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EXPERIMENT3:Ohm'sLaw

EQUIPMENTNEEDED
ScienceWorkshopInterface750
LightBulb,3V
PatchCords(2)
Resistor,10
WireLeads,10",(2)
WHATDOYOUTHINK?
What is the relationship between current and voltage in a simple resistor? What is the
relationshipbetweencurrentandvoltageinthefilamentofanincandescentlightbulb?
THEORY
Ohm discovered that when the voltage (potential difference) across a resistor changes, the
currentthroughtheresistorchanges.Heexpressedthisas

V
R

where I is current, V is voltage (potential difference), and R is resistance. Current is directly


proportionaltovoltageandinverselyproportionaltoresistance.Inotherwords,asthevoltage
increases,sodoesthecurrent.Theproportionalityconstantisthevalueoftheresistance.Since
the current is inversely proportional to the resistance, as the resistance increases, the current
decreases.
A resistor is Ohmic if as voltage across the resistor is increased, a graph of voltage versus
currentshowsastraightline(indicatingaconstantresistance).Theslopeofthelineisthevalue
oftheresistance.AresistorisnonOhmicifthegraphofvoltageversuscurrentisnotastraight
line.Forexample,ifresistancechangesasvoltagechanges,thegraphofvoltageversuscurrent
mightshowacurvewithachangingslope.
For certain resistor, the value of its resistance does not change
appreciably. However, for a light bulb, the resistance of the filament will
change as it heats up and cools down. At high AC frequencies, the
filamentdoesnthavetimetocooldown,soitremainsatanearlyconstant
temperature and the resistance stays relatively constant. At low AC
frequencies (e.g., less than one Hertz), the filament has time to change
temperature. As a consequence, the resistance of the filament changes
dramatically and the resulting change in current through the filament is
interestingtowatch.
In the first part of this activity, investigate the relationship between current and voltage in a
simple tenohm resistor. In the second part, investigate the relationship between current and
voltageinthefilamentofasmalllightbulb.
PartA:Resistor

Use the Output feature of the interface to supply voltage to a tenohm resistor. Use
ScienceWorkshoptomeasuretheoutputvoltageacrosstheresistorandthecurrentthroughthe
resistor(thecurrentdrawnfromtheinterface).
Use the program to display the voltage and current. Use a plot of voltage versus current to
confirmtheresistancevalueoftheresistor.
PARTIA:ComputerSetupforResistor
1.

ConnecttheScienceWorkshopinterfacetothecomputer,turnontheinterface,andturn
onthecomputer.

2.

Connect banana plug patch cords into the


OUTPUTportsontheinterface.

3.

OpenthedocumenttitledP48_OHM.SWS

This activity uses the Output feature of the


ScienceWorkshop750interfacetoprovidebothoutputvoltageandoutputcurrent.

RemovethePowerAmplifierintheExperimentSetupwindow.
SelectSampleI(sampletheoutputcurrent).
ChangetheScopedisplaytoshowoutputvoltageversusoutputcurrent.

RemovethePowerAmplifierIcon
IntheExperimentSetupwindow,
1.ClickthePowerAmplifiericonandpress<delete>onthekeyboard.Result:Awarning
windowopens.ClickOKtoreturntothesetupwindow.
2.SelectSampleI
3.ClicktheSampleIbuttonintheExperimentSetupwindow.Result:Ifitwasnotalready
open,theSignalGeneratorwindowopens.

Change the Scope


1. The Scope
A icon on its X
Axis Input menu
Current(A).
2. Set
the
2.000v/div.Hint:ClicktheDecrease/IncreaseSweepSpeedbuttons
(
).

Results

Display
showstheChannel
axis. Click the X
andselect Output
sweep speed to

The Science Workshop document has a Scope (oscilloscope) display of Output Voltage (V)
versusOutputCurrent(I)andtheSignalGeneratorwindowwhichcontrolstheoutput.

TheScopedisplaywillshowthevoltagefromtheOutputoftheinterfacetothetenohm
resistorandtheoutputcurrentfromtheinterfacethroughtheresistor.

TheSignalGeneratorissettoproduceatrianglewaveat60Hz.ItissettoAutosoitwill
automaticallystartorstopthesignalwhenyoustartorstopmeasuringdata.

ArrangetheScopedisplayandtheSignalGeneratorwindowsoyoucanseebothofthem.

PARTIIA:EquipmentSetupResistor

Youdonotneedtocalibrateasensorbecause,inthisactivity,theinterfaceisthesensor.

1.

Connect the tenohm (10) resistor RLC circuit Lab Board to the
powerOUTPUTportsoftheinterface.

PartIIIA:DataRecordingResistor
1.

Beginmeasuringdata.ClickMONinScienceWorkshop.

Observe the Scope display of Voltage and Current. Adjust the vertical axis or the
horizontalaxisifnecessary.

2.

Observethetraceofvoltagevs.currentforafewsecondsandthenstopmeasuringdata.

Adjustvertical
axishere.

AnalyzingtheDataResistor

Adjusthorizontal
axishere.

1.

Use the Scopes builtin analysis tools to determine the voltage and current for the ten
ohmresistor.

ClicktheSmartCursor.MovethecursorintothedisplayareaoftheScope.Result:The
value for voltage appears below the V/div control for the vertical axis and the value for
currentappearsabovethesweepspeedcontrolforthehorizontalaxis.

2.

Use the coordinates of the point on the trace to determine the ratio of voltage versus
current.Recordtheratioastheresistanceoftheresistor.

TheoutputcurrentdisplayedintheScopemustbeconverted.MultiplytheXcoordinate
by0.05todeterminetheactualcurrent.TheYcoordinateistheactualvoltage.Dividethe
voltagebythecurrent.
resistance(tenohmresistor)=________volt/amp

1.

Replacethetenohmresistorwitha100ohmresistor.

2.

Adjustthehorizontalscaling(xaxis)intheScopedisplayasneeded.

3.

Repeattheexperiment.Recordthenewratioastheresistanceoftheresistor.
resistance(100)=________volt/amp

PartB:LightBulb
Use the Output feature of the interface to supply voltage to small light bulb. Use
ScienceWorkshoptomeasuretheoutputvoltageacrossthelightbulbfilamentandthecurrent
throughthefilament(thecurrentdrawnfromtheinterface).
Use the program to display the voltage and current. Use a plot of voltage versus current to
confirmtheresistancevalueoftheresistor.

PARTIB:ComputerSetupforLightBulbFilament
1. Change the Amplitude and Frequency of the output AC waveform. Click the Signal
Generatorwindowtomakeitactive.
2. Click the Amplitude value to highlight it. Type in 2.5 as the new value. Press <enter> or
<return>onthekeyboardtorecordyourchange.
3. ClicktheFrequencyvaluetohighlightit.Typein0.30asthenewvalue.Press<enter>or
<return>onthekeyboardtorecordyourchange.
4. AdjustthesweepspeedintheScopedisplayto50samples/second.
clickthebutton(
)nexttosamp/s.
PARTII:EquipmentSetupforLightBulbFilament

1. Disconnectthe10resistorfromthepoweroutputjacksoftheinterface.
2. Use two connecting wires to connect the bulb to the power output jacks of the science
workshopinterface.
PARTIII:DataRecordingLightBulbFilament
1. Startmeasuringdata.ObservetheScopedisplayofvoltageversuscurrentforthelightbulb
filament.Adjusttheverticalandhorizontalscalesifnecessary.Waitafewsecondsandthen
stopmeasuringdata.
2. AnalyzingtheDataLightBulbFilament
UsethebuiltinanalysistoolsintheScopedisplaytofindthecoordinatesatseveralpoints
onthetraceofvoltageversuscurrent.Calculatetheratioofvoltagetocurrentateachpoint.
AnswerthequestionsintheLabReportsection.
1. WhatDoYouThink?
What is the relationship between current and voltage in a simple resistor? What is the
relationshipbetweencurrentandvoltageinthefilamentofanincandescentlightbulb?
2. Data
resistance(tenohmresistor)=________volt/amp
resistance(100)=________volt/amp

3.Questions
1.ComparetheratioofvoltageandcurrentfromtheScopedisplaytotheresistanceofthe
resistor(s) used.
2. Doeseachresistoryouusedhaveaconstantresistance?
3. Does the light bulb filament have a constant resistance (constant ratio of voltage to
current?Whyor whynot?
4. Theslopeofthegraphforthelightbulbisnotsymmetric.WhyisthetraceontheScope
different when the filament is heating up compared to the trace when the filament is
coolingdown?