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ACCURACY, UNCERTAINTY, PRECESION

Calibration
It is the process of standardization of measuring instrument, by comparing or
checking the measuring instrument against an accurate standard to determine any
deviation and correct for errors. A calibration assures that a device will produce an
accurate and precise result.

Accuracy in measuring
Accuracy is the degree of conformity of a measured or calculated quantity to its
actual value. The smallest the division of the measuring instrument the more
accurate.
- It refers to the closeness or exactness of a measurement in the
theoretical value.
SIGNIFICANT DIGITS
- In measurements, all digits that we are sure of, plus the one that is uncertain
are called significant digits.
- In determining the number of significant digit, the following rules should be
followed:

Uncertainty in measuring
-

It indicates the maximum difference between the measured value and the
true value. The uncertainty of a measured value depends on the
measurement technique used.

Precision
- The degree to which further measurements or calculations shows the same
or similar results
- The results of calculations or a measurement can be accurate but not
precise; precise but not accurate; neither or both.
- A result is called valid if it is both accurate and precise.

Significant Digits
- In measurements, all digits that we are sure of, plus the one that
is uncertain are called significant digits.
- In determining the number of significant digit, the following rules
should be followed

SCIENTIFIC NOTATION
-

Is a compact way of writing over a wide range of values, either very small or
very large values, the numbers are represented by the product of a
multiplying factor and a power of ten.
N x 10 n

Where:
N = the coefficient whose value ranges greater than 1 (one) and less
than 10 (ten)
n = exponent of ten and is either a positive or a negative integer. It
indicates how many
times the coefficient must be multiplied
by 10.
-

In writing measurement using scientific notation, move the decimal point


until the only one digit, which is non-zero, remains on the left.
Then, count the number of places the decimal point was moved and use the
number of places as exponent of ten.
The sign of the exponent depends whether you count off places to the left (-)
or to right (+).
EXAMPLE:
6.02 214 210 000 000 000 000 000.0 = 6.0221421 x 10
2. 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 910938 kg = 9.10938
x 10
*Quantities to be added or subtracted in a scientific notation must
have the same exponent as well as units.

In finding the product of two numbers written in scientific notation is the


product of the base numbers times 10 raised to the sum of their exponents.
EXAMPLE:
1. (6 x 10 km) (2 x 10 km) = (6)(2) x 10 km
= 12 x 10 km
= 1.2 x 10 km
2. (6 x 10 -) (3 x 10 )

= (6)(3) x 10 -
= 18 x 10 -
= 1.8 x 10 -
The quotient of two numbers is the quotient of the base numbers times 10
raised to the difference of their exponents.
EXAMPLE:
1. 2.5 x 10
2 x 10

NAME:

2.5 x 10
2

= 1.25 x 10

BSN 1

ACTIVITY # 2
Determine how many significant figures occur in each of the following numbers:
1. 926.9
2. 707
3. 123.06
4. 0.0402
5. 0.82610
6. 338.00
Perform the noted operations. Correct answers must contain the required number
of significant figures.
7. 15.6 + 29.4 + 215.83 + 98.1
8. 525 + 44.99
9. 125.957 33122
10. 1.6204 1.593
11. 211.5 x 2.48
12. 1.395 x 2.898
13. 3.68 0.94
14. 15.2 3.7
Round the following numbers to three significant figures.
15. 0.6824
16. 12.84
17. 4.162
18. 3.339
19. 5.558
20. 2.635
21. 7.825
Express the following numbers in scientific notation.
22. 9365.3
23. 712.0
24. 2000.0
25. 0.2541
26. 0.000822
27. 0.00000477

Simplify the following. Answers must be given in scientific notation if not between
1 and 10.

28. 9.62 10 3 4.21 10 2

29. 3.95 104 4.44 101

30. 6.91 10 3 9.58 101