type (self-adjusting chevron type) packing. V-type packing is well suited for quarterturn valves in general. Line pressure acts on the inside surface of the V-rings to
effect a seal across the shaft; therefore, correct orientation of the V-rings in the
packing cavity is required. Ethylene propylene terepolymer (EPT), rubber, and
composite Teflon are the typical packing materials for this type of packing design.

The shaft seal design for butterfly valve applications should allow for easy packing
replacement and in-service adjustment. One of the less commonly used shaft seals is a
conventional O-ring, which is not suited for easy maintenance or replacement in
service.

7.2.8 Valve Bearings


As shown in Figures 7-4 and 7-5, sleeve-type bearings are used to support the valve
shaft against forces due to differential pressure across the disc assembly. These
bearings are installed in the valve body hubs. Corrosion resistant and self-lubricating
bearing materials (such as solid bronze, graphite-impregnated bronze, and Teflonimpregnated fabric with stainless steel backing) are commonly used. Stainless steel
bearings (often with some surface treatment) are also used in some applications. Metal
type sleeve bearings are typically designed such that the shaft-to-bearing contact
stresses do not exceed one-fifth the compressive strength of the bearing or shaft
material at operating temperature [6.36]. Operating experience shows that the
bearing/shaft coefficient of friction does not exceed 0.25 throughout the design life of
non-stainless steel bearings in clean water service. For stainless steel bearings, the
coefficient of friction can be as high as 0.60. Lower coefficients of friction (0.15 or even
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less) may be obtained with Teflon and other self-lubricating reinforced plastic bearing
materials in clean fluid applications. The valve manufacturers should be consulted for
the bearing material coefficient of friction or the bearing friction factor applicable to
their specific valve designs.
In addition to the sleeve bearings, which carry the forces induced by differential
pressure across the disc, valves larger than 20 inches (500 mm) are typically equipped
with one or two thrust bearings to support the weight of the disc assembly and to keep
the disc centered with respect to the seat [6.36]. The torque contribution from these
thrust bearings to the total operating torque requirements is negligible.

7.2.9 Valve Seats


A large number of combinations of valve seat designs and materials are available to
meet the variety of applications and operating conditions. Figures 7-4, 7-5, and 7-10
show the variations most commonly found in nuclear power plant applications of
butterfly valves. Based on seat leakage and seat torque requirements, valve seats may
be divided into nominal leakage seats, low leakage seats, and tight shutoff seats. Except
for externally pressurized elastomer seats of inflatable designs (Figure 7-11) which are
not commonly used in nuclear power plants, tight shutoff seats require higher
seating/unseating torque than the nominal leakage seat designs. In some throttling and
modulating applications in which small leakage is tolerable, a clearance is provided
between the disc OD and the seat ID. In such designs, the seat does not add any
component to the total torque requirements.

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Figure 7-10
Typical Seat Designs

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Figure 7-11
Inflatable Seat Butterfly Valve

The elastomeric seat may be disc-mounted or body-mounted. Seat design may be


metal-to-metal seal or soft seal using elastomers or plastics against metal. Stainless steel
or nickel-copper alloy seating surfaces are recommended for frequently operated valves
(more than once a month). Even though a desirable feature for any size valve, the
ANSI/AWWA standard for rubber-seated butterfly valves [6.36] requires that rubber
seats be replaceable at the installation site for valves 30 inches (750 mm) and larger.
Rubber seats should be resistant to microbiological attack and ozone attack. Provisions
should be made for ease of maintenance, for example, adjustment or replacement of
seats, by providing proper access to the valve.
Sealing in the fully closed position is achieved by intimate contact between the sealing
surfaces on the disc and body. The most commonly used methods of effecting this
intimate contact are described below:

Interference type seats. In interference type seats, sealing is achieved by elastically


deforming the seat. The amount of interference is preset to ensure sealing under the
design differential pressure. Figure 7-4 shows the elastomer-lined body design in
which the liner also acts as the interference type seat. This is the most commonly
used design in symmetric disc butterfly valves. Figures 7-10a and 7-10b show the
adjustable type (typically elastomeric material) and lip type (typically plastic
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material) variation of the interference seat designs, respectively. The adjustable type
seat design requires a controlled magnitude of torque (specified by the valve
manufacturer) on the seat retainer ring adjustment screws. The amount of seat
adjustment varies with seal tightness and required seating torque. Over-adjustment
of the seat increases required seating/unseating torque and reduces seal life due to
increased wear rate. This seat design offers the advantage of being easily
replaceable in the field.

Pressure-energized or self-energized type seats. In pressure-energized type seats, the line


differential pressure at the fully closed position is used to generate intimate contact
between the seat and its mating surface. Figures 7-10c and 7-10d show two
commonly used designs of pressure-energized seats. The seal ring is typically made
of reinforced Teflon or other composite plastic material and has a shape that permits
the upstream high pressure fluid to increase the contact pressure at the sealing
interface. Figure 7-10d shows a pressure-energized metal seat design that provides a
tight shutoff and meets the fire safe sealing requirements.

Inflatable type seat. In inflatable type seat designs, external pressure is applied to the
resilient seat member after seating and removed before unseating the disc. Figure 711 shows an inflatable type elastomer seat design for a symmetric disc valve.

Typical materials used for the seal ring in the elastomer type seal design are ethylene
propylene terepolymer (EPT) or nitrile. Maximum temperature for EPT material used
in the seats is 300F (149C) for normal conditions and 350F (177C) for faulted
conditions.
Rubber seats in butterfly valves are usually made of 40 to 80 durometer hardness
(based on shutoff pressure requirements); 65 to 70 durometer is the most typical range.
Continuous exposure to high temperature and/or certain fluid environments can cause
hardening of the rubber material with age, thus causing an increase in
seating/unseating torque. Valve manufacturers provide recommendations for the seat
replacement frequency to ensure satisfactory seal performance.
The valve seat design or the actuator torque requirements may dictate a preferred flow
direction for the valve. The shaft upstream (seat ring downstream) is the preferred
direction from a sealing standpoint because elastic deflections due to the differential
pressure across the disc tend to close up the clearances between the disc and seat
mating surfaces, thus providing a tighter seal. The shaft downstream direction exhibits
lower dynamic torque and is the preferred direction from an actuator size standpoint.
Another advantage for shaft downstream installation is that the shaft packing is on the
low pressure (downstream) side of the seat and the potential for packing leakage is
mostly eliminated. This feature can be particularly important for some applications (for
example, containment isolation) where the valve safety function is to isolate and remain
closed for an extended period of time such as in post-LOCA conditions.
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Because of the large variation in seat designs and materials, the required seat torque
value or calculation procedures should be obtained from the valve manufacturer or
from in situ testing.

7.3

Installation Practices

This section presents the main factors to be considered during the selection and
installation of butterfly valves. (See Section 8 for additional discussion.)

7.3.1 Valve-to-Pipe Connections


Valves with welded-end connections are not typically recommended for nuclear power
plant applications because the welded ends have to be cut to allow for internal
inspection and routine maintenance and repair (including replacement of elastomeric
seats and shaft bearings). Butterfly valves, in particular, are typically accessed through
the ends (except for packing adjustment and replacement). As mentioned above,
butterfly valves are typically used in low pressure systems and come in a variety of
flanged and flangeless end connections that allow quick removal and installation in the
pipe line. Only flanged end valves should be used (with a blind flange) for end-of-line
applications. Both the upstream and downstream pipes must be empty before
performing any maintenance activity on wafer and lugged design valves.

7.3.2 Valve Orientation


Symmetric disc butterfly valves are bidirectional and, in general, can be installed with
flow in either direction. Nonsymmetric disc valves have a preferred flow direction and
should be installed according to manufacturers recommendations. It should be noted
that the required actuation torque with shaft upstream orientation (see Figure 7-6) can
be more than twice that with shaft downstream [1.6].

7.3.3 Valve Location


Ideally, butterfly valves should be installed in straight pipe runs with a minimum of
eight pipe diameters of straight upstream pipes. However, in typical applications,
butterfly valves are installed within short distances of other piping components that
can have a significant effect on valve performance, especially in high flow rate
applications. Upstream elbows, tees, pumps, and other valves result in velocity skews
and turbulence, which can significantly increase the required dynamic torque. Figure 712 shows three different valve orientations with respect to an upstream elbow.

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Figure 7-12
Effect of Upstream Disturbance, Shaft Orientation, and Disc Opening Direction on
Hydrodynamic Torque

In Configuration 1, the velocity skew tends to assist valve closing. In Configuration 2,


the velocity skew tends to oppose valve closing. In Configuration 3, the velocity skew
has small effect on the valve because the flow is nearly symmetric around the disc.
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Configuration 3 (where the valve shaft and the elbow are in the same plane) is typically
recommended because it has the least effect on the valve performance in both the
closing and opening direction.
An upstream elbow model [1.6, 2.4] has been developed to bound torque requirements
with an upstream elbow in a given orientation and proximity from valve inlet. The
upstream elbow model can be used to estimate the effect of other upstream piping
components on butterfly valve torque requirements. The effect of an upstream
disturbance diminishes after 8 to 10 pipe diameters. Two out-of-plane elbows produce
a swirl that can persist for more than 20 pipe diameters.

7.3.4 Shaft Orientation


Although butterfly valves can be installed in almost any orientation, the vertical shaft
with actuator on top is the preferred orientation. In applications where the valve shaft
is horizontal, the hydrostatic torque component results from the variation in the static
head of the process fluid from the top to the bottom of the valve disc due to gravity
(Figure 7-13). Depending upon the direction of the hydrostatic torque and the direction
of shaft rotation to open or close the valve, this torque component may assist or oppose
the actuator in the seating direction. In general, the hydrostatic torque may be
neglected except for very large valves, 30 inches (750 mm) and larger.

Figure 7-13
Hydrostatic Torque Component in a Horizontal Shaft Installation

The hydrostatic torque becomes zero (or negligibly small) under any one of the
following conditions:
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Valve shaft is vertical. This orientation results in a zero moment arm for symmetric
and single offset discs, and a negligible moment arm for a majority of the double
offset disc designs.

Liquid levels in both the upstream and downstream pipes are the same (either full,
empty, or partially full).

Process fluid is air, gas, or steam.

In some large valves, the magnitude of the hydrostatic torque component can be high
enough to overcome the total seating/unseating torque. In the absence of valve
operator resistance, the valve may open by itself under hydrostatic torque.
For double and triple offset disc designs (where the shaft is offset from the pipe
centerline), the pressure drop across the valve disc gives another hydrostatic torque
component, which is referred to as P-induced hydrostatic torque. This hydrostatic
torque component can be very significant, especially for large valves under high
pressure drop.
Caution: Both symmetric and nonsymmetric disc butterfly valves can experience very
high unseating torque requirements if an incompressible fluid is trapped between two
tight seal valves. Increase in the pressure of the trapped liquid or water (such as by
heating) can lead to a pressure locking scenario. In addition to the increase in the
bearing torque, double and triple offset disc valves will have a P-induced hydrostatic
torque component.

7.4

Operation Practices and Precautions

Butterfly valves, depending on the design and direction of flow, may open or close by
themselves under flow conditions. Therefore, care should be used when operating a
lever-operated manual butterfly valve to prevent personnel injury. Most worm gear
operators have self-locking gear trains to prevent the valve disc from drifting [1.6].
Although the use of standard design butterfly valves is usually restricted to isolation
service, throttling with these valves can be tolerated if the valve is no less than 20%
open, and the design limits are not exceeded [1.6].

7.5

Common Problems

Valve disc does not reach the fully open or fully closed position due to improperly
set limit switches.

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Liner deterioration due to chemical attack on lined butterfly valves can occur if the
liner material is not selected properly. Liner deterioration can also occur due to high
fluid velocity or improper use as a throttling valve.

Elastomeric seat materials require periodic inspection or replacement. Depending


on the valve service, elastomeric seats should be replaced every 5 to 10 years.

Some valve vendors/suppliers have underpredicted torque requirements for some


butterfly valves.

Continuous operation downstream from flow disturbance sources such as elbows,


pumps, or other valves may increase dynamic torque requirements.

High flow turbulence may cause disc vibrations and high bearing and packing
wear.

Butterfly valves used for containment isolation valves frequently fail the annual leak
rate tests because the resilient seat material dries and/or hardens between tests.
Liner hardening can also increase the torque required to operate the valve.

For service water butterfly valve applications, the presence of solid particles and
biological growth can cause several valve problems, including:

Accelerated erosion and corrosion (including galvanic corrosion, especially in


salt water systems)

Accelerated degradation of the seat material (especially elastomeric materials)

Accelerated wear of the bearing

Increased bearing friction coefficient

Increased seating/unseating torque requirements

Some butterfly MOV problems are caused by overestimation of output torque of


motor actuators.

Disc erosion may be a problem in normally open applications with high flow
velocities (for example, over 16 ft/sec or 5 m/sec) because the disc is always in the
flow stream. The presence of solid particles in the fluid will increase disc and body
erosion.

Many service water valve problems can be eliminated by proper material selection and
adequate maintenance.

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7.6

Maintenance Methods

Removal of the valve is normally required to perform maintenance, except for packing
adjustment/replacement. However, some maintenance, such as seat replacement, can
be performed on a lugged or flanged butterfly valve with offset discs by removing the
piping on the seat side of the valve.
Always follow the manufacturers maintenance recommendations.

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8
BUTTERFLY VALVESMODULATING/THROTTLING
FUNCTION

8.1

Introduction and Application

Butterfly valves have unique flow and torque characteristics that can cause valve
instability in some throttling applications. The Butterfly MOV Application Guide [1.6]
and the Butterfly Performance Prediction Methodology [2.4] provide detailed discussions of
these characteristics and their effect on valve performance. In this section, some of the
butterfly valves key characteristics are discussed, and the reader is referred to
References 1.6 and 2.4 for comprehensive discussions. Information given in Section 7
for isolation functions also applies (for the most part) to modulating/throttling
functions.
Butterfly valves have high pressure recovery factors [1.6, 5.1, and 6.37] and tend to
cavitate and choke at low disc opening angles. Thus, butterfly valves are not
recommended for throttling/modulating near the fully closed position. For example,
butterfly valves are not recommended for some service water systems where water has
large seasonal temperature variations. Although a service water butterfly valve may
provide acceptable performance during the hot weather season, it may cavitate during
the cold weather when the valve is throttled at low disc angles to satisfy system
requirements. It should be noted that some butterfly valves have special disc designs
that reduce flow cavitation and noise (see Section 7.2.6).
Under certain flow conditions, some butterfly valves with single offset disc designs
may experience dynamic torque reversal at midstroke positions when installed with the
shaft on the downstream side [1.6, 2.1, 2.4 and 2.11]. Dynamic torque reversal may
cause instability, vibrations, and high bearing wear. Thus, for throttling/modulating
service, single offset disc valves should not be installed with shaft downstream unless it
can be shown that the valve is not susceptible to dynamic torque reversal under
operating conditions.

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8.2

Hydrodynamic Torque Characteristics

Flow around a butterfly valve disc produces both lift and drag forces similar to the
forces acting on an airplane wing. The non-uniform pressure distributions on the
upstream and downstream faces of the disc have a resultant force that does not pass
through the shaft axis, as shown in Figure 8-1. The product of this resultant force on the
disc and its moment arm to the center of disc rotation is the hydrodynamic torque
component, Thyd. For a given disc shape, the hydrodynamic torque is proportional to the
valve pressure drop, Pv, and disc diameter, ddisc, raised to the third power. The
constant of proportionality, Ct, called hydrodynamic torque coefficient, varies as a function
of disc opening angle. For a given disc shape at a fixed disc angle, the hydrodynamic
torque, Thyd, is given by:
Thyd =

1
C t d 3disc v
12

Thyd = 10 6 C t d 3disc v

ft lb (U.S. Customary Units)


N m (SI Units)

where Ct is dimensionless, ddisc is in inches or millimeters and Pv is in psi or kPa. In


general, Pv is limited to the valve pressure drop at the onset of choking (see References
1.6 and 2.4 for detailed discussions).

Figure 8-1
Flow Through a Symmetric Disc Butterfly Valve

Most manufacturers determine torque (and flow) coefficients by performing flow loop
tests on full-size valves of selected sizes and pressure ratings, or on precisely scaled
models of their valve product line. Tests are typically performed under fully turbulent,
non-choked flow conditions using water or with air at low pressure drop ratio
(maximum flow velocity is well below the speed of sound) to simulate nearly
incompressible flow.
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8.3

Effect of Hydraulic System Characteristics on Peak Hydrodynamic


Torque

The hydrodynamic torque coefficient, Ct, curve has a peak at around 70 to 80 disc
opening for most disc designs. In actual valve installations, the peak in the
hydrodynamic torque does not necessarily occur at the location where the
hydrodynamic coefficient, Ct, has a peak. This is due to the fact that the pressure drop
across the valve, Pv, typically changes with the disc opening. The amount of change in
Pv across the valve depends upon the valve flow characteristics and the characteristics
of the hydraulic system in which it is installed. Since both Ct and Pv depend upon the
disc opening angle, the actual peak in hydrodynamic torque occurs at a disc position
where the product of these two quantities reaches a maximum value. The following
two cases illustrate this effect.
Case 1: Nearly constant pressure drop across the valve
Figure 8-2a shows a hydraulic system in which the differential pressure between the
two reservoirs is constant and the total resistance of the piping is low. Pressure drop
across the valve, Pv, decreases only slightly near the full open position due to the
relatively small amount of pressure loss to overcome the piping resistance. Thus, the
valve has nearly a constant pressure drop regardless of the disc opening angle. This
means that the hydrodynamic torque will reach a maximum at nearly the same disc
opening where the hydrodynamic torque coefficient peaks.
Case 2: Variable pressure drop across the valve
In pumped systems and/or in systems having high piping resistance, the pressure drop
across the valve, Pv, can change significantly as a function of disc opening, in a
manner similar to that shown in Figure 8-2b. The large variation in Pv is caused by the
combined effect of pump characteristics (discharge pressure drops with increasing flow
rates), system resistance (pressure drop across the piping resistance increases as a
square function of the flow rate), and the valve flow characteristics (flow resistance
coefficient decreases with increasing disc angles).
The effect of decreasing Pv with increasing disc opening on the hydrodynamic torque
is shown in Figure 8-2b. The peak in the torque curve has shifted toward a lower disc
opening angle because the product of the torque coefficient, Ct, and Pv reaches a
maximum at this location. It should also be noted that the magnitude of the torque at
the peak location will be different because it depends on the actual Pv at that disc
opening angle.

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Figure 8-2
Variation in Location of Peak Hydrodynamic Torque for Constant Head
and Pumped Systems

In closing, it should be noted that the discussion here focused on the hydrodynamic
torque component only. The total dynamic torque curve exhibits a similar, but not
exactly the same, behavior. The difference is due to the contribution of the bearing
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torque component, T b , which is also dependent upon the differential pressure across
the valve. The relative contribution of each of these components determines the actual
location of peak total dynamic torque. The calculation procedures to determine the
magnitude and location of the peak dynamic torque are described in References 1.6 and
2.4.

8.4

Torque Characteristics of Butterfly Valves

An important consideration in determining the operating torque requirements of


butterfly valves is that the maximum torque may be dictated by the dynamic torque
requirements at some intermediate disc position (for example, between 10 and 80
opening) rather than the seating/unseating torque requirements. The magnitude of the
dynamic torque is strongly dependent upon valve size, total pressure drop, and mass
flow rate through the valve.
Whether the maximum torque requirements are governed by the dynamic torque or by
the seating/unseating torque for a valve depends upon its size, design, and actual
application conditions. For example, dynamic torque values for valve sizes smaller than
20 inches (500 mm) operating with water at flow velocities of 16 ft/sec (4.877 m/sec) or
less (AWWA Class B maximum velocity limit) are typically bounded by the
seating/unseating torque values for tight shut-off seat designs provided by most valve
manufacturers. However, if design basis conditions include pipe rupture, velocities
well above 16 ft/sec (4.877 m/sec) may be encountered. Under these higher velocities,
dynamic torques can exceed the seating/unseating torque requirements, even for valve
sizes smaller than 20 inches (500 mm). Therefore, the evaluation of butterfly valve
torque requirements should include analyses of both:

Total seating/unseating torque, TTS

Total dynamic torque, TTD

The required actuator torque is the larger of these two torque requirements. Figure 8-3
shows a typical opening torque curve for a symmetric disc butterfly valve along with
various torque components in a high flow application. The actuator torque required to
open the valve in this example is determined by the total dynamic torque, TTD, rather
than the total seating/unseating torque, TTS. A good knowledge of the behavior of
various torque components is required to determine the total seating torque
requirements as well as the total dynamic torque requirements.

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Figure 8-3
Typical Opening Torque Characteristics of a Symmetric Disc Butterfly Valve under
High Flow Conditions

Hydrodynamic torque can be very high in applications with high flow velocities. When
the hydrodynamic torque assists disc rotation and the sum of the frictional torques
(bearing, packing, and hub seal) is relatively small, the actuator will apply a restraining
torque to prevent the disc from slamming shut. Under these conditions, the concern
would be the structural strength of the shaft and its connections to the actuator and to
the disc rather than the actuator motive torque. To account for these conditions, the
maximum transmitted torque, TTR, is defined as the maximum motive or restraining
torque applied by the actuator to the valve shaft during a valve stroke under the
specified flow conditions and is equal to the largest of:

Seating/unseating torque

Maximum total dynamic torque

Maximum hydrodynamic torque component

The maximum transmitted torque excludes any additional actuator torque caused by
disc obstruction before reaching a specified disc position as set by the actuator. The
maximum transmitted torque is used to evaluate the structural strength of the key
components within the torque train of a butterfly valve.
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8.5

Common Problems

In addition to the information given in Section 7, the following considerations apply to


butterfly valve installations for modulating/throttling service:

Butterfly valves may cause noise, cavitation, choking or/and flashing when
subjected to high pressure drops especially in applications where valve inlet
pressure and temperature are near saturation conditions. Extended operation under
these conditions may result in damage to the downstream piping as well as to the
valve. Thus, it is particularly important to carefully evaluate valve characteristics at
operating conditions.

The location of the peak total dynamic torque depends on the system resistances
and the pressure source (see Figure 8-2). Operating near the peak total dynamic
torque may result in unstable operation.

Nonsymmetric disc valves with shaft downstream orientation may have torque
reversal at midstroke. Operation near torque reversal may result in unstable
operation.

Evaluation of the butterfly valve performance in a particular installation should be


based on the valve installed characteristics and not on the inherent characteristics
(provided by the valve manufacturer).

Butterfly valves are rather sensitive to upstream flow disturbances such as pumps,
elbows, and other valves. These flow disturbance sources cause velocity skews and
high turbulence that can affect the performance of butterfly valves and increase the
bearing and packing wear.

8.6

Maintenance Methods

Information given in Section 7 for isolation butterfly valves also applies to modulating
service.

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9
BALL VALVESISOLATION FUNCTION

9.1

Introduction and Application

Ball valves are quarter-turn valves, occupy less vertical space than rising stem valves,
and can be installed in almost any orientation. Ball valves are bi-directional except for
some eccentric or wedged ball designs. With elastomeric or plastic seat designs, ball
valves are normally limited to 400F (200C) service. With metal seats and high
temperature packing materials, they can be used in higher temperature applications.
Due to their basic spherical-shaped sealing members and stiff body design, ball valves
can tolerate high pipe bending moments and thermal gradients without affecting their
seating or operating.
Ball valves (like butterfly valves) are high pressure recovery valves and are susceptible
to cavitation, choking, and flashing. The pressure drop across a full-bore ball valve in
the fully open position is nearly equal to the pressure drop across an equal length of
straight pipe. Reduced and venturi bore valves are used in low flow velocity
applications where some pressure drop is acceptable or desirable.

9.2

Design and Materials

9.2.1 General
Ball valve bodies are available in two- or three-piece designs with either end-entry, or
top-entry (of the ball) construction. Body pieces are joined by welding, flange bolting,
or threading, and may incorporate multiple ports. Figures 9-1 and 9-2 show end-entry
designs with two- and three-piece construction respectively. Some designs, such as the
top-entry (Figure 9-3) and bolted three-piece swing out type body designs, allow the
valve to be serviced without completely removing it from the line. Ball valves do not
normally incorporate stem backseating since the valve stem only rotates without axial
movement.
The body cavity can trap crud and foreign materials because in the fully open position
the valve seats isolate the body cavity from the main flow. Body drains are usually
provided to flush the body. Special features available in some designs include rotating
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seats to provide uniform seat wear, pressure energized seats to improve sealing, and
coatings to provide corrosion resistance. In addition to the typical solid spherical shape,
balls can use ribbed, tubular, or hollow construction to minimize weight, especially in
larger sizes.
Ball valves are grouped into two basic types: floating ball and trunnion-mounted ball.
A variation of the trunnion-mounted is the wedged ball design that allows mechanical
loading of the seat. The selection of a particular ball valve design depends on the size of
the valve and the application.

9.2.2 Floating Ball


In the floating ball design (Figure 9-1), the ball is supported by the seats and is allowed
to move axially between them. To assist in low pressure seating, sufficient preload is
provided to keep the ball in contact with the seats at all times. This preload is
accomplished by a slight amount of designed interference between the ball and seats
during assembly. As the valve is closed, differential pressure forces the ball
downstream, causing it to bear against the downstream seat without losing contact
with the upstream seat.
Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the floating ball valve design are
identified below.
Advantages:

Simple and compact construction.

Economical.

Can easily be made fire safe by use of fire-safe seat materials and stem packing
materials.

No stem bearings required.

Can be easily coated to improve corrosion resistance.

Single stem penetration in the body.

Absence of bearings and nonfloating seats make floating ball valves more suitable
for dirty service than trunnion-mounted valves.

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Disadvantages:

Even though 1-inch and smaller size floating ball valve designs are suitable for high
pressure service (up to ANSI Class 1500), the high torques associated with this
design limit use of larger sizes to lower pressures (up to ANSI Class 300). For sizes
larger than 12 inches, floating ball designs are typically not recommended or
available due to the fact that the force caused by differential pressure across the ball
acts on the downstream seat instead of the bearings in a trunnion-mounted ball
design. Torque created by the seat friction in a floating ball is much higher because
of its larger effective radius compared to the radius of the bearings used in
trunnion-mounted balls.

Simultaneous seating against both upstream and downstream pressure is not


possible; only the downstream seat is effective in providing shut-off.

Pressure can be trapped in body/ball cavity.

Body cavity acts as a crud or containment trap.

Seating action cannot be mechanically enhanced by the application of additional


torque to the stem.

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Figure 9-1
Floating Ball

9.2.3 Trunnion Mounted Ball


In the trunnion-mounted ball design (Figure 9-2), the ball is prevented from floating
downstream by bearing-supported trunnions. Since the load due to differential
pressure across the ball is carried by trunnions with a smaller radius than the ball itself,
the trunnion-mounted ball valve design has a lower operating torque than the floating
ball design. For this reason, higher pressure and larger size ball valves utilize the
trunnion-mounted design. Seating is achieved by allowing the upstream seat to float
and load against the ball. The floating seat consists of a metal ring that carries a
narrower width polymeric seat ring that does the sealing. The seating force is provided
by differential pressure acting on the unbalanced annular area of the seat, with springs
providing the initial load to keep the seat against the ball. The springs are sized to
provide sufficient preload to achieve a low pressure seat.

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Figure 9-2
Trunnion-Mounted Ball

Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the trunnion-mounted ball valve design
are identified below.
Advantages:

Lower operating torque than floating ball.

Relieves body over-pressure to low pressure side of the system by pushing the
floating seat away from the ball.

Suitable for higher pressure service than floating ball design, especially in larger
sizes.
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Ball weight can be supported by the thrust bearings instead of the seats as in the
floating ball design, thus providing more uniform seating load and wear.

Disadvantages:

More expensive than floating ball design.

Bearings can experience high wear if abrasive solids are present in the fluid which
can cause the torque to increase, making it unsuitable for fluids contaminated with
solids.

Due to the non-floating action of the ball, fire safety is more difficult to achieve.

9.2.4 Wedged Ball


The wedged ball design, shown in Figure 9-3, is similar in construction to the trunnionmounted valve, except the stem forces the ball into the downstream seat at the end of
its rotation during closing. While opening, the reverse action takes place, that is, the
ball is moved away in a direction normal to the seat first and then rotated, resulting in
lower operating torque to open and close the valve under pressure and less damage to
the seat due to the absence of sliding and scraping action. To achieve this mechanical
seating action, the basic construction is a little more complex than the trunnionmounted design. The wedged ball design has only one seat, does not offer as smooth a
bore as the floating ball or trunnion mounted ball valve, and therefore has a slightly
higher pressure drop under fluid flow conditions.

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Figure 9-3
Wedged Ball Design

Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the wedged ball valve design are
identified below.
Advantages:

Mechanically loads the seat to achieve seating.

Seating is aided by differential pressure.

Torque is minimized since the ball does not drag on the seat during turning.

Fire safe.

Seating action is less affected by seat and ball wear.

Disadvantages:

Unidirectional.

Uses multiple turns of the handwheel or actuator to achieve 90 rotation of the ball.

Higher pressure drop than conventional ball valves.


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9.3

Installation Practices

The performance and reliability of ball valves are relatively unaffected by orientation.
However, orientation that places the body shaft penetration at the low point of the
valve should be avoided to minimize the effect of debris on the packing system.
For other than flanged or screwed end valves, care must be taken to avoid overheating
or burning the seats and seals when welding or brazing into the line. Manufacturers
installation instructions must be followed. Some designs may require removal of the
seats and seals prior to installation.

9.4

Operation Practices and Precautions

Although the use of standard design ball valves is normally restricted to isolation
service, rough throttling with these valves can be tolerated if the valve is no less than
20% open and the manufacturers design limits are not exceeded.
The internal body/ball configuration of ball valves is such that there are inaccessible
areas behind the ball where suspended solids in the fluid can be trapped. If the solids
are not tightly adhering or do not coagulate, removal of the solids from inaccessible
areas can be accomplished by putting the valve in the partially open position. This
results in internal turbulence and eddies that tend to scour out the valve. This
procedure is especially critical in radioactive service. Depending on the design and
flow direction, ball valves may open or close by themselves under flowing conditions,
especially in larger sizes. Therefore, care should be used when operating a leveroperated manual ball valve to prevent personal injury.
The correct size valve wrench must be used to open or close a manual valve. Exercise
caution against the use of excessive leverage on the wrench. Do not use a pipe wrench.

9.5

Common Problems

The primary problems with ball valve seats are damage by debris and wear of the
elastomer or plastic.

If a ball valve has not been operated for an extended period of time, the initial
breakaway torque can be two to three times the normal operating torque (for some
seat designs). Accumulation of debris and foreign materials in the valve body cavity
may also interfere with valve operation.

In MOVs, the ball may not reach the fully open or fully closed position because the
limit switches are not properly set. When used, torque switches may also trip before
reaching the fully closed position.

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Sometimes, the ball assembly in a large trunnion valve will shift during transit,
making the valve inoperable after installation.

9.6

Maintenance Methods

Maintenance methods discussed in Section 4.6 generally apply here.


Always follow the manufacturers maintenance recommendations.
Ensure that the valve is depressurized before disassembling. Particular care should be
taken that there is no residual pressure in the area behind the ball (that is, between the
seats).

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10
BALL VALVESMODULATING/THROTTLING
FUNCTION

10.1 Introduction and Application


Standard ball valve designs are not generally well suited for control valve service
because of the possibility of erosion damage to the seats. However, special seat designs
have been specifically developed for control applications. The valve ball remains in
contact with the seat during rotation, which creates a shearing effect and keeps the
seating surfaces clean. For high temperature applications, metal seats are typically
utilized. To obtain the desired flow characteristics, some ball designs have a contoured
V-notch shape that provides control, even in the low travel positions, while
maintaining a high rangeability. Rangeability is defined as a ratio of maximum to
minimum flow within which the deviation from the specified flow characteristic does
not exceed stated limits. Since the closure member is not in the flow stream when the
valve is fully open, ball valves have less pressure drop than butterfly valves, especially
in high pressure ratings.
The standard ball valve is a high recovery valve. However, flow disturbances caused
by upstream and downstream piping components (such as reducers and elbows) can
affect the valve flow and torque coefficients.
Ball valves provide a wide range of continuous flow rate. Although ball valves can be
operated near the seat, continuous operation near the fully closed position is not
recommended because of cavitation and choking concerns.

10.2 Design
Conventional ball valves are used primarily for isolation service. Like butterfly valves,
conventional ball valves cannot provide fine control, and they also experience erosion,
cavitation, or noise when operated near the fully closed position. For modulating
service, special features are incorporated into the design, as shown in Figures 10-1, 102, and 10-3.

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The special cam type (partial ball) rotary valve (Figure 10-1) is particularly useful in
situations where particulates are present and finer control is required. This rotary valve
offers good control and metal-to-metal seating. It uses a cam-shaped eccentrically
mounted disc connected to the shaft by arms that can flex slightly to provide a tight
shut-off without requiring high closing forces.

Figure 10-1
Eccentric Rotating Plug/Ball Control Valve

Figure 10-2 shows a U-shaped ball design that provides finer control near the fully
closed position. The tube bundle (immediately downstream of the ball) prevents
excessive pressure drop across the ball itself, thus limiting valve cavitation. This design,
however, is less cavitation resistant than the design shown in Figure 10-3.

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Figure 10-2
Segmented Ball with Tubular Resistance Trim

The ball design shown in Figure 10-3 incorporates a multistage pressure drop path
when the ball is in the mid-travel position. The orifices in this ball design provide finer
control and limit the pressure drop across any one stage, which prevents cavitation.
This ball valve design is being successfully used in low pressure throttling applications
and is much better suited for dirty service than are globe-type control valves. Another
advantage to this design is its high rangeability with relatively low pressure drop when
in the fully opened position.

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Figure 10-3
Multistage Anticavitation Ball Valve

10.3 Installation Practices


Installation practices discussed in Sections 9.3 and 6.3 apply to ball valves in
modulating service.

10.4 Operation Practices and Precautions


The operating practices and precautions discussed in Sections 9.4 and 6.4 apply to ball
valves being used in modulating service.

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10.5 Common Problems


As with other high pressure recovery valves, cavitation is one of the main ball valve
problems, especially in modulating/throttling service. In conventional ball valves,
cavitation will occur at a lower valve pressure drop, Pv, than it would in a globe-type
valve. For example, a ball valve with 100F (38C) water and 100 psia (689.5 kPa) inlet
pressure would cavitate at a Pv of about 35 psid (241 kPa), while a globe valve could
tolerate up to 80 psid (552 kPa) before cavitation would occur. Thus, careful evaluation
of valve cavitation must be performed before specifying ball valves (or any high
pressure recovery valve in general). The problems discussed in Sections 9.5 and 6.5 also
apply.

10.6 Maintenance Methods


Maintenance practices discussed in Sections 9.6 and 6.6 apply to ball valves being used
in modulating service.

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11
PLUG VALVES

11.1 Introduction and Application


Plug valves are used primarily for isolation service and are available in lubricated and
nonlubricated designs. Lubricated plug valves can cause lubricant contamination to the
process fluid and should not be used where process fluid contamination is not
tolerable. Nonlubricated (sleeved) plug valves are suitable for use in liquid radwaste
systems because of the absence of crud pockets in the valve body. However,
nonlubricated plug valves require high torques to operate and are difficult to maintain.
Plug valves tend to be less expensive than ball valves.

11.2 Design
Like the ball valve, the plug valve is a quarter-turn valve. The plug valve is compact
and simple in construction. It uses a cylindrical or conical-shaped closure member
instead of the spherical shape used in the ball valve. The plug valve is basically an onoff service valve, but can be used for throttling if precise control is not required.
The two basic designs of plug valves are the nonlubricated type (Figure 11-1) in which
a metal plug is either surrounded by a resilient sleeve or fits between resilient seats and
the lubricated plug (Figure 11-2) in which sealant or lubricant is injected between the
plug and body seating surface to achieve a tight seat. An all-metal construction
variation of the nonlubricated plug valve uses a lift-turn-reseat motion of the plug.
The lubricated design is available in both cylindrical plug (Figure 11-2) and tapered
plug (Figure 11-3) types. Tapered plug valves are more widely used than the
cylindrical designs because the plug can be adjusted within the body (by an external
adjustment screw) to compensate for wear, thus providing better shutoff during
service. However, conventional tapered plug valves are prone to being wedged into the
body due to hydraulic pressure imbalances that exist above and below the plug ends
during rapid hydraulic transients. This wedging problem is commonly referred to as
taper locking and results in a substantial increase in operating torque. Some
manufacturers have incorporated special patented design features to eliminate this
taper locking problem.
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Nonlubricated plug valves require a higher torque to operate than ball valves because
plug valves have a larger area constantly in contact with the plug sleeve, which acts as
a seat.

Figure 11-1
Nonlubricated Plug Valve

Figure 11-2
Lubricated Plug Valve

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Figure 11-3
Lubricated Tapered Plug Valve

Plug valves feature either a top- or bottom-entry design, both of which can be readily
serviced in line. Application of conventional lubricated plug valves is generally limited
to temperatures not exceeding 250F (120C) and where slight contamination of the
process fluid by the sealant is acceptable. At higher temperatures, the asymmetric
construction of the valve body leads to significant distortion of the body seating
surfaces which increases the seating gap, making it harder to seat. The nonlubricated
design is more tolerant of temperature, but is still limited to 400F (200C) by the
resilient material used. The all-metal variation is suitable for higher temperature
service.

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11.3 Installation Practices


Plug valves are relatively insensitive to stem/shaft orientation. However, orientation
that places the stem at the low point of the valve should be avoided because debris
accumulation can cause problems with shaft sealing.
Lubricated plugs have small clearances between the body and plug, and are susceptible
to binding due to distortion resulting from piping loads. Care should be used when
installing piping on upstream and downstream nozzles to ensure that piping loads do
not distort the valve body or cause plug binding.

11.4 Operation Practices and Precautions


The operational precautions described in Section 9.4 for ball valves are generally
applicable to plug valves.
Lubricated plug valves must be lubricated to operate freely. Infrequent use and lack of
lubrication can cause binding.
Nonlubricated plug valves, like ball valves, will require higher torque to operate if they
have been idle for a prolonged period of time.
Although the use of the standard design plug valve is usually restricted to isolation
service, rough throttling with plug valves can be tolerated if the valve is more than 20%
open and the manufacturers design limits are not exceeded.

11.5 Common Problems


Plug seizing in place due to infrequent use is a major problem. Leakage past the seating
surface due to wear and infrequent attention to lubrication is a problem in lubricated
plugs.
Tapered plugs may become locked into position under pressure transients. This
condition is commonly referred to as taper locking.

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11.6 Maintenance Methods


Be sure that the valve is depressurized before disassembling. Particular care should be
taken to ensure that there is no residual pressure locked in the area behind the plug
(that is, between the upstream and downstream sealing area).
Precautions for bolted bonnet gate valves, given in Section 4.6, generally apply to plug
valves also.
Always follow the manufacturers instructions.
Ensure that the special tools frequently required for resleeving a nonlubricated plug
valve are available and used.

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12
DIAPHRAGM VALVESISOLATION FUNCTION

12.1 Introduction and Application


Probably the most reliable valve for flow isolation in low pressure and low temperature
service is the flexible diaphragm valve because it is extremely simple and requires little
maintenance. Diaphragm valves are particularly suited for radioactive service, tight
closure service, fluid service where the fluid contains grit or suspended solids, and
fluid service where the fluid is corrosive or scale forming. The use of diaphragm valves
is limited in pressure and temperature use. The use of a diaphragm valve in safetyrelated systems has some restrictions imposed for nuclear use by ASME III and the
NRC in Regulatory Guide 1.84.

12.2 Design
The diaphragm valve is comprised of a bonnet, body, and flexible-sealing member. The
flexible sealing member is available in a variety of materials such as Buna-N, Viton,
TFE, polyethylene, or neoprene. This valve is particularly suited for corrosive fluid,
slurries, scale-forming service, and where zero stem leakage is mandatory. The body
may also be fully lined to accommodate these services.
Although diaphragm valves have been tested and operated satisfactorily for over
50,000 cycles, design life of the diaphragm should be limited to 20,000 cycles or 10
years, whichever occurs first. The valves are available in sizes from 1/2 inch to 16 inch
(12 mm to 400 mm); but, due to their large overall size, they are not generally
recommended larger than an 8-inch size. Because of their materials of construction,
flexible diaphragm valves are limited to temperatures less than 300F (150C).
Flexible diaphragm valves are available in three basic body configurations (Figures 121, 12-2, and 12-3):

Saunders pattern flexible diaphragm valve

Straightway flexible diaphragm valve

Full-bore body flexible diaphragm valve


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Depending on the valve design and installation, there is a potential for trapping fluid in
the valve and upstream or downstream piping.
The Saunders pattern or conventional weir design (Figure 12-1) is the most commonly
used diaphragm valve. The valve is self-draining when installed in horizontal piping
with the stem axis oriented to approximately 20 above horizontal.
The straightway design (Figure 12-2) has no weir but incorporates a straight-through
flow path. However, the pressure-temperature rating for the diaphragm in this valve is
less than the rating for the diaphragm found in a Saunders pattern valve.
The full-bore type (Figure 12-3) provides a full rounded bore and streamlined flow.
This type also has a weir, but the weir height is considerably less than the weir height
in the Saunders pattern valve.

Figure 12-1
Saunders Pattern Flexible Diaphragm Valve

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Figure 12-2
Straightway Flexible Diaphragm Valve

Figure 12-3
Full Bore Body Flexible Diaphragm Valve

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12.3 Installation Practices


When installed in a horizontal pipe with the stem vertical, the weir in a Saunders
pattern valve prevents full draining of the attached piping and can become a source for
trapping crud. However, the valve is self-draining when the stem forms an angle of
approximately 20 above horizontal.
Diaphragm valves are often used in boric acid systems. These systems are normally
heat traced to keep the boric acid solution above the boric acid crystallization
temperature. Care should be taken not to install the heat tracing or insulation above the
body flange because overheating and damage to the diaphragm will occur.

12.4 Operation Practices and Precautions


Over-tightening the handwheel on the valve will cause damage to the diaphragm.
Never use a larger size handwheel than the handwheel provided with the valve. If the
valve is provided with a travel stop, set the travel stop so that the valve will shut tightly
without over-torquing.

12.5 Common Problems

As mentioned in Section 12.3, overheating or damage to the diaphragm can occur if


improperly heat traced.

Damage to the diaphragm can occur if over-tightened.

Damage to the lining of a lined diaphragm will occur if the lining material is not
compatible with the fluid chemistry. In a corrosive service, body corrosion can occur
if the lining is damaged and the process fluid has leaked through the lining.

12.6 Maintenance Methods


The maintenance methods discussed in Section 4.6 are generally applicable to
diaphragm valves.
Replacing the diaphragm due to damage or leakage is the most frequent maintenance
action required. To speed replacement, a spare bonnet for each size and material
should be available. A new diaphragm should be placed on the spare bonnet and the
entire bonnet replaced on the valve requiring a new diaphragm.

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VALVE ACTUATORSGENERAL INFORMATION

13.1 General
Actuators are devices installed on valves to permit control of the closure member. The
actuator can be either locally or remotely controlled to open, close, change, or maintain
a position. The basic types of actuators are:

Manual

Electric motor

Solenoid

Pneumatic

Hydraulic

Electrohydraulic

A combination of these types

Figure 13-1 provides a brief summary of the most typical actuator types, and Table 13-1
presents features, capabilities, and suitable areas of application for power actuators.
Other conditions which should be considered in actuator selection are stability
requirements for the application, temperature, and fail-safe operation.
Most valves can operate by means of a handwheel or lever supplied with the valve.
Various accessories can be adapted to fit most types of valves to permit valve operation
under the following conditions:

Remote or inaccessible location

Insufficient handwheel output torque or thrust

Longer or shorter valve stroke time

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Figure 13-1
Types of Valve Actuators

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Table 13-1
Normal Application of Power Actuators for Valves
Actuator Type
Feature

Electric Motor/ Gear Box Drive

Pneumatic

Hydraulic

Output thrust
or torque

Up to 500,000 lb or 60,000 ft-lb


(2,224 kN or 81 kN-m)

Up to 23,000 1b
(102 kN)*

Virtually unlimited

Stroke length

Unlimited

Diaphragm type: limited to


short stroke

Unlimited

Piston type: unlimited


Available
starting torque/
thrust

High

Low

High

Valve types that


operator can be used
with

All

Globe, diaphragm, ball,


butterfly, plug: not normally
used with gate valves

All

Operating speed and


stroke time

Normally the slowest of the three


actuator types. Can be provided
for fast actuation. Due to
increased size and weight
required, and inherent operating
inertia, careful selection is
required.

Fast (5 sec or less): speed


control can be provided on
the actuator

Fast (5 sec or less)

Normal
speeds

Gate: stem moves at 12 inch/min


(305 mm/min)
Globe: stem moves at
4 inch/min
(102 mm/min)
Small ball, butterfly, and plugs:
5-10 sec/90
Large ball, butterfly, and plugs:
30-60 sec/90

Failure mode

Fails as-is if self-locking gear


train is used.

Any required position can


be accommodated

Any required
position can be
accommodated

Source of energy to
operate

Station electrical power (or


instrumentation back-up power)

Station compressed air,


accumulators, springs; one
or combination thereof

Station compressed
air, accumulators,
electric power,
springs, dedicated
pressurized hydraulic
system; one or
combination thereof

Suitable for throttling

Yes

Best

Yes

* Special pneumatic actuators have been developed providing thrust up to 100,000 pounds (444.8 kN).

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The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has published several application guides
to address sizing, installation, operation, maintenance, and repair of the most
commonly used electric motor actuators in U.S. nuclear power plants (see References
1.5, 1.6, 1.22, 1.23, 1.24, 1.25, and 1.26). EPRI has also published several other
documents to address special types of valves, such as air-operated valves [1.2], safety
and relief valves [1.4], solenoid valves [1.7], and main steam isolation valves [1.27 and
1.28]. The actuators and devices used to operate these valves are discussed within each
document, and the reader is referred to these documents for detailed information. The
discussion in this document is limited to the actuator types and their selections for
nuclear power plant applications. Manual actuators are also discussed.

13.2 Actuator Types


13.2.1 Manual Actuators
The most common manual actuators are the handwheel and the lever. Torque and
rotation, applied to the rim of the handwheel, are translated to stem force. The stem
travels through a screw-threaded connection between the valve stem and the yoke nut
to which the handwheel is affixed. The screw-threaded connection is normally selflocking so that the valve stem will remain in the position in which it is left. Gearing can
be utilized to change the plane of rotation between the handwheel and the valve stem
(for example, from horizontal to vertical). Gearing is also used to increase (or decrease)
the output torque or thrust to the valve stem. The number of handwheel turns needed
to achieve full valve stroke depends on the gear ratio of the gear set used.
Simple lever actuators are often used with small quarter-turn valves such as ball, plug,
and butterfly valves. Some lever designs are available with self-locking features for use
in throttling applications or to keep the valve stem in the as-left position. Manual
actuators are further discussed in Section 14.

13.2.2 Motorized Actuators


Motor-operated valves (MOVs) are provided with reversible ac or dc electric motor
actuators. The electric motors are normally 15-minute duty motors and rarely are
continuous duty motors. Typically, the motor delivers torque and rotation through a
reduction gear arrangement to turn the stem nut, which causes the threaded valve stem
to move to either open or close the valve. Figure 13-2 is a cutaway view of an electric
motor actuator, which shows the electric motor, the reduction gears, the stem nut and
the valve stem. Figure 13-3 shows a simplified schematic of the operation of an electric
motor actuator. In gate valves, the stem speed is generally 12 inches per minute (305
mm/min). In globe valves, the stem speed is generally 4 inches per minute (102
mm/min).
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Figure 13-2
Limitorque SMB-0 Motor Operator Cutaway View

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Figure 13-3
Simplified Motor Operator

To convert the higher speed, multiturn motion from the motor actuator to a slower
quarter-turn motion required for the operation of rotary valves (such as butterfly, ball
and plug valves), a gear reducer with position stops is utilized between the actuator
and the valve stem (Figure 7-1). The stroke time for quarter-turn valves varies from less
than 5 seconds to over 60 seconds.
Control devices (such as limit and torque switches in Figure 13-2) are used to sense the
position of the valve stem and/or the amount of applied torque and to shut off the
motor power supply once the required limit is reached. The reduction gears are usually
self-locking such that the valve stem position is maintained without the continued
application of an external power source. Thus, the actuator can be used to position the
valve at an intermediate position, as in throttling service.
Motor operators are available for modulating and throttling service. When motoroperated valves are ordered for infrequent (or non-modulating) throttling service, it is
essential that all the conditions are given to the manufacturer, including the number of
times the valve is going to be positioned per hour and the approximate range of
movement of the valve stem. This information is required to ensure that a continuous
duty motor (as opposed to the normally provided 15-minute duty motor) is supplied
and that the motor actuator sizing and selection is correct.
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The motor operator has an automatic transfer mechanism to switch from the manual
mode to the electric power mode and visa versa. This mechanism uses a pawl-clutch
arrangement, which is subject to wear and possible failure when used frequently. A
motor-operated valve should not be specified when it is intended that the valve be
throttled manually.
Electric motor sizing calculations, installation, maintenance and repair procedures are
typically provided by the actuator manufacturer. EPRI has published several technical
repair guides for Limitorque and Rotork electric motor actuators, which are the most
common in U.S. nuclear power plants (see References 1.22, 1.23, 1.24, 1.25, and 1.26).
Motor actuator sizing calculations are provided in EPRIs MOV guides [1.5, 1.6]. These
documents provide detailed discussions and data, and can be reviewed for in-depth
information.

13.2.3 Pneumatic Actuator


Pneumatic actuators are generally provided as diaphragm type, piston type, or vane
type. The diaphragm actuator uses a circular diaphragm sealed at its perimeter, which
is normally pressurized on one side, with the other side vented to the atmosphere.
Applied air pressure in the range of 20 to 50 psig (138 to 345 kPa) develops a force
which is transmitted to the valve stem through a large circular plate. A spring can be
incorporated into the actuator to provide force in a direction opposite to that developed
by the applied air pressure. The amount of travel is limited by the proportions of the
diaphragm, which maintains a static seal throughout the actuator travel. This type of
actuator is most commonly used with modulating control valves.
Piston-type actuators use a piston with sliding seals. Actuating air pressure in the range
of 100 to 150 psi (690 to 1,034 kPa) is commonly used, and the length of actuator travel
can be larger than diaphragm actuators. As in the diaphragm actuator, biasing springs
can be used with the cylinder actuator to provide a fail-open or fail-closed action on
loss of air pressure. Alternatively, the cylinder operator can be double acting, with air
pressure applied to either open or close the valve. Fail-in-last-position on loss of air
pressure can be achieved by trapping air on both sides of the piston. However, this
approach is not reliable because of potential air leakage.
Vane-type actuators also use sliding seals and utilize air pressure in the range of 100 to
150 psig (690 to 1,034 kPa). These actuators are normally used to provide quarter-turn
motion for actuating ball valves or butterfly valves. Springs can be provided to move
the valve to its fail-safe position on loss of actuating air.
EPRIs Air-Operated Valve Maintenance Guide [1.2] provides a comprehensive discussion
of various aspects of air-operated valves including application, operation, trouble

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shooting, maintenance, and repair. Reference 1.2 should be reviewed for in-depth
discussions of air actuators.

13.2.4 Hydraulic Actuators


Hydraulic actuators utilize a high pressure hydraulic fluid (in the range of 1,000 to over
3,000 psi or 6,900 to over 20,700 kPa) to provide high stem force or torque with a
relatively small actuator. A common application of this type of actuator is in turbine
stop service where the hydraulic pressure holds the valve open and spring action
rapidly closes the valve when the hydraulic pressure is released.
Hydraulic actuators are used as a substitute for pneumatic actuators when high forces
are required or higher overall actuator stiffness is desired. Actuator stiffness is a major
consideration in the stability of the control valve/actuator system. Hydraulic actuators
are used in quarter-turn valves where high volumes of oil are not required and
actuation speeds are relatively slow. The hydraulic actuators major disadvantage is
that it requires a high pressure supply module, which can be bulky.
Hydraulic actuators are normally limited to an actuating hydraulic fluid pressure of
3,000 psi (20,700 kPa), and a temperature not exceeding 350F (177C), due to the types
of elastomeric or polymeric seals used. Process fluid temperature does not normally
become a constraint in the hydraulic actuator selection because the temperature of the
hydraulic fluid is typically much lower than the process fluid temperature. Some
actuators, however, can be equipped with metal-seal rings, which allow them to
operate at high temperatures.
Depending on the service, hydraulic actuators can be combined with springs or
pneumatics to provide fail-safe operation in either the fail-open or fail-closed position.
This approach has been used in main steam isolation valves and turbine stop valves
where the hydraulic pressure is used to open the valve and, at the same time,
compresses a mechanical or gas spring used to achieve a fast fail-closed operation
(Figures 13-4 and 13-5). When a signal is given to close, the hydraulic fluid is
discharged, allowing the valve to close. The speed of closing is controlled not by the
supply of fluid, but by its exhaust, thus providing extremely fast actuation.

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Figure 13-4
Hydraulic Actuator with Fail-Safe Operation Using a Mechanical Spring

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Figure 13-5
Hydraulic Actuator with Fail-Safe Operation Using a Gas Spring

Hydraulic operators are not widely used in the nuclear power industry. They have to
be provided with an integral hydraulic system, normally supplied by the valve
manufacturer. Control of leakage and particulate content in these systems is of primary
importance since small bleed orifices and clearances are often used.

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13.2.5 Electrohydraulic Actuators


There are two variations of the electrohydraulic actuator. One design incorporates a
dedicated electric motor-driven pumping system mounted directly on the actuator or
valve. The other design uses a low-level electric power-operated coil to control the flow
of oil to a hydraulic cylinder and the position of the piston. The coil is attached to a
pivoted nozzle, through which high pressure hydraulic oil flows. A control signal
causes the coil to move within a permanent magnet and varies the flow to either side of
a hydraulic piston, causing the valve to either open or close. This type of
electrohydraulic actuator is used primarily on control valves and offers the advantage
that the actuator can be operated remotely from an instrument, if there is no other
auxiliary pressure (such as a pneumatic pressure) available to operate a valve.
Electrohydraulic actuators are not widely used because:

They are expensive relative to a diaphragm-actuated control valve with a


transducer.

Electrohydraulic actuators require a constant source of pressure, which in turn


requires a constant use of electric power to pump the hydraulic fluid.

The operating speeds of electrohydraulic actuators are sometimes lower than can be
obtained with a diaphragm actuator.

Their maximum stem thrust is somewhat lower than can be obtained with large
diaphragm actuators or high pressure cylinder actuators.

13.2.6 Solenoid Actuator


Solenoid actuators are usually limited to applications involving short travel and low
stem thrust requirements. Solenoid actuators are generally furnished as an actuatorvalve assembly or solenoid valve. Valve actuation occurs when a coil (see Figure 13-6)
is energized with ac or dc power. The resulting electromagnetic force lifts a moveable
solenoid core or plunger, together with the valve stem and valve disc, opening the
valve. Spring action is used to return the valve to its original position when the coil is
de-energized.

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Figure 13-6
Solenoid Actuator

The valves can be direct acting, where the plunger is connected directly to the main
disc of the valve, or pilot operated, where the plunger opens a small pilot valve that
allows system pressure to act on components of the valve to open the main disc.
Actuation time of solenoid valves is very rapid. Solenoid valves can be obtained in twoway, three-way, or four-way design. A common application is in directing the flow of
compressed air or hydraulic fluid to larger actuators.
Solenoid actuators, like electric motor actuators, require an electric power source.
However, the use of solenoid actuators as a direct method of actuating valves is limited
because of their relatively low output force. Solenoid actuators are used extensively to
actuate small pilot valves in remote-controlled pneumatic and hydraulic systems.
Solenoids are used in actuating valves up to 8 inch, class 2500, when provided with a
pilot arrangement. Normally solenoid valves can only seal in the flow-to-close
direction. Solenoid valves without pilot operation are generally limited to 2-inch and
smaller sizes. Multiple solenoids can be supplied to provide more than one direction or
mode of operation, such as in three- and four-way valves.
Solenoid valves should not be used where foreign magnetic material can be attracted to
the operating mechanism. When solenoid actuators are specified, both the minimum
and maximum operating differential pressure should be specified. This allows the
manufacturer to determine the force required to actuate or prevent actuation of the
valve.
EPRIs Solenoid Valve Maintenance and Application Guide [1.7] provides a comprehensive
discussion of various aspects of solenoid valves including application, operation,
trouble shooting, maintenance and repair. Reference 1.7 should be reviewed for indepth discussions of solenoid actuators.
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13.2.7 Process Medium Actuators


Actuation by process medium consists of using the process fluid to provide pressure on
a diaphragm or cylinder actuator to generate the force required to close the valve.
Process medium actuators have found very limited use and are primarily found on
main steam isolation valves where extremely high actuation speeds are required in the
fail-closed position. In this application, system steam, normally from the upstream side
of the valve, is piped to the top of a piston actuator. The steam in these actuators
replaces the compressed gas or springs used in similar type actuators.
These actuators provide no distinct advantage over the more conventional fail-closed
spring or compressed gas actuators and require that the process fluid be a clean fluid to
avoid corrosion, wear, and sticking of the actuator. Typically, these actuators are
constructed from corrosion-resistant materials, such as stainless steel, bronze, or
nonmetallics.

13.3 Considerations in Actuator Selection


Actuator selection involves evaluation of numerous factors including the following:

Valve type

Type of service

Available source of energy

Availability of backup power

Thrust or torque requirements in both the opening and closing directions

Temperature limitations

Ionizing radiation

Performance under design basis conditions

On-off or modulating

Duty cycle

Stability

Remote actuation or computer control

Fail-safe operation
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Override requirements

Dynamic performance; actuator stiffness against movement by pressure or flow

Weight

Location, space and accessibility

Maintenance requirements

Cost

Availability

When selecting manual actuators, such as levers and handwheels, excessive protrusion
increases the risk of injury or accidental change of the valve setting. When using
handwheels or levers, consideration should be given to the selection of methods for
locking the position of the closure member.
Particularly important in power plants is the fail-safe operation of the actuator. The
valve may be required to fail-open, fail-closed, or fail-in-last-position. The fail-safe
mode may be provided by springs, weights, gas pressure, or gears. Mechanical springs,
weights, or gas springs can provide the fail-open and fail-closed modes. Gear actuators
are usually incapable of providing a fail-open or fail-closed action and are suitable only
for fail-in-last-position applications.
When procuring an isolation valve, it must be specified if the valve must operate
against a high differential pressure in an off-normal condition so that the operator
can be properly sized. This off-normal condition is often overlooked during valve
procurement.

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14
MANUAL ACTUATORS

14.1 Introduction and Application


The simplest forms of the manual actuator are the hand (or manual) lever, as shown in
Figure 14-1, and the handwheel, as shown in Figure 14-2. Levers are normally used in
quarter-turn valves, such as ball and butterfly valves, and handwheels are used where
multiple turns are required to actuate the valve, such as in gate and globe valves.

Figure 14-1
Manual Lever

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Figure 14-2
Worm Gear Actuator

The use of the manual actuator for normal operation is limited by the amount of
force/torque required to actuate the valve and the stroke time. In larger valves, manual
actuators are coupled with gears (see Figure 14-2) to produce the required force.
Manual actuators on large valves are normally provided for manual override and
emergency operation. Manual actuators are most frequently used in small valves and
control equipment. These actuators should not require more than 60 pounds (0.27 kN)
of force during the majority of the travel, and 150 pounds (0.67 kN) of peak force to
fully operate the valve (see Table 14-1).
The effort that can be exerted by an average person depends upon the size of the
handwheel and the orientation of the handwheel relative to the person. Hammerblow
or impact handwheels are used to create higher starting torques than can be achieved
by a gradual application of effort, as discussed in Section 2.3.7.

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14.2 Design Considerations


14.2.1 Operating Force
Manual handwheels and levers should be sized so that no more that 150 pounds (0.67
kN) of force is required to actuate the valve under maximum operating conditions.
They should be of a size that does not hinder normal access to the valve. Further
guidance on access requirements is given in Section 17.
Table 14-1 provides the average tangential force and the corresponding torque values
as functions of the handwheel diameter. Table 14-1 is based upon tests performed by
the U.S. Navy and represents the handwheel rim pull achievable by an average person.
Lever length is equal to one-half the handwheel diameter.
Table 14-1
Maximum Recommended Rim Pull as a Function of Handwheel Diameter
Achievable Handwheel
Diameter inch (mm)

Average Tangential Force


lb (N)

Resulting Torque
ft-lb (N-m)

Below 4 (100)

50 (220)

8 or less (10.8)

4 to 6 (100 to 150)

60 (270)

10 to 15 (13.6 to 20.3)

7 to 9 (180 to 230)

100 (440)

29 to 38 (39.3 to 51.5)

10 to 14 (250 to 360)

125 (550)

52 to 72 (70.5 to 97.6)

15 to 23 (380 to 580)

145 (640)

90 to 136 (122 to 184)

24 (610) and above

150 (670)

150 (203) and higher

14.2.2 Lever Position Control


Levers can be supplied with locking devices (Figure 14-1) to maintain the closure
member at any discrete position. These devices are required when the fluid
hydrodynamic forces tend to close or open the closure member in the midtravel
position, such as in ball and butterfly valves. Padlocks can be also be attached to these
devices to secure the position of the closure member in order to prevent unauthorized
or inadvertent operation of the valve.

14.2.3 Chain-Wheel Operators


Chain-wheel operators are generally used when the handwheel is 7 feet (2.1 m) or
higher above the floor or platform level and in an inaccessible or hazardous area.
Chain-wheel operators are attached to the rim or the spokes of the valve handwheel.
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14.2.4 Hammerblow or Impact Handwheels


The hammerblow handwheel sometimes eliminates the need for reduction gears on
valves by providing higher torques than is otherwise possible. It typically has from 30
to 330 of slack in its rotation and is purposely very heavy in order to provide a
flywheel effect. The hammerblow handwheel is rotated in the slack area, then slammed
into the driving lugs on the stem to obtain a tight seat or deliver a high opening force to
unseat.
Hammerblow handwheels increase the effective torque/thrust by a factor of 2 to 4,
compared to the values shown in Table 14-1.

14.2.5 Gear Operators


Gear operators reduce the handwheel effort by a factor of 3:1 to 70:1 in most cases. The
most common are the worm and bevel gear types. Gear operators are also used to
change the orientation of the handwheel with respect to the stem.

14.3 Installation Practices


The use of chain-wheel operators should be kept to a minimum, and they should be
installed so they are not blocking personnel passage. Note that if a chain wheel is
necessary, the valve is likely to have limited access for maintenance and repair.
The routing of reach rods and extension stems should be as direct as possible from the
operating station to the valves to minimize the number of auxiliary devices, such as
gear boxes and universal joints, and to make the system more efficient.
When using flexible cable as part of a remote operating system, the applied torque and
the minimum radius to which the cable can be bent must stay within the
manufacturers limits. A remote operating system must be supported in accordance
with the manufacturers recommendations.
When installing a remote operating system initially and after maintenance, ensure that
all parts are in their proper position. Mispositioning certain parts may cause difficulties
in operation and inaccuracy in valve position at the remote station.

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14.4 Operation Practices and Precautions


Operating manual actuators under high pressure and flow can be dangerous to
personnel. Hydrodynamic forces and torques can be very high and may slam the valve
in the closing or opening direction unless self-locking gears are used. Thus, care should
be taken when manually operating a valve under high pressure and flow.
Operating a valve that was left in the same position for an extended period of time may
cause the valve packing to leak. At-the-valve manual operation may expose plant
personnel to process fluid through packing leakage. Safety precautions must be
followed to prevent personnel exposure to packing leakage.
When operating a valve, do not over-torque the stem, or use cheater bars on the
handwheel to increase the rim pull force. Particular care should be used with a
hammerblow handwheel.
To minimize the possibility of over-torquing a valve, use the same diameter handwheel
that was supplied with the valve.

14.5 Common Problems

The most common problem with remote operating systems is lack of proper
lubrication (including grease aging, hardening, and contamination), which can
make the system difficult to operate.

Solid shafting, gearing, and flexible shafting, if not sized properly, will result in
difficult operation and sometimes failure of a component.

Inadequate maintenance may result in loosening of nuts and bolts and may cause
personnel injury.

14.6 Maintenance Methods


Periodically check installations for proper tightness of nuts and bolts and proper
alignment of all parts. Ensure that there is proper lubrication on the stem, in gear boxes,
and on universal joints. Apply proper lubricants and coatings to prevent corrosion.

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15
GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR VALVES
AND ACTUATORS

15.1 Introduction
Many valves perform critical functions in a power plant. Besides effectively meeting the
requirements of normal system operating conditions, many valves, particularly those in
nuclear safety-related systems, must perform their functions, often under degraded
conditions and in a harsh environment. Sometimes the valves function is merely to failas-is and to retain its pressure boundary. At other times, it may be required to open,
close, or modulate while in a harsh environment, such as saturated steam, extreme heat,
high radiation, or full submergence, often concurrently with loss of power or loss of
instrument air.
In order to establish performance requirements and to properly specify a valve, it is
necessary to determine the fluid parameters being contained by the valve and to
consider other factors that could affect valve operation. Considerations include

Flow conditions, for example, turbulent, laminar, flashing, cavitating, or two-phase


flow

Pipe orientation, for example, horizontal or vertical

Valve stem, handwheel, and operator orientation

Anticipated localized conditions, such as water trapped in the valve bonnet, thermal
overpressurization due to inadvertent line isolation, or inadvertent line
pressurization due to seat leakage of a pressure boundary valve

This determination is made by first identifying all the system operating conditions such
as normal, startup, shutdown, standby, abnormal/upset, emergency, faulted, and test.
It is also important to identify which plant operating conditions apply to each of the
above since the requirements imposed on the systems and their valves may vary by
plant operating and environmental conditions.

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Once the system and plant operating conditions are identified, the required design flow
rate, differential pressure, system pressure, and temperature are determined. Other
requirements that do not apply to the particular application can be eliminated. This
approach will narrow down the types of valves and operators that may be acceptable.
The available space for installation, operation, and maintenance is also evaluated in
order to further narrow down the valve selection.
In addition to safety and environmental requirements imposed by the applicable codes,
all valves should undergo a commercial evaluation to determine the reliability and
redundancy requirements to adequately fulfill their functions. For example, a large
valve in a power production system that could cause loss of production should it fail or
have to be removed from service frequently for repair would have more stringent
design and maintenance requirements than a small valve in a system that would not
adversely affect power production should it be out of service.

15.2 Fluid Parameters


15.2.1 Introduction
Fluid parameters are important factors in selecting the best valve and actuator for the
application. These parameters will influence the choice of the valve type, size, and
materials for the body, disc, seat, and packing. Fluid parameters also influence the
requirements for special features, valve accessories, and spare parts.

15.2.2 Flow Media


The chemistry of the flow media will determine the materials required for the valve
body, disc, and other wetted parts of the valve. A highly corrosive media will require
careful consideration of the valve type and materials used for valve internals. This is
true for metal parts as well as for synthetics and elastomers used for valve seat and
packing materials. Some valve manufacturers provide material compatibility tables in
their catalogs as an application guide in the selection process.
Biofouling may be a serious problem in some water systems. Given the proper
conditions, marine organisms attach themselves to wetted surfaces and grow. Their
presence on valve internal surfaces may prevent the valve from performing its function.
They can also accelerate corrosion attack on some alloys used for valve parts by
creating local shielding of the metal surface from oxygen required to preserve passivity.
At nuclear power plants, the potential for leakage from a valve with radioactive fluid
or a combustible gas (such as hydrogen) requires special consideration in the valve
selection and application. For example, the potential for leakage through the valve
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packing can be reduced by use of a stem leak-off connection, by use of diaphragm


valves, or by use of a packless valve design (metal diaphragm or metal bellows), as
discussed in Section 2.5.

15.2.3 Pressure/Temperature
System design pressure, temperature, and differential pressure across the valve are
based on the most severe pressure and temperature combination expected during
system operation or under design basis conditions. The design pressure and
temperature are used to determine the primary pressure rating of the valve. The
adjusted pressure/temperature rating tables given in ANSI B16.34, B16.5, and MSS
standards (for non-ferrous valves) list the maximum allowable working pressures for a
given temperature. The maximum operating temperature may be limited to a
temperature lower than that specified in the pressure/temperature rating table if
elastomers are used for valve seats and seals. This restriction is described in the
applicable code or is sometimes available in manufacturers catalogs in the form of
tables or charts, and is typical for diaphragm, butterfly, ball, or plug valves. Section
16.2 discusses pressure/temperature ratings in greater detail.

15.2.4 Velocity
Flow velocity is determined by flow rate and pipe size. Mean pipe velocity in the range
of 515 ft/sec (1.54.5 m/sec) for water and 100300 ft/sec (3090 m/sec) for saturated
or super heated steam is not generally a concern for on/off valve applications.
However, excessive flow velocities (such as during blowdown conditions) can cause
tipping of the valve disc in some gate valve designs and might result in galling or
gouging of the guides, guide slots, disc, and seating surfaces, which in turn can lead to
excessively high thrust/torque requirements.
In throttling and modulating applications, flow rate is used in the control valve sizing
calculation and will influence the choice of valve size and type. Control valve
cavitation, flashing, and choking are of particular concern especially in high flow
velocity applications (see Section 15.4.2). Accurate evaluation of valve cavitation and
choking is particularly important for throttling/modulating service where continuous
operation under cavitation causes severe damage to the valve and downstream piping
components. Such evaluation should include the entire hydraulic system including the
pressure source (for example, pump) and the upstream and downstream flow
resistances. Some valve manufacturers and engineering companies have computer
software to perform such evaluation throughout the valve stroke.

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15.2.5 Viscosity
Most valve applications involve a turbulent flow where the valve resistance coefficient
(Kv) is independent of viscosity. The valve flow resistance coefficient (Kv) is used in
sizing valves for water flow and for flow of other liquids that behave like water. If the
liquid is extremely viscous and viscosity is ignored, significant sizing errors may occur.
It is important to note that because fluid viscosity depends on the operating
temperature, the valve performance can change with the operating temperature,
especially for very viscous fluids.

15.2.6 Density, Specific Gravity


Density or specific gravity of the fluid must be taken into consideration if the pressure
drop is calculated using the Cv coefficient (which is based on flow of water at 60F or
15.6C). The density of liquid changes with temperature but very little with pressure,
unless very high pressures are being considered. The densities of gases and vapors,
however, are greatly affected by pressure changes.
At power plants, commonly encountered liquids that have densities different from
water are sea water, borated water, and oils.

15.2.7 Radiation
Elastomers and synthetics are commonly used in valve construction as seats, seals,
liners, and sleeves. They have a lower radiation resistance than metals. Therefore, if
elastomers or synthetics are considered for handling of radioactive flow media or if
their location would expose them to radiation, the total radiation dose must be
specified, including the design basis accident dose, to establish the design basis for the
valve over its specified design life. This integrated total radiation dose, together with
temperature and flow media chemistry, will determine the type of elastomer to be used
in the valve and the frequency with which it must be replaced. Sections 2.5 and 2.6
provide more detail on elastomeric materials.

15.2.8 System Contaminants


Particle contaminants, such as dirt and grinding dust, should be avoided in valve
applications. Contaminants may cause the following conditions:

Seat leakage, by preventing the valve from being fully seated if dirt accumulates on
the seat

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Damage to the valve seat or disc, through erosion or abrasion of the seat/disc
material

Damage to the valve bearing (such as in butterfly and trunnion-mounted ball


valves) which can significantly increase required actuation forces and torques

Some systems are required to handle abrasive fluids/slurries. In these systems,


contaminants cannot be avoided, and their presence should be identified to the valve
manufacturer. The presence of particle contamination eliminates the use of a gate valve.
For globe valve applications, a hard-faced disc and seat is required. A diaphragm or
plug valve may be considered as an alternative for systems handling abrasive fluids.

15.3 Operating Modes and Transients


15.3.1 Introduction
This section discusses plant, system, and valve conditions. It is very important to
associate a plant condition with each system condition because various nuclear safety,
personnel safety, plant availability, and investment protection requirements are
associated with each plant condition. For example, minor leakage into the containment
atmosphere of radioactive fluid through the packing of a valve located inside the
containment is of no consequence following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), since
there will be several feet of radioactive water on the floor.

15.3.2 Plant Condition


Plant condition is the status of the plant as a whole resulting from a postulated event.
The number of postulated plant conditions that a unit could experience over its
operational life is infinite. Because of this, a list of conditions to be used as a design
basis for the unit for each of the plant operating and test conditions should be made.
The listing should be selected based on judgment and experience and should be
sufficiently severe and diverse to provide an adequately conservative design basis that
envelopes all credible plant conditions that can be imposed on the valve. All ASME
Section III safety class systems and valves must meet the resulting design basis. The
design basis for other systems and valves must be developed from the above
conditions, based on applicable code, availability, and investment protection
requirements.
A nuclear plant condition is further described by one of the following categories:

Normal conditions (including performance testing)

Upset conditions
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Emergency conditions

Faulted conditions

These conditions correspond to service limit levels A through D, as defined in ASME


Section III NCA-2142. The plant licensing documents contain the design basis used to
satisfy emergency and faulted conditions. Non-nuclear power plants do not use these
definitions but should be evaluated considering the normal and abnormal conditions
that they must operate under.
Normal Conditions: Normal conditions define the plant status in the course of system
startup, operation in the design power range, hot standby, and system shutdown,
including refueling. Normal conditions include reactor coolant system heatup and
cooldown, large step load increases or decreases, and steady state fluctuations.
Upset Conditions (Incidents of Moderate Frequency): An upset condition is any deviation
from normal conditions that is anticipated to occur often enough that the design should
include a capability to withstand the condition without operational impairment. Upset
conditions include those transients that result from any single operator error or control
malfunction, transients caused by a fault in a system component requiring its isolation
from the system, turbine trip from full power, lifting of relief valves, loss of normal
feedwater, minor secondary system leakage that would not prevent an orderly
shutdown or cooldown assuming normal makeup, and transients due to loss of load or
power. Upset conditions include any abnormal incidents not resulting in a forced
outage and also forced outages for which the corrective action does not include any
repair of mechanical damage.
Emergency Conditions (Infrequent Incidents): Emergency conditions include those
deviations from normal conditions that may occur during the operational life of the
plant and that require shutdown for correction of the conditions or repair of damage in
the system. Included in this category would be a small loss-of-coolant accident and a
small steam line break. These types of conditions have a low probability of occurrence
but are included to provide assurance that no gross loss of structural integrity will
result as a concurrent effect of any damage developed in the system.
Faulted Conditions (Limiting Faults): Faulted conditions are those combinations of
conditions associated with extremely low probability postulated events. They are not
anticipated to occur during the operational life of the plant, but their consequences
would be such that if they did occur, the integrity and operability of the system could
be impaired to the extent that considerations of public health and safety would be
involved. Such considerations require compliance with safety criteria that may be
specified by jurisdictional authorities. Postulated faulted conditions would include a
large loss-of-coolant accident, large steam line break, large feedwater line break, and a
steam generator tube rupture.
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Plant Test Conditions: Plant test conditions include hydrostatic, pneumatic, and leak
tests specified by plant requirements. Other types of tests are performance tests
classified as normal conditions.

15.3.3 System Condition


System condition is the status of a particular system during the postulated plant
condition. Whenever system condition is used in this document it also means
system portion condition, as applicable. Seldom is it possible to establish a single set
of conditions that satisfactorily covers a complete fluid system. Internal conditions,
such as temperature, pressure, and sometimes chemistry, vary in different portions of
the system. Also, external environmental conditions vary, depending on the areas in
which the system is located.
In order to satisfactorily address unique system conditions that may vary from plant
conditions, several categories of system conditions are identified.
Systems Utilized during Multiple Modes of Operation: Systems may have several different
modes of operation and could be exposed to different conditions, depending upon
system alignments and the phase of plant operation. Systems and valves that must
operate under multiple modes of operation during the various plant conditions must be
designed to meet their functional requirements under all of these conditions and modes
of operation. For example, during system operation, rapid realignment of a pump
suction to an alternate supply of cooling water may be required, introducing thermal
shock to the system valves. If the valves must continue to function, this thermal shock
should be accounted for in their design.
System in Normal Standby or Normal Shutdown: Systems or portions of systems may not
operate for extended periods of time during plant operation. This includes both nuclear
and non-nuclear and redundant trains of operating systems that are placed on standby.
Valves in these systems may be subjected to more severe conditions of service than a
system that is in continuous operation. While the valves are idle, corrosion (both
internal and external) may build up if materials are improperly specified. Valve stems
may pit, and the valve may become difficult to stroke. The valves or parts of the valves
may be subject to inadvertent overpressurization. Foreign material may build up in
pockets and prevent the valve (particularly a gate valve) from fully closing. Lubricants
may leak into electrical areas of motor operators, or humidity may build up inside
motors. It is important that these conditions be addressed and that the valves be
periodically maintained, inspected, observed, and stroked to the extent practicable, to
ensure proper operation.

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Operating Transients Created during System Startup, Shutdown, or Realignment: System


startup, shutdown, or realignment can introduce transients to the system and valves.
Fluid transient pressure surges resulting from pump starts and stops, rapid valve
closing or opening, and/or discharge into an open system are further addressed in
Sections 15.4 and 15.5. Thermal stresses can result from hot fluids entering stagnant
lines or cold liquids entering hot lines, and can cause valve binding or bent stems
resulting in failure of the valve to operate. Failures could also result from excessive
torque being applied to a valve, if the motor operator is too large and/or limit, or
torque switches are improperly applied or adjusted. The effect of these transients can
often be minimized by proper valve design and operating procedures. For example,
some valves have additional design features that allow for a breakaway torque
condition, so that the tendency to overpower the valve with over-sized operators or
torque switch adjustments is reduced. A hammerblow capability is typical of such a
design feature.
Overpressurization Potential during System Portion Isolation and Maintenance: Generally,
isolation valves should be provided to isolate portions of systems or equipment from a
pressure source. These isolation valves are required during maintenance that requires
opening of the system pressure boundary. Care should be taken in choosing the type of
isolation valve, so that it meets the safety requirements of the maintenance worker, as
well as the normal system requirements. Vents and drains are usually required for
most applications to facilitate draining for maintenance and filling prior to return to
service. Large systems may need a bypass line around the upstream isolation valve to
provide warming, filling, and/or pressurization before opening the isolation valves.
Operating and maintenance procedures must clearly state the sequence of closing and
opening isolation valves to prevent inadvertent overpressurization of a system portion.
For example, if two pumps discharge into a common header, the discharge isolation
valve of the pump being removed from service must be closed first to protect the pump
suction piping from being overpressurized. This overpressurization potential is caused
by back leakage through the pump discharge check valve when the pump suction
isolation valve is closed first. For another example, during maintenance and isolation of
a feedwater heater, the heat source (such as extraction steam) is required to be isolated
before the heated fluid system (condensate side of a feedwater heater) to prevent
overpressurization. The reverse is true when bringing the heater back into service.
Unique Alignments during System Flushing and Performance Testing: During this testing,
the unit is considered to be in a normal condition. An example is a system alignment
that may only be used to test pump performance. The test mode may impose additional
functional requirements on the valves in the affected system portion. Chemical cleaning
of a system is also in this category.

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15.4 Fluid Transients


15.4.1 General
Fluid transients are conditions that result from altering the system from its steady state
condition. Fluid transients occur when systems are started or stopped, flow is increased
or decreased, portions of system are realigned, components malfunction, or thermal
conditions change. Of concern are thermal shock initiated from operation of either the
valve or the system and dynamic fluid effects such as water hammer, flashing, and
cavitation.
Many fluid transients can be eliminated or minimized by system design and/or
operating procedures. To properly analyze whether transient analysis is required of a
system, the various transients must be listed and the applicability to each system
evaluated. The applicability evaluation should explain under which plant conditions
the transient is applicable or, if not applicable, the reasons or precautions that make it
not applicable. Once listed, the transients that envelope other transients can be
determined, and the listing can be used as input to specifications and operating and
maintenance instructions. System-caused transients can cause valve operability
problems; valve-caused transients can affect system operation.

15.4.2 System Fluid Transients


System-induced fluid transients, discussed below, that can affect valves include water
hammer, cavitation and flashing, column separation, and thermal shock.
Water Hammer (Steam Hammer): Water hammer is the dynamic effect caused by the
rapid acceleration, deceleration, or flow reversal of a mass of liquid. Severe water
hammers may be caused by:

Condensation collapse in steam pipe after initially injecting steam into subcooled
water (water cannon)

Steam and subcooled water interactions in horizontal and near horizontal pipes

Subcooled water flow into a vertical initially steam filled pipe

Hot water entering lower pressure line with subsequent flashed steam bubble
collapse

Steam-propelled water slug flow

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Rapid valve operation (for example, < 1.0 second for every 200 feet (61 m) of
connecting pipe)

Water column separation and rejoining

Normal water hammer conditions that should be accounted for in the design include:

Pump start with inadvertently voided discharge lines

Expected flow discharge into initially empty lines

Rapid valve opening, closing, or instability

Check valve delayed opening or closing, then popping open

Water entrainment in steam lines caused by factors such as steam line control valves
or relief valves opening with a loop seal or condensed steam in the line

Although not strictly a water hammer, improper selection and installation of a check
valve on the discharge of a reciprocating pump can chatter between pulsations and
damage the valve seat.
Cavitation: Cavitation is a phenomenon that usually occurs in systems where liquid
velocities are high and pressures are near the saturation pressures of the liquid in the
system. When the velocity of the liquid increases at sudden changes of pipe cross
section, at sharp bends, at throttle valves, or in other similar situations, the localized
liquid pressure drops below the vapor pressure of the liquid, and the liquid will flash.
The flowing stream now consists of liquid plus pockets of vapor. As the liquid flows
back to regions of higher pressure, the pockets of vapor collapse (cavitate). It is the
collapse of the vapor pockets that causes the damage. Although mild cavitation is of
little concern, severe cavitation can destroy valves and piping and must be considered.
If cavitation is long term rather than transient, valve design/sizing factors discussed in
Appendix B should be considered. For example, cavitation can occur in a control valve
under conditions where relatively cold water is reduced in pressure to just below the
vapor pressure. If this condition is common during normal operation of the valve, not a
transient condition, then cavitation should be a design consideration.
Flashing: Flashing occurs when a liquid is reduced in pressure below its vapor pressure.
Flashing may occur in a valve when the liquid passes through a restriction and then
expands again. When this condition exists, vapor bubbles form and the result is a twophase flow consisting of the liquid and its vapor.

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Thermal Shock: Thermal shock results from the rapid heating or cooling of metals.
Thermal shock is usually the result of rapid realignment of systems or portions of
systems, disturbance of thermal stratification, or operation of pressure relief devices.
These conditions should be avoided to the extent possible while still maintaining the
system and valve function. However, for nuclear plants, it may not be possible to
eliminate thermal transients during some plant conditions because of operational
sequences that require safety systems to operate rapidly to mitigate or prevent more
serious conditions. In designing for these operating conditions, it is generally assumed
that only one thermal cycle is involved and that the system can be designed to perform
its safety function.
Severe thermal transients can affect valve operability by distorting the working parts,
causing binding and sometimes incomplete stroking. Full torque seating during a
thermal transient can render a valve, particularly a gate valve, inoperable following
equilibrium temperatures because differential expansion of the gate and body can
allow the gate to be too deeply seated and cause it to bind when it is cooled down. In
extreme cases of thermal shock, equipment may no longer be functional.
In order to minimize the effect of thermal shock on valves and equipment, the
operators should ensure that systems are slowly heated or cooled during manual plant
startup or shutdowns. Slow plant heatup using warming or bypass lines may be
required. Standby systems may be brought in to operation slowly to provide for mixing
of fluids having different temperatures.
Column Separation: Column separation occurs in piping when the vertical water column
cannot be supported by upward pressure of an idled system (approximately 30 feet
(9 m) for cold water). If a pump stops and a leaky check valve at the pump discharge
allows back-leakage, the water column will separate, forming a vacuum void. Upon
restart of the pump, water hammer will occur if the system logic does not provide for a
slow opening pump discharge valve to allow slow filling of the void. Another method
of solving the problem is to provide low leakage tilting disc check valves in the vertical
pipe run to reduce the column length to less than a separable length.

15.4.3 Fluid Transients Caused by Valves


There are several types and applications of valves that may produce significant fluid
transients. Relief valves, check valves, and fast-acting flow control and isolation valves
can produce pipeline forces and moments that should be considered in piping system
design. A description of each is provided below.
Safety and Relief Valve Fluid Transients: High pressure relief valves, other than thermal
relief valves, have the potential to create significant transient loads in upstream and
downstream discharge piping systems. Relief valves often create substantial forces
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upstream of the relief valve, while the downstream forces vary depending on the
system parameters. For example, if the downstream piping is empty and the liquid
does not flash, downstream piping segments will experience relatively small forces (F,
in pounds) due to momentum change at each elbow equal to AV where is the
density of the liquid in slugs per cubic feet, A is the pipe area in square feet, and V is
the liquid velocity in feet per second. When the downstream piping is filled with liquid
or with liquid slugs, significant downstream forces may occur. A transient analysis
should be considered for all possible significant forces, upstream or downstream.
If the relief valve has superheated liquid upstream, a special two-phase flow analysis
should be considered for the affected portions of the piping, including the valve,
because these forces could become quite large.
Another special relief valve application exists when steam discharge is preceded by a
loop seal water slug. This example often occurs in pressurized water reactor plant
pressurizer safety valves where high pressure (2,500 psia or 17.24 MPa) steam drives a
subcooled slug of water through the valve and then into the discharge piping, creating
severe forces in the piping. Generally, this is still the AV case, but the velocity of the
slug may approach 400 feet/second (120 m/sec).
Steam safety valves usually create modest forces in closed piping systems after flow is
established, but will create significant discharge forces at the discharge pipe in an open
system. This discharge force is sustained and will build up if the upstream pressure
increases due to accumulation. An open pipe inside a drip pan assembly should also be
treated as an open discharge. The discharge force is the combined PA + AV, where P
is the pressure in the exit pipe and other variables are as noted above.
Check Valve Fluid Transients: The operating characteristics of check valves affect their
individual response to various fluid transient conditions. For example, swing check,
tilting-disc check, and double-disc check valves generally close very quickly after the
flow reverses in direction. Lift check valves have a controlled closure rate, which
usually means that closure follows the flow reversal by a predictable time.
There are two applications where check valves induce significant fluid transients. The
most common application is where two or more pumps, each of which has a discharge
check valve, combine into a common header. When one pump trips and one or more
pumps continue to operate, sudden closure of the check on the discharge side of the
tripped pump sends pressure waves throughout the piping system. When a check valve
is closed just before or very close to the start of flow reversal, water hammer will not
occur or will be negligible. Swing check valves cause the most severe transients because
of the relatively long distance and time to travel to the seat. Silent or lift check valves
cause the least severe transients because of their relatively short distance and time to
travel to the seat.
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The second application is less common but may produce a more severe transient.
Typical of the second case is the use of a check valve to protect a system following a
postulated pipe rupture. Designing for transients of this type is common for nuclear
power plants. For example, a postulated rupture of the main feedwater piping,
upstream of a check valve in a line to the steam generator, will create severe loads on
the check valves, which close rapidly to contain the reactor or steam generator
inventory.
Other applications of single in-line check valves usually do not cause significant
transient loads when flows stop in the system. However, the system analyst should be
sensitive to possible transients if a particular check valve can be forced to close
suddenly due to system back pressure because the closure may create high pressure
flow reversals.
Power-Operated Valve Fluid Transients: Motor-operated, air-operated, and other standard
closing valves typically do not create significant fluid transients. However, there are
several cases that require consideration in a power plant. The main turbine trip
isolation valve, which closes in approximately 100 milliseconds following a turbine
trip, can create significant fluid transients. When the turbine trips, the governor valves
close as rapidly as possible, without dependence on any steam isolation valves. The
rapid closure of the governor valves leads to extremely large loads in the main steam
piping. The fast operating steam bypass valves to the condenser should be also
evaluated.
Most isolation or control valves 6 inches (150 mm) in diameter or less, with operating
times greater than 5.0 seconds, will not require analysis for transient loads. Valves that
close more quickly should be considered possible fluid transient producers.
Additionally, valves that open in less than 2.0 seconds should also be evaluated.
Isolation or control valves of sizes larger than 6 inches in diameter, in general, require
careful review to determine if transient analysis is required.

15.5 Environmental Considerations and Natural Hazards


15.5.1 Introduction
Piping system components may be exposed to a range of environmental and natural
hazards that are potentially damaging. Valves important to plant safety must be
qualified for any adverse environmental conditions to which they may be exposed. For
each combination of valve and condition, the function the valve must perform in
conjunction with that particular condition or any combination of conditions must be
decided. The design basis for system valves, as well as the licensing basis in the case of
a nuclear power station, should contain those particular combinations of hazards and
plant conditions that are deemed credible coincident events.
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The following sections identify some of the environmental and natural phenomena that
should be considered in valve selection and system valve design.

15.5.2 Environmental Conditions


Valves important to plant safety must be qualified for any adverse environmental
conditions to which they may be exposed and under which they must function,
maintain integrity, or both. Very often, the worst case of these environmental
conditions will not occur simultaneously.
External Pressure and Temperature Excursions: All valves in any piping system are subject
to external temperature and pressure variation. These variations may be minor, such as
those resulting from changes in weather conditions and ventilation, or more severe in
the case of high energy line breaks or loss of reactor coolant at a nuclear power plant.
The high energy line break (HELB) or loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) pressure and
temperature increases associated with each of these plant conditions will be sudden
and severe, potentially affecting both valve operator and valve body operability.
Weather extremes and loss of ventilation are likely to be a problem only with motor
operators. However, even though the less severe condition may not affect the system
pressure boundary, failure of the valve motor to operate is of equal concern.
External Contaminants: Contaminants may influence material selection of external parts
such as the valve body, bonnet, yoke, bolting, and operator. External contaminants to
which power plant valves may be exposed include:

Chemical fluid (for example, boric acid) from leakage of nearby piping.

Seawater environment (applicable to intake structures and yard piping).

Salt air

Dripping seawater

Caustic NaOH (Valves inside containment only) - containment spray after LOCA or
main steam line break.

Humidity: Valves in high humidity areas, particularly inside the containment, should
include humidity as a factor in material selection for both valves and power actuators.
Radiation Exposure: When valves are located in radiation areas, the radiation exposure
expected to be received by the valve over the life of the plant must be included when
considering the use of any nonmetallic parts that may deteriorate under high radiation.
These nonmetallic parts may include gaskets, O-rings, packing, linings, diagrams, seals,
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and soft seats. The radiation exposure to be considered in selecting a specific part is a
function of several variables. The source, source strength, distance from the source,
length of exposure time, radiation type (generally only gamma and beta are of
concern), and radiation shielding provided are generally considered.
Regardless of the radiation source, radiation level, or the material being used, safetyrelated valves must be designed so that their safety function is not impaired by the
degradation of nonmetallic parts over the life of the valve. Therefore, the radiation
exposure used in the evaluation of the suitability of valve material must be the sum of
the normal service design life dose plus the accident dose. The total exposure should
consider, as a minimum, radiation exposure from the contained fluid, direct radiation
from adjacent radioactive lines or equipment, and external harsh environment,
primarily inside the containment following a plant emergency or faulted conditions.
In selecting nonmetallic parts, it is necessary to select materials preferred under normal
conditions without radiation (avoiding materials such as Teflon that have a very low
tolerance for radiation). The radiation tolerance of the properties (for example, tensile
strength, compressibility, etc.) of these materials is then compared to the total 40 year
normal dose plus full accident dose. If the tolerance exceeds the exposure, the material
is satisfactory, and no additional evaluation is involved. Most valves located outside
the containment will pass this evaluation if the internal fluid is not reactor coolant from
the containment sump or some other very radioactive source.
If the evaluation of the material choices is not satisfactory for the radiation conditions,
systematic evaluation of the factors that determine the actual dose to the specific valve
part will be required. It may be possible to qualify the valve for operation over the life
of the plant by:

Substituting a higher radiation resistant material

Evaluating distance from the source to the part

Modifying the required operability time following an accident

Decreasing the time interval between replacement of the specific valve part

Evaluating the required safety function

Invariably, a few valves (usually inside containment) will require detailed evaluation
of all effects, including possible modification of valve design, use of a different type of
valve, increased maintenance or replacement of nonmetallic parts, or relocation of the
valve to satisfy mechanical environmental qualification. An example of qualification by
functional evaluation is the soft seat of the accumulator relief valves, which must resist
harsh LOCA conditions for only a few minutes. Since the accumulators perform their
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safety function (that is, they discharge) within minutes of a LOCA, the relief valve has
no further function. However, soft-seated containment isolation valves must remain
leak-tight for the design basis duration of the accident, plus a 10% margin.
Where it is cost effective, the radiation concerns identified above should be applied to
all valves in radiation areas.
Tornadoes, Hurricanes, and High Wind: Depending on the design of the plant, these
environmental hazards could affect valves in a number of ways. For example:

If the valve is not enclosed in a missile-protected building and it is required to


function during this event, it must be designed to survive a wind-generated missile
hit.

Rapidly lowered atmospheric pressure due to a tornado may result in a pressure


differential across components larger than that normally experienced. This pressure
differential will affect a valve in the following ways:

Structural integrity.

Motor operators could suffer from grease migration into limit switches.

The set point of safety/relief valves will be affected by the pressure difference.

Seismic (Earthquake): Valves that are required to withstand the effects of an earthquake
must be designed to accept those forces and moments when supported by inlet and
outlet connections only and to ensure the ability of the valve and system to maintain
pressure boundary and/or operability (for example, no binding). The weight of the
valve assembly, the size and configuration of the operator with respect to the valve,
and the orientation of the operator are of concern to the stress engineer. A small valve
with a large and heavy operator is of special concern due to amplification of seismic
loads. The use of socket-welded valves should be minimized in seismic systems due to
difficulty in qualifying these joints.
An active valve that must operate during or after a seismic event is required to be
tested for operability under simulated seismic conditions prior to delivery. The design
of the valve, yoke, and actuator assembly should exhibit a relatively high natural
frequency (greater than 33 hertz) to avoid amplification on the seismic acceleration.
Flooding: Flooding can be caused by natural external sources (dam failure; lake, river, or
coastal flooding; extreme rainfall, tidal wave) or by internal sources, generally due to
an operator error (most likely) or a line break (unlikely, but part of the design basis for
a nuclear plant). The effect on valves is the same from either source. Flooding
submergence is not likely to have an adverse short-term effect on a manual valve unless
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it normally operates at a high temperature and the chill shock could damage it. If an
electric (motor- or solenoid-) or air-operated valve could be submerged, the electrical
device and power supply or the control air circuit must be watertight. This is the case
even if the valve is a passive valve that is required only to maintain position, rather
than change position (otherwise, a short circuit due to flooding could cause an
undesired change of position).
Regardless of the event or combination of events, a valve should be designed to
maintain its pressure boundary. Additionally, if required for reliable system operation
or plant shutdown, the valve should be designed for normal operation during the
design basis event.
Although the design requirement may not be as stringent in some cases for nonnuclear-related piping systems, the most severe operating cases expected during plant
operation should be considered in valve design and selection.

15.6 Valve Performance Requirements


15.6.1 Introduction
Performance parameters that should be considered in the design and specification of a
valve include speed of operation, required flow rate and allowable pressure drop,
allowable leak rate, and frequency of operation.

15.6.2 Speed of Operation or Stroke Time


The speed of operation or stroke time is an essential parameter for many poweroperated valves. The valve must operate fast enough to satisfy system operating
requirements but not so fast as to cause a system transient, such as water hammer.
When it is necessary to prevent inadvertent operation of a fast operating manual valve
such as a ball or butterfly valve, it might be appropriate to install a gear operator,
regardless of the need for handwheel rim pull requirements.
High pressure manual valves sometimes require 200 or 300 turns of a handwheel to
fully open a closed valve. Consideration should then be given to providing the valve
with a motor operator to reduce the stroke time (and to reduce the work of the plant
operating staff).
Control valves are relatively fast acting. However, it is generally necessary to specify to
the manufacturer the required stroke time.

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Relief, safety, and safety-relief valves are inherently fast acting valves. The speed of
operation must be compatible with system operating requirements.
Speed of operation for many valves depends on the valve load and actuator power (air,
hydraulic, or electric). The speed of operation under test conditions may not be the
same as under design basis conditions. Changes in the required actuation thrust/torque
(due to changes in the valve pressure drop, friction, or packing load) and changes in
actuator output (due to reduced voltage, air/hydraulic pressure or gear efficiency) can
significantly alter the stroke time.

15.6.3 Flow Rate and Pressure Drop


Piping is normally sized based on reasonable velocity, and most line valves, except
control valves, are the same size as the piping. Pressure relief valves and control valves
are specified with specific flow rates for the design, and control valves are specified for
the design pressure drop(s).
Having the line valves the same size as the piping normally provides the desired flow
rate, except for check valves and control valves. Check valves should have a flow
velocity through the valve that is adequate to keep the valve fully open but that is not
excessive. The sizing of control valves is discussed in Appendix B.
The total system pressure drop analysis may influence the type of valve or valves to be
used. If pressure drop is critical, a more expensive full port ball valve may have to be
used instead of a valve with a standard port. Likewise, a more expensive gate valve,
whose overall size is larger, may be required instead of a butterfly valve.

15.6.4 Leak Rate


Seat leakage criteria should be established for each valve, as a function of its
application in system design. For example, leakage past the seat of a valve that isolates
a high pressure system from a low pressure system should not exceed the capacity of
the relief valve installed in the low pressure system.
There is no code or standard, except ASME Section XI, that specifies acceptable leakage
rates after the valve is placed in service (see Section 19). There are shop test leakage
acceptance criteria, if imposed when the valve is purchased, such as MSS-SP-61.
However, the leakage measured in the shop tests cannot be expected to be achieved
after the valve is placed in service, due to wear of the valve parts and lack of system
cleanliness.

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Some valves, particularly those in steam service, cannot tolerate any significant amount
of seat leakage without possible damage to the seats due to steam cutting. Control
valves usually do not perform an isolation function, and seat leakage is not a concern.

15.6.5 Frequency of Operation


Most valves are designed for several thousand full stroke cycles, and repeated
operation should have no overall effect on operation. Note that valves that are idle for
prolonged periods of time may accumulate debris on their inner moving parts;
therefore, the valves may not operate when required or may require higher than
normal operating force/torque.
Motor operators are designed for at least 2000 cycles, but frequent short-time operation
may cause damage to the motor (see References 1.5, 1.6, 1.22, 1.23, 1.24, 1.25, and 1.26
for in-depth discussion of motor operators).
Most control valves operate almost continuously and, therefore, require periodic
maintenance on items such as packing seals and air operator diaphragms.
Relief, safety, and safety-relief valves are not intended or designed for frequent
operation. Frequent operation will result in damage or a change in set point.

15.6.6 Nuclear Valve Qualification


For active nuclear safety-related valve assemblies, qualification by analysis and/or test
is required to ensure that the valves will operate on demand under all conditions,
including seismic loads, other dynamic loads, and adverse environmental conditions,
both external and internal.
The qualification requirements are spelled out in documents such as 10CFR50, U.S.
NRC Regulatory Guides, and Standard Review Plans. Several industry standards have
been issued to address qualifications, such as IEEE-382, Qualification of Actuators for
Power Operated Valve Assemblies with Safety Related Functions in Nuclear Power
Plants; IEEE-323, Qualifying Class 1E Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating
Stations; IEEE-344, Recommended Practices for Seismic Qualification of Class 1E
Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations; ANSI B16.41, Functional
Qualification Requirements for Power Operated Active Valve Assemblies for Nuclear
Power Plants, and ASME QME-1-1997, Qualification of Active Mechanical
Equipment Used in Nuclear Power Plants. Other standards are being prepared to
address qualification of check valves, pressure relief valves, and nonmetallic parts. In
the past several years, particular emphasis has been placed on environmental
qualification of lubricants and nonmetallic parts used in such applications as seat
inserts, gaskets, packing, O-rings, and piston rings.
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16
PRESSURE CONTAINMENT AND STRUCTURAL
INTEGRITY REQUIREMENTS

16.1 Introduction
Valves must be constructed not only to provide pressure containment, but also to be
structurally secure under all loading conditions over and above internal fluid pressure
loads. Industry codes and standards provide extensive design rules and guidance for
valve design (see Section 22.6). These codes and standards provide the necessary rules
for establishing such design requirements as wall thicknesses for pressure boundary
parts, end connection configuration, and accepted materials, along with their allowable
stresses. Industry codes and standards do not provide design rules for non-pressure
boundary parts critical to valve operation such as valve yokes, gaskets, and packing.

16.2 Codes and Standards


16.2.1 General
A clear understanding of the applicable codes and standards that apply to a valve
installation is essential to design, evaluate, procure, install, or modify nuclear valves
and nuclear balance-of-plant valves, as well as fossil plant valves, where ASME I and
ANSI B31.1 apply. The applicable edition of the code or standard should be known as
well.
There are over 70 industry documents that relate to valve requirements for design,
manufacture, or testing. The most frequently used valve documents are published by
the following organizations:

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code)

American National Standards Institute (ANSI Standards)

Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fitting Industry (MSS-SP


Standard Practices)
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American Water Works Association (AWWA Standards)

American Petroleum Institute (API Standards)

Underwriters Laboratory, Inc. (UL Standards)

Instrument Society of America (ISA)

For nuclear plants, the codes and standards most frequently used for valve design are
the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Nuclear Power Plant
Components; and ANSI B16.34. A chronology of the development of the major codes
and standards is presented below and summarized in Table 16-1.
Table 16-1
Valve Design Codes
Valve Type/Function

Code or Standard

Applicable Dates

Alternative Guidelines for Design of


Butt Weld and Flanged Valves

MSS-SP-66

mid-60s through 1973

Design of Category I Valves

ASME III
ANSI B16.5*
ANSI B16.34*
*as invoked by ASME III
(Note 1)
(Note 2)

1971 on
up to 1977
1977 on

Design of Non-Nuclear Boiler


Pressure Boundary Valves

ASME I
ANSI B16.5*
ANSI B16.34*
*as invoked by
ASME I (Note 1)

1914 on
up to 1977
1977 on

Design of Nonsafety, Nonboiler


Valves

ANSI B16.5
ANSI B16.34

Up to 1973
1973 on

Notes:
1.

ANSI B16.34 provides the pressure-temperature rating, as well as requirements for minimum wall thickness, materials,
marking, dimensions, and testing. ANSI B16.5 provides the pressure-temperature rating, minimum wall thickness, and outlines
the requirements for testing.

2.

ASME III applies to nuclear safety-related valves. The earlier editions of ASME III referred to ANSI B16.5 or MSS-SP-66
primarily for pressure-temperature ratings and wall thickness, but retained the rules for materials, design, examination, and
testing. The current ASME III refers to a large extent to ANSI B16.34 for valve requirements, but it still retains design rules,
special material requirements, and special nondestructive examination requirements.

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The earlier editions of ASME III relied on ANSI B16.5 and/or MSS-SP-66 for
pressure/temperature ratings and wall thickness but retained the rules for materials,
design, examination, and testing. Currently, ASME III refers to ANSI B16.34 for most
valve requirements. ASME III still retains design rules, special material requirements,
and special nondestructive examination requirements.
In addition to providing rules for nuclear plant valve design, ANSI B16.34 applies to
nuclear balance-of-plant valves and to fossil plants. For these applications, other
standards also have been used for the design of valves. Table 16-2 identifies other
standards that might be applied to the design and/or selection of valves to be used in
non-nuclear valve applications.
Table 16-2
Typical Valve Standards
Standard No.

Title

AWWA-C504

Rubber Seated Butterfly Valves

API-602

Compact Gate Valves

MSS-SP-67

Butterfly Valves

MSS-SP-70

Cast Iron Gate Valves

MSS-SP-72

Ball Valves

MSS-SP-80

Bronze Gate, Globe, Angle, and Check Valves

MSS-SP-84

Steel Valves, Socket Welding and Threaded Ends

MSS-SP-66

Pressure Temperature Ratings for Steel Valves

MSS-SP-71

Cast Iron Check Valves

MSS-SP-85

Bronze Valves

For older plants, ANSI B16.5 provided primary guidelines, and MSS-SP-66 provided
alternative guidelines for the design of butt weld end valves. When ANSI B16.34 was
issued, the thrust of MSS-SP-66 was incorporated as special class valves (that is,
nondestructive examination such as radiography allowed a higher pressure for a given
temperature), and MSS-SP-66 was withdrawn.
Special consideration should be made if these or any other utilized standards are not
included in Table 126.1 of ANSI B31.1.
The above referenced standards provide many of the design rules for valves. However,
they do not address non-pressure containing functional components or internal parts
for non-nuclear valve applications. For nuclear valves, the requirements for internal
parts have been given only a limited formal design approach for class 1 valves by
ASME III, Subarticle 3500. In order to properly address ASME code class 2 and 3
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valves, ASME code case N62-4 was issued providing rules for materials, design,
fabrication, inspection, and examination of internal and external valve parts. Prior to
use, the code case should be consulted for the full scope of items covered. Code cases
are optional. Code case rules become mandatory only if a purchaser invokes its
requirements on a manufacturer, and then the entire code case is mandatory. Code
cases are periodically reviewed, at which time they are reaffirmed or annulled. Code
cases are annulled when the requirements have been incorporated into the code (that is,
ASME III) or when the code case is no longer needed.
The categorization of nuclear safety-related equipment, including valves, is determined
by referring to ANSI/ANS-51.1 (formerly ANSI N18.2, Nuclear Safety Criteria for the
Design of Stationary Pressurized Water Reactor Plants), ANSI/ANS-52.1 (Formerly
ANSI N2.2, Nuclear Safety Criteria for the Design of Boiling Water Reactor Plants),
Code of Federal Register (10CFR50.55a), and U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 1.26 (Quality
Group Classifications and Standards for Water, Steam, and Radioactive-WasteContaining Components of Nuclear Power Plants). It should be noted that ANSI/ANS51.1 and ANSI/ANS-52.1 are currently undergoing revision and will result in a new,
combined standard, ANSI/ANS-50.1.
The following safety classes and the basic standards that apply to them are given in
Table 16-3. Consult 10CFR50.55a, Regulatory Guide 1.26, and ANSI/ANS-51.2 and 52.1
for complete definitions.

Safety class 1 is for reactor coolant pressure boundary components.

Safety Class 2 is for components that form part of the reactor coolant pressure
boundary but may be excluded from Safety Class 1 by provisions of 10CFR50.55a,
or those that are necessary for safe shutdown of the reactor or to maintain the
reactor in a safe condition.

Safety Class 3 is for systems supporting Safety Class 1 and 2 systems.

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Table 16-3
Safety Classes and Applicable Standards
Safety Class
1

l0CFR50.55a
Reactor Coolant
Pressure Boundary
(referred to as
Quality Group A in
Reg. Guide 1.26)

Reg. Guide 1.26

Remarks

ASME III Cl 1

Quality Group B
ASME III Cl 2

Quality Group C
ASME III Cl 3

NNS*

Quality Group D ANSI


B31.1

For systems that contain or may


contain radioactive material, but
are not in Groups A, B, or C

* Not nuclear safety-related

16.2.2 Pressure/Temperature Ratings


As previously stated, the pressure/temperature rating of a valve is provided in various
codes and standards. The standard used depends on the materials selected and the
valve style.
Typical pressure temperature ratings are included in the following codes and
standards:

Steel, Nickel Alloy, and Other Special Alloy Valves: ASME III, ANSI B16.34 (see
Table 16-4)

Cast Iron Gate Valves: MSS-SP-70 (see Table 16-5)


Cast Iron Check Valves: MSS-SP-71
Cast Iron Globe Valves: MSS-SP-85

Bronze Gate, Globe, and Check Valves: MSS-SP-80 (see Table 16-6)
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Table 16-4
Pressure/Temperature Ratings for Steel Valves
Source: ANSI B 16.34 - 1981
RATINGS FOR GROUP 1.1 MATERIALS
A 105 (a)

A155-KCF70 (e)

A350-LF2 (d)

A516-70 (a) (g)

A675-70

A 155-KC70 (e)

A216WCB (a)

A 515-70 (a)

A537 C1.1 (d)

A696 Gr.C (a)

NOTES:
(a) Permissible, but not recommended for prolonged usage above about 800F (425C).
(d) Not to be used over 650F (340C).
(e) Not to be used over 700F (370C).
(g) Not to be used over 850F (450C).
STANDARD CLASS VALVES-FLANGED AND BUTT WELDING END
Temp. F

Working Pressure by Classes, psig


150

300

400

600

900

1500

2500

4500

-20 to 100

285

740

990

1480

2220

3705

6170

11110

200

260

675

900

1350

2025

3375

5625

10120

300

230

655

875

1315

1970

3280

5470

9845

400

200

635

845

1270

1900

3170

5280

9505

500

170

600

800

1200

1795

2995

4990

8980

600

140

550

730

1095

1640

2735

4560

8210

650

125

535

715

1075

1610

2685

4475

8055

700

110

535

710

1065

1600

2665

4440

7990

750

95

505

670

1010

1510

2520

4200

7560

800

80

410

550

825

1235

2060

3430

6170

850

65

270

355

535

805

1340

2230

4010

900

50

170

230

345

515

860

1430

2570

950

35

105

140

205

310

515

860

1545

1000

20

50

70

105

155

260

430

770

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SPECIAL CLASS BUTT WELDING END VALVES ONLY
Temp. F

Working Pressure by Classes, psig


150

300

400

600

900

1500

2500

4500

-20 to 100

290

750

1000

1500

2250

3750

6250

11250

200

290

750

1000

1500

2250

3750

6250

11250

300

290

750

1000

1500

2250

3750

6250

11250

400

290

750

1000

1500

2250

3750

6250

11250

500

290

750

1000

1500

2250

3750

6250

11250

600

275

715

950

1425

2140

3565

5940

10690

650

270

700

935

1400

2100

3495

5825

10485

700

265

695

925

1390

2080

3470

5780

10405

750

240

630

840

1260

1890

3150

5250

9450

800

200

515

685

1030

1545

2570

4285

7715

850

130

335

445

670

1005

1670

2785

5015

900

85

215

285

430

645

1070

1785

3215

950

50

130

170

260

385

645

1070

1930

1000

25

65

85

130

195

320

535

965

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Table 16-5
Cast Iron Gate Valve Ratings
Source: MSS-SP-70.
(Used by Permission of Manufacturers Standardization Society)
Class

125

250

800 Hyd

Temp
Degrees F

NPS
2-12

NPS
14-24

NPS
30-48

NPS
2-12

NPS
14-24

NPS
2-12

-20 to 150

200

150

150

500

300

800

200

190

135

115

460

280

225

180

130

100

440

270

250

175

125

85

415

260

275

170

120

65

395

250

300

165

110

50

375

240

325

155

105

355

230

350

150

100

335

220

375

145

315

210

400

140

290

200

425

130

270

450

125

250

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Table 16-6
Bronze Gate, Globe, and Check Valve Ratings
Source: MSS-SP-80.
(Used by Permission of Manufacturers Standardization Society)

Pressure Class
End Connection
Temp(1)
degrees F
-20 to 150
200
250
300
350
400
406
450
500
550

125
THD

200
185
170
155
140
-125
120(4)
---

150
THD

FLG(2)

ASTM B-62
300
270
240
210
180
-150
145(4)
---

225
210
195
180
165
-150
----

Pressure psi(3)
200
300
THD
THD(5)
MATERIAL
400
375
350
325
300
275
-250
225
200

1,000
920
830
740
650
560
-480
390
300

THD

FLG(2)

350
THD

ASTM B-61
600
560
525
490
450
410
-375
340
300

500
475
450
425
400
375
-350
325
300

1,000
920
830
750
670
590
-510
430
350

Notes:
1. For lower temperatures, see Paragraph 2.5 in MSS-SP-80.
2. P-T Ratings - ANSI B16.24
3. Refer to Paragraph 2.4 for safe P-T rating for solder-joint pipe systems.
4. Some codes (that is, ASME BPVC, Section I) limit the rating temperatures of the indicated material to 406F (208C).
5. Alternate ratings for valve size 1/8 - 2 inches (3 - 50 mm) having threaded ends and union ring body-bonnet joints.

Prior to determining the rating of a valve, a determination of the ANSI pressure class
must be made. The class is based on the design and operating conditions of the system
(that is, temperature and pressure). After the ANSI pressure class is determined, it
must be recognized that other conditions may limit the valves final rating. Valves with
elastomeric or plastic gaskets, packing, or seating elements may not meet the entire
range of pressure-temperature conditions for their designated pressure class.
ANSI B31.1 rules for non-nuclear valves provide no specific allowance for excursions of
operating pressure or temperature above design condition values. The maximum
design pressures and temperatures are established by the pressure/temperature tables
previously referenced.
The user of this document should refer to the codes or standards and addenda
applicable to the particular plant to determine the code provisions, if any, that permit
allowance for variations from design conditions.

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Current editions of several codes and standards now permit the operating pressure to
exceed the design pressure by not more than 10% under conditions of relief or safety
valve operation. In addition, under certain conditions ASME III permits class 2 and 3
valves to operate at a higher pressure than that normally allowed for the attained
temperature. If the ASME criteria are allowed for these occasional transients, then other
sections of ASME III apply as appropriate. ANSI B16.34 also makes provisions for
departure from the standard pressure/temperature ratings.
The applicable code or standard should always be consulted when selecting a valve to
ensure that the system design pressure and temperature are enveloped by the pressure
temperature rating allowed by the applicable code or standard. When selecting the
pressure class of the valve, other considerations may apply such as pressure spikes due
to dynamic loads (for example, water hammer) or greater strength required to support
a heavy operator.
Special Class Valves: A special class valve is a standard class butt weld end valve for
which additional nondestructive examination (for example, radiography) is required,
thus permitting a higher pressure-temperature rating. Tables of acceptable pressure
and temperature are published in ANSI B16.34 for both standard class valves and
special class valves. For example, a class 600 carbon steel valve made from A216 WCB
may be used at 1,200 psig (8,274 kPa) at 500F (260C) as a standard class valve. The
same valve, when nondestructive examination is performed to merit the rating of class
600 special class, may be used at 1,500 psig (10,340 kPa) at 500F (260C).
This option can be valuable when the pressure and temperature allowed by B16.34
standard class do not meet the system requirements, but the special class does meet the
system requirements. A special class is sometimes cost effective and would not have the
higher fluid flow pressure drop associated with the higher pressure class valve.
Intermediate Rating Valves: ANSI B16.34 and ASME III specifies a minimum wall
thickness for each standard pressure class (that is, class 150, class 300) and inside
diameter of valve. When the actual wall thickness of valve exceeds the minimum wall
thickness specified for the standard pressure class and inside diameter but is less than
the specified minimum wall thickness for the next higher standard pressure class, ANSI
B16.34 and ASME III make provisions and provide formulae for determining an
intermediate pressure rating. This option requires higher hydrostatic test pressures
than the next lower standard pressure class and should be exercised by or through the
manufacturer.
Intermediate rating valves are used when system pressures and temperature exceed
those allowed for a standard pressure class and the wall thickness exceeds that
required for the standard pressure class. For example, a manufacturer may provide a
class 1878 valve for a PWR reactor coolant system where a standard class 1500 would
not suffice, but a standard class 2500 would far exceed the requirements.
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This option is different from special class valves in that an additional wall thickness
above the minimum is required to allow a higher pressure-temperature rating for
intermediate rating versus additional nondestructive testing for special class.

16.2.3 Codes and Standards for Pressure Relief Valves


ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sections I, III, and VIII provide design rules for
power boilers (non-nuclear), nuclear components, and pressure vessels (non-nuclear),
and their overpressure protection requirements. The types of pressure relieving devices
allowed and their design requirements are included in these sections.
ASME Section III, Sections NB, NC, and ND, contain design rules for nuclear safetyrelated power plant components, including pressure relief valves. Subsection
NB/NC/ND 7000, Overpressure Protection Requirements, addresses pressure relief
valve operating requirements, installation provisions, capacity certification
requirements, and shop testing requirements. Subsection NB/NC/ND 3590 contains
design rules specifically for pressure relief valves. This section was incorporated into
Section III in the 1980 edition, summer 1982 addenda. Prior to that, the rules for
pressure relief valve design were contained in the ASME code case N100, Pressure
Relief Valve Design Rules. The pressure and temperature ratings of ANSI B16.34 do
not apply to pressure relief valves. The design pressure and temperature of the valve
are as specified in the design specification.
ASME Section I contains design rules for pressure relief valves for overpressure
protection of power boilers, and ASME Section VIII contains design rules for
overpressure protection of unfired pressure vessels. These sections of the code contain
requirements for capacity certification, operational requirements, material
requirements, shop testing requirements, and installation provisions.
ASME Sections I, III, and VIII are specific about testing requirements for pressure relief
valves. The hydrostatic test pressure is based on the set pressure of the valve, not the
100F (38C) pressure rating of ANSI B16.34. For pressure relief valves, the testing
provisions of ANSI B16.34 do not apply. These sections also require set pressure
verification by test and capacity certification by test.
Besides the ASME code, other standards are used for pressure relief valves.
ANSI standards such as ANSI B16.5 (for flange dimensions only), ANSI B16.34 (as
specified in Section III for minimum wall thickness requirements for a valve body), and
ANSI B147.1 (for seat tightness testing) are used. ANSI/ASME-PTC 25.3, Performance
Test Codes, contains rules for conducting tests on pressure relief valves.

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16.3 Materials
16.3.1 Material Compatibility
Materials must be compatible with the fluid and with each other. Wetted materials
must be carefully considered. Bonnet bolting, for example, may be wetted by stem seal
leakage. It may be false economy to use a stainless steel body to resist boric acid
corrosion, yet specify carbon steel bonnet bolting.
It is important to avoid using materials of wide electrical potential difference.
However, it is not sufficient to consider only potential differences when evaluating the
corrosion rate of dissimilar metals in contact. The relative areas of dissimilar metals
must also be considered. If the surface area of the anode is large, the current density at
the anode will be small, and corrosion due to galvanic effects will be insignificant.
Thus, bronze trim in a steel valve is acceptable, in spite of the substantial potential
difference between bronze and steel. There is not enough area of the bronze trim to
accelerate the corrosion of the large area of the anodic valve body, but on the other
hand, it would be unwise to use a steel seat in a bronze valve (see Section 2.4 for
additional discussions).

16.3.2 General Discussion of Pressure Boundary Materials


Pressure boundary parts are defined in ASME III as the body, bonnet, disc, and bolting
that join the bonnet to the body. Stems and seats are not pressure boundary parts.
ASME III requires that these parts be made of an ASME III material, except for 2-inch
(50-mm) and smaller line valve discs and safety valve discs and nozzles, which are
internally contained by the external body structure. However, ASME III permits use of
material produced under ASTM specifications, provided the requirements of the ASTM
specification are identical to, or more stringent than, the ASME III material.
Other valve standards and codes do not specifically identify pressure boundary
materials. However, ANSI B16.34 requires the body, bonnet, or cover and body-bonnet,
or body-cover bottom to be constructed of material listed in Table 1 of ANSI B16.34.
Materials commonly used for pressure boundary parts (as defined in ASME III) fall
into three categories:

Stainless steels or other corrosion resistant alloys

Carbon steels

Low-alloy steels

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See Table 16-7 for commonly used pressure boundary materials.


Table 16-7
Commonly Used Pressure Boundary Materials

Valve Part

Stainless
Steel Valves

Carbon
Steel Valves

Low Alloy
Steel Valves

Body/bonnet

ASTM A351,
Gr CF8 (304 SS)

ASTM A216-WCB

ASTM A217-WC6
(1-1/4 Cr, 1/2 Mo)

Disc/wedge

ASTM A351,
Gr CF8M (316 SS)

ASTM A216-WCC

ASTM A217-WC9
(2-1/4 Cr, 1 Mo)

ASTM A351, Gr CF3


(low carbon SS)
Castings

ASTM A351, Gr CF3M


(low carbon SS)

Forgings

ASTM A182-F307, F316

ASTM A105

ASTM A182, F11


(1-1/4 Cr, 1/2 Mo)

ASTM A182-F304L,
F316L

ASTM A350-LF2

ASTM A182, F22


(2-1/4 Cr, 1 Mo)

ASTM A240-304, 304L

ASTM A515GR70

ASTM A387-1, CL2


(1-1/4 Cr, 1/2 Mo)

ASTM A240-316, 316L

ASTM A516GR70

ASTM A387-2, CL2


(2-1/4 Cr, 1 Mo)

ASTM A193, Gr B7*


ASTM A194, Gr 2H*
ASTM A193, Gr B6 (410
SS)
ASTM A194, Gr 6 (410
SS)
ASTM A193, Gr B8 (304
SS)**
ASTM A193, Gr 8 (304
SS)**
ASTM A564, Gr 630

ASTM A193, Gr B7
ASTM A194, Gr 2H

ASTM A193, Gr B7
ASTM A194, Gr 2H
ASTM A193, Gr 16
ASTM A194, Gr 4

Plate

Bolts, studs, and


nuts

* Although sometimes provided, these materials are not appropriate for stainless steel valves due to their potential for
corrosion.
** Not recommended for threading into 304 or 316 bodies, as galling may occur.

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The selection of materials is dependent on such factors as resistance to corrosion


and/or erosion, and to some extent, the pressure/temperature rating for the various
materials. It is common practice for the valve body to match the piping material. Fluid
system conditions, including environment, primarily dictate material selection. For
example, the boric acid content of a pressurized water reactor coolant system leads to
the selection of stainless steel body, bonnet, and bolting. The superior erosion resistance
of stainless steel is another reason for its selection for this high-velocity system. Further,
the required retention of water purity in a demineralized water system requires the use
of stainless steels, where small amounts of corrosion products, which could result from
the use of carbon steel, cannot be tolerated. Carbon and low-alloy steel valves are used
in the steam, feedwater, extraction steam, and condensate systems, where the water
chemistry can be controlled to restrict the corrosion rate.
Carbon steels and stainless steels have yield strengths about equal at room temperature;
however, low-alloy steels generally have a significantly higher yield strength than
carbon or stainless steels. At the higher operating temperatures of a water-cooled
reactor (500 F to 600F; 260C to 316C), the yield strength of stainless steel is less than
that of carbon steel. Carbon steel is not recommended for prolonged usage above 800F
(427C) because of its potential graphitization damage and creep damage at elevated
temperatures. The low-alloy steels have the highest yield strength at 500F to 600F
(260C to 316C).
For valve bodies and bonnets, the same material or product form is not required to be
used for both parts. The rating applied, however, must be based on the valve body with
the bonnet designed and material selected accordingly. All materials should be selected
based on specific service conditions. For example: (a) A stainless steel valve in corrosive
service conditions should have stainless steel bolting to preclude bolting corrosion due
to leakage. (b) For steam service, which has a high moisture content and which might
result in erosion, 2-1/4 Cr 1Mo or 1-1/4 Cr 1/2 Mo material should be used for the
valve body and bonnet, even though the temperature would permit carbon steel. In
addition, for high velocity service, 2-1/4 Cr 1Mo is superior to carbon steel, and
stainless steel is vastly superior.
Several other materials are available for valves, such as cast iron (ASTM A-126), ductile
iron (ASTM A-395), and bronze (ASTM B-62). Note that ASME III does not permit cast
iron or ductile iron valves. Other alloys are also used for service environments such as
seawater, where aluminum bronze valves are often used.

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16.3.3 Body Materials


The following common materials are available for valve bodies, with advantages and
disadvantages identified:
Cast iron - ASTM A 126, Class B
Advantages:

Low cost

Good for general service

Disadvantages:

Limited pressure and temperature rating

Brittle, can crack easily

Not allowed by ASME III

Bronze - ASTM B61 and B62


Advantages:

Low cost

Good for general service (air and water)

Disadvantages:

Limited in temperature and pressure (The limits are normally 350 psig (2,413 kPa)
at 550F (288C), up to 1,000 psig (6,895 kPa) at 150F (66C), depending on the alloy
used, pressure rating of the valve, and the method of installation, that is, threaded,
flanged, soldered, or silver brazed.)

Carbon steel - ASTM A216, Gr WCB


Advantages:

Widely used (available)

Moderately priced

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Disadvantages:

Not appropriate for prolonged service over 800F (427C)

Poor chemical resistance to most corrosives

Poor resistance to erosion by high velocity vapor droplets, such as flashing


condensate or wet steam

Should never be used for any trim parts, except base material for the disc, which is
overlaid with corrosion-resistant material at the seat

Chrome-moly - ASTM A217, Gr WC6 and WC9, are low alloy steels and not stainless
steels.
Advantages:

Gives additional erosion resistance and is, therefore, recommended on flashing or


erosive service

Can operate continuously at high temperatures

Price is reasonable, considering its superior characteristics

Disadvantages:

Welding must be followed by post-weld heat treating.

Has about the same resistance to corrosion as carbon steel.

Stainless steel - ASTM A351, Gr CF8 (304 SS), or ASTM A351, Gr CF8M (316 SS)
Advantages:

Good high temperature, pressure performance

Good general corrosion resistance

Most widely used stainless steel in the valve industry

Disadvantages:

High initial cost

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There are many more alloys available that are generally used because of their own
particular resistance to various fluid chemistries, such as aluminum bronze (ASTMB148), bronze (ASTM-B61), alloy 20 stainless steel (ASTM-A35a, CN7M), Monel
(ASTM-A494, M-35), and Inconel (ASTM-A494, CYAO).

16.3.4 Special Considerations for Material Selection for Valves in Raw Water,
Especially Seawater
This section provides an overview of material selection considerations for valves in raw
water service including candidate materials and a brief discussion of microbiologically
induced corrosion.
Material Selection: The service conditions that need to be identified prior to selection of
materials for raw water service are:

Fluid chemistry, including bacterial analysis; and flow velocity range, including
possible stagnant conditions

Suspended particulate matter

Chemical additives or treatment to control fouling and/or limit bacteria that may
result in microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC)

Tendencies of the fluid to deposit scale

Compatibility of materials to preclude galvanic corrosion from use of dissimilar


metals in contact with each other

Possible cavitation of materials from suspended matter, turbulence, or flashing

Candidate Materials: The selection of appropriate materials of construction for fluidwetted components of the valves depends upon the design basis service conditions and
the corrosion allowance. Some candidate materials and their technical limitations or
performance concerns are:

Carbon steel or cast iron - Corrosion rates must be determined for the site-specific
application and integrated into the valve design as a corrosion allowance for wetted
surfaces. Trim should be corrosion resistant or coated with appropriate material.
Carbon steel or cast iron is generally not suitable for seawater service.

Lined carbon steel or cast iron - Elastomeric (natural rubber, BUNA-N, EPDM)
materials or multifunctional epoxy resin (MFER) linings can be applied to allow
seawater service. High maintenance costs and downtime may result from holidays
and/or pinholes in the lining and separation of the lining from valve components.
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Austenitic cast irons - Materials such as Ni-resist have improved resistance to


pitting attacks and are appropriate for seawater service.

Plastics or reinforced plastics - Jointing requires special care and attention to obtain
leak-tightness. Ultraviolet stabilizers are required for outdoor above-ground
applications of reinforced plastics to avoid embrittlement degradation.

Copper alloys - Copper-nickels, brasses, and bronzes have demonstrated good


performance in seawater applications, but they are not immune to corrosion and can
be susceptible to sulfide and bacterial attack and, in certain cases, to erosion. Brasses
and aluminum bronzes can also undergo dezincification and dealumination,
respectively, and consideration must be given to inhibiting this type of corrosion.

300 series stainless steels - 300 series stainless steels are susceptible to severe
localized corrosive attack in slow moving or stagnant fluids. Sediment deposits or
bacterial colonies impede the supply of oxygen to the metal surface, which causes it
to lose passivity and resistance to pitting attack. Increases in velocity above 5 ft/sec
result in less fouling. Stainless steels and other nickel-bearing alloys maintain their
passive layers and corrosion resistance at higher velocities. Crevice corrosion can
also occur in the 300 series stainless steels.

High nickel alloys -Monels, Inconels, Incoloys, and Hastelloys are suitable for
seawater applications, although they can pit under certain conditions.

Titanium - Appropriate for seawater service but can foul without proper treatment,
and can pit at temperatures above 250F (120C). Fabrication by welding can be
difficult. Degradation of titanium due to MIC is unreported.

6% molybdenum stainless steels - Used recently for replacement of 300 series


stainless steels and some non-ferrous alloys that have suffered significant corrosive
attack in service. The temperatures at which pitting and crevice corrosion can occur
(critical temperatures) have been measured to be at least 60F (16C) higher than
those for 316 stainless steel. These materials are weldable and product forms are
available for valve applications.

Microbiologically Induced Corrosion (MIC): MIC is recognized as a widespread problem in


raw water systems. Although a wide range of micro-organisms is involved, most of the
reported case histories have been attributed to sulfate reducing bacteria and iron
oxidizing bacteria.
Most steels and alloys are susceptible to at least some form of MIC. Some materials
such as 6-Mo alloys may be more resistant to MIC. Prevention of MIC requires a range
of solutions including materials with higher MIC resistance, chemical treatment, and
flow monitoring.
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16.4 Corrosion Allowance


Corrosion allowance, as used herein, is defined as additional wall thickness over that
required by ANSI B16.34 to compensate for corrosion loss over the life of the valve.
Corrosion allowance should be specified when ordering valves that are cast or forged,
although the casting or forging process will normally dictate that the final wall
thickness of the valve will be in excess of that required by ANSI B16.34. In the smaller
sizes and lower pressure ratings, the required wall thickness is often far less than the
minimum practical thickness of a casting. In addition, some foundries produce their
castings at least 1/8 inch (3.175 mm) thicker for each inch (25.4 mm) of metal thickness,
compared to the specified wall thickness.
Certain product lines of some manufacturers were originally designed to meet the
required wall thickness of API standards. API standards require a wall thickness in
excess of ANSI B16.34, thus providing a corrosion allowance when used in ANSI B16.34
applications.
It is noted that ANSI B16.34 has provided some excess in their tabulated wall thickness.
When comparing these values against the required wall thickness determined by
calculation, Annex F, paragraph F1.4 of ANSI B16.34, states, in part that The actual
values in Table 3 are approximately 0.1 inches (2.54 mm) heavier than those given by
the equation Some users take this to mean a corrosion allowance, although it does
not specifically say this, nor should it be interpreted that way. Total compliance with
ANSI 16.34 would require wall thickness in accordance with Table 3 (of ANSI B16.34)
for the life of the valve.
An acceptable method of determining the corrosion allowance that complies with ANSI
16.34 is to use the actual design pressure and design temperature of the system and use
the rationale given in ANSI B16.34, Section 6.1.4. An example of this method, adopted
from EPRI report NP-5479 [1.20], is given below:
A method of calculation is as follows:
Given:

System Design Pressure (Pd), System Design Temperature (Td), and Valve
Pressure Class, Size (diameter), and Material

Find:

Corrosion Allowance CA

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Step 1
Enter the appropriate pressure-temperature rating from Table 2 of ANSI B16.34 at the
design temperature (Td), and determine the pressure rating of the valve for the valve
pressure class and the next lower valve pressure class. Call these pressures P2 and P1,
respectively.
Step 2
Enter Table 3 of ANSI B16.34 at the valve diameter (d) and determine the valve body
minimum wall thickness for the valve pressure class and the next lower valve pressure
class. Call these thicknesses t1 and t2, respectively.
Step 3
The required valve body minimum wall thickness (tm) at the design pressure (Pd) and
design temperature (Td) may be found by interpolation from:
t m = t1 +

Pd P1
(t 1 t 2 )
P2 P1

Step 4
The corrosion allowance CA is then:
CA = t 2 t m =

P2 Pd
(t 2 t 1 )
P2 P1

Example. Consider a check valve at the discharge of the main feedwater pumps for a
PWR. Typical valve parameters are:
Design pressure Pd = 1650 psig
Design temperature Td = 460F
Size = 16 inch/class 900
Material = SA350-LF2
Determine the corrosion allowance CA.

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Step 1
From Table 2-1.1 (ANSI B16.34)
Class 900 P2 = 1837 psig @ 460F
Class 600 P1 = 1228 psig @ 460F
Step 2
From Table 3 (ANSI B16.34)
Class 900 t2 = 1.77 inch @ 16 inch diam
Class 600 t1 = 1.18 inch @ 16 inch diam
Step 3
The valve body minimum wall thickness is
t m = t1 +

Pd P1
(t 1 t 2 )
P2 P1

t m = 1.18 +

1650 1228
(1.77 1.18)
1837 1228

t m = 1.59 inches
Step 4
The corrosion allowance is
C A = t 2 t m = 1.77 1.59
C A = 0.18 inch
The result in this example is that an installed valve could have a local or general loss of
wall material up to 0.180 inch and still meet code requirements. If we further postulate
a loss rate of 0.02 inch per year (a high rate), the valve body would last nine years in
that particular application before the allowed code minimum wall was reached. If this
rate were known one to two years in advance of the nine-year point, the valve body
could be replaced or repaired as a routine outage item. An alternative to this would be
to include a higher rated valve or use a different alloy to extend the life of the valve to
match the life of the plant.
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16.5 Valve End Connections


16.5.1 General
Valves can be connected to pipes in several ways, including:

Threads

Welding

Brazing

Soldering

Flanges and bolts

Flared or hub ends

These types of end connections are most commonly used on valves, although not all of
them are suitable for all piping materials or services.

16.5.2 Threaded Ends


This type of end connection is widely used, but not usually in nuclear service. It can be
used for all materials, including plastics. Threaded end connections are limited to
smaller pipe sizes (up to 3 inches; 75 mm). The larger the pipe size, the more difficult it
is to make up the screwed joint. Threaded ends are not suitable for connections that
may experience vibration (potential for leakage) and cannot be used with bent pipe.
Piping codes (ASME III/ANSI B31.1) also restrict use of threads to certain sizes and
services. Pipe threads may be used for up to 1/2-inch (13-mm) nominal pipe size (NPS)
at 5,000 psig (34,500 kPa) for certain instrument applications. For other services,
threaded ends are limited to 950F (510C). For steam and hot water service above
220F (104C), their use is limited to 3-inch (75-mm) NPS with the pressure limit as a
function of size.
Applicable Standards:
ANSI B2.1
ANSI B16.3
ANSI B16.4
ANSI B16.11
ANSI B16.15
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Pipe threads
Malleable - Iron Thread Fittings, 150 and 300 lb
Cast Iron Threaded Fitting, 125 and 250 lb
Forged Steel Fittings, Socket Welding, and Threading
Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings, 125 and 250 lb

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16.5.3 Welding Ends


Welding ends are available only in steel valves. They are used mainly for high
pressure-temperature services. Welding ends are recommended for lines not requiring
frequent dismantling. There are two types of welding ends: butt welding and socket
welding. Butt welding valves come in all sizes; socket welding valves are usually
limited to smaller sizes (generally up to 2 inches; 50 mm).
A major advantage of welding over other joints, such as screwed or flanged, is that
welding eliminates the potential for leakage during plant operation.
There are certain advantages of socket welding over butt welding and a socket welded
joint is preferred for smaller size piping. When fatigue is not a consideration, the
advantages are as follows:

Pipe does not have to be cut accurately.

The joint is basically self-aligning as pipe end slips into pipe and the joint is
supported by the pipe.

Pipe does not require beveling.

Weld spatter cannot enter the pipe.

A disadvantage to socket welds in dirty or contaminated systems is that they may trap
radioactive particles. In addition, they represent a high stress concentration and may
cause stress qualification problems in ASME III systems.
Figures 16-1 and 16-2 show butt weld and socket weld end configurations.
Applicable Standards:
ANSI B16.25 - Butt Welding Ends
ANSI B16.11 - Forged Steel Fittings, Socket Welding, and Threading

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Figure 16-1
Butt Weld End Connection

Figure 16-2
Socket Weld End Connection

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16.5.4 Brazing Ends


Brazing end connections are available on copper alloys. The ends of valves are specially
designed for the use of brazing alloys to make the joint. Brazing requires temperatures
at which the filler metal is put into a liquid state, but the base metal is not. Unlike
typical soldering, brazing will withstand higher temperatures because of the brazing
alloy used. (Alloys used for brazing melt at temperatures higher than 1,000F (540C)
but less than the melting temperature of the jointed parts.) NOTE: Brazing is covered
by ASME code Section IX.

16.5.5 Solder Ends


Solder joint valves are used with copper tubing. Soldering should be limited to
plumbing systems only. The joint is soldered by applying heat. Because of close
clearances between the tubing and the socket of the valve, the solder flows into the joint
by capillary attraction.
Applicable Standards:
ANSI B16.18 - Cast Bronze Solder Joint Pressure Fittings
ANSI B16.22 - Wrought Copper and Bronze Solder Joint Pressure Fittings

16.5.6 Flanged Ends


Flanged ends are generally used for larger line sizes, although they are available in
sizes as small as 1/2 inch (12 mm). A flanged connection allows a valve to be removed
and replaced with a minimum of work. A raised-face flange facing is the most
common. Other facings include flat face (used for cast iron and bronze valves), ring
joint, male-female, and tongue-groove. Tightness of the flanged connection depends
very much on gasket selection.
Three types are available and commonly used: full-face gaskets and flat-ring gaskets
for raised and flat-face flanges; or a metal ring for ring-joint flange connection. Choose
a flange type to match the piping flange. Never bolt cast iron raised face flanges to cast
steel raised faces, as cracking may occur.
In addition to a standard flanged design, there are other types of end connections
available only in butterfly valves. These are:

Wafer or flangeless. The valve is held in position between the inlet/outlet pipe
flanges, using through bolting.

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Lug. The same as above except that there are lugs on the valve body.

Single flange. The same as lug type except inlet and outlet faces of body are
provided with tapped holes.

Figure 16-3 shows these types of end connections.

Figure 16-3
Butterfly Valve End Connections

Applicable Standards:
ANSI B16.1 -

Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings

ANSI B16.5 -

Steel Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, 150, 300, 400, 600,
900, 1500, and 2500 lb, including reference to valves

ANSI B16.24 -

Bronze Flanges and Flanged Fittings, 150 and 300 lb

MSS SP-44

Steel Pipe Line Flanges (26 inches and larger)

Gasket types and materials are discussed in Section 2.6.

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16.5.7 Flared Ends


A flared-end connection is commonly used for metal and plastic tubing up to 2 inches
(50 mm) in diameter. It is used in power plants mainly in instrument hookups less than
or equal to 1/2 inch (12 mm) in diameter. The end of tubing is flared, and a ring nut is
used to make a union-type joint. Various systems are available from different vendors.

16.5.8 Hub Ends (Bell and Spigot)


Hub-end connections are usually limited to domestic water and sewage piping. The
pipe is inserted in the hub end of the valve or fitting, caulked with oakum, and sealed
with molten lead.

16.6 System/Valve Interactions


16.6.1 General
Various interactions between the system and the valve may have an effect on the
pressure boundary of the valve. These types of interactions include pipeline end loads,
system leakage, and piping vibration.

16.6.2 Pipeline End Loads


Since valves in major industrial piping and in fossil and nuclear power plant piping are
usually installed using welding ends and sometimes flanged ends in lower pressure
systems, these connections must be designed to adequately transmit all piping loads
while maintaining pressure integrity. The appropriate industrial or ASME codes have
adequate requirements to satisfy these conditions; however, the effect of piping loads
must also be considered on the operability of the valve itself.
The adequacy of the pressure boundary integrity of the valve and nozzles is normally
ensured by verifying that the section modulus of the valve, in the approximate area of
the intersection of the body and bonnet, is greater than the section modulus of the
piping. The code requires that, as a minimum, the modulus of the valve be at least 10%
greater than that of the piping. In general practice, the modulus of the valve should be
significantly greater than that of the piping, in order to assure operability of the valve.
Thus, the piping which is analyzed for loading adequacy will be assumed to fail first.
For a nuclear safety-related active valve, a specific test is normally done on a prototype
valve by imposing loading on the valve, including internal pressure loads and nozzle
loads (either directly or indirectly), and operating the valve.

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16.6.3 Leakage
System leakage should always be evaluated in consideration of whether the fluid is
hazardous or corrosive. Flammable fluid leaks could pose a fire hazard. Boric acid
leaks are of particular concern in a PWR plant because of the rapidity with which boric
acid can corrode carbon steel over which it may trickle from a stem leak of a stainless
steel valve. All reactor water in a PWR plant contains boric acid. Leakage that collects
or dribbles on a warm surface will become concentrated as the water evaporates.
Concentration may increase to the point at which the boric acid precipitates as crystals
on the warm surface. Corrosion will continue underneath the crystals so long as
moisture, even in the form of humid air, is present.
Leakage of radioactive fluids always presents a hazard that must be considered. If the
fluid is highly radioactive, packless valves are generally used.

16.6.4 Vibration
It is prudent to consider that all valves in the plant will be subject to vibration.
Vibration may be transmitted to the valve through piping connected to rotating
equipment, or it may result from hydrodynamic forces in the valve itself or in adjacent
piping. By itself, vibration of such small amplitudes is not a problem requiring
correction, but it could cause loosening of attachments and often complete separation.
Screwed connections of any kind require positive locking to prevent unscrewing or
complete separation of the mating pieces.
A positive locking device is one that does not depend (in any way) on friction to
perform its function. Thus, a split washer is not a positive locking device; a castellated
nut with a split pin is a positive locking device. Taper pins are not positive locking
devices. Small beads of weld metal intended to secure a pin can crack from vibration or
thermal cycling. Upset threads depend on friction.
Many examples exist of such failures leading to valve damage or worse. This is
especially the case when the loose fastener is not observable because the valve is
inaccessible (for example, inside the containment), or the fastener is inside the valve
body, or inside the housing of a valve operator.
Reference 1.20 gives a detailed discussion of check valve locking devices. Vibration
considerations must also include checking that the vibration frequency does not match
the resonant frequency of the piping. Vibration can also cause fatigue failures in
components with high stresses.

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16.7 Shop Tests


When valves are initially ordered and manufactured, they are normally pressure tested
to ensure structural integrity and absence of unacceptable leakage. Most of the valve
codes and standards (for example, ASME III and ANSI B16.34) require that a
hydrostatic shell test be conducted at 1.5 times the 100F (37C) pressure rating of the
valve.
ASME III also requires a disc hydrostatic test (or closure test as it is currently described)
to be conducted at either 100% of the maximum pressure allowed for the pressure class
at 100F (37C), or 110% of the 100F (37C) pressure rating, depending on what edition
of the code applies. No specific seat test is required, and acceptable seat leakage is not
defined in ASME III.
ANSI B16.34 has essentially the same requirements for the disc except that, for certain
sizes and pressure ratings, the manufacturer has the option to perform a gas closure test
at 80 psig (552 kPa).
Other standards for valves have similar requirements to ASME III and ANSI B16.34.
Seat leakage tests and acceptance criteria normally have to be specified by the user,
particularly when ordering to ASME III or ANSI B16.34 requirements. The most
commonly specified requirements are delineated in MSS-SP-61 (Pressure Testing of
Steel Valves) [6.48] for isolation valves and ANSI/FCI 70-2 (Control Valve Seat
Leakage) [6.12] for control valves.
MSS-SP-61 allows seat leakage up to 10 cc per hour per inch of valve nominal size for
gate and globe valves and 40 cc per hour per inch of valve nominal size for check
valves. For critical valves, an acceptable leakage rate has been specified as 2 or 3 cc per
hour per inch of valve nominal size and is sometimes called low leakage or
exceptional tightness. MSS-SP-61 also has an acceptance criterion for an air seat
leakage test of 0.1 cubic foot per hour per inch of valve size.
ANSI/FCI 70-2 for control valves has six classes of acceptable seat leakage ranging
from class I, which does not require a test, to class VI, which allows 0.15 cc per minute
for a 1-inch (25-mm) valve to 6.75 cc per minute for an 8-inch (200-mm) valve.
For pressure relief valves, ASME Section III requires that the inlet portion of the
pressure relief valve must be hydrostatically tested to at least 1.5 times the set pressure
marked on the valve, and for closed system applications, the outlet portion of the valve
must be hydrostatically tested to 1.5 times the design secondary pressure. ASME III
also requires that the valve set pressure must be verified by test.

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Seat leakage testing criteria and operability testing criteria should be specified by the
user. ASME Sections I and VIII (non-nuclear) require, on valves exceeding 1 inch (25
mm) or 300 psig (2,069 kPa) set pressure, an inlet hydrostatic test of at least 1.5 times
the design pressure and an outlet test for closed bonnet valves used on closed system
applications at a minimum of 30 psi air (207 kPa). These sections also specify set point
testing requirements and seat leakage testing requirements. ANSI Standard B147.1 (API
Standard RP-527) is a commonly used standard to clarify testing methods and tightness
standards.

16.8 Structural Integrity and Valve Operability


The codes and standards applicable to valve construction focus almost exclusively on
pressure containment integrity of the valve and do not address those structural features
that affect the capability of the valve to perform its intended function. Guidelines on
valve stem packing and gaskets are similarly absent from the codes. Several areas of
valve design that affect valve performance are of significant concern. These are:

Valve stem sealing configuration

Flanged gasket seals (other than inlet/outlet flanges)

Mechanical joining (and locking) of components (for example, disc to valve stem
joint, valve stem to actuator stem joint)

Structural members that support and join the valve actuator to the valve proper

Thrust/torque loading capabilities of the valve stem

Some of these areas have already been discussed in the text of this report as well as in
other publications. Reports of valve malfunctions in power plants, however, continue to
show problems with stem seal leakage, bonnet gasket leakage, separation of the valve
stem from the valve disc, broken yokes, and bent stems. Recent regulatory and industry
efforts significantly reduced such failures.
Valve stem seals are discussed in Section 2.5.2, and the reader is encouraged to examine
this information.
Gaskets for use in circular body to bonnet or similar connections of the valve should be
provided with a gasket width comparable to those used in pipeline flanges of
comparable size, type, and service rating. Gaskets of marginally adequate width may
successfully pass shop hydrostatic tests without leakage but may result in maintenance
problems during actual service.

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Expansion of piping segments on both sides of a valve can cause binding of the valve
internals and increase the thrust/torque requirements to open/close the valve. Thus,
piping forces and moments should be taken into account in procurements of new
valves and evaluations of existing valves.
The load carrying capability of mechanical joints of valve components should exceed
the capability of the components being joined.
Valves provided with power actuators, particularly those actuators of large weight,
extended mass and high thrust/torque output should be evaluated to ensure the
adequacy of the valve yoke to support the actuator and the maximum force it can
impose on the valve and the adequacy of the valve stem to accept this loading,
particularly in a column buckling mode (for example, large gate valves). The design of
the valve yoke should be evaluated to ensure that its natural frequency, as assembled in
the valve, exceeds 33 hertz. This evaluation can be performed using a classical
spring/mass determination of its frequency. In achieving this requirement, the
proportions of the yoke should be adequate for the applied compression, tension, and
shear loads. The proportions of the valve stem and the location of guides should be
evaluated for column buckling.

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17
VALVE MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROGRAMS

17.1 Introduction
The U.S. electric power industry is under ever-increasing pressure to improve plant
efficiency, shorten plant outages, and cut costs, which means fewer people and
resources. In this environment, the burden is on plant maintenance personnel to
improve the efficiency of repair and maintenance activities. Valve maintenance groups,
in particular, will be under extreme pressure to keep the plant on-line.
With the recent activities to satisfy regulatory commitments such as GL 89-10, GL 95-06,
GL 96-07, etc., many valves were subjected to extensive testing, increased actuator
output thrust/torque, and various modifications in the valves as well in the actuators.
These activities will put even more pressure on the plant maintenance groups to
improve efficiency and productivity.
Furthermore, the changes in regulatory requirements, the evolution of design codes
and new technologies, combined with aging of some plants will increase the
responsibilities of the valve maintenance groups in nuclear power plants. For example,
in order to reduce the risk of plant personnel exposure to radiation, cobalt-free alloys
are being developed to replace cobalt-based alloys (such as Stellite 6). As this
technology matures and gets industry approval, utilities may decide to replace Stellite 6
seats in many valves with the new cobalt-free material, which will add to the
responsibilities of the valve maintenance group.
The objective of this section is to address the valve maintenance programs within
electric utilities in anticipation of the upcoming scenarios. This guide can provide only
general recommendations on programmatic considerations and minimum maintenance
requirements for valves (within the scope of the guide) because most power plants have
different management styles and spare-part inventory requirements. This section
provides some recommendations for plant management and engineering to consider in
upgrading or maintaining their valve maintenance and inspection programs.
References 5.20 through 5.24 provide recent experiences in nuclear power plant
maintenance programs.

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17.2 Definitions
Some of the most commonly used definitions in the maintenance field and in this guide
are given below.
Maintenance. All activities performed on equipment in order to maintain or restore
their operational functions (corrective or preventive).
Corrective Maintenance (CM). Tasks performed to restore functional capabilities of
failed equipment - diagnosis and repair.
Preventive Maintenance (PM). All activities performed on equipment to avoid or
reduce the probability of failure.
Periodic Preventive Maintenance. Maintenance actions initiated as a function of time,
regardless of the actual condition, including life limit (discard) tasks (scheduled
replacements) and overhauls (scheduled rework).
Condition Directed Preventive Maintenance. Actions initiated as a result of equipment
condition assessment and comparison with defined acceptance criteria. This includes
surveillance tasks as in-service inspection (ISI), in-service testing (IST), and monitoring
and diagnostics (predictive maintenance).
Predictive Maintenance. Assesses the status of equipment or system degradation
through correlation with one or more parameters.
Conditional Overhaul. Restoration of equipment to a reliable condition, undertaken
when the acceptance criteria are no longer met.
Reliability Centered Maintenance. Based on identifying equipment/system functions,
functional failures, and dominant failure modes to develop or revise PM tasks.

17.3 Objective and Scope of Valve Maintenance Programs


An accurate definition of the objectives and scope of the valve maintenance program
will help in upgrading and maintaining existing programs and in assessing the
effectiveness of the maintenance program as it impacts valve reliability and overall
plant availability. It also clarifies the responsibility and accountability of the
maintenance personnel.

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17.3.1 Objective and Maintenance Philosophy


The objective of the valve maintenance program is to improve valve reliability, which
in turn improves the overall plant availability. Plant and personnel safety and reducing
the cost of maintenance/repair go without saying. To meet this objective, the
maintenance philosophy should be based on pro-active and preventive maintenance
instead of reactive or corrective maintenance. However, it is inevitable that instances
will arise where corrective maintenance will be required. This maintenance philosophy
may require some up-front investments, but the payback can be very handsome. It
should be noted that:

Small problems caused by inadequate maintenance can grow to be significant and


can force the plant to shut down.

Ideally, valve maintenance should be performed in time to prevent damage to the


system including the valve.

Excessive maintenance on an individual valve or a single group of valves should be


avoided because it increases the probability of causing valve problems mostly due
to human error. Excessive maintenance can also divert resources from other valves
that may need attention.

Maintenance planning should start during the selection of new or replacement


valves. For example, some valve designs may be avoided for certain applications
because they may require high maintenance at inaccessible or high radiation areas.
Valve specifications should request manufacturers recommendations for spare
parts (if not already included). Limiting the number of valve manufacturers within
the plant may reduce the requirements for spare-part inventory and special tools.

Post-maintenance testing should be adequate enough to ensure valve capability


prior to return to service.

17.3.2 The Maintenance Rule (MR)


The rule Requirements for Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear
Power Plants (10CFR50.65 [6.1]) was published in 1991 and became effective July 10,
1996. It is a simple rule requiring that:
1. Licensees must monitor structure, systems, and components (SCCs) performance or
condition against licensee established goals and take appropriate corrective actions
when goals are not met.
2. The above monitoring is not required where it is demonstrated that the performance
or condition is effectively controlled via an appropriate PM program.
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3. Periodic assessment (cycle) of performance and maintenance activities shall trigger


necessary adjustments and balance reliability improvement efforts with
maintenance related unavailability.
Item 1 gives the scope of the rule, including most safety-related SCCs and part of the
non-safety-related SCCs.
The spirit of the rule is to use the risk contribution of the various SCCs to create a
hierarchy of the attention they receive (in or out of the scope, performance criteria) and
to monitor the effectiveness of the plan (its results, compared to goals) to achieve
reliability goals without sacrificing availability.
An Implementation Guideline (NUMARC 93-01, Reference 4.32) has been produced by
the industry under NEI supervision and endorsed by the NRC as an acceptable
compliance process.
Methodology to Select Plant SCCs to Be in the MR Scope
The guideline comments on how to interpret the categories of SCCs targeted by the rule
and directs utilities to use methodologies such as Industry Experience, Engineering
Evaluation, and PRA or IPE types of evaluations.
Establishing Criteria and Goals
All SCCs in the rule scope are evaluated against criteria. Those SCCs that do not meet
the criteria must have specific goals established and be monitored closely until they
reach them. While the difference between criteria and goals is not that clear, the spirit is
that criteria can usually cover larger groupings (like plants, systems, or train) and that
if they are met, there is no need for close monitoring (a2 SCCs). If criteria are not met
(al SCCs), root cause analysis (RCA) must point to the responsible SCC, which will be
submitted to a detailed monitoring until the performance has been restored.
SCC risk significance (expressed, for instance, as a Fussell-Vessely, if more than S x 10 -3)
is used to define the level of monitoring (plant, system, train, or component).
Performance criteria should be SCC availability, reliability, or condition. They are
specific for risk significant SCCs and non-risk-significant SCCs that are in stand-by
normally. They can be at the plant level for the other SCCs.
Plant level performance criteria have to be chosen by the utility (under NRC watch)
according to different factors:

Design type

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Age

Industry

Past plant performance

Specific criteria should be related to industry experience but consistent with


assumptions used in the PRA or IPE. SCC performance by rule date (July 96) is
computed for the last two cycles or 36 months minimum and then compared to the
criteria to be accordingly submitted or not to a specific goal and corrective plan. Goals,
when necessary, are expected to be set normally at the system or train level. If
component goals are needed, they should be limited to component types (such as
breakers or check valves) or to components that have several or repetitive failures.
Maintenance Preventable Functional Failures (MPFFs)
MPFFs are failures that could have been prevented by maintenance, such as an error in
procedure implementation or a known failure mechanism that PM could have
controlled. Design or manufacturing errors are not MPFFs the first time they occur, but
they are for subsequent failures.
Controlling Equipment Removal of Service
An important aspect of the rule is risk evaluation before removing a piece of equipment
from service voluntarily for PM. The guideline advises us to identify key plant safety
functions and the SCCs that support them and to formally assess the effect of SCC
removal on global safety before proceeding.
Periodic Effectiveness Assessment
The rule and the guideline require that each cycles goals and criteria be revisited to
assess the performance of SCCs and the effectiveness of corrective actions.

17.3.3 Scope
The scope of a good valve maintenance program should include both safety-related and
non-safety-related valves. Valves that are not essential to plant operation and safety are
typically given lower priority and eventually may require more resources to repair. A
good maintenance program must also address other elements such as spare parts
inventory, personnel training, and special tools, as discussed below. The following
discussions are equally applicable to valve actuators because they are essential for
valve operation.
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17.4 Valve Maintenance Group


The human factor is by far the most important factor in any maintenance program.
Experience shows that a reliable and competent valve maintenance group can make a
big difference in valve availability and overall plant reliability. The following factors
should be considered in selecting and maintaining the valve group personnel:

Individuals in the valve maintenance group (mechanics, electricians,


instrumentation technicians, etc.) must be well qualified to execute maintenance
tasks. Qualifications within the group should be diversified to include all aspects of
valve and actuator maintenance, diagnostics, and repair.

Valve maintenance groups should frequently attend in-depth technical training and
short courses (such as those offered by NMAC and equipment manufacturers
including valves, actuators, and diagnostic equipment).

The valve maintenance group should include:

A group leader in charge of all maintenance activities including documentation,


coordination, and updating of the maintenance program

A technical specialist assigned to observe problems, solutions, and other


information from the industry, INPO, the NRC, EPRI/NMAC, NIC, MUG, AUG,
EPRI PPP Users Group, manufacturers, etc.

Spare parts specialist in charge of replenishing inventory, locating parts from


other sources (for example, other plants) in case of an emergency, and
maintenance of spare parts database and records

Scheduling and coordination engineer who interfaces with operations and other
groups in the plant

Assignments to the valve maintenance group should be permanent because of the


accumulation of a great amount of indispensable experience and knowledge. Some
maintenance personnel have been with their plants since construction and/or
startup, and their experiences are considered very valuable plant assets. Promotion
and compensation should not cause a significant turnaround in the group.
Management should ensure sufficient overlap between fresh personnel and
experienced personnel before relieving the latter from duties.

Outside contractors and temporary task force personnel should be under direct
supervision from the valve maintenance group.

Develop and maintain ties with valve manufacturers and suppliers.

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Valve maintenance group personnel must have accountability, ownership, and longterm commitment to their duties.

Valve maintenance group personnel must be motivated and have good


interpersonal relationships inside and outside their group.

Drug and alcohol testing should be strictly enforced.

17.5 Valve Categorization and Prioritization


From a maintenance standpoint, the ranking of valves should take into account:

The safety implications of a failure and the status of redundant systems

The performance history of the valves or valve groups considering the application,
flow conditions, media, the manufacturer, the valve design, etc.

Performance requirements such as maximum allowable local leak rates

Valve location and accessibility

Valve size and type

Availability of replacement valves and spare parts

Recent upgrades or modifications (if any)

Manufacturers maintenance recommendations

The bases and documentation for ranking

Valves can be categorized and prioritized for maintenance and repair using various
approaches. One approach is to divide the valve population into three groups, as
follows:
Group 1
Group 1 consists of the valves that require mandatory actions, regardless of other
activities. This group includes valves that have special requirements for maintenance
because of operating license, safety reasons, or government regulations, or occasionally
due to manufacturer warranty requirements (for example, turbine stop valves).
Preventive maintenance or inspections must be performed on these valves. The valves
within this group can be identified using:

FSARs
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Technical specifications

Directives issued by regulatory agencies

ASME Code requirements

Equipment qualification reports

In-service inspection program

NRC bulletins

Insurance requirements

Significant Event Reports

Licensing Event Reports

Manufacturer warranties

Group 2
Group 2 consists of the valves that typically have experienced a high rate of failures,
caused a loss of plant availability, have high corrective maintenance costs, or have
safety problems including release of radiation. Plant maintenance history records are a
good source of information, as is experience gathered from other plants. Plant records
would help to identify the types of failures and frequencies being experienced by the
plant, and the consequences of each failure, including impact on plant power
production, out-of-service time, hours to repair, spare parts required, causes of failure,
and the failure mechanisms involved.
Group 3
Group 3 includes valves that do not have a history of failures; however, their failure
would impact safety or significantly increase the operating cost through the loss of
plant production. Valves to be included in this group should be identified by plant
engineers based on analysis of the plant piping and instrumentation diagrams or other
pertinent documents.
It is clear that a large number of valves, especially small bore manual valves, will not be
included in these groups. They will mainly consist of vents, drains, miscellaneous
valves, and valves in systems not important from a safety and operational point of
view. Their maintenance will be basically a corrective type (that is, repair or
replacement of the affected part or a whole valve).
Another method of prioritization in use in the industry is a powerful tool for
establishing the cost consequence of valve failures. Logic models, such as those built
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with availability block diagrams and/or fault trees, enable the maintenance engineer to
properly relate the likelihood of plant availability losses to component failure, even to
the level of component failure mode. These logic models, using such available
computer codes as EPRIs UNIRAM, provide a ranked criticality list based on failure
rates, forced outage rate, or plant availability loss contribution. Industry typical failure
rates can be used to establish an initial criticality list, which is gradually revised and
supplemented as plant-specific data become available. (It has been found, for example,
that some nonsafety-related equipment is highly important to plant availability.) These
model-generated criticality lists are more accurate than a simple categorization because
they include the effects of failures on other equipment as well as their direct effect on
the unit.

17.6 Coordination between Maintenance Group and Other Groups


Coordination of tasks between the valve maintenance group, packing group, testing
group, actuator group, outside contractors, valve/actuator vendors, and operations is
one of the most important factors in reducing maintenance efforts and eliminating
unnecessary tasks and duplication of efforts. For example, it may be more efficient to
maintain the valve a few weeks ahead of schedule if the actuator has to be dismounted
for any reason.
Coordination with other groups allows for the implementation of the one trip
approach where all valve/actuator maintenance and repair activities are performed in
one trip to the valve. Reference 5.21 discusses the whole valve approach where the
entire valve (including the actuator) is maintained at the same time, thus eliminating
unnecessary duplication of effort. Reference 5.21 shows that proper implementation of
these concepts has been very successful for more than 10 years in some power plants.

17.7 Involvement of Valve Maintenance Group with Other Activities


The valve maintenance group must be involved in all aspects of repairs, modifications,
and actuator settings. Inadequate involvement of the maintenance group with these
activities can have serious consequences. For example, during major projects (such as
GL 89-10 and GL 95-07) and special projects (for example, MSIV upgrades), a task force
(using specialists from outside contractors and consultants) may be formed to work on
these projects. Even though such approaches meet the specific objectives of the
moment, they tend to be extremely costly in the long run because, once the group is
disbanded, the remaining maintenance and engineering organization might be left
without the knowledge and rationale that was developed during these projects. Thus, it
is crucial that the impact of such special projects on the maintenance program be
determined, documented, and communicated to the valve maintenance group before
dissolving the special task force.
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17.8 Inspection Frequency and Scope


The valve categories described in Section 17.5 should be used to determine the
frequency and scope of valve inspections, which can vary from merely outside visual
inspection (for example, for leaks from packing/gasket, higher noise, excessive
vibration, etc.) to a full disassembly and detailed internal inspections. Prior to
performing maintenance and/or repair, the subject valve should be visually inspected
unless it is not accessible or is in a high radiation area. The use of a check list provides a
documented record for the inspection results and ensures that all of the intended tasks
are performed. The use of assembly/disassembly procedures helps eliminate costly
problems and saves time and resources in the long run.
The maintenance and inspection program must be flexible to accommodate plant
experience. For example, when a visual inspection indicates a slight packing leak, the
inspection frequency should be increased to ensure that the leakage does not exceed
tolerable limits without being detected.

17.9 Maintenance Schedule


An optimum maintenance schedule is one that restores the valve to a good working
condition before causing any damage to the valve, actuator, or system and maximizes
plant operation (that is, does not cause system shutdown). The following factors should
be considered:

Excessive maintenance is not recommended and should be avoided for several


reasons, including potential problems due to human error, unnecessary depletion of
spare parts, and waste of manpower or resources that should be allocated to other
valves. Excessive maintenance may also impact plant outages unnecessarily.

Spare parts, materials, tools, and procedures should be made available prior to
valve disassembly.

If needed, diagnostic equipment and technicians should be made available prior to


valve disassembly.

An ideal maintenance schedule would result in a reasonable and uniform work load
for the available work force. However, this is not always possible because many
maintenance/repair activities have to be completed during plant outages.

Scheduling should be coordinated with other groups in order to implement the one
trip concept where all activities can be performed in one trip to the valve.

Scheduling valves with similar designs for maintenance within the same timeframe
may provide significant efficiency.

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Scheduling must account for the sequence of activities. For example, VOTES testing
on the operator may require LLRT on the valve.

The maintenance schedule must be responsive to plant requirements. For example


when a problem is detected with one valve, all other similar valves should be
checked promptly even if they are not within the current schedule. In some cases,
routine maintenance has to be rescheduled to address an unexpected valve problem.

17.10 Spare Parts Inventory and Control


Supplying valve spare parts for nuclear safety-related applications presents several
technical and economic concerns and should be clearly understood and planned for.
Some of the key factors are as follows [5.23]:

Many spare parts are long-lead items and are not readily available. The
responsibility of the spare parts specialist within the valve maintenance group
includes identifying these items and having a contingency plan in case of an
emergency need. Options include sharing parts with other plants (including
decommissioned units), using dedicated parts, and developing and sharing spare
part electronic databases via the Internet.

Upgrades and obsolescence do affect the spare part inventory and associated capital
investments.

The evolution of design codes and changes in regulatory requirements can render
some of the inventory obsolete (for example, asbestos packing and seals).

Operating experience feedback should be considered in adjusting inventory.

Inspection frequency should account for availability/procurement of parts before


causing a valve problem.

Spare part storage should consider the materials shelf life and required
environment.

Control and maintenance of spare part records are key concerns for safety-related
components.

Standardization of new/replacement valves and consolidation of valve components


can provide significant savings in spare part inventory and associated costs.

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18
TROUBLESHOOTING AND RECOMMENDED
CORRECTIVE ACTIONS

18.1 Introduction
This section provides guidance on troubleshooting and recommended corrective
actions for gate, globe, butterfly, ball, plug, and diaphragm valves. EPRI/NMAC has
also published several reports to address air-operated valves [1.2], safety and relief
valves [1.4], solenoid valves [1.7], and check valves [1.20 and 1.21]. EPRI/NMAC has
also published several other reports to address Limitorque actuators [1.22, 1.23, 1.24,
and 1.25] and Rotork actuators [1.26]. Troubleshooting a valve usually involves the
actuator. However, in the following, the focus will be on troubleshooting valve
problems assuming that actuator troubleshooting has been performed using the
applicable document.
Before repairing a valve, it is important to determine and eliminate the root cause of the
valve failure. For example, if a valve stem is bent (or twisted) due to accidental
overload during testing, then stem replacement with proper measures to prevent
further overload is sufficient. However, if the stem is bent (or twisted) during normal
operation, then it is necessary to evaluate the actuator output thrust (or torque) versus
required stem thrust (or torque) and stem strength before ordering a replacement stem.
If this evaluation shows that the stem stress exceeds the allowable stress, then it may be
necessary to redesign the stem with a stronger material.
A repeated valve problem indicates that the valve needs special attention. For example,
repeated packing leakage may be caused by stem corrosion, bent stem, large lateral
stem movement, or inadequate packing selection/design. If the packing leakage is
caused by stem corrosion, then the stem should be redesigned with a material that is
compatible with the process fluid. If the stem is bent, then the evaluation in the
preceding paragraph must be performed. If the stem has large lateral movement that
cannot be accommodated by the packing resilience, then it is necessary to determine the
root cause. For gate and globe valves, the lateral stem movement can be caused by a
small clearance between the stem head and the disc or due to misalignment between
the disc and seat. For butterfly and ball valves, the lateral stem movement can be
caused by excessive bearing wear. The point is that even simple problems should not
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be ignored if they occur frequently because they may be symptoms of more serious
problems.
New valves and overhauled valves should be broken in at low loads for a few cycles.
Loads should be increased gradually until normal operating loads are reached.
Most valve problems require a walkdown and investigation at the valve, and in some
cases internal inspection would be required. Some actuator problems can be diagnosed
from the control room (such as instrument air pressure and control power availability).
In diagnosing a valve problem, the past history of the valve, similar valves, and other
valves in the same system should be reviewed. In all cases, simple things should be
checked first. It can be extremely embarrassing and wasteful to tear down a valve
searching for a problem when the real culprit is a cocked packing gland or loss of
power.
The cost and delivery schedule of new parts (or replacement valves) should be
considered before authorizing repairs. Alternative solutions should be also considered
while scheduling for valve repair or replacement. For example, on-line leak sealing (see
Reference 1.16) may be used to support continued operation until the valve is repaired
during the following outage.
It should be noted that some valve problems are caused by design/installation
deficiencies such as:

Inadequate structural strength under seismic loads, pipe loads, etc.

Inadequate strength to withstand missiles and flying objects under postulated


accident conditions.

Power sources (for example, cables, air lines, and hydraulic lines) are not protected
from damage under design basis conditions.

The valve actuator is not accessible for maintenance/repairs.

Such problems may require valve/actuator replacement with major design evaluations.
These problems are outside the scope of this document. As part of troubleshooting and
root cause investigations, it may be necessary to calculate the required torque/thrust to
operate the valve under a given set of operating/design basis conditions. These
calculations typically require detailed internal dimensions, which may be obtained
from the valve manufacturer. Alternatively, these dimensions may be obtained during
valve disassembly for inspection or repair. For example, detailed internal dimensions
are needed to calculate the required thrust/torque using EPRIs Performance Prediction
Methodology (PPM). References 2.1 through 2.4 and 2.14 through 2.17 provide data

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sheets and illustrations showing the dimensions needed for each valve design within
the scope of EPRIs PPM.

18.2 Gate Valve Problems


As discussed in Section 4, there are many gate valve designs in nuclear power plants
including solid wedge, flex wedge, split wedge, double disc, Westinghouse wedge gate
valves with linkage type stem-to-disc connection, and W-K-M parallel expanding disc
valves. The W-K-M valves are used only in very few power plants and are not
discussed in this report; the reader is referred to Reference 2.17 for details. Common
gate valve problems and their causes are discussed in Section 4.5. Reference 1.1
provides additional discussions for damage assessment and repair options for gate
valves. In this section, the most common valve problems are listed along with
suggested corrective actions.

18.2.1 Solid, Flex, and Split Wedge Gate Valve Problems


18.2.1.1

Excessive Packing Leaks

Packing leakage is one of the major problems for all types of valves. Reference 1.15
provides extensive discussions of packing designs, troubleshooting, and
recommendations for solving packing leakage problems. Additional information can be
found in References 5.44 through 5.50. Some of the more common packing problems are
summarized as follows:

Insufficient packing compression.

Improper consolidation.

A scored or heavily pitted valve stem or stuffing box.

Corrosion on the valve stem.

Improper packing assembly.

Improper stem alignment.

Bent stem as measured by the total indicated runout (TIR). The amount of allowable
TIR will vary depending on the valve size, type and manufacturers allowance
(typically < 0.007 inch).

Large variations in stem diameter.

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Split ring packing improperly aligned (split-ring packing rings should be lined up
with their cuts or separations staggered).

Excessive stem lateral movements due to small clearance between stem and disc or
guide rail and guide slot. In this case, the stem lateral movement can be seen at any
disc position except in the wedged position.

Excessive stem lateral movements due to misalignment between the disc and seat.
In this case, the stem lateral movement is most pronounced as the gate wedges into
or unwedges from the seat.

Excessive stem lateral movements due to actuator side loads on the stem.

Improper size or type of packing.

Loose or cocked gland.

Visual inspection and stroking the valve under some pressure can be used to
investigate the source of the packing leakage. In many cases, it may be sufficient to
increase the packing compression to stop a packing leakage. However, it is important to
verify that the margin between the available actuator thrust and the required stem
thrust to operate the valve (including packing friction) under worst case flow
conditions is acceptable.
18.2.1.2

Valve Will Not Respond to the Actuation Signal

The first step is to determine whether the problem is actuator related or valve related.
For actuator-related problems, the following references should be consulted for root
cause and repair practices:

For Limitorque actuators, see References 1.22 through 1.25.

For Rotork actuators, see Reference 1.26.

For air-operated valves, see Reference 1.2.

For solenoid valves, see Reference 1.7.

For manual actuators, see Section 14.

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If the problem is related to the gate valve, then it may be caused by one of the following
reasons:

The valve/actuator assembly does not have adequate operating clearances. Direct
interference from scaffolding built too close to the valve/actuator assembly has
prevented some valves from stroking.

Packing resistance is extremely high and is locking the stem. If appropriate, loosen
the packing and check the valve operation (when there is no pressure in the system).

If the stem does not move in the opening direction, then the valve may be
experiencing a pressure locking, thermal binding, or disc pinching condition (see
Section 4). Verify that bonnet pressure is not higher than either the upstream or
downstream pressures. It can be dangerous to plant personnel to loosen packing to
relieve bonnet pressure from a valve. Permanent modification to eliminate pressure
locking and thermal binding may be required on valves that are susceptible to
pressure locking.

If the stem does not move and the disc is in the wedged position, then the
unwedging thrust is not sufficient to unwedge the gate. The required thrust and
actuator output thrust should be evaluated for inadequate sizing.

If the stem does not move and the disc is not in the wedged position, then the stem
may have lost engagement with the actuator. Dismounting the actuator may be
required for further investigation.

If the stem moves but the disc does not, then the stem has lost engagement with the
disc. Possible problems are stem head broken, excessive wear between the stem
head and the gate T-slot, or T-slot ears broken or severely deformed. Internal
inspection is required.

If the stem does not move from midstroke position, the guide slots may be stuck to
the guide rails. Possible causes include guide galling, guide rail deformation, stuck
anti-rotation arm, accumulation of foreign materials in the clearance between the
guide rail and guide slot, or the presence of an obstruction especially in raw water
systems such as service water systems.

If the valve initially fails to operate and then appears to operate normally, this may
mask a potential problem with the valve or the actuator. In such a case, the valve
and the actuator should be evaluated to determine the cause of the initial failure.

As mentioned above, simple things should be checked first. Some factors can be quickly
eliminated by visual inspection or by stroking the valve using the handwheel.

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18.2.1.3

Valve Will Not Fully Open

The first step is to determine whether the problem is actuator related or valve related.
Apart from the actuator, the valve problem may be caused by one or more of the
following reasons:

The valve does not have adequate operating clearances. Direct interference from
scaffolding built too close to the valve has prevented some valves from stroking.

Obstruction inside the valve; internal inspection may be required.

Improper stem alignment.

Bent stem causing stem interference.

Large variations in the stem diameter causing excessive packing resistance.

The required thrust near the fully open position is only a small percentage of the
unwedging thrust. Valve failure to fully open suggests either a very simple problem
(such as improper limit switch setting in the actuator) or serious damage inside the
valve as mentioned above. This problem must be corrected even if the valve is not
required to open fully, because it may lead to additional damage and ultimately
prevent the valve from stroking.
18.2.1.4

Valve Will Not Fully Close or Properly Seat

In addition to the applicable problems in Section 18.2.1.3, the problem may be caused
by one of the following reasons:

Insufficient stem thrust to allow adequate wedging; verify the actuator output thrust
and required thrust to close and wedge the disc.

Damaged seat or disc (which generally requires internal inspection). This may be
caused by:

Incorrectly installed disc

Galling or gouging between the disc and seat under tilted contact mode as
discussed in Section 4.5

Erosion/corrosion of the disc and/or seat sealing surfaces

Wire drawing or steam cutting (in steam service)

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Disc obstruction, including biological growth or contaminants, especially in


service water systems

Excessive pipe loads and bending moments

Bent stem causing stem interference.

Excessive packing resistance.

Damaged/worn stem threads, especially those in contact at the closed position


where maximum thrust is transmitted.

Bent guide rails; this is most common with guide rails that do not have full length
welds

Expansion of the discs prior to reaching the fully closed position; this occurs in split
wedge valves and can occur in flex wedge valves having T-slots perpendicular to
the flow axis. Disc expansion is caused by the stem torque prying the T-slot and
discs apart; it can be eliminated by installing an external stem torque restraint.

Disc and seat angles do not match; this can occur during disc and seat lapping.

The disc seat face overlay is not large enough to accommodate the disc and seat
position variance; this may occur after the disc and seats have been resurfaced and
the disc travels too far.

After ruling out the simple causes, it may be necessary to perform internal valve
inspection. Reference 1.1 provides detailed discussions for damage assessment and
repair options for gate valves.
18.2.1.5

Excessive Flange Leaks

Flange leakage can occur between the mating flanges on the piping to the valve or
between the bonnet and valve body. These leaks can be caused by several problems,
but a typical cause is one of the following:

Gasket problems, including reuse of the old gasket, absence of the gasket, gasket of
the wrong material or size, or improper gasket crush (see EPRI/NMAC TR-104749,
Static Seals Maintenance Guide, [1.14]).

Bolting problems, including use of the old bolts that do not tighten properly,
insufficient torque for the service, or incorrect torque pattern (see EPRI/NMAC TR104213, Bolted Joint Maintenance and Application Guide, [1.17]).

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Surfacing problems, including flange surface pitting, erosion, corrosion or being


uneven. Mating polished flanges that are even 0.001 of an inch off 90 will leak in
service. Check the installation of new parts.

The bonnet flange design is not adequate for internal and external (actuator) forces.

Corrosion and pitting of the pressure seal surfaces in the bonnet and body of a
pressure-sealed bonnet valve.

Improper assembly of the pressure-sealed bonnet resulting in bonnet misalignment


and uneven load on the seal ring.

Changes in piping forces and moments due to changes in operating conditions were
not accounted for in flange design. For example, if changes in operating
temperature cause flange leaks, then it is possible that under thermal piping loads,
the flange or gasket stresses exceed the allowable stress.

Changes in piping forces and moments due to changes in operating conditions can
also cause fatigue failure to the gasket, bolts, or flanges.

Under pressure-locking conditions [4.2, 5.30], the large increase in bonnet pressure
can cause the bonnet gasket to leak. If both the packing and bonnet do not leak, then
the bonnet or bolt stresses can reach yield stress.

18.2.2 Double-Disc Gate Valve Problems


There are several double-disc valve designs in nuclear power plants including those
manufactured by Anchor Darling and Aloyco. In this section, the most common valve
problems are listed along with corrective actions. In this section, only additional
problems that pertain to double-disc designs are discussed (see Section 18.2.1 for other
problems covered under solid and flex wedge gate valves).
18.2.2.1

Excessive Packing Leaks

Packing leakage problems summarized in Section 18.2.1.1 also apply to double-disc


gate valves.
18.2.2.2

Valve Will Not Respond to the Actuation Signal

In addition to the problems listed in Section 18.2.1.2, the following problems apply to
double-disc gate valves:

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The upper disc does not break free from the lower wedge, which can increase
required thrust significantly even when the valve is installed in the preferred flow
direction. EPRI testing shows that on one stroke the wedge did not break free [2.14].
This can be caused by many factors including galling/corrosion in the valve disc
components and accumulation of foreign materials between the moving parts in the
valve disc assembly.

18.2.2.3

Valve Will Not Fully Open

In addition to the applicable problems in Section 18.2.1.3, the problem may be caused
by one of the following reasons:

Failure of the upper wedge to unwedge from the lower wedge (see Figure 4-4).

Excessive wear between the disc trunnions and the upper wedge. This wear may
happen in the absence of disc anti-rotation devices (which prevent the discs from
spinning inside the upper wedge holes).

After ruling out the obvious possible causes, it is generally necessary to perform an
internal valve inspection.
18.2.2.4

Valve Will Not Fully Close or Properly Seat

In addition to the applicable problems in Section 18.2.1.4, this problem may be caused
by one of the following reasons:

Premature wedging between the upper and lower disc wedges before reaching the
fully closed position.

Accumulation of foreign materials in the body below disc assembly.

Increase in the stiffness of the wedge spring due to hardening or accumulation of


foreign materials.

18.2.2.5

Excessive Flange Leaks

See Section 18.2.1.5 for applicable reasons.

18.2.3 Westinghouse Gate Valve Problems


Westinghouse wedge gate valves have linkage-type stem to disc connections (see
Figure 4-8). Apart from problems caused by improper alignment of the linkages, all
problems are already discussed in Section 18.2.1 and 18.2.2.
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18.3 Globe Valve Problems


There are many globe valve designs in nuclear power plants including T-pattern, Ypattern, rising stem, rising/rotating stem, unbalanced plug, and balanced plug. The
most common valve problems and their causes are discussed in Section 6.5. Reference
1.1 provides additional discussions for damage assessment and repair options for globe
valves. In this section, additional globe valve problems are listed along with
recommended corrective actions.

18.3.1 Excessive Packing Leaks


Packing leakage problems summarized in Section 18.2.1.1 also apply to globe valves.

18.3.2 Valve Will Not Respond to the Actuation Signal


In addition to the problems listed in Section 18.2.1.2, the following problems apply to
globe valves:

Insufficient actuator thrust for the actual flow direction. For example, if the required
thrust is based on flow under the plug, the valve may not open under the same
pressure drop if the flow direction changes to flow over the seat (for example, due
to flow reversal). Thus, for globe valves, it is critical to verify that required thrust is
based on the worst possible combination of stroke direction, flow direction, and
pressure drop.

Insufficient actuator thrust for the applicable pressure drop area. The effective
pressure drop area in unbalanced plug globe valves can be based on either the plug
seating diameter or the plug guide diameter. The EPRI Globe Valve Model Report [2.3]
provides the criteria to determine whether a globe valve is seat based or guide
based. The use of the guide area will always result in conservative thrust prediction.

Galled, corroded, or damaged stem bushings/guides.

Galled or scored plug and/or guide sleeve.

The operating temperature exceeds the trim design temperature, which includes
geometric characteristics (such as clearance and coefficients of thermal expansion).

18.3.3 Valve Will Not Fully Open


Most problems summarized in Section 18.2.1.3 also apply to globe valves.

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18.3.4 Valve Will Not Fully Close or Properly Seat


In addition to the applicable problems summarized in Section 18.2.1.4, the following
problems apply to globe valves:

Misalignment between the plug and the seat. Plug misalignment prevents proper
mating of seating surfaces.

Improper mating angles between the plug and the seat. This problem usually occurs
after plug and/or seat repair.

Worn or damaged plug seal.

Damaged seating surfaces due to excessive closing thrust.

For rising and rotating stem globe valves, the following problems apply:

Galling at plug-to-stem interface.

Damage in the yoke nut threads.

Improper required thrust/torque predictions. Calculations based on rising stem


globe valves do not apply to rising and rotating stem globe valves and often yield
nonconservative thrust/torque predictions.

Additional information can be found in Reference 1.1.

18.3.5 Excessive Flange Leaks


Most problems summarized in Section 18.2.1.5 also apply to globe valves.

18.4 Butterfly and Ball Valve Problems


Butterfly and ball valves, being quarter-turn valves, have common problems as
discussed below.

18.4.1 Excessive Packing Leaks


Packing leakage problems summarized in Section 18.2.1.1 also apply to butterfly and
ball valves. It should be noted that quarter-turn valves in general have fewer packing
problems as compared to rising stem valves.

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18.4.2 Valve Will Not Respond to the Actuation Signal


The first step is to determine whether the problem is actuator related or valve related. If
the problem is related to the valve, then it may be caused by one of the following
reasons:

Packing resistance is extremely high and is locking the stem. If appropriate, loosen
the packing and check valve operation.

Interference of the disc or ball with the body due to excessive wear of the sleeve or
thrust bearing. Excessive sleeve bearing wear may also cause stem-to-body galling.

If the disc or ball does not unseat, then the opening torque is not sufficient to
overcome high unseating torque. The total unseating torque is the sum of the seat
torque, the bearing torque, the packing torque, and the hydrostatic torque for nonvertical stem installations. An increase in the total unseating torque can be caused
by:

Degradation or contamination of the seat and/or bearing especially in service


water applications.

Pressure locking between the subject valve and an adjacent tight-seal closed
valve (see Section 7.3.4 for details). In this case, the trapped pressure should be
relieved at the adjacent valve.

High hydrostatic torque in nonsymmetric disc butterfly valves (see Section 7.3.4
for details).

In either case, the required torque and actuator output torque should be evaluated
for inadequate sizing.

If the stem does not move and the disc or ball is not in the closed position, then the
stem may have lost engagement with the actuator. Dismounting the actuator may be
required for further investigation.

If the stem moves but the disc (or ball) does not, then the stem has lost engagement
with the disc (or ball). Possible causes include broken stem/key/pin due to high
maximum transmitted torque (see Section 8), wear, fatigue, or galvanic corrosion
especially in salt-water applications. Internal inspection would be required.

If the stem does not move from the midstroke position, then the valve may have an
obstruction or the hydrodynamic torque is too high. The hydrodynamic torque can
be ruled out if: a) the flow velocity is relatively low, or b) the direction of stem
rotation is in the same direction in which the hydrodynamic torque acts. For

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Troubleshooting and Recommended Corrective Actions

example, if the stem would not rotate in the closing direction and the hydrodynamic
torque is self closing, then the valve has an internal obstruction.
As mentioned above, simple things should be checked first. Some factors can be quickly
eliminated by visual inspection or by stroking the valve using the handwheel.

18.4.3 Valve Will Not Fully Open


The first step is to determine whether the problem is actuator related or valve related.
Apart from the actuator, the valve problem may be caused by one or more of the
following reasons:

High total dynamic torque. Check the valve torque requirements against the
available input torque.

Obstruction inside the valve. Internal inspection may be required.

Disc/ball misalignment due to excessive bearing wear.

Bent stem causing interference between the stem or disc/ball and valve internals.

Disc/ball position stops improperly set.

Disc interference with the line due to inside diameter buildup in the line. This
problem is peculiar to butterfly valves where the disc extends outside the valve
body near the fully open position.

Under design basis conditions (which may include blowdown), the flow velocity can be
relatively high.
Caution:
For butterfly valves under relatively high flow velocity conditions (such
as under blowdown conditions), the required total dynamic torque near the fully open
position can be very high (see Reference 1.6). For these cases, some valves (such as
containment isolation valves) are limited in the open direction to about 50 open in
order to enable the valve to perform its safety function under design basis conditions.
The limit switch for these valves should not be altered without proper engineering
assessment.

18.4.4 Valve Will Not Fully Close or Properly Seat


In addition to the applicable problems in Section 18.4.3, the problem may be caused by
one of the following reasons:

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Troubleshooting and Recommended Corrective Actions

Insufficient stem torque to allow adequate seating. Verify the actuator output torque
and required torque to close and seat the disc/ball.

Damaged seat or disc/ball (which generally requires internal inspection). This may
be caused by:

The disc (or ball) is installed incorrectly.

Galling or gouging between the disc (or ball) and seat.

Erosion/corrosion of the disc (or ball) and/or seat sealing surfaces.

Wire drawing or steam cutting (in steam service).

Disc obstruction, including biological growth or contaminants especially in


service water systems.

Soft seating material displaced from its installed location.

Soft seating material incompatible with service conditions.

Bent stem causing interference.

Excessive packing resistance.

Excessive hydrostatic torque.

Excessive bearing wear causing disc-to-seat misalignment.

Improper seating position. Disc/ball may be stopping outside the seating zone.

Seat distortion due to excessive piping loads.

After ruling out the simple causes, it may be necessary to perform internal valve
inspection.

18.4.5 Excessive Flange Leaks


See Section 18.2.1.5 for applicable reasons.

18.5 Plug Valve Problems


Common problems are given in Section 11.5.

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Troubleshooting and Recommended Corrective Actions

18.6 Diaphragm Valve Problems


Common problems are given in Section 12.5

18.7 Inspection and Repair Checklists:


One of the most effective ways to ensure the quality and the effectiveness of the
maintenance activities is to utilize prepared checklists. The following suggestions can
be used to develop and maintain these checklists:

The maintenance group should develop as many checklists as necessary to cover the
variety of valve/actuator types in their plant(s). Manufacturers instruction manuals
can be used as the starting point to develop checklists.

Different checklists can be developed for different activities such as inspection,


disassembly, repair, assembly, and troubleshooting of the valve/actuator.

If the valve is disassembled for inspection or repair, it is recommended that critical


internal dimensions be documented for later use. References 2.1 through 2.4 and
2.14 through 2.17 provide data sheets and illustrations showing the internal
dimensions needed to calculate the required thrust/torque using EPRIs PPM
methodology.

Figures and illustrations may be included in the checklist to help document


observations. Attaching copies of manufacturers drawings to the checklist may save
time in identifying part numbers and components.

The checklist can be designed and revised to reflect the plant maintenance
experience for each valve/actuator type in a given application. For example, the
checklist may emphasize detailed inspection of the stem-to-disc connection for signs
of wear in applications with high fluid turbulence (such as in pump discharge
valves).

The checklists should be revised as necessary to implement suggestions from


maintenance group personnel. The use of a revision number and a date will ensure
that the latest revision is used.

The checklist should provide enough questions and blank spaces to help in
documenting observations that may shed light on unusual performance.

The checklist should follow a logical sequence that ensures that important
information is captured. For example, external visual inspection should be
performed and documented before valve disassembly.
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Troubleshooting and Recommended Corrective Actions

The checklist should include both the valve and actuator (see Section 17.6 for a
discussion of the one trip approach).

In addition to the checklist, photographs and/or video recordings can be very


helpful in documenting the as-found condition of the valve and actuator. Showing a
scale next to the component being photographed is an excellent way to estimate the
size of the feature(s) being documented. Showing the valve tag number, the date,
and the time on photographs and videos is a good practice.

Table 18-1 is a sample checklist for performing a solid or flexible wedge gate valve
inspection. It can be easily expanded to cover other types of gate and globe valves.
Table 18-2 is a sample checklist for performing a butterfly valve inspection. Similar
checklists for ball, plug, and diaphragm valves can be developed.

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Table 18-1
Inspection Checklist for Solid and Flexible Wedge Gate Valves

Valve Tag No.

Unit

Size

WO No.

Manufacturer

Date

Actuator

Valve Function

INSPECTION AREA
(IF CHECKED)

Body External
General Condition
Anti-Rotation Arm/ Mechanism
External Bolting/Threads
Bonnet
Packing
Yoke
End Flanges/Welds

AS FOUND CONDITION(S)

ACTION

REMARKS

EPRI Licensed Material

Table 18-1 (continued)


Inspection Checklist for Solid and Flexible Wedge Gate Valves

Valve Tag No.

Unit

Size

WO No.

Manufacturer

Date

INSPECTION AREA
(IF CHECKED)

Disc
General Condition
Seating Surface:
General Condition
Upstream
Downstream
Guide Slots:
General Condition
Upstream side
Downstream Side
T-Slot/Stem Connection

AS FOUND CONDITION(S)

ACTION

REMARKS

EPRI Licensed Material

Table 18-1 (continued)


Inspection Checklist for Solid and Flexible Wedge Gate Valves

Valve Tag No.

Unit

Size

WO No.

Manufacturer

Date

INSPECTION AREA
(IF CHECKED)

Stem
General Condition
Orientation from Vertical
T-Head/Disc End
Packing Area
Actuator End
Thread Surface
Thread Lubricant
Backstop Area
Total Indicated Runout:
(Note 1)
Bent or Crooked

AS FOUND CONDITION(S)

ACTION

REMARKS

EPRI Licensed Material

Table 18-1 (continued)


Inspection Checklist for Solid and Flexible Wedge Gate Valves

Valve Tag No.

Unit

Size

WO No.

Manufacturer

Date

INSPECTION AREA
(IF CHECKED)

Curved or Bowed
Tapered
Eccentric
Body Internal
General Condition
Downstream Seat:
Seat Surface
Seat Weld/Retainer
Upstream Seat:
Seat Surface
Seat Weld/Retainer

AS FOUND CONDITION(S)

ACTION

REMARKS

EPRI Licensed Material

Table 18-1 (continued)


Inspection Checklist for Solid and Flexible Wedge Gate Valves

Valve Tag No.

Unit

Size

WO No.

Manufacturer

Date

INSPECTION AREA
(IF CHECKED)

Guide Rails:
Upper Part (disc near/at open
position)
Middle Part (disc at
midstroke)
Lower Part (disc near/ at
closed position)
Gasket Sealing Area
Pressure Seal Ring Area
Pressure Seal Retainer Groove
Gasket
Pressure Seal Ring
Threads/Bolt Holes

AS FOUND CONDITION(S)

ACTION

REMARKS

EPRI Licensed Material

Table 18-1 (continued)


Inspection Checklist for Solid and Flexible Wedge Gate Valves

Valve Tag No.

Unit

Size

WO No.

Manufacturer

Date

INSPECTION AREA
(IF CHECKED)

Bonnet Internal
General Condition
Gasket Sealing Area
Pressure Seal Ring Area
Threads or Bolt Holes
Stem Backstop Area
Packing Ring Set
Packing Box Area
Packing Follower
Packing Follower Bolts
Live Load Springs

AS FOUND CONDITION(S)

ACTION

REMARKS

EPRI Licensed Material

Table 18-1 (continued)


Inspection Checklist for Solid and Flexible Wedge Gate Valves

Valve Tag No.

Unit

Size

WO No.

Manufacturer

Date
AS FOUND CONDITION(S)

INSPECTION AREA
(IF CHECKED)

ACTION

REMARKS

Other Components:

Comments:
Check here if complete disassembly was NOT required.
Check here if continuation sheets are used. No. of sheets: ____
Inspection performed by:

Date:

Final Approval:

Date:

Note 1:

rd

See Machinerys Handbook, 23 edition (Dimensioning, Gaging And Measuring, Checking for Various Shaft Conditions; Figure 9 on page 696) for illustrations of possible
forms of runouts and methods for measuring TIRs.

EPRI Licensed Material

Table 18-2
Inspection Checklist for Butterfly Valves

Valve Tag No.

Unit

Size

WO No.

Body Style:
(Flanged, Wafer, Lugged or Welded)

Date

Disc Design:
(Symmetric, Single/Double/Triple Offset)

Actuator

Valve Function

Manufacturer
INSPECTION AREA
(IF CHECKED)

Body External
General Condition
External Bolting/Threads
Packing
Bonnet/Top Cover Plate
Upper Trunnion
Lower Trunnion
Bottom Cover

AS FOUND CONDITION(s)

ACTION

REMARKS

EPRI Licensed Material

Table 18-2 (continued)


Inspection Checklist for Butterfly Valves

Valve Tag No.

Unit

Size

WO No.

Manufacturer

Date

INSPECTION AREA
(IF CHECKED)

Upstream Flange/Weld
Downstream Flange/Weld
Disc Position Stop
Upper Bearings
General Condition
Lower Bearings
General Condition
Outboard Thrust Bearing
General Condition
Upper Thrust Bearing
General Condition

AS FOUND CONDITION(s)

ACTION

REMARKS

EPRI Licensed Material

Table 18-2 (continued)


Inspection Checklist for Butterfly Valves

Valve Tag No.

Unit

Size

WO No.

Manufacturer

Date

INSPECTION AREA
(IF CHECKED)

Lower Thrust Bearing


General Condition
Upper Shaft
General Condition
Packing Area
Upper Bearing Area
Actuator End
Shaft-to-Actuator Connection
Shaft-to-Disc Connection
(1)

Total Indicated Runout:


Lower Shaft
General Condition
Lower Bearing Area

AS FOUND CONDITION(s)

ACTION

REMARKS

EPRI Licensed Material

Table 18-2 (continued)


Inspection Checklist for Butterfly Valves

Valve Tag No.

Unit

Size

WO No.

Manufacturer

Date

INSPECTION AREA
(IF CHECKED)

Shaft-to-Disc Connection
(1)

Total Indicated Runout:


Seat
General Condition
Seat Retainer

Seat Retainer Bolts/ Screws


Disc
General Condition
Seating Edge Surface
Disc to Upper Shaft Connection
Disc to Lower Shaft Connection

AS FOUND CONDITION(s)

ACTION

REMARKS

EPRI Licensed Material

Table 18-2 (continued)


Inspection Checklist for Butterfly Valves

Valve Tag No.

Unit

Size

WO No.

Manufacturer

Date

INSPECTION AREA
(IF CHECKED)

Body Internal
General Condition
Body Liner
Seat Area
Packing Ring Set
Packing Box Area
Packing Follower
Packing Follower Bolts
Live Load Springs
Upper Bearing Area
Lower Bearing Area
Upper Shaft Penetration
Lower Shaft Penetration

AS FOUND CONDITION(s)

ACTION

REMARKS

EPRI Licensed Material

Table 18-2 (continued)


Inspection Checklist for Butterfly Valves

Valve Tag No.

Unit

Size

WO No.

Manufacturer

Date

INSPECTION AREA

AS FOUND CONDITION(s)

ACTION

REMARKS

(IF CHECKED)

Bottom Cover Seal (Gasket / ORing)


Disc Position Stop
Other Components

Comments:
Check here if complete disassembly was NOT required.
Check here if continuation sheets are used. No. of sheets: ______
Inspection performed by:

Date:

Final Approval:

Date:

Note 1:

rd

See Machinerys Handbook, 23 edition (Dimensioning, Gaging And Measuring, Checking for Various Shaft Conditions; Figure 9 on page 696) for illustrations of possible
forms of runouts and methods for measuring TIRs.

EPRI Licensed Material

19
INSTALLATION, TESTING, AND MAINTENANCE
REQUIREMENTS

19.1 Introduction
A valve must be properly installed, tested, and maintained to function as it was
designed. This section discusses general installation, testing, and maintenance
requirements for valves. Suggested postmaintenance testing is given in Reference 1.13.

19.2 Installation Requirements


19.2.1 General Valve Installation Requirements
Installation should be preceded by a careful examination of the valve to ensure that it is
in accordance with the specification, has not suffered damage, and is not dirty. While
thorough receipt inspection procedures are desirable, justification for them is tempered
by the degree of previous inspections, such as during manufacturing, and the costs of
establishing receipt inspection procedures. Receipt inspection should include the
following verifications and examinations:

Verification of appropriate certification of materials and manufacturing inspection

Verification of external dimensions for compatibility with installation drawings

Visual examination of exterior for damage

Cleanliness examination

Verification of valve operation (manual and otherwise)

Verification that all shipping supports and/or desiccants are removed

Verification that end connections for mating to piping system are correct

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Installation, Testing, and Maintenance Requirements

Receipt inspection should be carried out in a clean area to prevent the introduction of
foreign matter into the valve. Following receipt inspection, the valve should be dried
out (if it has been wetted during inspection), sealed, and stored until installation.
The following preinstallation activities can be performed to ensure trouble-free
operation after installation:

Repack every valve before installation using plant procedures. Packing-related


problems (such as bad studs, corroded/damaged valve stem and/or stuffing box,
and wrong packing material) are identified before installation.

For gate and globe valves, disassemble, inspect, and blue-check valve seats prior to
installation.

For ball and butterfly valves, perform a quick pressure test.

For check valves, disassemble and measure the dimensions of critical components
for future wear trending.

Evidence of satisfactory receipt inspection should be affixed to the valve.


Valve installation should be accomplished under conditions that give maximum
assurance that no foreign matter (such as stray nuts and bolts, pieces of welding rod,
etc.) is introduced into the valve. A valve serving a system important to plant operation
merits close attention to installation procedures to prevent introduction of a potential
cause of failure into the system.
If the installation is a replacement in an operating nuclear power plant, all applicable
radiation procedures must be followed, and the plant lineup must ensure the safety of
personnel installing the valve. As a minimum, all valves isolating the work area from
the rest of the plant should be locked shut and tagged to preclude inadvertent
operation. Where isolation valves are remotely operated, their operating circuits should
be deactivated and controls tagged with instructions not to operate.
The installation should be in accordance with the manufacturers instructions to ensure
that the physical orientation of the valve is suitable for satisfactory operation and that
the flow orientation is proper. The space envelope (unless compromised by overall
space limitations) should be such that the valve and operator can be removed and/or
disassembled for routine maintenance, such as packing replacement, internal
inspection, or operator repair.
To avoid damage, fit-up to adjacent piping should be made without forcing the piping
to the valve. Subsequent welding should be in accordance with appropriate welding
procedures to avoid heat-induced valve damage. During welding, the disc should be
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Installation, Testing, and Maintenance Requirements

positioned (mid-position or closed) as recommended by the manufacturer. Special


welding techniques may be required for some valves (those with limited physical
separation between the weld and valve seat area) to limit welding-induced distortion.
When welding carbon steel valves, the temperature in the seat area should not exceed
500F (260C). For stainless steel valves, the recommended temperature limit is 350F
(177C).
Insulation required on the system should be applied evenly and per drawing
requirements to avoid uneven thermal expansion, which can cause unpredictable stress
on the valve.
The manufacturers standard practice for shipping valves may include dry packing,
wet packing, or packing provided just for shipping the valves. Always specify that the
valves be shipped with dry packing. Ensure that at installation the valves are packed
with dry packing appropriate for each valves intended operating service. Section 2.5
discusses valve packing in detail.

19.2.2 Bypasses
For intermittent operating systems, bypass lines for equipment and control valves are
not normally provided. Where bypass lines are provided, the bypass valve should be of
the same material as the main valve or the equipment isolation valve, and at least the
same pressure-temperature rating as the main valve or equipment isolation valve. The
bypass valve and associated piping should also be of the same safety class and quality
group as the main valve or equipment being bypassed.
The bypass valve operator (whether manual or remote) should primarily be
determined by a specifically defined system operational function and, secondarily, by
valve accessibility, either because of radiological considerations (ALARA) or physical
location. Consideration should be given to providing clearance and accessibility to the
bypass valve. Where ALARA radiation requirements are a concern, location of main
valves, in addition to the bypass valve, must be considered. Centerline elevation and
pitch (if any) of the bypass valve and piping should be the same as the main valve and
piping, except for steam lines where low point drainage of condensate is a
consideration.
For high energy systems, the bypass piping arrangement should be evaluated for
proper consideration of thermal and other loading conditions.
Control Valve Bypass: Control valves should be installed with isolation (maintenance)
valves and a bypass line (to provide an alternative flow path in the event of control
valve failure, malfunction, or maintenance) only when the system is required for
continuous plant operation and can perform its function without continuous
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Installation, Testing, and Maintenance Requirements

adjustment of the bypass valve. In general, the bypass valve and piping have the same
characteristics as the main flow loop. Existing instrumentation should be used to the
maximum to assess the effect when bypass control is used.
For safety-related applications, control valves should not be provided with manual
operators due to the possibility of manually changing the position or limiting the
position of the valve. A bypass line and valve should be used. For nonsafety-related
applications, control valves equipped with manual operators can be used in place of a
bypass line and bypass valve when control features of the control valve (high
performance trim) or actuator override provisions (valve pre-positioning) are desired
or required by service conditions.
Isolation Valve Bypass: An isolation valve may require a bypass for the following
reasons:

To gradually warm up a steam line downstream of a closed valve, to ensure that the
downstream piping is properly drained, to minimize thermal stress to piping
and/or equipment, and to avoid water hammer from condensate

To fill portions of empty lines or equipment to minimize water hammer

To gradually warm up a liquid system downstream of a closed valve to minimize


thermal stress effects to equipment

To equalize pressure on both sides of a closed valve to minimize opening thrust

The requirements for a bypass should be established as part of system operation,


including startup, system fill, and testing.
When a bypass is required, it is desirable that the bypass be specified as part of the
isolation valve design and supplied by that valve manufacturer. However, the bypass
valve and piping should be shipped loose and installed in the field, except where the
valve manufacturer requires shop installation for testing (for example, seismic or flow
testing). The manufacturer should include the connections on the isolation valve, the
bypass piping, and the bypass valve. Socket weld connections with bosses on the
isolation valve body are the preferred method of attaching the bypass line where the
bypass line size is 2 inches (150 mm) or smaller. The bypass line should be at least
Schedule 80 seamless pipe for structural strength (or of heavier schedule if required for
pressure/temperature considerations) and of the same material as the main line, as
required by ANSI B31.1 and/or ASME Section III.
Bypass lines with bypass valves may also be attached to the main line piping.

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Installation, Testing, and Maintenance Requirements

The recommended equipment bypass line and valve sizes are as follows:

Steam:

8-inch valve and below

3/4-inch bypass

l0-inch and larger valves

1-inch or larger bypass

Gas or liquid:

4-inch valve and below

1-inch bypass

6-inch to l0-inch valves

1-1/2 inch bypass

12-inch and 14-inch valves

2-inch bypass

16-inch to 20-inch valves

3-inch bypass

24-inch to 30-inch valves

4-inch bypass

36-inch to 42-inch valves

6-inch bypass

88-inch to larger valves

8-inch or larger bypass

For 4-inch and larger valves, the bypass size is in general accordance
with MSS SP-45 [6.44].

19.3 Testing and Inspection Considerations


19.3.1 Shop Performance Testing
Line valves, particularly ASME III, may require performance tests or operability tests to
ensure proper, unimpeded operation. These tests require opening and closing valves
with and without differential pressure, and with and without external loading, to
simulate fluid system conditions. To verify smooth operation, ensure that the valve
parts do not bind, and confirm that overall satisfactory operation takes place within a
certain specified time. The differential pressure against which the valve operates
represents a load on a motor operator and affects the time to operate. The conditions
under which the valve is to be tested for operability are specified by the user.
Section 16.2.3 discusses various code testing requirements imposed on relief valves.

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Installation, Testing, and Maintenance Requirements

19.3.2 Pre-Operational Tests


All valves undergo a pressure test as part of the system hydrostatic test. In the open
position, the valves may be subjected to system tests at a pressure not to exceed the
hydrostatic shell test pressure of ANSI B16.34. If the valves are closed and act as a
hydrostatic test boundary, the system hydrostatic test pressure should not exceed the
100F rating of the valve. See ANSI B16.34 for more detail.
A reasonable testing program should include verifying that all valves are tagged with
an identification plate, that they are properly packed with the packing gland adjusted
correctly, and that they operate freely.
Consideration should be given to repacking valves after the system hydrostatic test.
Although leakage through valve packing is not normally a cause for rejection for the
system hydrostatic tests, packing is frequently tightened to stop all leakage and often at
a pressure significantly higher than operational pressure. This can affect packing
performance when the plant goes into operation.
Motor-operated valves should be inspected to ensure proper wiring of the power
supply and the control switches. As necessary, motor-operated valves should be tested
with diagnostics (for example, torque and thrust measurements, motor parameters,
switch operation, and/or stroke time) to evaluate design basis capability directly or
through comparison to prototype test results.
Control valves should be inspected to ensure that they meet their calibration criteria
and that the power supply and air supply are properly connected. Prior to placing in
full service, it should be verified that the proper input signal provides the proper
output signal. Sometimes a control valve can be operated and inspected when the
system in which it is installed is only partially completed.
Motor-operated valves and certain manual valves under the scope of ASME
Section XI are tested for leak tightness if limited seat leakage is a requirement.
Other installation tests, which are sometimes called pre-operational tests, are
specifically conducted on certain valves, depending on the type and importance to
plant operation and safety. Many of these tests are formally performed and
documented.

19.3.3 In-Service Test Requirements


After valves are placed in service, there are no code or standard requirements for
testing, except for ASME III or equivalent valves. These tests are required by ASME
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI, article IWV, for leak tests and operability
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Installation, Testing, and Maintenance Requirements

tests, and ASME Section XI, article IWB, IWC, and IWD for required post-disassembly
and post-repair pressure tests for ASME III, Class 1, 2, and 3 (or equivalent),
respectively. There are regulatory test requirements in addition to these code
requirements, for instance, 10CFR50 Appendix J testing requirements for containment
isolation valves.
The owner must categorize valves per the definitions in ASME XI, Article IWV, and
then perform the required periodic operational tests, normally every 3 months, and
required periodic leak tests, normally every 2 years, for line (as opposed to safety and
relief) valves. For safety and relief valves, testing is in accordance with ANSI/ASME
OM-1 (Requirements for In-Service Performance Testing of Nuclear Power Plant
Pressure Relief Devices). ASME -Section XI and ANSI/ASME OM-10 [6.31] provide
information on test performance and acceptance. For example, acceptable leakage for a
line valve, if not specified by the owner, is 30 cc per hour per inch of nominal valve
size, or, when tested with air, 7.5 standard cubic feet per day per inch of nominal valve
size.
Because of the exemptions, exceptions, or permitted deferrals contained therein or
permitted by the NRC, the edition of ASME XI to which the plant is committed should
always be consulted for the required details and valves that need to be tested. OM-10
has now become ANSI/ASME OM (Part 10), and the current edition of ASME XI refers
to ANSI/ASME OM (Part 10) for in-service testing of valves.
Overall Responsibility for In-Service Testing: The plant owner or agent is responsible for:

Specifying the leakage-limiting boundaries

Determining how the boundaries are to be tested

Providing required test provisions in order to establish a test volume to conduct a


leakage test

Establishing maximum limiting stroke times, considering system function

Test Boundary and Connection Considerations: The following considerations are listed
regarding the test boundary leakage rate testing provisions:
Direction of Testing. The leakage test should be in the same direction as the
leakage that the limiting boundary would see when called upon to perform its
function. A reverse test (test from the opposite direction) or an alternative test (such
as a through-body test on a gate valve) may be used where proven to provide
equivalent or more conservative results. A further discussion of reverse testing is
given later in this section.

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Installation, Testing, and Maintenance Requirements

A major reason for testing in an opposite direction is that the addition of


maintenance stop valves and test connections inboard of the containment isolation
valves increases the number of potential leakage paths and creates an undesirable
operating situation. There would also be a reduction in system reliability. Systems
to which this criteria may apply are:

Main steam

Purge and exhaust lines

Outside recirculation spray suction lines

Containment spray lines

Other large bore piping where additional valves create additional leakage paths
and costs

Another reason to develop alternate test methods in operating plants is to


implement the ALARA concept. In order to keep radiation doses for personnel as
low as reasonably achievable, revised test methods are often developed.
A third situation calling for alternative testing is when valves are water sealed, such
as suppression pool penetrations in boiling water reactor plants. Often these lines
cannot be easily drained and, therefore, should be designated as candidates for
reverse testing.
Venting and Draining. Based on the safety function, a boundary may require
testing with air when normally the system is filled with liquid. This would be
required if the system could rupture as a result of an accident and expose the
leakage-limiting boundary to air. Sufficient system stop valves, test vents, and test
drain connections should be provided to minimize draining times and disposal of
system fluids in preparation for testing, especially those fluids containing chemicals.
The positioning of the test vent and drain connections should be carefully
considered. Often when these details are left to field construction to install, poor or
inaccessible locations result, with drain connections off the side of the pipe versus
the bottom, or up on a vertical run as opposed to the lowest point, or connections
too small for draining the required volume in a reasonable time period.
On nuclear projects, it is sometimes necessary to install test vents or drains inside
the leakage limiting boundary, but this should generally be avoided. However, if
this installation is necessary, the connection should consist of a double barrier (for
example, two valves in series; or one valve, a nipple, and a cap; or one valve, a
nipple, and a blind flange, etc.). These connections become part of the leakage
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Installation, Testing, and Maintenance Requirements

limiting barrier, but, due to their infrequent use and multiple barriers, they do not
require leakage testing as long as the barrier configuration is maintained using an
administrative control program.
Test Medium. The leakage limiting boundary should be tested with the fluids used
when performing its safety function. Some boundaries may require testing with
several media, based on their services, unless one can be shown to be bounding.
Test Methods: The maintained flow rate test (air, water, or nitrogen) is the most
conservative test method and is often called make-up test. In this test, the test volume
is pressurized to the required pressure (Figure 19-1). Makeup of fluid to the test volume
required to maintain test pressure is a direct measure of the entire boundary leakage.
However, leakage in any path on the test boundary is assigned to the isolation valve;
therefore, this measure is conservative for the valve. Other leakage sources (if any)
should be investigated during the test.

Block Value

Outside Containment

Inside Containment
Test
Vent

Isolation Valve

Test Boundary
Test Panel
Connection

Figure 19-1
Test Valve Arrangement for Maintained Flowrate Test

Seat leakage in an isolation valve can be determined by measuring the flow rate in a
vent/drain line located between the test valve and the nearest downstream leak-tight
valve. Either a physical walk-down of the test boundary or an evaluation of the
makeup flow is required to verify that the remaining test boundary leakage is
acceptable. Due to system and piping constraints, seat leakage tests can be difficult to
perform, and it is generally easier to perform the make-up test.
Alternative Testing of Globe Valves. If the leakage rate test pressure on a globe
valve is under the valve disc, tending to unseat it, and if containment pressure tends
to seat the valve disc, then the reverse direction test method can be overly
conservative and may result in a high leak rate (Figure 19-2).

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LOCA
Flow

Apply Test Pressure


In Reverse Position

Figure 19-2
Globe Valve Reverse Air Test (Test Pressure Under Seat)

If test conditions put pressure over the disc, then the design requirements of the
valve and the sizing of the valve actuator should be evaluated to demonstrate that
reverse testing of the valve provides equivalent or conservative results. It is
recommended that sizing of the valve operator be such that the operator seating
force is at least three times the test pressure force when the valve is reverse tested
(Figure 19-3). Operator seating force is the total stem load, which is equal to the
seating thrust (including stem rejection thrust) plus the packing friction.

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LOCA
Flow

Apply Test Pressure


In Reverse Position

Figure 19-3
Globe Valve Reverse Air Test (Test Pressure Above Seat)

The test pressure on a flow-to-close valve pushes the disc onto the seat with a finite
force, aiding in seat tightness. A seating force of three times the test pressure force
ensures that there is some margin over and above the test force, should the valve
have to operate to isolate the containment. This force margin has been found
acceptable by the NRC at certain sites. However, verification of acceptability by the
NRC should be made prior to the use of a flow-to-close valve.
Alternative Testing of Gate Valves. If a body vent test connection is provided on
the valve, then reverse testing can be considered conservative because test pressure
pushes the disc away from the seating surface used during a LOCA. The cavity
between the seating surfaces is vented and provides a direct measure of valve
leakage (Figure 19-4). Body test connections may be added in the field after the
valve has been installed.

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LOCA
Flow

Downstream
Isolation
Valve
Body Vent
Test Connection

Apply Test
Pressure Here

LOCA Seat

Figure 19-4
Gate Valve Reverse Air Test (With Body Vent Test Connection)

On split-wedge gate valves with body or bonnet test connections, a through-body


test may be performed. Through-body tests are intended to measure containment
isolation valve leakage rates when test pressure is applied between the discs of splitwedge gate valves.
Pressurizing the body of a gate valve is a conservative test method because,
regardless of the inboard valve seat, all leakage during a LOCA must pass by the
outboard valve seat or through the valve stem packing. The body test method
measures leakage past both valve seats and the valve stem packing (Figure 19-5).
NOTE: The valve disc should be thoroughly inspected at 10 year intervals to ensure
disc integrity.

LOCA
Flow

Body Test Connection


Apply Test Pressure Here

LOCA Seat

Figure 19-5
Gate Valve Through Body Air Test (LOCA pushes disc toward outboard seat.
Through body pressurization measures leakage by both seats.)

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Alternative Testing of Butterfly Valves. Butterfly valves may be tested in the


reverse direction if their seat construction is designed for sealing against pressure
on either side. Verify that the valve stem packing is exposed to the test pressure for
valves that require their valve stem packing leakage to be detected.
Alternative Testing of Ball Valves. Ball valves need to be analyzed on an
individual basis to determine justification of reverse direction testing.
Test Documentation: To document justification for the testing method used, the
following test documentation should be acquired and kept on file:

A letter of concurrence from the valve manufacturer that the proposed testing is
conservative since the operator seating force is at least three times the test pressure
force

A sectional assembly drawing of the valve in question

Verification that the valve was installed as designed

Appropriate correspondence with the NRC

Appropriate surveillance programs for torque switch setting verification, disc


inspection, etc.

Verification that the closing circuit uses a torque switch to close as opposed to a
limit switch

Effects of Periodic Testing on Valves Normally Out of Service: Exercising test schedules need
not be maintained for valves in systems declared inoperable or not required to be
operable per OM-10 [6.31], paragraph 5217, Valves in Systems Out of Service.
Continuing with the test schedule would require the following:

Portion of system available for test

Consequences of stroking the valve

Scheduled repairs to the valve in the in-service inspection program

System filled and vented unless valve can be stroked dry (not normally
recommended practice)

Power source available

Procedure deviations
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Leakage tests are generally performed only when the system is out of service to permit
the necessary venting and draining. Leakage test frequency is generally 18 to 24
months, except for certain types of valves that may require leakage tests as often as
after every stroke, as has been required for containment purge and vent valves on a few
nuclear plants.
Effect on Plant or System of Periodic Valve Testing: For those valves that operate in the
course of plant operation at a frequency that would satisfy the code requirement,
additional tests are not required, if the observations otherwise required for testing are
made and analyzed during such operation and are recorded in the plant records at the
required intervals (see OM-10, paragraph 5215) [6.31].
For valves in standby systems, the following problems can develop:

Potential over-pressurization

Damage due to dry stroking

Creation of transients

Vibration problems (check valves) due to low flow conditions

Valve Testing Systems: Because of difficulties in gaining meaningful information on the


existence of a problem or gathering data to analyze parameters to diagnose a problem if
a problem is detected, there has been extensive research and development of testing
and diagnostic systems.
The most advanced types of testing and analysis systems are those available to test and
analyze motor-operated valves. There are at least five testing and analysis systems
available from MOVATS, Liberty Technology, Limitorque, Impell, and Wyle Labs. The
operation of these systems varies, but all essentially provide data on thrust output of
the operator, time-history of the operation of torque and limit switches, and motor
amperage. This data can be used to determine that the operator is delivering the
required thrust, that the switches are operating in the precise sequence, as well as
indication of degradation of certain elements of the assembly (for example, damage to
gearing and bent stem).
Other diagnostic systems, used with mixed success, utilize acoustic emission and noise
technology to determine valve seat leakage and to establish the dynamic condition of
check valve intervals.
Ultrasonic techniques are being used to establish the position of the closure member of
a check valve.

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Radiography has been used to establish valve closure member position and to verify
the integrity of valve internals.

19.4 Maintenance Requirements


19.4.1 Separation and Maintenance
Although it may not be possible to attain ideal separation and maintenance conditions,
proper separation of valves is important. Valves should be separated from one another
and from other equipment and piping to ensure no interference with their moving
parts. In addition, this separation should be adequate to disassemble the valve and
operator. This separation should also allow unimpeded access and egress for operation,
adjustment, maintenance, repair, or examination of the valve assembly (see Table 19-1
and Figures 19-6 to 19-8). Maintenance access that should be provided includes:

Access for adjustment of packing or repacking

Clear access to turn handwheel, including handwheel provided with a motor


operator

Access to and clearance for swing of clutch lever for motor operators

Access to pipe plugs on the gear case of the motor operator (to inspect for quality
and quantity of grease)

Access to remove limit switch torque switch covers on motor operators

Egress for removal of valve and operators for maintenance or repair

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Table 19-1
Valve Maintenance Clearance Data

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Table 19-1 (Continued)
Valve Maintenance Clearance Data

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Table 19-1 (Continued)
Valve Maintenance Clearance Data

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Figure 19-6
Required Valve Maintenance Clearance for Typical Installation

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Figure 19-7
Required Maintenance Clearance for Chain-Operated Valve

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Figure 19-8
Human Factors Clearance-General

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Consideration also has to be given to separation from exposure to background


radioactivity. Valves, particularly potentially high maintenance valves, should be
located in a low radiation area, within the bounds of reasonable plant layout or
shielding should be provided. In addition, valves that, if by themselves, are low
radiation items should not be located in high radiation areas.
Preventive and corrective maintenance requires reasonable personnel access to valves,
including clearances for rigging provisions for valve removal. Locating valves to
provide access from normal walkways without blocking these areas should be
considered. Where this is not practical, platforms or ladders with a flat landing should
be used. Valves should not be located where access requires climbing over components
or portions of piping systems.
The type of preventive or corrective maintenance that has to be performed should be
considered when arranging the platform or landing. If the valve or actuator is large in
size, adequate room and provision to remove heavy components, such as the actuator,
valve bonnet, and valve internals, should be provided. Provision and clearances for
appropriate rigging should be considered in the design layout. In addition, such items
as a motor-operator limit switch cover can be deceptively heavy and require care when
removing to avoid damage to the internal wiring.
The work area at a valve, as well as clear access, is very important. It has been
determined that adequate work space can reduce maintenance time by one-third.
Access and egress routes to and from the valve and work area should be adequate to
get equipment in and out. In nuclear power plants, personnel access can also be
adversely affected by encumbrances such as protective clothing, face shield, and
breathing apparatus.
Auxiliary services such as breathing air, compressed air, water, and other compressed
gas should be readily available to perform preventive and corrective maintenance. The
stations for these services should be no further than 50 feet (15 m) from where they are
needed. Note that some valves require these services to function properly. For example,
some hydraulic fail-close actuators utilize compressed nitrogen as the stored energy.
This nitrogen must be periodically replenished. There should be compressed nitrogen
bottles and regulators in the area to avoid having to bring this equipment into the area.
Adequate illumination and lifting pads, hoists, trolleys, rails, or other means to lift
heavy equipment should also be provided.

19.4.2 General Good Maintenance Practices


Continued valve performance is best ensured by effective and efficient maintenance
and early correction of any malfunction. Thus, maintenance can be divided into
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preventive and corrective maintenance. Corrective maintenance is the more widely


understood and practiced since it covers the correction of established deficiencies.
However, in a nuclear plant where access to equipment may be limited during
operation because of radiation, it is desirable to conduct maintenance operations during
scheduled outages, such as a refueling period, when the plant is shut down for other
purposes. Therefore, emphasis should be on preventive maintenance.
Preventive maintenance requires a continuing assessment of component performance.
This assessment should involve an attempt to identify deficiencies so that they may be
corrected during scheduled outages. As an example, assume that a refueling period,
during which maintenance can be performed without entailing unscheduled down
time, is scheduled in one month. Valves that are suspected leakers (that is, over the
leakage specification requirements but within tolerable limits) should be scheduled for
seat and disc lapping during the refueling period. This will permit the correction of a
minor deficiency before it becomes a deficiency that might require a plant shutdown. If
the normal useful life of a gasket or set of packing is to be reached shortly after a
scheduled downtime, it is also desirable to perform this replacement work during the
scheduled outage. Gaskets or seals should never be reused, unless specifically
recommended by the manufacturer, particularly spiral wound metal gaskets and
pressure seal bonnet seal rings. Reuse of gaskets or seals has resulted in leakage of the
valve and an unscheduled shutdown.
The valves in a system should be tested and inspected on a routine basis as part of an
effective preventive maintenance program. These examinations should be run before
scheduled outages to identify areas of potential difficulty, and their timing should be
worked into the schedule of plant operations on a not-to-delay basis. Examples of
examinations that might be made are:

Leakage tests/inspections of valve seats, backseats, and packing

Operability verification for freedom of movement, unusual noises, or vibrations

Tests to verify that opening and/or closing times are within prescribed limits

Many valve problems can be detected during a walkdown, especially during plant
start-up and shut-down. Valve problems can be predicted by trending available data.
To augment an effective preventive maintenance program, it is desirable to maintain a
valve history file containing records of corrective and preventive maintenance work
performed on all valves, so that the performance of each valve can be evaluated. These
records also help to develop and identify proper intervals for certain preventive
maintenance operations.

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When performing maintenance on a valve, the area around the valve should be as clean
as possible to prevent the entrance of foreign material from the surrounding
environment into the valve. The valve should be thoroughly inspected and cleaned just
prior to reassembly.
Since maintenance and plant operations may be carried out simultaneously, it is
important that adequate safeguards be established for protection of personnel. As
previously stated, all work on radioactive systems must be in compliance with
radiation control procedures. Administrative procedures should be developed to
specify the required degree of isolation from operating systems when maintenance is
performed.
The operations department should prepare specific instructions for each maintenance
operation. These instructions should reflect the pressure and temperature conditions in
the operating systems from which isolation is desired and identify the valves to be
shut, tagged, etc. The maintenance department should require a copy of this
instruction, certified as completed, before maintenance is started. When the
maintenance work has been completed, it should be carefully inspected and the
maintenance personnel should certify to the operating personnel that the work has been
completed, isolation of the sections can be secured, and the section re-pressurized.

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20
DIAGNOSTIC EQUIPMENT AND METHODS

20.1 Introduction
Proper assessment of valve condition or malfunction is highly dependent on the tools
used for diagnosis. Based on the diagnostic methods used, the assessment can be either
qualitative or quantitative and either static or dynamic. Prior to the issuance of NRC
Bulletin 85-03 in 1985, not many tools were available that could easily quantify the
required thrust or torque to actuate a valve. Since then, several tools have been
developed and refined to the point where accurate quantification of required thrust or
torque is now easily achievable.
In addition to these quantitative tools, conventional tools such as boroscopes continue
to be used when internal valve inspection is required or when valve disassembly is not
practical. The tools covered in this section deal primarily with the valve types covered
in this guide. Diagnostic tools for air-operated valves, safety and relief valves, solenoid,
and check valves are covered respectively in EPRI documents identified in References
1.2, 1.4, 1.7, 1.20, and 1.21 respectively.
Diagnostic equipment in most cases is temporarily mounted or attached to the
valve/actuator but can also be permanently mounted for continuous monitoring.
Permanent monitoring is used on valves that:

Have low operating margins

Need to be trended

Have high safety significance

Are located in high radiation areas (ALARA concerns) or are difficult to access

Require excessive maintenance or have random problems

Are critical to power generation

Require leakage assessment and correlation to thrust


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20.2 Equipment
20.2.1 Boroscopes
The boroscope is probably one of the earliest tools used to inspect valves in line. The
boroscope can be inserted into the valve through drain penetrations in the valve body
or through line fittings located close to the valve. Depending on the type of boroscope
used, these examinations can range from qualitative to some limited level of
quantification. Boroscopes can be equipped with a graduated reticle that can measure
linear indications, but the range of measurement is quite limited. In most cases, the use
of a boroscope requires that the valve and system be depressurized and drained so that
body or line penetrations can be removed for insertion of the boroscope.

20.2.2 Radiography
Radiography inspection is possibly the oldest method of nonintrusive valve
examination. It is the easiest to perform because it does not require that the valve or
system be depressurized. Depending on valve location, radiography inspections can be
performed during plant operation. Images captured by radiography are not affected by
the fluid medium. Radiography examinations are usually qualitative in nature, but can
provide some reasonable accuracy in gross measurements. Radiography has the
advantage of covering a larger area than boroscope examinations, but it lacks the depth
perception of the boroscope. In many cases, this examination method is used to
determine the position of the closure element or to determine if the stem has
disengaged from the closure element.
Depending on valve size, this examination method can be used to determine the need
for a more detailed inspection via valve disassembly. Radiography is usually not used
on large valves because the combined wall thickness limits the clarity of images.
Conventional radiographic examination records are produced by passing x-rays or
gamma rays through the valve and making a permanent image on a single use film.
Newer methods of radiography permit reusable phosphor plate screens that capture
the image by an electron trapping method. The image on the screen can be optically
read by scanning the screen with a focused laser beam. This information can also be
digitized for further manipulation and viewing on a computer monitor. The phosphor
plate can then be erased and reused.

20.2.3 Acoustics
In the past, acoustic monitoring had limited use in power plant applications because of
the interference caused by high ambient noise. New methods of filtering ambient noise
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have made its usage more popular. Acoustic monitoring utilizes an accelerometer
attached to the body to measure acoustic emissions that are generated when solids
contact each other or when liquids or gases flow through pipes and fittings. Acoustic
emissions can be used to make qualitative leakage assessments by comparing the
acoustic levels from the upstream side of the valve to the acoustics levels on the
downstream side of the valve.
Acoustic techniques are easy to set up and usually take only minutes since they require
no valve intrusion or adaptations. Acoustics have been used extensively in check valve
nonintrusive diagnosis for monitoring disk oscillations and impacts, and in safety relief
valves for measuring leakage and operation. Acoustic monitoring is discussed in more
detail in References 1.2, 1.20, and 1.21.

20.2.4 Temperature Monitoring


Thermocouples can also be used to detect leakage in applications where the nominal
downstream temperature is significantly different from the upstream temperature.
Hot/cold fluid escaping into the downstream side of the valve would be registered as a
temperature change in the localized region of the leak. Installation of thermocouples
requires that the pressure boundary be penetrated and that the system be
depressurized.
Surface temperature monitoring using infrared thermography is used extensively in
safety valves to map external surface temperatures on the valve. These temperature
profiles are used to correlate valve performance as a function of temperature gradients
on the valve body. See References 1.29 and 1.4 for detailed information about the use of
thermography.

20.2.5 Ultrasonics
Ultrasonic sensors are used to determine the relative position of internal components.
This technique uses sound reflections of the internal components to characterize their
configuration but cannot provide accurate absolute positions. This technique is limited
to use on valves made from carbon steel or fine grain stainless steel and installed in
liquid service such as water (that is, cannot be used in air or steam systems). This
technique is primarily used in check valves to determine the disc fluctuations as a
function of flow velocity. More detailed information can be found in References 1.20
and 1.21.

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20.2.6 Stem Thrust/Torque Measurement Devices


The thrust/torque required to actuate a valve is the most important variable in
determining the health of a valve. Healthy valves exhibit smooth and repeatable
thrust/torque requirements, while damaged valves exhibit erratic or nonrepeatable
behavior. Several tools are commercially available, and the selection of a specific tool to
be used depends on several factors including:

Valve type: Gate, globe, ball, butterfly, etc.

Feasibility: Can the sensor or instrument be easily attached on either the valve or
actuator?

Accuracy: How accurate must the measurement be?

Schedule: Can the sensor or instrument be mounted in a reasonable time?

Valve operability: Will the sensor or instrument impact valve operability?

Availability: Is the sensor or instrument readily available?

Cost: Is the cost justified?

20.3 Methods for Measuring Stem Thrust/Torque


Diagnostic methods include: (1) sensing spring pack displacement, yoke strain, and
stem strain or (2) installing a load measurement device between the actuator base and
the yoke upper flange.

20.3.1 Spring Pack Displacement


Stem torque measurements and stem thrust estimates are most easily performed using
spring pack displacement. This method indirectly measures stem torque by sensing
spring pack axial displacement and correlating it to the tangential force on the actuator
worm gear. Using the worm gear geometry of the actuator, this tangential force is then
converted to stem torque.
In rising stem valves, the torque is converted to thrust using the stem thread geometry
and stem-to-stem nut coefficient of friction. Using spring pack displacement to measure
stem torque is limited to Limitorque actuators.
Thrust measurements using this device are not accurate because of assumptions made
in the stem thread coefficient of friction, internal losses in the actuator, and the method
of calibration. Inaccuracies as high 40% have been observed in some installations. The
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method also has the disadvantage of being unable to measure loads below the initial
spring pack assembly preload and can therefore not yield packing load levels in many
valves. The spring pack displacement method is also unable to measure loads above the
load required to compress the spring pack to its solid height, which in turn results in
the inability to capture maximum thrust developed. This method has several
advantages including:

It can be used with any type valve.

It requires minimal actuator modifications.

It does not require any valve modifications.

20.3.2 Strain Measurement of the Yoke Legs


With this method, stem thrust is determined indirectly by measuring the strain in the
yoke legs. This is accomplished by mounting strain sensors (such as strain gauges) on
the yoke legs and then correlating the measured strain to stem thrust. No stem torque
measurements can be made using this method, and the calibration range in the valve
opening direction is limited because of the technique used to calibrate the strain in the
yoke legs. Primary calibration of the yoke strain is achieved by loading the disc against
the seat, which subjects the yoke legs to tension. In the opening direction, the amount of
load is only a fraction of the closing direction load, which limits the calibration range.
Stem thrust measurement using yoke leg strain is limited to valves installed with the
stems in the vertical orientation. This measurement technique is quite sensitive to
lateral load on the yoke, and care must be taken to minimize lateral load effects.
Additionally, high level vibrations cause the weight of the upper works to register as
stem thrust. This phantom thrust is difficult to filter from the actual thrust signature
and can lead to erroneous assessments of the actual required thrust or infer that the
valve is behaving erratically or unpredictably. This method of measuring stem load
does not require any modifications to the valve or actuator but does require calibration
of yoke strain before each test.

20.3.3 Strain Measurement of the Stem


Strain measurement of the stem is the most accurate and direct method of determining
stem thrust/torque. This is accomplished by directly mounting strain gauges on the
stem or by attaching a strain sensing transducer to the stem. Axial strain sensors are
easily installed, require no modification to either the valve or actuator, and can be
installed on either the smooth or threaded portion of the stem. However, axial strain
sensors may affect the stroke length of the valve due to their relatively larger size.
Strain sensing transducers can measure only axial strain in the stem; thus, they are
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capable only of measuring stem thrust. Strain gauges mounted directly on the stem can
yield individual measurements of thrust and torque.
Two methods are used to attach strain gauges on the stem. In the first method, the
strain gauges are premounted on a strip which is then bonded to the stem. This method
allows installation on the stem without removing the stem from the valve, but it yields
measurement accuracies of about +/- 5%.
In the second method, the strain gauges are bonded directly to the stem, which
typically requires that the stem be removed from the valve. Bonding the strain gauges
directly on the stem yields the highest accuracy in measurement, especially when the
stem is removed from the valve. Accuracies as high as +/- 0.5% are typically achievable
with directly mounted strain gauges.
The disadvantage of this method is that the strain gauges may interfere with valve
stroking if there is insufficient stem length between the bottom of the actuator and the
top of the packing follower. If complete stroking is required and the smooth portion of
the stem is not long enough, then some of the stem threads may have to be removed to
permit installation of the gauges at the thread root diameter. Depending on available
space, threads can be machined using special tools without removing the stem from the
valve.

20.3.4 Load Measurement at the Actuator Base


Stem thrust and torque can also be determined by measuring the load at the base of the
actuator. This measurement is attained by mounting a precalibrated sensor between the
actuator and valve yoke upper flange. Mounting of the sensor requires that the actuator
be removed from the valve and can only be used in valves that have enough stem
length to accommodate the displaced height of the actuator. Although thrust and
torque measurement accuracies as high as +/- 0.5% can be attained using this device,
displacing the actuator from its normal position subjects different stem threads to load
at the fully closed position than those in contact during normal valve operation without
the sensors in place. The effect of this difference is that the stem factor at the closed
position may be different, resulting in different closing thrusts for the same torque
switch setting.
The advantage of this method is that it can be used on almost any type of valve or
actuator if the stem is long enough to permit actuator engagement throughout the valve
stroke. One size unit can be used on several actuator sizes by the use of simple flange
adapters. This method is commonly used to measure quarter-turn valve (butterfly and
ball valves) torque and to calibrate strain gauged stems and yokes

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20.3.5 Electric Motor Power Monitor


Changes in MOV performance can be measured using electric motor power traces.
During initial static/dynamic valve testing, motor power traces are captured and
archived. These traces are then compared against subsequent traces to determine
changes in valve/actuator performance.
Sensors used to measure motor power require no modifications to the valve or actuator,
can be easily removed or installed even during plant operation, and are relatively
inexpensive compared to other means of monitoring MOV performance.
The disadvantage of electric motor power traces is that they provide a measure of
overall MOV performance and changes in the traces cannot be easily attributed to
either the valve or electric actuator.

20.3.6 Diaphragm/Piston Pressure


In air-operated valves (AOVs) or hydraulically operated valves, the diaphragm/piston
pressure can be measured using pressure gauges or transducers to indirectly measure
actuator output. This method does not require changes to the valve and only minimal
changes, if any, to the actuator. The sensors used to measure pressure can be easily
installed or removed even during plant operation. They are relatively inexpensive
compared to other means of monitoring valve performance but they are not as accurate.
Measuring pressure to determine actuator output can lead to false indications of
applied thrust/torque to the stem if the actuator bottoms out at the end of its stroke.
More detailed information on diagnostic equipment for AOVs is given in Reference 1.2.

20.3.7 Data Acquisition


Signals from each of the sensors described above can be captured, archived, and
analyzed using computerized portable data acquisition systems. These systems
typically acquire up to eight different signals at nominal rates of 1,000 samples per
second. Depending on the system configuration, sampling duration, and the number of
channels acquired, these data systems can capture data at rates as high as 100,000
samples per second; however, sample rates of 1,000 per second are usually fast enough
to capture transient valve and actuator characteristics. Generally, these systems are
used to acquire the following signals:

Stem thrust

Stem torque

Motor current
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Torque switch trip

Spring pack displacement

Pressure

Flow rate

Stem position

Motor torque

Motor speed

Diaphragm/piston pressure

Acoustic level

Sound level

Temperature

Data acquisition is normally initiated manually by the test engineer but can also be
triggered automatically. Automatic triggering is accomplished by initiating data
acquisition when a threshold value is exceeded in the selected channels. However, false
indications can create problems with automatic triggering because data acquisition can
be initiated by spurious signal spikes. Most data acquisition systems can also export the
data for use with other data analysis software.

20.4 Summary
Significant technological advances have been made in diagnostic equipment for various
types of valves. These advances provide the user with more options and accuracy to
assess the condition and determine the performance of the valve/actuator. A summary
of selected diagnostic methods is presented in Table 20-1. The user is encouraged to
consult equipment vendors for detailed information on these tools and for new
technology being developed.
Permanent installation of diagnostic equipment permits continuous monitoring of
valve/actuator performance during plant operation to verify and trend valve
performance, minimize radiation exposure, and improve plant availability.

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Table 20-1
Comparison of Selected Diagnostic Methods
Diagnostic
Method
Boroscope

Application

Accuracy

Internal visual
surface
inspection (for
ex., seats, guides,
discs, stem)

Depends on
lens power.
This device is
typically not
used for taking
measurement.
Qualitative.

Radiography

Internal
inspection

Acoustics

Audible signals

Qualitative.

Thermocouples

Leak detection
by measuring
temperature
gradient

Temperature
measurement
is accurate but
correlation to
leakage is
qualitative.

Ultrasonics

Identify location
of internal
components

+/- 10% of full


stroke length.

Stem
thrust/torque
measurement
devices

Accurately
measure applied
stem
thrust/torque

From +/- 0.5%


to +/-40%
depending on
system.

Limitation

Advantages

Disadvantages

Cannot be used
with
valve/system
under pressure.

Dynamic 3D visual examination.

Visual examination is limited to


physically accessible locations.

Not effective for


large valves and
thick walls.
Can only detect
audible signals
such as leaks,
hard contacts,
tapping, etc.

Non-intrusive. Can be used in any type


fluid.

Time consuming to set up.

Non-intrusive. Can be used in any type


fluid.

Internal
temperature
measurements
require pressure
boundary
penetration
during
installation.
Fluid in valve
must be liquid;
valve should be
of carbon steel or
fine grain
stainless steel.
Requires slight
modification to
the actuator,
stem, or yoke.

Uses conventional sensors and


instrumentation.

Can not be used for internal


examination. Can not verify that
internal components are at
correct locations. Require
baseline test data for accurate
signature analysis.
Thermocouples should not be
left installed permanently when
subjected to flow. Pressure
boundary penetration becomes
potential leak path.

Non-intrusive, requires no valve


modification, results are repeatable, and
signal can be calibrated without prior
testing.

Can accurately measure actuator thrust/


torque output and can be used with any
type valve. Can be permanently mounted
for continuous monitoring of stem load.

Signal path may be limited by


valve geometry; entire stroke
path may require multiple
setups; need as built valve
drawing and calibration before
and after each test.
Depending on sensor type, it
may require valve disassembly;
may limit stem stroke; can be
time consuming to install.

EPRI Licensed Material

21
VALVE SELECTION GUIDELINE CHARTS

The valve selection chart (Figure 21-1 and Table 21-1) is intended to provide the user
with a simplified, logical way to select a valve. Before using the selection chart, it is
advantageous for the user to review the sections of this document that are pertinent to
the type of valve being selected. Selection of control and pressure relief valves is not
fully covered by the selection chart. For control and pressure relief valves, selection
depends on body type, pressure/temperature rating, and material; but since the
selection of other features is more complex and requires calculations, control and safety
valves cannot be fully covered by a logic decision chart.
Before starting the selection process, information on system, fluid, piping material,
system design conditions, pipe size, and environmental conditions should be available.
The selection process should start from the top of the selection chart marked Start and
continue to the end, using Table 21-1 as a source of information to answer questions
about valve function and performance and about availability in a particular size,
pressure and temperature rating, and material. Supporting charts are provided for
selection of valve body material and valve actuators. Table 21-1 contains current
information, but valve availability in certain designs, materials, and pressure ratings
may change with time. Cost information should be used with caution since cost
information does not take into consideration maintenance cost, which can significantly
change cost calculations.
As a result of the selection process, a ranking list can be developed that should contain
at least one, but most likely more than one, valve that can be successfully used. At this
point, a top ranking valve may be chosen or, at the purchasers decision, other aspects
may be considered (for example, delivery time, economic cost, etc.).

Figure 21-1
Valve Selection Chart
(This figure is located in a pouch inside the back cover of this report.)

21-1

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Valve Selection Guideline Charts

Table 21-1
Valve Selection Matrix

21-2

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Valve Selection Guideline Charts

Table 21-1 (cont.)


Valve Selection Matrix

21-3

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Valve Selection Guideline Charts

Table 21-1 (cont.)


Valve Selection Matrix

21-4

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Valve Selection Guideline Charts

Example 1
Selection of Service Water Main Pump Isolation Valve
Step 1 - Collect data in accordance with block one on the valve selection matrix (Table
21-1).
1. System: Service water
2. Fluid: Seawater
3. Pipe: Cu-Ni clad pipe
4. System design condition: 100 psig, 95F
5. Size: 30 inch
6. Environment: Salt water, no radiation
Step 2 - Determine the primary function of the valve.
The valve isolates the non-operational train; therefore, the primary function is
isolation.
From Table 21-1, valves suitable for isolation are gate, globe, butterfly,
diaphragm, plug, ball, sealed gate, and sealed globe.
Step 3 - Select the valve size.
The valve size will be equal to pipe nominal size (30 inches).
From Table 21-1, 30-inch size, globe, diaphragm, ball, plug, sealed gate, and
sealed globe valves are not available, leaving gate and butterfly valves available.
Step 4 - Determine the valve pressure class.
Based on the design conditions, 150-pound pressure class is sufficient.
From Table 21-1, both gate and butterfly valves are available in this pressure
class.
Step 5 - Select the valve material.
Based on the material selection chart, materials suitable for this application are
copper alloys, nickel alloys, and high molybdenum austenitic steel.
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Valve Selection Guideline Charts

Aluminum bronze is selected for the valve body material, based on previous
experience with this material.
Step 6 - Select the performance required.
1. Pressure drop in open position: low
2. Seat tightness: good
3. Maintainability: good
Based on information from Table 21-1, three ranking lists are created:
Pressure Drop

Seat Tightness

Maintainability

1) Butterfly

1) Butterfly

1) Butterfly

1) Gate

2) Gate

2) Gate

(no difference)

(no significant difference)

Step 7 - Combine the ranking lists into one overall ranking list.
There is no significant difference between the valves for the first two
characteristics; however, butterfly valves are somewhat easier to maintain.
Therefore, the final ranking is:
1. Butterfly
2. Gate
Step 8 - Is the valve size/weight a concern?
Valve size/weight is a concern because of limited space in the pumphouse.
From Table 21-1, butterfly valves are more compact and lighter than gate valves,
and the ranking remains unchanged.
Step 9 - Secondary function.
There is a possibility that the valve may be required to throttle and, in this case, a
butterfly valve is better.
The ranking remains unchanged.
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Valve Selection Guideline Charts

Step 10 - Final ranking.


1. Butterfly
2. Gate
Step 11 - Follow the butterfly valve-specific chart.
Step 12 - Leak tightness is required; therefore, an eccentric disc design is selected.
Steps 13 and 14 - Environmental conditions (temperature 95F and no radiation) are
suitable for resilient seat.
Step 15 - This valve is an on-line valve; therefore, a lug or wafer design is selected.
Step 16 - Return to the main chart, and select an actuator using the actuator selection
chart. The valve is not required to fail open or closed, and fast speed is not
required. A motor operator is selected.
Step 17 - Incorporate all data into the valve data sheet (see Section 25).

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Valve Selection Guideline Charts

Example 2
Selection of an Isolation Valve at the Inlet to
Moisture Separator Reheater in the Main Steam System
Step 1 - Collect data in accordance with block one on the valve selection chart.
1. System: Main Steam
2. Fluid: Saturated steam
3. Pipe: Carbon steel
4. System design condition: 1185 psig, 600F
5. Size: 16 inch
6. Environment: Mild, no radiation
Step 2 - Determine the primary function of the valve.
The valve isolates the non-operational train; therefore, the primary function is
isolation.
From Table 21-1, valves suitable for isolation are gate, globe, butterfly, diaphragm,
plug, ball, sealed gate, and sealed globe.
Step 3 - Select the valve size.
The valve size will be equal to pipe nominal size (16 inches).
From Table 21-1, 16-inch size globe, diaphragm, plug, sealed gate, and sealed globe
valves are not available, leaving ball, gate, and butterfly valves available.
Step 4 - Determine the valve pressure class.
Based on the design conditions, 900-pound pressure class is sufficient.
From Table 21-1, both gate and ball valves are available in this valve pressure class.
Butterfly valve is deleted because it is available only as a special design.
Step 5 - Select the valve material.
Based on the material selection chart, a material suitable for this application is
carbon steel.
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Valve Selection Guideline Charts

Step 6 - Select the performance required.


1. Pressure drop in open position: low
2. Seat tightness: good
3. Maintainability: good
Based on information from the Table 21-1, three ranking lists are created:
Pressure Drop

Seat Tightness

Maintainability

1) Ball

1) Ball

1) Ball

1) Gate

2) Gate

2) Gate

(no difference)

(no significant difference)

(no significant difference)

Step 7 - Combine the ranking lists into one overall list.


There is no significant difference in ball or gate valve characteristics.
Therefore, the final ranking is:
1. Ball
2. Gate
Step 8 - Is the valve size/weight a concern?
Valve size/weight is a concern because of limited space and the need for additional
supports.
From Table 21-1, gate valves are more compact and lighter than ball valves.
The ranking is changed to put gate above ball valve.
Step 9 - Secondary function - None.
Step 10 - Final ranking.
1. Gate
2. Ball
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Valve Selection Guideline Charts

The ranking is based on gate valve superiority in size/weight ranking and its
availability on the market.
Step 11 - Follow gate valve-specific chart.
Step 12 - For sizes larger than 3 inches, a bolted bonnet design is selected because the
temperature is 600F, which is below the 700F required for a pressure seal bonnet.
Step 13 - Outside stem and yoke design is selected since it is the only one available.
Step 14 - Select the wedge/disc type.
In the closed position, the pressure differential is expected to be high and line loads
are expected to be significant; therefore, based on the chart, the following valves
may be used: split wedge, flexible wedge, or parallel slide double disc. The final
decision should be based on availability, price, and plant preference.
Step 15 - Select the seat material.
Because steam is not considered a corrosive fluid and no erosion and cavitation is
expected, any manufacturer-selected material for this application is acceptable.
Step 16 - Return to the main chart, and select an actuator using the actuator selection
chart. The valve is not required to fail open or closed, and fast speed is not required.
Motor operator is selected. The thrust calculated does not exceed 500,000 pounds.
Step 17 - Incorporate all the data into the valve data sheet (see Section 25).

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Valve Selection Guideline Charts

Example 3
Selection of a Manually Operated 3-inch
Isolation Valve in Liquid Waste System
Step 1 - Collect data in accordance with block one on the valve selection chart.
1. System: Liquid waste
2. Fluid: Water
3. Pipe: Stainless Steel
4. System design condition: 150 psig, 200F
5. Size: 3 inch
6. Environment: Radiation 108 rads/over plant life
Step 2 - Determine the primary function of the valve.
The valve isolates the non-operational train; therefore, the primary function is
isolation.
From Table 21-1, valves suitable for isolation are gate, globe, butterfly, diaphragm,
plug, ball, sealed gate, and sealed globe.
Step 3 - Select the valve size.
The valve size will be equal to pipe nominal size (3 inches).
Step 4 - Determine the valve pressure class.
Based on the design conditions, 150-pound pressure class is sufficient.
From Table 21-1, all valves are available in this pressure class.
Step 5 - Select the valve material.
Based on the material selection chart, a material suitable for this application is
stainless steel.
Step 6 - Select the performance required.
1. Stem leakage - low
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Valve Selection Guideline Charts

2. Seat tightness - good


3. Maintainability - good
Based on information from Table 21-1, three ranking lists are created:

Stem Leakage

Seat Tightness

Maintainability

1. Diaphragm

1. Diaphragm

1. Ball

2. Bellows sealed gate

2. Ball

2. Diaphragm

3. Bellows sealed globe

3. Plug

3. Plug

4. Diaphragm sealed globe

4. Globe

4. Gate

5. Ball

5. Bellows sealed globe

5. Globe

6. Plug

6. Diaphragm sealed globe

6. Diaphragm sealed globe

7. Gate

7. Gate

7. Bellows sealed gate

8. Globe

8. Bellows sealed gate

8. Bellows sealed globe

Step 7 - Combine the ranking lists into one overall ranking list. After considering all
aspects of the valve characteristics, the following ranking is established:
1. Diaphragm
2. Ball
3. Plug
Other valves will not be considered for the following reasons:

Gate and globe valves create a potential for radioactive leaks.

Diaphragm sealed globe, bellows sealed gate, and bellows sealed globe are
expensive and difficult to maintain. This application does not require such a high
degree of leak tightness.

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Valve Selection Guideline Charts

A diaphragm, plug, or ball valve provides sufficient assurance of stem leak


tightness in the water application.

Step 8 - Is the valve size/weight a concern?


No, valve size/weight is not a concern. In this size, there is no significant difference
in weight/size between diaphragm, ball, and plug valves.
Step 9 - Secondary function - None.
Step 10 - Final ranking.
1. Diaphragm
2. Ball
3. Plug
Step 11 - Follow the diaphragm valve-specific chart. A diaphragm valve is rejected
because it cannot be used for this radiation level based on the manufacturers
application chart.
Follow the ball valve-specific chart. A ball valve cannot be used because it creates
the potential for crud traps.
Step 12 - Follow the plug valve specific chart.
Step 13 - Precise throttling is not required.
Step 14 - The fluid is water.
Step 15 - Based on information about elastomers in Section 2, polyethylene or EPT can
be used for the valve sleeve.
A plug valve is suitable for this application.
Step 16 - Return to the main chart.
Step 17 - Incorporate all the data into the valve data sheet (see Section 25).

21-13

EPRI Licensed Material

22
REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

22.1 EPRI / NMAC Reports


These EPRI/NMAC reports are available only to members of the Electric Power
Research Institute. Although some of these reports are obsolete or out of print, they are
included to show how valve and actuator technology has evolved over the last few
years.
1.1

In Situ State-of-the-Art Valve Welding Repair (Gate, Globe, & Check Valves), Volume 2.
EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: December 1996. Report TR-105852V2.

1.2

Air-Operated Valve Maintenance Guide. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: November 1996.
Report NP-7412.

1.3

Maintenance Job Cards; Joint EPRI-CRIEPI Human Factor Studies. EPRI, Palo Alto,
CA: December 1994. Report TR-104602.

1.4

Safety and Relief Valve Testing and Maintenance Guide. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: August
1996. Report TR-105872.

1.5

Application Guide for Motor-Operated Valves in Nuclear Power Plants. EPRI, Palo
Alto, CA. Report TR-106563-V1. Volume 1: Gate and Globe Valves, published in
1998. (This is Revision 1 of EPRI NP-6660, March 1990.)

1.6

Application Guide for Motor-Operated Valves in Nuclear Power Plants. EPRI, Palo
Alto, CA. Report TR-106563-V2. Volume 2: Butterfly Valves, October 1998. (This is
Revision 1 of EPRI NP-7501, January 1993.)

1.7

Solenoid Valve Maintenance and Application Guide. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: April 1992.
Report NP-7414.

1.8

Predictive Maintenance Primer. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: April 1991. Report NP-7205.

1.9

The Maintenance Engineer Fundamentals Handbook. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: November
1996. Report TR-106853.
22-1

EPRI Licensed Material


References and Bibliography

1.10 EPRI Workshop on Erosion-Corrosion of Carbon Steel Piping, April 1415, 1987,
Washington, DC.
1.11 Assessing Maintenance Effectiveness. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: December 1996. Report
TR-107759.
1.12 Lubrication Guide, Revision 2. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: February 1995. Report NP-4916.
1.13 Postmaintenance Testing, A Reference Guide. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: April 1991. Report
NP-7213s.
1.14 Static Seals Maintenance Guide. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: December 1994. Report TR104749.
1.15 Valve Stem Packing Improvements. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: March 1988. Report NP5697.
1.16 On-Line Leak Sealing, A Guide for Nuclear Power Plant Maintenance Personnel. EPRI,
Palo Alto, CA: July 1989. Report NP-6523.
1.17 Bolted Joint Maintenance & Application Guide. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: December 1995.
Report TR-104213.
1.18 How to Conduct Material Condition Inspections. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: September
1994. Report TR-104514.
1.19 Development of a Honing Tool for Main Steam Isolation Valve Seats. EPRI, Palo Alto,
CA: November 1983. Report NP-3291.
1.20 Application Guide for Check Valves in Nuclear Power Plants. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA:
June 1993. Report NP-5479, Revision 1.
1.21 Check Valve Maintenance Guide. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: August 1995. Report TR100857.
1.22 Technical Repair Guidelines for Limitorque Valve Operator Model SMB 000. EPRI, Palo
Alto, CA: December 1994. Report NP-6229R1, Revision 1.
1.23 Technical Repair Guidelines for Limitorque Valve Operator Model SMB 00. EPRI, Palo
Alto, CA: June 1995. Report NP-6231R1, Revision 1.
1.24 Technical Repair Guidelines for Limitorque Valve Operator Model SMB 0-4. EPRI, Palo
Alto, CA: May 1993. Report NP-7214.

22-2

EPRI Licensed Material


References and Bibliography

1.25 Technical Repair Guidelines for Limitorque Valve Operator Model HBC 0-10. EPRI, Palo
Alto, CA: December 1993. Report TR-100539.
1.26 Technical Repair Guidelines for Rotork Valve Actuators. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA:
December 1995. Report TR-104884.
1.27 Anchor/Darling MSIV Guide. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: May 1991. Report NP-7211.
1.28 Anchor/Darling MFIV Guide. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: May 1991. Report NP-7212.
1.29

Infrared Thermography Guide. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: December 1994. Report NP-6973,
Revision 2.

22.2 Proprietary Documents Developed under EPRI MOV Performance


Prediction Program
For information concerning these documents, contact the EPRI MOV PPP project
manager, John Hosler, 3412 Hillview, Palo Alto, CA 94303; telephone: 650/855-2785;
e-mail: jhosler@epri.com.
2.1.

EPRI MOV Performance Prediction Program: Topical Report. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA:
April 1997. Report TR-103237-R2, Revision 2.

2.2

EPRI MOV Performance Prediction Program: Gate Valve Model Description Report.
EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: November 1994. Report TR-103229.

2.3

EPRI MOV Performance Prediction Program: Globe Valve Model Report. EPRI, Palo
Alto, CA: April 1994. Report TR-103227.

2.4

EPRI MOV Performance Prediction Program: Butterfly Valve Model Description


Report. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: September 1994. Report TR-103224.

2.5

EPRI MOV Performance Prediction Program: System Flow Model Description Report.
EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: June 1994. Report TR-103225.

2.6

EPRI MOV Performance Prediction Program: Assessment Report. EPRI, Palo Alto,
CA: November 1994. Report TR-103231.

2.7

EPRI MOV Performance Prediction Program: Performance Prediction Methodology


(PPM) Implementation Guide. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: November 1994. Report TR103244.

22-3

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References and Bibliography

2.8

EPRI MOV Performance Prediction Program: Methods to Address Rate-of-Loading in


Torque Switch-Controlled MOVs. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: November 1994. Report TR103226.

2.9

EPRI MOV Performance Prediction Program: Gate Valve Design Effects Testing
Results. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: July 1994. Report TR-103255.

2.10

EPRI MOV Performance Prediction Program: Friction Separate Effects Test Report.
EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: November 1993. Report TR-103119.

2.11

EPRI MOV Performance Prediction Program: Butterfly Valve Design, Elbow, and
Scaling Effects Report. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: April 1994. Report TR-103257.

2.12

Review of NRC/INEL Gate Valve Test Program. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: January 1991.
Report NP-7065.

2.13

EPRI MOV Performance Prediction Program: Stem/Stem Nut Lubrication Test Report.
EPRI, Palo Alto, CA. Report TR-102135.

2.14

EPRI MOV Performance Prediction Program: Stem Thrust Prediction Method for
Anchor/Darling Double Disk Gate Valves. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: November 1994.
Report TR-103232.

2.15

EPRI MOV Performance Prediction Program: Stem Thrust Prediction Method for
Westinghouse Flexible Wedge Gate Valves. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: November 1995.
Report TR-103233.

2.16

EPRI MOV Performance Prediction Program: Stem Thrust Prediction Method for
Aloyco Split Wedge Valves. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: August 1996. Report TR-103235.

2.17

EPRI MOV Performance Prediction Program: Stem Thrust Prediction Method for
W-K-M Parallel Expanding Gate Valves. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: May 1995. Report TR103236.

2.18

EPRI MOV Performance Prediction Program: MOV Margin Improvement Guide.


EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: February 1992. Report TR-100449.

22.3 Proprietary Documents Developed under Utility-Sponsored Generic


Thrust and Torque Overload Qualification Program for Limitorque
Actuators
The following proprietary documents were developed by Kalsi Engineering, Inc. under
the utility-sponsored Generic Thrust and Torque Overload Qualification Program for
22-4

EPRI Licensed Material


References and Bibliography

Limitorque Actuators. For information concerning these documents, contact the project
manager, P. D. Alvarez of Kalsi Engineering, telephone: 281/240-6500; e-mail:
alvarez@kalsi.com.
3.1

M. S. Kalsi. Thrust Rating Increase of Limitorque Actuators. Kalsi Engineering, Inc.


November 25, 1991. Document No. 1707C, Rev. 0.

3.2

G. A. Moran. Thrust Rating Increase of Limitorque SMB-000 Housing Covers. Kalsi


Engineering, Inc. August 5, 1992. Document No. 1752C, Rev. 0.

3.3

G. A. Moran. Fastener Analysis: Limitorque Operator Mount and Housing Cover.


Kalsi Engineering, Inc. December 7, 1993. Document No. 1759C, Rev. 0.

3.4

G. A. Moran. Thrust Rating Increase of Limitorque SB-00 through SB-2 Spring


Compensator Assemblies and SB-00 through SB-1 Operators. Kalsi Engineering, Inc.
October 7, 1994. Document No. 1799C, Rev. 0.

3.5

P. Daniel Alvarez. Limitorque SMB-2 Actuator Overload Cycle Test Interim Report.
Kalsi Engineering, Inc. June 22, 1994. Document No. 1837C, Rev. 0.

3.6

P. Daniel Alvarez. Torque Cycle Test Report for Limitorque SMB-000 Electric Motor
Actuator. Kalsi Engineering, Inc. December 19, 1994. Document No. 1861C,
Rev. 0.

3.7

Desi Somogyi. LTAFLA (Limitorque Actuator Fatigue Life Analysis) Mathematical


and Computation Model - Predicting Fatigue Life of Limitorque Type SMB/SB/SBD
Actuator Torsional Components. Kalsi Engineering, Inc. October 28, 1994.
Document No. 1862C, Rev. 0.

3.8

Desi Somogyi. LTAFLA User's Manual - Predicting Fatigue Life of Limitorque Type
SMB/SB/SBD Actuator Torsional Components. Kalsi Engineering, Inc. December 29,
1994. Document No. 1863C, Rev. 0.

3.9

Desi Somogyi. LTAFLA Validation and Verification Manual - Predicting Fatigue Life
of Limitorque Type SMB/SB/SBD Actuator Torsional Components. Kalsi Engineering,
Inc. December 29, 1994. Document No. 1866C, Rev. 0.

3.10

P. Daniel Alvarez. Limitorque H0BC Operator Overload Cycle Test Report. Kalsi
Engineering, Inc. December 8, 1995, January 1996. Document No. 1860C, Rev. 0.

22-5

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References and Bibliography

22.4 NRC Generic Letters, Information Notices, and Related References


4.1

U.S. NRC Generic Letter 89-10: Safety-Related Motor-Operated Valve Testing and
Surveillance, June 28, 1989, including the following supplements:
Supplement 1:

Results of the Public Workshops, June 13, 1990

Supplement 2:

Availability of Program Descriptions, August 3, 1990

Supplement 3:

Consideration of the Results of NRC-Sponsored Tests


of Motor-Operated Valves, October 25, 1990

Supplement 4:

Consideration of Valve Mispositioning in Boiling


Water Reactors, February 12, 1992

Supplement 5:

Inaccuracy of Motor-Operated Valve Diagnostic


Equipment, June 28, 1993

Supplement 6:

Information on Schedule and Grouping, and Staff


Responses to Additional Public Questions, March 8,
1994

Supplement 7:

Inadvertent Operation of MOVs, July 26, 1995

4.2

U.S. NRC Generic Letter 95-07: Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of SafetyRelated Power-Operated Gate Valves, August 17, 1995.

4.3

U.S. NRC Generic Letter 96-05: Periodic Verification of Design-Basis Capability of


Safety-Related Motor-Operated Valves, September 18, 1996.

4.4

U.S. NRC Generic Letter 89-04: Guidance on Developing Acceptable In-Service


Testing Programs, April 3, 1989.

4.5

U.S. NRC Generic Letter 89-08: Erosion/Corrosion Induced Pipe Wall Thinning, May
2, 1989.

4.6

U.S. NRC Administrator Letter 94-13, Revision 2: Access to Nuclear Regulatory


Commission Bulletin Board Systems, May 3, 1996.

4.7

U.S. NRC Information Notice 97-07: Problems Identified During Generic Letter 89-10
Closeout Inspection, March 6, 1997.

4.8

U.S. NRC Information Notice 97-18: Problems Identified During Maintenance Rule
Baseline Inspections, April 14, 1997.

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References and Bibliography

4.9

U.S. NRC Information Notice 96-48: Motor-Operated Valve Performance Issues,


August 21, 1996; Supplement 1, July 24, 1998.

4.10

U.S. NRC Information Notice 96-30: Inaccuracy of Diagnostic Equipment for MotorOperated Butterfly Valves, May 21, 1996.

4.11

U.S. NRC Information Notice 94-69: Potential Inadequacies in the Prediction of


Torque Requirements for and Torque Output of Motor-Operated Butterfly Valves,
September 28, 1994.

4.12

U.S. NRC Information Notice 94-44: Main Steam Isolation Valve Failure to Close on
Demand Because of Inadequate Maintenance and Testing, June 16, 1994.

4.13

U.S. NRC Information Notice 94-67: Problem with Henry Pratt Motor-Operated
Butterfly Valves, September 26, 1994.

4.14

U.S. NRC Information Notice 94-66: Overspeed of Turbine-Driven Pumps Caused by


Governor Valve Stem Binding, September 19, 1994.

4.15

U.S. NRC Information Notice 94-61: Corrosion of William Powell Gate Valve Disc
Holders, August 25, 1994.

4.16

U.S. NRC Information Notice 93-01: Accuracy of Motor-Operated Valve Diagnostic


Equipment Manufactured by Liberty Technologies, January 4, 1993.

4.17

U.S. NRC Information Notice 92-60: Valve Stem Failure Caused by Embrittlement,
August 20, 1992.

4.18

U.S. NRC Information Notice 92-59: Horizontally Installed Motor-Operated Gate


Valves, August 18, 1992.

4.19

U.S. NRC Information Notice 92-56: Counterfeit Valves in the Commercial Grade
Supply System, August 6, 1992.

4.20

U.S. NRC Information Notice 92-50: Cracking of Valves in the Condensate Return
Lines of a BWR Emergency Condenser System, July 2, 1992.

4.21

U.S. NRC Information Notice 92-35: Higher Than Predicted Erosion/Corrosion in


Unisolable Reactor Coolant Pressure Boundary Piping Inside Containment at a Boiling
Water Reactor, May 6, 1992.

4.22

U.S. NRC Information Notice 91-58: Dependency of Offset Disc Butterfly Valve's
Operation on Orientation with Respect to Flow, September 20, 1991.

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References and Bibliography

4.23

U.S. NRC Information Notice 90-73: Corrosion of Valve-to-Torque Tube Keys in


Spray Pond Cross Connect Valves, November 29, 1990.

4.24

U.S. NRC Information Notice 90-21: Potential Failure of Motor-Operated Butterfly


Valves to Operate Because Valve Seat Friction Was Underestimated, March 22, 1990.

4.25

U.S. NRC Information Notice 88-73, Supplement 1: Direction-Dependent Leak


Characteristics of Containment Purge Valves, February 27, 1989.

4.26

U.S. NRC Information Notice 88-73: Direction-Dependent Leak Characteristics of


Containment Purge Valves, September 8, 1988.

4.27

U.S. NRC Information Notice 87-38: Inadequate or Inadvertent Blocking of Valve


Movement, August 17, 1987.

4.28

U.S. NRC IE Circular 77-05: Fluid Entrapment in Valve Bonnets, March 29, 1977.

4.29

U.S. NRC Information Notice 98-24: Stem Binding in Turbine Governor Valves in
Reactor Core Isolation Cooling (RCIC) and Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) Systems, June
1998.

4.30

U.S. NRC Information Notice 96-49: Thermally Induced Pressurization of Nuclear


Power Facility Piping, August 20, 1996.

4.31

U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 1.160: Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at


Nuclear Power Plants, Revision 1, January 1995.

4.32

Nuclear Energy Institute: Industry Guideline for Monitoring the Effectiveness of


Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants, NUMARC 93-01, Revision 3, April 1996.

22.5 Books, Magazines, Technical Meetings, and Journal Articles


5.1

ISA Handbook of Control Valves, 2nd Edition. Edited by J. W. Hutchison,


Instrument Society of America, 1976.

5.2

R. W. Zappe. Valve Selection Handbook, 2nd Edition. Gulf Publishing Co.,


Houston, TX, 1987.

5.3

Flow of Fluids Through Valves, Fittings, and Pipe. Crane Company, 1988. Crane
Technical Paper No. 410.

5.4

J. L. Lyons. Lyons Valve Designers Handbook. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New
York, NY, 1982.

22-8

EPRI Licensed Material


References and Bibliography

5.5

Aerospace Fluid Component Designers Handbook, Vols. 1 and 2, Rev. D. Edited by G.


W. Howell and T. M. Weathers, Technical Documentary Report No. RPL-TDR64-25 prepared by TRW Systems Group for Air Force Rocket Propulsion
Laboratory, February 1970.

5.6

R. C. Merrick. Valve Selection and Specification Guide. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.,
New York, NY, 1991.

5.7

J. P. Tullis. Hydraulics of Pipelines, Pumps, Valves, Cavitation, Transients. John


Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1989.

5.8

Valves, Piping and Pipelines Handbook, 2nd Edition. Compiled and published by
the Trade and Technical Press Limited, Surrey, England, 1986.

5.9

W. Ulanski. Valve and Actuator Technology. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 1991.

5.10

I. E. Idelchik. Handbook of Hydraulic Resistance, 2nd Edition. Translated from


Russian by G. R. Malyavskaya, sponsored by the Academy of Sciences of the
USSR; National Committee for Heat and Mass Transfer, Hemisphere Publishing
Corp., Washington, DC, 1986.

5.11

A. J. Ward-Smith. Internal Fluid Flow: The Fluid Dynamics of Flow in Pipes and
Ducts. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1980.

5.12

W. C. Young. Roarks Formulas for Stress & Strain, 6th Edition. McGraw-Hill, New
York, NY, 1989.

5.13

I. J. Karassik, W. C. Krutzcsh, W. H. Fraser, and J. P. Messina. Pump Handbook.


McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 1976.

5.14

Fluid Meters, Part 1, 6th Edition. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New
York, NY, 1951.

5.15

Wear Control Handbook. Edited by M. B. Peterson and W. O. Winer, sponsored by


the Research Committee on Lubrication/ASME, 1980.

5.16

Nuclear News. Published monthly by the American Nuclear Society, 555 N.


Kensington Ave., LaGrange Park, IL 60526, telephone: 708/352-6611.

5.17

Valve Magazine. Published quarterly by the Valve Manufacturers Association,


1050 17th Street NW, Suite 280, Washington DC 20036-5503, telephone: 202/3318105.

22-9

EPRI Licensed Material


References and Bibliography

5.18

T. G. Scarbrough, NRC Regulatory Activities Regarding Performance of SafetyRelated Power-Operated Valves, presented at the Sixth EPRI Valve Technology
Symposium (July 1997).

5.19

S. Hale, Recent Improvements in MOV Field Test Programs, presented at the


Sixth EPRI Valve Technology Symposium (July 1997).

5.20

L. Larsson, Valve Maintenance, presented at the Sixth EPRI Valve Technology


Symposium (July 1997).

5.21

K. A. Hart, Treating the Whole Valve to Develop Cost Effective Maintenance and
Innovative Solutions to Valve Problems, presented at the Sixth EPRI Valve
Technology Symposium (July 1997).

5.22

W. V. Fitzgerald, Lasalle Station's Valve Maintenance Program Retrieves Lost


Megawatts, presented at the Sixth EPRI Valve Technology Symposium (July
1997).

5.23

M. Carnus and J. Coutier, Replacement Parts for French PWR Valves: An


Overview of the French Practice and Experience, presented at the Sixth EPRI
Valve Technology Symposium (July 1997).

5.24

D. H. Worledge, Correlation of Air-Operated Valve Reliability with Preventive


Maintenance, presented at the Sixth EPRI Valve Technology Symposium (July
1997).

5.25

W. W. Lawrence, Solid Particle Erosion Resistant Coatings for Steam Turbine


Valve Stems, presented at the Sixth EPRI Valve Technology Symposium (July
1997).

5.26

M. D. Kaveney, In-Situ Repair of Angle Seat Valves, presented at the Sixth


EPRI Valve Technology Symposium (July 1997).

5.27

M. K. Phillips, S. J. Findlan, and H. Ocken, Arc Welding and Field Applications


of the Iron-Base Norem Hardfacing Alloys, presented at the Sixth EPRI Valve
Technology Symposium (July 1997).

5.28

G. Ottman, Problems with Recurrent Leakage of a Double Disc Gate Valve in


Reactor Coolant Sample Service, presented at the Sixth EPRI Valve Technology
Symposium (July 1997).

5.29

J. Persad, M. J. Scurr, S. Alikhani, and H. Miller, Condenser Steam Dump Valve


Retrofits to Solve Vibrations Problems, presented at the Sixth EPRI Valve
Technology Symposium (July 1997).

22-10

EPRI Licensed Material


References and Bibliography

5.30

J. K. Wang, M. S. Kalsi, and S. S. Averitt, Enhanced Pressure Locking


Methodology, presented at the Sixth EPRI Valve Technology Symposium (July
1997).

5.31

J. Polacheck and J. Quinn, Jr., FERMI II Approach to Cobalt Reduction in


Valves, presented at the Fifth Valve Technology Symposium (June 1995).

5.32

M. S. Kalsi, P. D. Alvarez, J. K. Wang, D. Somogyi, J. J. Boseman, and R. L.


Hughes. An Improved Gate Valve for Critical Applications in Nuclear Power Plants,
NUREG/CP-0152, July 1996.

5.33

J. C. Watkins, K. G. DeWall, and G. H. Weidenhamer. Status of Stellite 6 Friction


Testing, NUREG/CP-0152, July 1998.

5.34

B. D. Bunte. MOV Reliability Evaluation and Periodic Verification Scheduling,


NUREG/CP-0152, July 1996.

5.35

W. G. Knecht. Hardfacing Materials Used in Valves for Seating and Wear Surfaces,
NUREG/CP-0152, July 1996.

5.36

B. H. Eldiwany, V. Sharma, M. S. Kalsi, and K. Wolfe, Butterfly Valve Torque


Prediction Methodology, NUREG/CP-0137, presented at the Third
NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing (July 1994).

5.37

B. H. Eldiwany, M. S. Kalsi, and V. Sharma, Improvements in Butterfly Valve


Torque Prediction Models Based on Recent Research, presented at the Joint
Specialists Meeting on Motor-Operated Valve Issues in Nuclear Power Plants,
Paris (April 1994).

5.38

B. H. Eldiwany and M. S. Kalsi, Application of Hydraulic Network Analysis to


Motor-Operated Butterfly Valves in Nuclear Power Plants, NUREG/CP-0123,
presented at the Second NRC/ASME Symposium on Pump and Valve Testing
(July 1992).

5.39

J. K. Wang and M. S. Kalsi. Improvements in Motor-Operated Gate Valve Design and


Prediction Models for Nuclear Power Plant Systems, NUREG/CR-5807, May 1992.

5.40

Wear of Materials. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, NY,


1981.

5.41

G. M. White and D. F. Denny. The Sealing Mechanism of Flexible Packings,


(British) Ministry of Supply, Memorandum No. 3/47, 1947.

22-11

EPRI Licensed Material


References and Bibliography

5.42

D. E. Turnbull. The Sealing Action of a Conventional Stuffing Box. British


Hydromechanics Research Association, Research Report No. 592, 1958.

5.43

D. F. Denny and D. E. Turnbull, Sealing Characteristics of Stuffing Box Seals for


Rotating Shafts, Proceedings of Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Vol. 174, No. 6
(1960).

5.44

K. A. Hart, Development of an Effective Valve Packing Program, Proceedings of


the Fourth NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing. NUREG/CP-0152
(July 1996).

5.45

D. M. VanTassell, Argo Packing Friction Research Update, Proceedings of the


Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing. NUREG/CP-0137 (July
1994).

5.46

Palo Verde Nuclear Station Advanced Valve Packing Training, course


materials for a training course offered by Argo Packing Company, August 1996.

5.47

D. M. VanTassell, Advancements in Graphitic Pressure Seals, presented at the


1996 Winter MUG Meeting, Huntsville, AL.

5.48

M. M. Cepkauskas and C. M. Garcia, Valve Packing Study, Proceedings of the


Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing. NUREG/CP-0137 (July
1994).

5.49

S. M. Heiman, Packing Force Data Correlations, Proceedings of the Third


NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing. NUREG/CP-0137 (July 1994).

5.50

D. M. VanTassell, Evaluation of Break-Away Packing Friction and Improved


AOV Packing Systems, presented at the 1995 Winter Air-Operated Valves
(AOV) Users Group Meeting, Clearwater, FL.

5.51

Valve Selection Guide, Revision 3. Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation,


1983.

5.52

K. G. DeWall, J. C. Watkins, M. G. McKellar, and D. L. Bramwell, Laboratory


Testing of the Pressure Locking Phenomenon, Proceedings of the Fourth
NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing. NUREG/CP-0152 (July 1996).

5.53

B. D. Bunte and J. F. Kelly, Commonwealth Edison Company Pressure Locking


Test Report, Proceedings of the Fourth NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump
Testing. NUREG/CP-0152 (July 1996).

22-12

EPRI Licensed Material


References and Bibliography

5.54

D. E. Smith. Calculations to Predict the Required Thrust to Open a Flexible Wedge Gate
Valve Subjected to Pressure Locking, U.S. NRC NUREG/CP-0146, February 1994.

5.55

M. S. Kalsi, P. D. Alvarez, J. K. Wang, D. Somogyi, J. J. Boseman, and R. L. Hughes,


An Improved Gate Valve for Critical Applications in Nuclear Power Plants,
Proceedings of the Fourth NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing.
NUREG/CP-0152 (July 1996).

5.56

D. Somogyi, P. D. Alvarez, and M. S. Kalsi, Torsional Fatigue Model for Limitorque


Type SMB/SB/SBD Actuators for Motor-Operated Valves, Proceedings of the Fourth
NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing. NUREG/CP-0152 (July 1996).

5.57

R. W. Moore, Allocating Pressure Drop to Control Valves, Instrumentation


Technology, October 1970.

22.6 Codes and Standards


Section 16 provides an overview of the codes and standards applicable to nuclear
power plants.
6.1

Part 50 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (10CFR50, January 1, 1996,


provides the guidelines for construction, operation, and maintenance of U.S.
nuclear power plants. The following sections are of particular interest here:

Section 50.55a

Codes and Standards

Section 50.65

Requirements for Monitoring the Effectiveness of


Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants

Section 50.70

Inspections

Section 50.71

Maintenance of Records, Making of Reports

Section 50.72

Immediate Notification Requirements for Operating


Nuclear Power Reactors

Appendix A
to Part 50

General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

Appendix B
to Part 50

Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and


Fuel Reprocessing Plants

Appendix J
to Part 50

Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing


for Water Cooled Power Reactors

22-13

EPRI Licensed Material


References and Bibliography

American National Standard Institute (ANSI) and the American Society of Mechanical
Engineers (ASME) publish many codes which apply to nuclear power plants,
including:
6.2

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section II, Materials.

6.3

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Rules for the Construction
of Nuclear Power Plant Components, Division 1.

6.4

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section V, Nondestructive


Examination.

6.5

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels, Division 1.

6.6

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Rules for Construction of
Pressure Vessels, Alternative Rules; Division 2.

6.7

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IX, Welding and Brasing
Qualifications.

6.8

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, Rules for In-Service
Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components.

6.9

ASME III Code Case N62, Internal and External Valve Items, Division 1, Classes
1, 2, and 3.

6.10

ASME N626.3, Qualifications for Specialized Registered Professional


Engineers.

6.11

ASME MFC-3M-1089, Measurement of Fluid Flow in Pipes Using Orifice,


Nozzle, and Venturi, Reaffirmed 1995.

6.12

ANSI/FCI 70-2-1976, American National Standard for Control Valve Seat


Leakage, Fluid Controls Institute, Inc./American National Standards Institute,
1976.

6.13

ANSI B16.3, Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings.

6.14

ANSI B16.4, Cast Iron Threaded Fittings.

6.15

ANSI B16.5, Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings.

6.16

ANSI B16.9, Factory-Made Wrought Steel Butt-Welding Fittings.

22-14

EPRI Licensed Material


References and Bibliography

6.17

ANSI B16.10, Face-to-Face and End-to-End Dimensions of Valves.

6.18

ANSI B16.11, Forged Steel Fittings, Socket Welding, and Threaded.

6.19

ANSI B16.15, Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings, Classes 125 and 250.

6.20

ANSI B16.18, Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings.

6.21

ANSI B16.22, Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure
Fittings.

6.22

ANSI B16.24, Bronze Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, Classes 150 and 300.

6.23

ANSI B16.25, Butt-Welding Ends.

6.24

ANSI B16.34, Valves-Flanged and Butt-Welding End.

6.25

ANSI B16.41 Standards, Functional Qualification Requirements for PowerOperated Active Valve Assemblies for Nuclear Power Plants.

6.26

ANSI B2.1, Pipe Threads.

6.27

ANSI/ASME Code for Pressure Piping, B31.1, Power Piping.

6.28

ANSI/ASME OM (Standard) - 1987, Operation and Maintenance of Nuclear


Power Plants, 1987.

6.29

ANSI/ASME OM (Code) - 1990, Code for Operation and Maintenance of


Nuclear Power Plants, 1990.

6.30

ANSI/ASME Omc-1990, Addendum to ASME/ANSI OM-1987, 1990.

6.31

ANSI/ASME S/G OM-10, In-Service Testing of Valves in Light-Water Reactor


Power Plants, 1988.

6.32

ASME QME-1-1997, Qualification of Active Mechanical Equipment Used in


Nuclear Power Plants, 1997.

6.33

ANSI/ANS-51.1, Nuclear Safety Criteria for the Design of Stationary


Pressurized Water Reactor Plants, 1983, revised 1988.

6.34

ANSI N271-1976/ANS-56.2-1984, Containment Isolation Provisions for Fluid


Systems.

22-15

EPRI Licensed Material


References and Bibliography

6.35

ANSI/ANS-52.1, Nuclear Safety Criteria for the Design of Stationary Boiling


Water Reactor Plants, 1983.

6.36

ANSI/AWWA C504-87, AWWA Standard for Rubber-Seated Butterfly Valves.

Instrument Society of America (ISA) and the Manufacturers Standardization Society


(MSS) of the valve and fitting industry provides several standards, including:
6.37

ISA-S75.01 Standards, Flow Equations for Sizing Control Valves.

6.38

ISA-S75.02 Standards, Control Valve Capacity Test Procedure.

6.39

ISA-S75.05 Standards, Control Valve Terminology.

6.40

MSS SP6, Standard Finish for Contact Faces of Pipe Flanges and Connecting
End Flanges of Valves and Fittings.

6.41

MSS SP25, Standard Marking System for Valves, Fittings, Flanges and Unions.

6.42

MSS SP42, Class 150 Corrosion-Resistant Gate, Globe, Angle, and Check Valves
with Flanged and Butt Weld Ends.

6.43

MSS SP44, Steel Pipe Line Flanges (26 Inches and Larger).

6.44

MSS SP45, Bypass and Drain Connections.

6.45

MSS SP53, Quality Standard for Steel Castings and Forgings for Valves,
Flanges, and Fittings and Other Piping Components - Magnetic Particle
Examination Method.

6.46

MSS SP54, Quality Standard for Steel Castings for Valves, Flanges, and Fittings
and Other Piping Components - Radiographic Examination Method.

6.47

MSS SP55, Quality Standard for Steel Castings - Visual Methods.

6.48

MSS SP61, Pressure Testing of Steel Valves.

6.49

MSS SP84, Steel Valves - Socket Welding and Threaded Ends.

22-16

EPRI Licensed Material

23
APPENDIX A: RECENT ADVANCES IN VALVE AND
ACTUATOR TECHNOLOGY

23.1 Introduction
In the last few years, many significant developments have taken place in valve and
actuator technology, especially for nuclear power plant applications. These
developments resulted from extensive research programs conducted by EPRI, the U.S.
Department of Energy/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), electric utilities,
valve/actuator manufacturers, and service and consulting organizations.
Several groups were organized to address different industry problems and to better
communicate the interim results of industry research, including the MOV Users Group
(MUG), EPRI MOV PPP Users Group, the Nuclear Industry Check Valve Group (NIC),
the Air-Operated Valve Group, etc. The U.S. NRC has been very active with these
groups to monitor their progress and assist them with regulatory issues.
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) in coordination with the U.S.
NRC held several pump and valve symposiums and published the proceedings in
NUREGs. EPRI held several symposiums to address similar issues. The Nuclear
Maintenance Applications Center (NMAC) prepared several maintenance and repair
guides and conducted many workshops and training courses for nuclear power plant
engineers and maintenance personnel. In this section, highlights of current
developments and the factors that initiated them are presented. For the latest
developments in valve and actuator technology, the reader is referred to nuclear
industry publications such as the ASME/NRC symposiums, NUREGs, and valve users
group meetings.

23.2 Background
Operating experience at nuclear power plants in the 1970s and 1980s revealed
weaknesses in the performance of power-operated valves. The NRC sponsored valve
and actuator tests to evaluate valve performance and disseminated the test results
through public meetings and publications. On June 28, 1989, the U.S. NRC issued
23-1

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Appendix A: Recent Advances in Valve and Actuator Technology

Generic Letter 89-10 [4.1] requesting that nuclear power plant licensees verify the
design basis capabilities of MOVs in safety-related systems. On September 18, 1996, the
NRC issued Generic Letter 96-05 [4.3] requesting that nuclear power plant licensees
ensure that programs are in place to periodically verify the capability of their safetyrelated MOVs to perform their safety functions in accordance with the licensing bases.
On August 17, 1995, the NRC issued Generic Letter 95-07 [4.2] requesting that nuclear
power plant licensees ensure that safety-related power-operated gate valves susceptible
to pressure locking or thermal binding are capable of performing their safety functions
within the current licensing bases of the facility. The NRC issued many more Generic
Letters and Information Notices (see Section 22.4) to address other safety-related issues
concerning valves and actuators.
The nuclear industry responded to these safety concerns with comprehensive programs
to solve the problems. Highlights of these programs are summarized in the following
sections.

23.3 Motor-Operated Valve Performance Prediction Methodology


EPRI undertook the development of a comprehensive Performance Prediction
Methodology (EPRIs PPM) to predict the required thrusts/torques to operate gate,
globe, and butterfly valves under a variety of flow conditions including design basis
and blowdown [2.1 through 2.18]. This program resulted in probably the most
significant increase in technical knowledge in several decades regarding the ability to
predict thrust/torque requirements for gate, globe, and butterfly valves for reliable
performance over a wide range of operating conditions.
EPRI MOV PPM included the development of analytical models based on first
principles, flow loop testing, plant in situ testing, and separate effects testing. EPRI
MOV PPM resulted in a validated and computerized methodology (EPRIs MOV
Performance Prediction Program or EPRIs MOV PPP). The computerized methodology
consists of a system flow model [2.5], a gate valve model [2.2], a globe valve model
[2.3], and a butterfly valve model [2.4]. Hand calculation methodologies were also
developed for Anchor/Darling double-disc valves [2.14], Westinghouse gate valves
[2.15], Aloyco split wedge valves [2.16], and W-K-M parallel expanding gate valves
[2.17]. Highlights of these models are given below.
In a safety evaluation, SER, (dated March 15, 1996) and a supplement (dated February
20, 1997), the NRC accepted the EPRI methodology with certain conditions and
limitations. Reference 2.1 provides a summary of the NRC comments in this SER and
EPRIs response to these comments.

23-2

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Appendix A: Recent Advances in Valve and Actuator Technology

23.3.1 System Flow Model


At the early stages of developing the EPRI PPM, it was recognized that valve
performance depends on the entire hydraulic system in which the valve is installed
[5.38]. The valve pressure drop and flow rate can be determined accurately only by
analyzing the entire hydraulic system, including the flow/pressure sources and sinks
(including pumps, surge tanks, and pipe elevations), significant piping resistances, and
presence of parallel pipe branches. For example, if an orifice downstream of the valve
under consideration experiences choking, the pressure drop across the valve can be
significantly less than otherwise predicted. The system flow model was designed to
account for these factors.
The system flow model offers four options to perform the analysis (see Reference 2.5 for
details). Guidance on reducing complicated systems to one of the models four basic
systems is provided by the methodology.
The system flow model within the EPRI PPM utilizes the hydraulic system data along
with the valve flow coefficient and choking parameters versus disc positions to
determine the flow rate and pressure drop across the valve at every 1% of valve stroke
(1 for butterfly valves). The accuracy of mid-stroke pressure drops is crucial, especially
for butterfly and gate valves under high flow rates and blowdown conditions. For
butterfly valves, the hydrodynamic torque can exceed the seating/unseating torque
and may govern torque requirements. In mid-stroke positions, guide contact stresses
(in gate valves) can exceed the material galling threshold and render the valve
unpredictable and inoperable in some cases. Thus, during valve selection, operation,
repair, maintenance, and testing, it is important to always consider the entire hydraulic
system.

23.3.2 Solid and Flex Wedge Gate Valve Model


EPRI's PPP gate valve model [2.2] utilizes detailed internal valve dimensions and
pressure drop (from the System Flow Model output) to calculate the disc pressure force
and moment and the equilibrium position of the gate at all disc positions from fully
closed to fully open or vice versa. Friction coefficients at different surfaces are
interpolated from a friction algorithm at the calculated contact stresses. The disc friction
thrust component is then calculated and combined with other components (such as
packing, stem rejection force, and disc/stem weight) to calculate the required stem
thrust. Some of the key findings are summarized as follows:
1. The guide rail-to-guide slot contact stress can be very high, and the resulting guide
friction thrust can govern thrust requirements. This can occur under several
conditions, including:

23-3

EPRI Licensed Material


Appendix A: Recent Advances in Valve and Actuator Technology

The mid-stroke valve pressure drops are very high such as under blowdown
conditions with little system flow resistance.

The gate pressure force does not transfer to the seats until the valve is nearly
closed and the valve pressure drop is almost equal to the shutoff pressure drop.
This in turn can be caused by a very tight clearance between the guide rail and
guide slot.

2. Figure 23-1 shows one of the important contact modes in which the disc is tilted,
theoretically making a point contact at two locations against the downstream seat.
Simultaneously, the upper edge of the disc guide slot makes a line contact against
the body guide. Stresses at the contact points and contact lines depend on the local
geometry and the magnitude of the valve pressure drop at a given disc position.
Under certain conditions, localized stresses can cause plastic deformation as well as
galling/gouging of the mating surfaces. In some extreme cases, the guide may break
and the gate get stuck in mid-position.
3. One of the major results from EPRIs PPM is the development of detailed friction
coefficient data tables for valve materials [2.1, 2.10]. The friction coefficient data
tables were obtained by extensive laboratory tests using test specimens of different
geometries and materials applicable to gate valves. The friction coefficient matrix
provides nominal and maximum (upper bounding) values and includes the
following:

Different material combinations, including Stellite 6 on Stellite 6, Stellite 6 on


carbon steel, Stellite 6 on stainless steel, and carbon steel on carbon steel

Different contact modes, including flat-on-flat, edge-on-flat, edge-on-edge (nonscissoring), and edge-on-edge (scissoring)

Different contact stresses from less than 5 ksi to 50 ksi (34.5 MPa to 345.0 MPa)

Different fluids including water and steam at temperatures from less than 70F
to about 650F (20C to 340C)

4. In some gate valves, the clearance between the guide rail and guide slot is very
small. The accumulation of foreign materials in such tight clearance (from process
fluid or from the guide surface) may increase the friction force and, in some cases,
may lock the gate.

23-4

EPRI Licensed Material


Appendix A: Recent Advances in Valve and Actuator Technology

Figure 23-1
Tilted Disc Contact Mode Resulting in Point Contact with the Downstream Seat

23-5

EPRI Licensed Material


Appendix A: Recent Advances in Valve and Actuator Technology

23.3.3 Methodologies for Special Design Gate Valves


Hand calculation methodologies are also provided for Anchor Darling double disc
[2.14], Westinghouse [2.15], Aloyco split wedge [2.16], and W-K-M parallel expanding
gate valves [2.17]. These models provide detailed descriptions of the valve design and
operation as well as procedures to calculate thrust requirements. For example,
Reference 2.17 shows that, for typical friction coefficients, the W-K-M valve may be
subject to a very high opening thrust if it is installed with the flow in the nonpreferred
direction or if the valve is subjected to reverse flow. Thus, for all practical purposes, the
W-K-M parallel expanding gate valves are unidirectional and should be installed with
the gate on the downstream side. This is the manufacturers preferred orientation.

23.3.4 Butterfly Valve Model


EPRIs PPP butterfly valve model [2.4] calculates the total required torque, the
maximum transmitted torque (for weak link analysis), the total required dynamic
torque, and the total seating/unseating torque in the direction specified by the user
(either opening or closing). The model takes into account the effect of upstream flow
disturbances (such as elbows) in calculating the hydrodynamic torque component of
the total dynamic torque. The model can be used with compressible or incompressible
flow. The model also provides recommendations for bounding bearing friction
coefficients in clean water applications, as well as in dirty water applications (such as
service water systems).
Most of the available butterfly valve flow and torque coefficients are based on a
standard test section for valve flow testing (see ISA Standard 75.02, 1988 [6.38]). In this
standard test setup, the pressure drop is measured between two pressure taps: one
located at two pipe diameters upstream of the test valve and the other located at six
pipe diameters downstream. One of the key concerns was the use of these flow and
torque coefficients in predicting dynamic torque requirements under downstream clean
pipe break right at the valve discharge. A blowdown test performed under EPRIs PPM
test program [2.11] confirmed that the required dynamic torque under downstream
clean pipe break right at the valve discharge is bounded by the required dynamic
torque when the downstream clean pipe break occurs at eight pipe diameters from the
valve if the valve pressure drop is the same. Thus, it is conservative to use flow and
torque coefficients from continuous pipe flow test data to predict torque requirements
under downstream pipe rupture right at the valve discharge. This hypothesis with
technical justification was first introduced in January 1993 in the first release of the
Butterfly MOV Guide [1.6].

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23.3.5 Globe Valve Model


EPRIs PPP globe valve model [2.3] calculates the required opening and closing stem
thrust for globe valves with T-pattern or Y-pattern bodies. The model is applicable to
body-guided globe valves with unbalanced or balanced discs subject to incompressible
flow. For unbalanced disc globe valves, the valve needs to be classified as seat based
(differential pressure acts across disc seat area) or guide based (differential pressure
acts across disc guide area) to ensure the predicted thrust is bounding. The
methodology provides guidelines to classify unbalanced disc globe valves as seat based
or guide based.

23.4 EPRI/NMAC Application and Maintenance Guides


EPRI and the Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center (NMAC) developed several
documents to address the (then current) valve and actuator issues (see Section 22.1).
Furthermore, NMAC conducted many training seminars and workshops for plant
engineers to address several of the industry concerns. The wealth of information
provided in these documents should be utilized by plant engineers and maintenance
personnel to address valve selection, operation, repair, maintenance, and testing. In this
section, highlights of some of the recent documents are given. For further details, the
reader is encouraged to examine the original references.

EPRI NP-6516, August 1990


Guide for the Application and Use of Valves in Power Plant Systems
NP-6516 was one of the first guidebooks to provide a comprehensive overview of
valves and actuators in nuclear power plants. In the absence of other guides (at that
time) to address specific valve and actuator types (for example, check, solenoid, safety,
and relief valves), this document addressed most of the common valve and actuator
types in nuclear power plants. After the publication of NP-6516, several guides were
issued with more detailed discussions about specific valves and actuators, as shown in
Section 22.1. The present publication is a revision of NP-6516 where some discussions
of valves and actuators were eliminated and references to other guides are provided.

EPRI TR-105852, Volume 2 [1.1], December 1996


In Situ State-of-the-Art Valve Welding Repair (Gate, Globe & Check Valves)
This document is Volume 2 of this guide. It provides extensive guidance to the user in
identifying a specific repair issue, understanding the repair options, walking through
the specific repair, understanding the Code requirements, and preparing the valve for
system testing. This guide includes the following:

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Technical descriptions for gate, globe, and check valves. Individual sections on
design and application along with advantages and disadvantages are provided.

Materials of construction including pressure retaining and trim materials such as


cobalt-based, nickel-based, and iron-based hardfacing alloys.

A section on each valve type, the typical repair issues, and the repair options. The
repair options direct the user to specific repair sections.

An extensive section on specific component repairs including the component repair


list prerequisites; repair strategies; flaw removal techniques; material selection;
machining, welding, and heat treatment requirements; and final inspection and
testing requirements.

Sections on welding material selection, including detailed welding guidelines for


specific processes, base material and filler metals such as gas tungsten arc (GTA)
welding of hardfacing on carbon steel substrates; and preheat and post-weld heat
treatment guidelines.

Current listing of contractors and equipment suppliers capable of providing


assistance for the repair of valve components and implementation of these
guidelines.

EPRI NP-7412, November 1996 [1.2]


Air-Operated Valve Maintenance Guide
NP-7412 discusses major components, such as actuators, valves, and positioners, and
explains the interrelationship of these components. Diagrams indicating the application
and operation of various types of actuators are presented as an aid for thorough
investigation of malfunctioning equipment. Recent developments on diagnostic
equipment for AOVs are covered in that document and measurement traces on valves
with maintenance-related problems are used to demonstrate how the diagnostic
equipment can quickly solve complex valve problems. In addition, predictive and
preventive maintenance recommendations based on specific failure data are included.
The guide also includes a troubleshooting section with tables providing easily
accessible information to minimize troubleshooting costs. Appendices augment the
guide by providing a glossary of terms and various engineering schedules, including
useful engineering parameters for the proper maintenance of air-operated valves and
accessories.

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EPRI TR-104602, December 1994 [1.3]


Maintenance Job Cards
TR-104602 provides general guides and information about maintenance and
troubleshooting of problems with valves and pumps. It can be used to develop more
detailed procedures within each plant.

EPRI TR-105872, August 1996 [1.4]


Safety and Relief Valve Testing and Maintenance Guide
TR-105872 defines the various types of safety devices used in the nuclear industry and
details their operating principles and applications. Specifically, the operational
characteristics of Crosby Valve & Gage Company, Dresser Industries, and Target Rock
Corporation valves used in the primary and balance-of-plant (BOP) systems of boiling
water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants are covered in
detail. Vacuum breakers and nonreclosing-type devices (rupture discs, fusible plugs,
etc.) are not included in this document.
A failure mode and cause analysis section provides information on the reported
failures from the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) and Licensee Event
Report (LER) databases by valve types and their causes. A generic table identifies the
various valve failure modes and probable causes.
The section on testing provides a review of ASME Code requirements along with
guidelines on bench testing and testing with auxiliary lift devices (ALDs). The effect of
environment on the test results is highlighted.
A section on maintenance provides recommendations on predictive and preventive
maintenance. Recommended methods of disassembly, corrective repair, inspection, reassembly, and performance monitoring are included.
In addition, the guide includes useful sections and appendices on topics like shipping
and handling, valve sizing, ASME Code requirements, types of valves used in various
nuclear power plants, and manufacturers of valves and testing equipment.

EPRI TR-106563, 1998


Application Guide for Motor-Operated Valves in Nuclear Power Plants
Volume 1 [1.5] Gate and Globe Valves
Volume 2 [1.6] Butterfly Valves
TR-106563 provides guidance as to the functional and design requirements for motoroperated valves in nuclear power plants. It provides methodologies for evaluating
MOV operation under various plant conditions including design basis and postulated
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accident conditions. These evaluations are necessary to ensure safe plant operation and
to meet regulatory requirements and various industry code requirements. The
organization of the guide provides a framework around which a plant-specific MOV
evaluation program can be developed.
The guide is published in two volumes:

Volume 1 deals with the non-rotating, rising stem type gate and globe valves.

Volume 2 addresses various types of butterfly valves.

Both volumes provide methodology, along with completed examples, of evaluating


valve design features and operating conditions to determine the required operating
thrust (for gate and globe valves) and torque (for butterfly valves). Methodologies to
calculate the actuator output thrust and torque capabilities are also provided for
Limitorque actuators. Even though this guide specifically addresses Limitorque valve
actuators, the evaluation methodologies provided can be applied to other actuators of
similar design.
TR-106563 incorporates refinements and results of tests performed as part of the EPRI
MOV Performance Prediction Program.

EPRI NP-7414, April 1992 [1.7]


Solenoid Valve Maintenance and Application Guide
NP-7414 provides detailed information about SOV operation as well as the limitations
and design characteristics that should be considered when selecting a valve for a given
application. It also describes various modes of failure and evaluates industrywide
failure data. In addition, descriptions of various troubleshooting, maintenance, and
repair methods are included.

EPRI NP-7205, April 1991 [1.8]


Predictive Maintenance Primer
NP-7205 provides utility plant personnel with a single-source reference to predictive
maintenance analysis methods and technologies used successfully by utilities and other
industries. It is intended to be a ready reference for personnel considering starting,
expanding, or improving a predictive maintenance program. This primer includes a
discussion of various analysis methods and how they overlap and interrelate.
Additionally, 18 predictive maintenance technologies are discussed in sufficient detail
for the user to evaluate the potential of each technology for specific applications.

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The Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center collected experience data from 18


utilities plus other industry and government sources. They also contacted equipment
manufacturers for information pertaining to equipment utilization, maintenance, and
technical specifications.
The primer includes a discussion of six methods used by analysts to study predictive
maintenance data:

Trend analysis

Pattern recognition

Correlation

Test against limits or ranges

Relative comparison data

Statistical process analysis

Following discussions of these analysis methods are detailed descriptions of 18


technologies that analysts have found useful for predictive maintenance programs at
power plants and other industrial facilities. Each technology subchapter has a
description of the operating principles involved in the technology, a listing of plant
equipment where the technology can be applied, and a general description of the
monitoring equipment. The descriptions also include a discussion of results obtained
from actual equipment users and preferred analysis techniques to be used on data
obtained from the technology.

EPRI TR-106853, November 1996 [1.9]


The Maintenance Engineer Fundamentals Handbook
TR-106853 is the handbook for a maintenance course offered by EPRI. It provides
discussions about:

Degradation, aging, failures, and failure mechanisms

Corrective maintenance, preventive maintenance, and modifications

Risk-based, performance-centered predictive maintenance

Reliability-centered maintenance

Problem-solving approaches

Maintenance of the maintenance program


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EPRI TR-107759, December 1996 [1.11]


Assessing Maintenance Effectiveness
TR-107759 provides plants with a tool for evaluating maintenance activities. Plants
have made changes to maintenance practices because of actual or perceived plant
problems without any means to measure the impact of those changes. Many changes
have been costly and have not yielded the anticipated results. This document presents
some suggested measures that can be used to evaluate maintenance practices and
suggests a basis for comparison between plants. Plants can use these measures (in
whole or in part) and may suggest others that might be useful. This document is the
first attempt to provide a tool for industry comparison and feedback. This is an
implementation document that introduces the concept of maintenance performance
measures to the industry and will require revision and improvement as the industry
gains experience with this concept.

EPRI NP-4916, Revision 2, February 1995 [1.12]


Lubrication Guide
NP-4916 gives information from many manufacturers on lubricants suitable for various
nuclear power plant applications. Lubricant operating limits with respect to
temperature and radiation dose are listed. The guide also addresses the basics of how
lubricants work, how radiation affects them, and how this relates to their composition.
Friction and wear are other basic topics presented, along with lubricant stress effects,
shelf life, compatibility, troubleshooting, and testing. All are important maintenance
topics. Topics covered by an earlier EPRI report, Radiation Effects on Lubricants, NP-4735,
have been updated and incorporated into this guide. A summary of the lubricant study
in the EPRI/Utilities Motor-Operated Valve Performance Prediction Program is also
included. The guide is intended for use by power plant maintenance and engineering
personnel.

EPRI NP-7213s, April 1991 [1.13]


Post-Maintenance Testing, A Reference Guide
NP-7213s was developed to address nuclear power industry concerns about the
adequacy and consistency of any post-maintenance testing (PMT) of a component or a
system. The guide provides the user with a methodology to select the appropriate
testing activities on a consistent basis. The guides philosophy is to take a graduated or
phased approach to testing.
The objective of the post-maintenance testing program is to ensure that the component,
after any maintenance/repair has been completed, will fulfill its design function. The
tests selected must be appropriate to the maintenance or repair performed. Therefore,
PMT covers aspects from visual inspection, checks, or verifications made during
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maintenance work to full demonstration of a components ability to perform its design


function. Most station maintenance procedures already address the inspections, checks,
or verifications identified in this guide. By taking credit for the tests under various
procedures, multiple tests on a component can be avoided. Since this guide offers
extensive test matrix sets and definitions, a user can easily identify necessary tests
needed or credits recorded. Maximum benefit will be derived by using this guide
during initial maintenance planning activity.

EPRI TR-104749, December 1994 [1.14]


Static Seals Maintenance Guide
TR-104749 presents information necessary for plant engineers, maintenance engineers,
maintenance planners, and craft personnel to make leak-tight joints, to make repairs,
and to diagnose and solve existing leakage problems. The guide provides information
describing the various joints in use at power plants, the function of mating parts of
various joint arrangements, the various gasket materials in use, and the additional
sealants and fillers used to augment the joint seal. It also addresses required surface
conditions, seal compression, and component inspection. Finally, the guide covers
when to look for leaks, what to consider when troubleshooting, and the temporary and
permanent repair options available when leaks are found. The guide will serve as a
comprehensive reference manual for plant operations, maintenance, design,
engineering, procurement, and personnel training. It will also simplify maintenance
and accelerate troubleshooting, thereby optimizing plant safety and availability.

EPRI TR-104213, December 1995 [1.17]


Bolted Joint Maintenance and Application Guide
Proper design, assembly, preload, and inspection of bolted connections remain
important activities for operators of commercial nuclear power plants. Likewise, plant
leakage reduction efforts continue to receive attention at most of these generating
facilities. TR-104213 addresses these areas of interest and represents both a major
revision and a consolidation of several previous guidebooks dealing with general good
bolting practices and guidelines for threaded fastener usage. The guide is subdivided
by major application into pressure-retaining joints, mechanical joints, and structural
joints. Additional information on procurement and fastener receipt inspection is also
included. This document will be useful to plant engineering and maintenance
personnel responsible for procedures, assembly, inspection, and troubleshooting of the
various types of bolted connections used in nuclear power plant applications.

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23.5 Generic Thrust and Torque Qualification Program for Limitorque


Actuators
23.5.1 Background
Motor-operated valves (MOVs) can experience significant thrust overshoot after the
actuator torque switch trips. The thrust overshoot is caused predominantly by the
inertia of the motor and time delays in the motor current contactor dropout. The
magnitude of the thrust overshoot depends upon a number of factors including:

Valve stiffness

Actuator/motor size

Motor speed

The magnitude of differential pressure across the disc

The match between actuator output capabilities and valve thrust requirements

With the use of diagnostic devices in recent years, inertia thrust overshoots have been
quantified. It is not uncommon to see thrust overloads of 25 to 50% above rated
capacity of the actuators in some applications. Even higher thrusts are experienced in
some MOV assemblies. During in situ testing, some actuators were inadvertently
overloaded beyond their thrust/torque ratings.
Recognizing this as a generic problem, Duke Power Company initiated a test program
to systematically determine the capability of Limitorque actuators to withstand such
higher overloads and to qualify them for higher thrust levels on a technically sound
basis. Duke Power was joined by more than 35 U.S. utilities in sponsoring this project.
The objective of this project was to qualify the most widely used population of
Limitorque actuators (SMB-000 through SMB-2) for higher thrusts than the published
ratings. Under the overall project objective, the specific subobjectives were:
1. To test Limitorque actuators to 200% of the rated thrust, both in the opening and
closing directions for 4,000 cycles
2. To recommend an allowable number of cycles under various levels of thrust
overloads, based on appropriate justifiable margins applied to the test results
3. To seismically qualify these actuators while being cycled under 200% of the rated
thrust in the opening and closing directions
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23.5.2 Technical Approach


The test actuators were subjected to 200% of the rated thrust both in the closing and
opening direction, even though this level of thrust in the opening direction is not
encountered in normal MOV applications. A test fixture (Figure 23-2) was designed to
fulfill the project goals.
Seismic qualification testing of the actuators was done at Wyle Laboratories, Huntsville,
Alabama. The testing was performed in accordance with IEEE Standard 344-1975
requirements using sine sweep, sine beat, and triaxial random multifrequency testing.

Figure 23-2
Limitorque Actuator Test Fixture

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23.5.3 Highlights of Results and Conclusions


The results and conclusions of this program are documented in the proprietary reports
listed in Section 22.3. Based on these results and their own experience, Limitorque
issued Technical Update 92-01 to allow generic use of higher thrust values on an asneeded basis (as described in their technical update). In summary, the test results show
that all of the thrust-related components of the actuators have successfully completed
the test goal of 4,000 cycles at 200% of the rated thrust in both the closing and opening
directions, 10 stall tests, and a matrix of seismic qualification tests meeting IEEE
Standard 344-1975 requirements. By applying suitable margins of safety based on
ASME Section III (1989), Appendix II approach, these overload test cycles qualify the
actuators for a number of allowable cycles at overthrust conditions.
It is important to note that certain torque-related components (for example, worm,
worm gear, worm shaft, and worm shaft bushing) in some of the actuators required
interim replacement due to fatigue damage or excessive wear under test conditions.
Failure of the torque-related components in the test fixture was caused by a
combination of factors that are more severe than are likely to exist in actual MOV
applications. When utilizing the higher thrust levels, it is necessary to ensure that the
actuator torque is quantified and that the existing torque ratings published by
Limitorque are not exceeded without performing the appropriate stress analysis.
Since torque-related components were found to limit the overall life of the specific
actuator assemblies used in the tests, the project was extended to address the fatigue
life of the torque-related components [5.56].
Another important outcome of the Limitorque actuator test program was the
development of an actuator test stand. The test stand can be used in actuator testing
and control switch setting without risking valve stem overloading. Several utilities
procured actuator test stands with customized features to fit their individual needs.
It should be noted that Limitorque has not increased the thrust ratings for its actuators.
Furthermore, the NRC stated that users of this and other thrust limit studies are
responsible for justifying their MOV structural capability (see Enclosure 1 to
Supplement 6 to Generic Letter 89-10).

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24
APPENDIX B: CONTROL VALVE SIZING METHODS
AND EXAMPLES

24.1 General Methods, Definitions, and Evaluation


24.1.1 Introduction to Control Valve Specification, Sizing, and Selection
A control valve consists of four basic parts: body, bonnet, trim, and actuator. When
specifying the control valve body for an application, the size, style, material, rating, and
connections must be considered. Trim is discussed in Section 2. Control valve body
styles are discussed in Sections 6, 8, and 10. Actuator types are discussed briefly in
Section 13, which also provides references to other EPRI guides for more detailed
discussions. Materials, ratings, and end connections are covered in Section 16.
Rules of Thumb for Sizing: Due to mechanical stresses, the size of a control valve body is
limited by the size of the line in which the valve is installed. In order to limit stress
levels in the valve, a good rule of thumb is that a control valve should not be less than
two nominal pipe sizes smaller than the line.

Examples: A 6-inch (150-mm) or larger valve is required for a l0-inch (250 mm) line.
A 16-inch (400-mm) or larger valve is required for a 20-inch (500 mm) line.

Another rule of thumb states that the valve should be sized to throttle the process fluid
from between 20 and 80% of valve capacity. Some specifications even make this a
requirement for the control valve vendor. While this limit may be a reasonable point
from which to start the sizing/selection process, the examples discussed in Sections 6.1
and 6.2.9 illustrate that any serious attempt to adhere to these limits could be, at best,
unnecessarily complicated and expensive, requiring the addition of a second valve or a
valve that could be oversized for the application. This section is designed to expose the
user to different aspects of valve sizing. The step-by-step procedures given in Sections
24.1.3 (for liquid flow) and 24.1.4 (for gas flow) are the most common methods for
sizing control valves and can be applied regardless of the type of valve being sized.
Several examples are provided to illustrate the use of these procedures.

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24.1.2 Definitions
Capacity. Flow capacity is based on the industry standard ANSI/ISA S75.01 [6.37]. This
standard and the corresponding measuring standards contain equations used to predict
the flow of compressible and incompressible fluids in control valves. Different forms of
the basic equations are used for liquids and gases.
Flow Coefficient (Cv). Basic steps for sizing and selecting the correct valve include
calculating the required Cv. Equations for calculating the required Cv for both gases and
liquids are given in this section.
The valve flow coefficient most commonly used as a measure of the capacity of the
body and trim of a control valve is Cv. Cv is defined as the flow of water in U.S. gallons
per minute at 60F that will flow through a given valve producing a pressure drop of 1
psi. The general equation for Cv is as follows:
C v = Flow rate

Cv = q

Specific gravity at flowing temperature


Pressure drop

Gf
P

(Equation 24-1)

Where:
Cv

Flow coefficient, gpm

Flow rate, gpm

Gf

Specific gravity at flowing temperature

Pressure drop, psid

psi

When selecting a control valve for an application, the calculated Cv is used to determine
the valve size and the trim sizes that will allow the valve to pass the desired flow rate
and provide stable control of the process fluid.
Pressure Profile. Fluid flowing through a control valve obeys the basic laws of
conservation of mass and energy and the continuity equation. The control valve acts as
a restriction in the flow stream. As the fluid stream approaches this restriction, its
velocity increases in order for the full flow to pass through the restriction. Energy for
this increase in velocity comes from a corresponding decrease in pressure.

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Maximum velocity and minimum pressure occur immediately downstream from the
throttling point at the narrowest constriction of the fluid stream, known as the vena
contracta. Downstream from the vena contracta, the fluid slows and part of the energy
(in the form of velocity) is converted back to pressure. A simplified profile of the fluid
pressure is shown in Figures 24-1 and 24-2. The slight pressure losses in the inlet and
outlet passages are due to frictional effects. The major excursions of pressure are due to
the velocity changes in the region of the vena contracta. Detailed discussions can be
found in many references including 5.1, 5.3, 5.4, 6.36, 6.38, and 1.6.

Figure 24-1
Pressure Profile of Fluid Passing through a Valve

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Figure 24-2
Pressure Profile through Restriction

Allowable Pressure Drop. From the definition of Cv, an increase in the pressure drop for a
given Cv should result in an increase in flow rate. This occurs up to a point after which
any further increase in the pressure drop does not yield an increase in flow rate. This
point, called choked flow, is illustrated in Figure 24-3.

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Figure 24-3
Effects of Vaporization

In liquids, when the pressure at any point in the valve drops below the vapor pressure
of the fluid (as shown in Figure 24-1), vapor bubbles form. These bubbles occupy more
volume than the liquid from which they were formed. As further increases in pressure
drop occur across the control valve, the proportion of bubbles to liquid increases until
the volume of the flow is so great that the valve cannot pass additional flow. When
additional flow can not be passed, the pressure drop at this point is referred to as the
choked pressure drop point (see Section 8.2.3 for additional discussions).
In gases, as the downstream pressure decreases with a corresponding increase in
pressure drop, the velocity of the gas across the vena contracta increases due to the
increasing volume of the gas. When the velocity reaches sonic (Mach = 1.0), any further
increase in the pressure drop due to decreased downstream pressure will not result in
additional flow. Sonic velocity generally occurs when the total valve pressure drop is
greater than about one half of the absolute inlet pressure (psia) but should be calculated
for each unique situation. The pressure drop that corresponds to the sonic velocity
condition across the vena contracta is the choked (or critical flow) pressure drop (see
Appendix D in Reference 1.6 for additional discussions).
When sizing a control valve, the actual pressure drop should be compared to the
allowable pressure drop, and the smaller of the two must be used in the sizing
equation. This does not imply that the control valve cannot operate at the higher
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pressure drop, but that only the lower pressure drop is effective in producing flow
under the stated conditions.
Cavitation. In liquids, when the pressure at the vena contracta drops below the vapor
pressure of the fluid, vapor bubbles begin to form in the fluid stream. Downstream
from the vena contracta, the fluid decelerates with a resultant increase in pressure. If
this pressure is higher than the vapor pressure, the bubbles collapse (or implode) as the
vapor returns to the liquid phase. This two-step mechanism, called cavitation, produces
noise and vibration and causes physical damage to the valve and downstream piping.
The onset of cavitation, known as incipient cavitation, is the point when the bubbles first
begin to form and collapse. It can be determined from Equation 24-6. The point at
which full or choked cavitation occurs (severe damage, vibration, and noise) can be
determined from Equation 24-4. Under choked conditions, allowable pressure drop
is the choked pressure drop. Continuous operation under cavitation or choking
conditions should be avoided.
Liquid Pressure Recovery Factor (FL). The liquid pressure recovery factor (FL) predicts the
amount of pressure recovery that will occur between the vena contracta and the valve
outlet. FL is an experimentally determined coefficient that accounts for the influence of
the valves internal geometry on the maximum capacity of the valve [6.37, 6.38].
FL also varies according to the valve type. High recovery valves, such as butterfly and
ball valves, have significantly lower pressures at the vena contracta and, therefore,
recover more for the same pressure drop than a globe valve. Thus, butterfly and ball
valves tend to choke (or cavitate) more easily than globe valves.
Liquid Critical Pressure Ratio Factor (FF). The liquid critical pressure ratio factor (FF),
multiplied by the vapor pressure, predicts the theoretical vena contracta pressure at the
maximum effective (choked) pressure drop across the valve.
Flashing. Flashing occurs when the downstream pressure is equal to or less than the
vapor pressure. Vapor bubbles formed at the vena contracta do not collapse, resulting
in a two-phase (liquid-vapor) mixture downstream of the valve. Velocity of this twophase flow is usually high and may erode the valve and piping components.
Choked Flow. Choked flow is a limiting, or maximum, flow rate. With fixed inlet
(upstream) conditions, it is manifested by the failure of decreasing downstream
pressure to increase the flow rate. With liquid flows, choking occurs as a result of
vaporization of the liquid when the pressure within the valve falls below the vapor
pressure of the liquid at operating temperature. Choked flow will be accompanied by
either cavitation or flashing. If the downstream pressure is greater than the vapor
pressure of the liquid, cavitation occurs. If the downstream pressure is equal to or less
than the vapor pressure of the liquid, flashing occurs.
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Choked flow occurs when the fluid velocity approaches sonic values at any point in the
valve or line. This happens in liquids when the vapor, formed as the result of pressure
drop, increases the specific volume of the fluid to the point where sonic velocity is
reached. In gases, as the pressure in the downstream line is lowered, the specific
volume increases to the point where sonic velocity is reached. Lowering the
downstream pressure beyond this point in either case will not increase the flow rate.
The velocity at any point in the valve or downstream piping is limited to sonic (Mach =
1.0). As a result, the flow rate will be limited to an amount which yields a sonic velocity
under the specified pressure conditions.
Reynolds Number Factor (FR). Nonturbulent flow occurs at high fluid viscosities and/or
low velocities. In these circumstances, the flow rate through a valve is less than for
turbulent flow, and the Reynolds number factor FR must be introduced. FR is the ratio of
nonturbulent flow rate to the turbulent flow rate predicted using Equation 24-1 (see
also Equation 24-2).
Piping Geometry Factor (Fp). Valve sizing coefficients are determined from tests run with
the valve mounted in a straight run of pipe that is the same diameter as the valve body.
If the process piping configurations are different from the standard test manifold, the
valve capacity is changed. These differences can be approximated by the use of the
piping geometry factor (Fp). The effect of the piping geometry factor is significant only
at large disc openings (see Appendix D in Reference 1.6).
Velocity. As a general rule, valve outlet velocities should be limited to the following
maximum values:
Liquids

50 feet per second (15 m/sec)

Gases

Approaching Mach 1.0

Mixed Gases
and Liquids

500 feet per second (152 m/sec)

The above values are guidelines for typical applications. In general, smaller sized
valves can handle slightly higher velocities, and large valves can handle lower
velocities. Special applications have special velocity requirements, some of which are
described below.
In liquid applications where the fluid temperature is close to the saturation point, the
valve outlet velocity should be limited to 30 feet per second (9 m/sec) to avoid
reducing the fluid pressure below the vapor pressure. This limit is also appropriate for
applications designed to pass the full flow rate with a minimum pressure drop across
the valve.

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Appendix B: Control Valve Sizing Methods and Examples

The velocity in valves in cavitating service should also be limited to 30 feet per second
(9 m/sec) to minimize damage to downstream piping and to localize the pressure
recovery that causes cavitation immediately downstream from the vena contracta.
In flashing services, velocities become much higher due to the increased volume
resulting from vapor formation. For most applications, it is important to keep velocities
below 500 feet per second (152 m/sec). Expanded outlet style valves help to control
outlet velocities on such applications. Erosion damage resulting from flashing can be
limited by using chrome-moly body material and Stellite overlaid trim. On smaller
valve applications that remain closed most of the time, such as emergency heater drain
valves, velocities of up to 1500 feet per second (457 m/sec) may be acceptable.
In gas applications where special noise attenuation trim is used, the velocity
downstream of the valve should be limited to approximately 0.33 Mach. In addition,
pipe velocities downstream from the valve are critical to the overall noise level.
Experimentation has shown that velocities around 0.5 Mach can create substantial
noise, even in a straight pipe. The addition of a control valve to the line will increase
the turbulence downstream, resulting in even higher noise levels. Equations to calculate
Mach velocities are given later in this section.
A comparison of the velocities stated above with those listed as reasonable for pipe
[5.3] reveals a considerable disparity due to different considerations required for sizing
pipe and sizing control valves.
The most important consideration when sizing pipe is line loss. Pipe and installation
cost must be weighed against the cost of energy required to move fluid through the
piping system. Losses due to velocity in the valve body (not to be confused with total
drop across the valve) are inconsequential compared with the piping system and,
therefore, are not a factor in determining energy requirements for the system.
Expansion Factor (Y). The expansion factor (Y) accounts for the variation in specific
weight as the gas passes from the valve inlet to the vena contracta. Y also accounts for
the change in cross-sectional area of the vena contracta as the pressure drop is varied.
Ratio of Specific Heats Factor (FK). The ratio of specific heats factor (FK) adjusts the
equation to account for the different behavior of gases other than air.
Terminal Pressure Drop Ratio (xT). The terminal pressure drop ratio for gases (xT) is used
to predict the choking point where additional pressure drop (by lowering the
downstream pressure) will not produce additional flow due to the sonic velocity
limitation across the vena contracta. This factor is a function of the valve geometry and
varies similarly to FL, depending on the valve type.

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Appendix B: Control Valve Sizing Methods and Examples

Compressibility Factor (Z). The compressibility factor (Z) is a function of the reduced
temperature and the reduced pressure of a gas. Z is used to determine the density of a
gas at its actual temperature and pressure conditions.

24.1.3 Sizing Formulas and Procedures for Liquid Flow


The equation for the flow coefficient (Cv) in liquid flow is:
Cv =

q
F p FR

Gf

(Equation 24-2)

Pa

where
Cv

Valve flow coefficient, gpm

Fp

Piping geometry factor

FR

Reynolds number factor

Flow rate, gpm

Pa

Allowable pressure drop across the valve in psi

Gf

Specific gravity of the flow medium at flowing temperature

psi

The following steps should be used to compute the required Cv, body size, and trim
size:
Step 1: Calculate actual pressure drop.
The actual pressure drop across the valve (P) may be found using the following
equation:
P = P1 P2

(Equation 24-3)

Where:
P1

Valve inlet pressure, psia

P2

Valve outlet pressure, psia

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Appendix B: Control Valve Sizing Methods and Examples

The allowable pressure drop may be less than the actual pressure drop if the flow is
choked.
Step 2: Check for choked flow, cavitation, and flashing.
P(choked) = FL2 (P1 FF Pv )

(Equation 24-4)

Where:
FL

Liquid pressure recovery factor

FF

Liquid critical pressure ratio factor

Pv

Vapor pressure of the liquid at inlet temperature, psia

See Table 24-1 and Figures 24-4 and 24-5 for FL values, and Figure 24-6 for FF
values.
Table 24-1
Typical Valve Recovery Coefficients (FL) and Incipient Cavitation Factors (Fi)
NOTE: Values are given for full open valves unless otherwise stated.
Valve Type

Flow Direction

Trim Size

FL

Fi

Globe

Flow-to-close

Full Area

0.85

0.76

Flow-to-close

Reduced Area

0.80

0.72

Flow-to-open

Full Area

0.90

0.81

Flow-to-open

Reduced Area

0.90

0.81

60 Open

Full

0.74

0.64

90 Open

Full

0.56

0.49

Ball

90 Open

Full

0.60

0.54

Multi-Stage

Under Seat

All

1.0

1.0

Butterfly

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Appendix B: Control Valve Sizing Methods and Examples

Figure 24-4
Globe Valve FL Values

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Appendix B: Control Valve Sizing Methods and Examples

Figure 24-5
High Performance Butterfly/Ball FL Values

The liquid critical pressure ratio factor (FF) can be found from Figure 24-6 or estimated
using the following relationship:
FF = 0.96 0.28

Pv
Pc

(Equation 24-5)

Where:

24-12

FF

Liquid critical pressure ratio

Pv

Vapor pressure of the liquid, psia

Pc

Critical pressure of the liquid, psia (see Table 24-2 for typical
critical pressures)

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Appendix B: Control Valve Sizing Methods and Examples

Figure 24-6
Liquid Critical Pressure Ratio Factor Curve

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Appendix B: Control Valve Sizing Methods and Examples

Table 24-2
Typical Critical Pressure Values
Liquid

Ammonia

Critical Pressure
(psia)
1,636.1

Liquid

Hydrogen Chloride

Critical Pressure
(psia)
1,205.4

Argon

707.0

Isobutane

529.2

Benzene

710.0

Isobutylene

529.2

Butane

551.2

Kerosene

350.0

1,070.2

Methane

667.3

507.1

Nitrogen

492.4

Carbon Dioxide
Carbon Monoxide
Chlorine

1,117.2

Nitrous Oxide

1,051.1

Dowtherm A

547.0

Oxygen

732.0

Ethane

708.5

Phosgene

823.2

Ethylene

730.5

Propane

615.9

Fuel Oil

330.0

Propylene

670.3

Fluorine

757.0

Refrigerant 11

639.4

Gasoline

410.0

Refrigerant 12

598.2

Helium

32.9

Refrigerant 22

749.7

Hydrogen

24-14

188.1

Sea Water

3,200.0

Water

3,198.7

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Appendix B: Control Valve Sizing Methods and Examples

If P(choked), as calculated from Equation 24-4, is less than the actual pressure drop from
Equation 24-3, use P(choked) in Equation 24-2.
It may also be useful to determine the point at which cavitation begins. If cavitation is
marginal, it may possibly be eliminated by simply turning the valve end-for-end in the
line, if permitted for this application. With the direction of flow thus reversed,
reconfirm the adequacy and stability of the actuator. The following equation defines the
pressure drop at which cavitation begins:
P(incipient ) = Fi2 (P1 Pv )

(Equation 24-6)

Where:
Fi

Liquid incipient cavitation factor

(Typical values for Fi are given in Table 24-1 and Figure 24-7.)
P1

Upstream pressure, psia

Pv

Vapor pressure of the liquid, psia

The required Cv for flashing applications is determined by using the appropriate


allowable differential pressure (P(choked)), calculated from Equation 24-4, or (P(actual)),
whichever is less, in Equation 24-2.
Step 3: Determine specific gravity.
Specific gravity is generally available from a number of different sources for the
flowing fluid at the operating temperature.
Step 4: Calculate approximate Cv Fp FR.
Generally FR can be ignored, provided the valve is not operating in a laminar flow
region due to high viscosity, very low velocity, or small Cv.
In the event there is some question, calculate the Cv Fp, assuming the Reynolds number
factor (FR) is 1.0, and then proceed to Step 5. If the valve Reynolds number is greater
than 2000, FR can be ignored (proceed to Step 7).
Step 5: Calculate the Reynolds number and Reynolds number factor.
To obtain the Reynolds number factor (FR), first calculate the valve Reynolds number
(Rev) using the following equation, and then obtain FR from Figure 24-8:
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Appendix B: Control Valve Sizing Methods and Examples

Re v = 17,300

q Fd
Sv

FL C v Fp

(Equation 24-7)

Where:

24-16

Rev

Valve Reynolds number

Fluid flow rate, gpm

Fd

Valve style factor (1.0 for globe valves, 0.71 for ball and butterfly
valves)

Fp

Piping geometry factor

FL

Valve recovery coefficient

Cv

Assumed flow coefficient calculation

Sv

Kinetic viscosity of the flowing medium, centistokes

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Appendix B: Control Valve Sizing Methods and Examples

Figure 24-7
Globe Valve Liquid Incipient Cavitation Factor (Fi) Values

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Appendix B: Control Valve Sizing Methods and Examples

Figure 24-8
Reynolds Number Factor

Step 6: Recalculate Cv Fp using the Reynolds number factor.


With the Reynolds number factor (FR), recalculate the CvFp using Equation 24-2. If the
original and recalculated values of CvFp are within 10% of each other, then use the
recalculated values of CvFp. If the two numbers vary by more than 10%, then use the
recalculated CvFp to calculate Rev again.
Step 7: Select the approximate body size based on CvFp.
From the Cv tables (24-3 and 24-4), select the smallest body size that will handle the
calculated CvFp.
Step 8: Calculate the piping geometry factor
If the pipe size is not given, use the approximate body size (from Step 7) to choose the
corresponding pipe size. The pipe size is used to calculate the piping geometry factor

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Appendix B: Control Valve Sizing Methods and Examples

(Fp), which can be determined from Tables 24-5 and 24-6. If the pipe diameter is the
same as the valve size, Fp is 1.
Step 9: Calculate the final Cv from Cv Fp.
Step 10: Calculate the valve exit velocity.
The following equation is used to calculate entrance or exit velocities for liquids:
V = 0.321

q
A

(Equation 24-8)

Where:
q

Liquid flow rate, gpm

Velocity, ft/sec

Applicable flow area of body exit or inlet port, in2

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Appendix B: Control Valve Sizing Methods and Examples

Table 24-3
Typical Values of Cv: Globe Valve, Flow over the Seat

Valve Type:
Body Rating:
Trim Characteristics:
Flow Direction:

Unbalanced
Class 150-600
Equal Percentage
Flow Over

For each valve size below, the full area values are shown on top for each size. Reduced
trim values follow, in descending order. All valve sizes in this table are in inches.

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Appendix B: Control Valve Sizing Methods and Examples

Table 24-4
Typical Values of Cv: Globe Valve, Flow under the Seat

Valve Type:
Body Rating:
Trim Characteristics:
Flow Direction:

Unbalanced
Class 150-600
Equal Percentage
Flow Under

For each valve size below, the full area values are shown on top for each size. Reduced
trim values follow, in descending order. All valve sizes in this table are in inches.

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Appendix B: Control Valve Sizing Methods and Examples

Table 24-5
Typical Piping Geometry Factors, Fp : Valve with both Reducer and Expander
Ratio d/D
Valve Size (in.)

0.50

0.60

Globe

0.70

0.80

0.90

Class 150-1500

1/2, 3/4

0.91

0.93

0.96

1-6

0.94

0.95

0.97

0.98

8-24

0.96

0.97

0.98

0.99

1.00

30-48

0.92

0.94

0.96

0.98

0.99

1.00

Class 2500
1/2-16

0.98

0.98

0.99

0.99

0.84

0.87

0.91

0.95

4, 6

0.80

0.84

0.88

0.94

0.98

8-12

0.77

0.82

0.87

0.93

0.98

14-24

0.70

0.75

0.82

0.90

0.97

Butterfly/Ball

Where:
d = Nominal valve size in inches
D = Internal diameter of the piping in inches

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Appendix B: Control Valve Sizing Methods and Examples

Table 24-6
Typical Piping Geometry Factors, Fp: Valve with Outlet Expander Only
Ratio d/D
Valve Size (in.)

0.50

0.60

Globe

0.70

0.80

0.90

Class 150-1500

1/2, 3/4

1.05

1.06

1.07

1-6

1.03

1.04

1.04

1.04

8-24

1.02

1.03

1.03

1.03

1.02

30-48

1.04

1.05

1.06

1.05

1.03

Class 2500
1/2-16

1.01

1.01

1.01

1.01

1.01

1.11

1.14

1.15

1.14

1.09

4, 6

1.16

1.21

1.24

1.21

1.12

8-12

1.20

1.27

1.31

1.27

1.16

14-24

1.36

1.52

1.62

1.52

1.28

Butterfly/Ball

Where:
d = Nominal valve size in inches
D = Internal diameter of the piping in inches

The maximum effective pressure drop (P(choked)) may be affected by the use of reducers
and expanders. This is especially true of ball and butterfly valves.
After calculating the exit velocity, compare the calculated number to the acceptable
velocity for that application. It may be necessary to