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Design of diaphragm and sheet pile walls

D-Sheet Piling

User Manual

D-S HEET P ILING


Design of diaphragm and sheet pile walls

User Manual

Version: 14.1.34974
31 July 2014

D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual

Published and printed by:


Deltares
Rotterdamseweg 185
p.o. box 177
2600 MH Delft
The Netherlands

telephone:
fax:
e-mail:
www:

For sales contact:


telephone: +31 88 335 81 88
fax:
+31 88 335 81 11
e-mail:
sales@deltaressystems.nl
www:
http://www.deltaressystems.nl

For support contact:


telephone: +31 88 335 81 00
fax:
+31 88 335 81 11
e-mail:
support@deltaressystems.nl
www:
http://www.deltaressystems.nl

+31 88 335 82 73
+31 88 335 85 82
info@deltares.nl
http://www.deltares.nl

Copyright 2014 Deltares


All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced in any form by print, photo
print, photo copy, microfilm or any other means, without written permission from the publisher:
Deltares.

Contents

Contents
1 General Information
1.1 Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Features in Standard module . . . . . .
1.2.1 Sheet Piling . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.2 Anchors and Struts . . . . . . .
1.2.3 Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.4 Loads and Supports . . . . . .
1.2.5 Staged Construction . . . . . .
1.2.6 Design Procedures . . . . . . .
1.2.7 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Features in additional modules . . . . .
1.3.1 Culmann module . . . . . . . .
1.3.2 Eurocode 7 Verification module
1.3.3 Single Pile module . . . . . . .
1.3.4 Feasibility module . . . . . . .
1.3.5 Settlement by vibration module
1.4 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6 Minimum System Requirements . . . .
1.7 Definitions of symbols and Symbols . .
1.8 Getting Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.9 Getting Support . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.10 Deltares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.11 Deltares Systems . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.12 Rijkswaterstaat . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.13 On-line software (Citrix) . . . . . . . . .

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2 Getting Started
2.1 Starting D-S HEET P ILING . . . . . . .
2.2 Main Window . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.1 Menu bar . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.2 Icon bar . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.3 Input Diagram window . . . .
2.2.4 Stage Composer . . . . . . .
2.2.5 Info bar . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.6 Title panel . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.7 Status bar . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Tips and Tricks . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.1 Keyboard shortcuts . . . . . .
2.4.2 Exporting figures and reports
2.4.3 Copying part of a table . . . .

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3 General
3.1 File menu . . . . . . . .
3.2 Tools menu . . . . . . .
3.2.1 Program Options
3.2.2 Profiles Library .
3.3 Help menu . . . . . . . .

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29

Deltares

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iii

D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual


3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.3.4
3.3.5
3.3.6

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4 Input
4.1 Project menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1 Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2 User Defined Partial Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2.1 Eurocode 7 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2.2 Eurocode 7 Dutch Annex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2.3 Eurocode 7 Belgian Annex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2.4 CUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.3 Project Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.4 View Input File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Construction menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.1 Regular sheet piling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2 Combined wall wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.3 Profiles Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.3.1 Profiles Library from manufacturers/distributors . . . . . .
4.2.3.2 User Defined Profiles Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.4 Single Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Soil menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.1 Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2 Soil Materials for Sheet Piling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.2 Earth pressure coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.3 Curve Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.4 Modulus of subgrade reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.5 Settlement by vibration coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.3 Soil Materials for Single Pile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.3.1 Soil Materials for Single pile loaded by forces . . . . . . .
4.3.3.2 Soil Materials for Single pile loaded by user-defined soil displacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.3.3 Soil Materials for Single pile loaded by calculated soil displacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.4 Soil Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.4.1 Adding Soil Profiles Manually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.4.2 Adding Soil Profiles from CPT CPT Selection . . . . . .
4.3.4.3 Adding Soil Profiles from CPT CPT Interpretation . . . .
4.3.5 Water Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.6 Water Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 Loads menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.1 Uniform Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.2 Surcharge Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.3 Horizontal Line Loads / Horizontal Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.4 Moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.5 Normal Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.6 Soil Displacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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iv

D-S HEET P ILING Help . .


Error Messages . . . . .
Manual . . . . . . . . . .
Deltares Systems Website
Support . . . . . . . . . .
About D-S HEET P ILING .

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Deltares

Contents
4.5

4.6

Supports menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.1 Anchors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.2 Struts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.3 Spring Supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.4 Rigid supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stages menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.1 Stages Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.2 Stage(s) Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.2.1 Stages Overview for Sheet Piling
4.6.2.2 Stage Overview for Single Pile .

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5 Calculations
5.1 Calculation Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.1 Possibilities and limitations of the option First stage represents initial
situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.2 Coarse vs. Fine calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 Start Calculation for Sheet Piling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.1 Standard Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.1.1 Fictive Earth Pressure Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.1.2 Calculation Progress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.2 Design Sheet Piling Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.2.1 Design Sheet Piling Length (standard) . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.2.2 Design Sheet Piling Length acc. to Eurocode 7 (General) .
5.2.2.3 Design Sheet Piling Length acc. to CUR and Eurocode 7
(NL Annex) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.2.4 Design Sheet Piling Length acc. to Eurocode 7 (Belgian
Annex) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.3 Verify Sheet Piling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.3.1 Verify Sheet Piling acc. to Eurocode 7 (General) . . . . . .
5.2.3.2 Verify Sheet Piling acc. to CUR and Eurocode 7 (NL Annex)
5.2.3.3 Verify Sheet Piling acc. to Eurocode 7 (Belgian Annex) . .
5.2.4 Allowable Anchor Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.4.1 Verification Anchor Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.4.2 Allowable Anchor Force Results Diagram . . . . . . . . .
5.2.5 Overall Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.5.1 Overall Stability acc. to Eurocode 7 (General) . . . . . . .
5.2.5.2 Overall Stability acc. to Eurocode 7 (NL Annex) . . . . . .
5.2.5.3 Overall Stability acc. to CUR 166 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.5.4 Overall Stability acc. to Eurocode 7 (Belgian Annex) . . . .
5.3 Start Calculation for Single Pile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4 Batch Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5 Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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6 View Results
113
6.1 Report Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
6.2 Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
6.2.1 Report for a standard calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
6.2.2 Report for a Verify Sheet Piling calculation acc. CUR and EC7 NL . . 118
6.2.3 Report for a Verify Sheet Piling calculation acc. EC7 General and EC7 B119
6.3 Moments, Forces and Displacements Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
6.3.1 Charts for a Standard calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Deltares

D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual

6.4
6.5
6.6

6.7

6.3.2 Charts for a Verify Sheet Piling calculation acc. CUR and EC7 NL . . 122
6.3.3 Charts for a Verify Sheet Piling calculation acc. EC7 General and EC7 B123
Stress Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Stress Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Settlement by Vibration Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
6.6.1 Settlements during installation of the sheet piling . . . . . . . . . . . 129
6.6.2 Settlements during removal of the sheet piling . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
6.6.3 Total settlement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Slide Planes C, Phi, Delta Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

7 Feasibility
7.1 Settlement by vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2 Sheet Pile Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.1 Sheet Pile Installation based on NVAF lines . . . . . . .
7.2.2 Sheet Pile Installation based on GeoBrain Experiences
7.3 GeoBrain Drivability Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.1 GeoBrain Prediction Menu bar . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.2 GeoBrain Prediction Geotechnics menu . . . . . . . .
7.3.3 GeoBrain Prediction Sheet pile menu . . . . . . . . .
7.3.4 GeoBrain Prediction Installation menu . . . . . . . . .
7.3.5 GeoBrain Prediction Result menu . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.6 GeoBrain Prediction Prediction Report . . . . . . . .
7.4 GeoBrain Drivability Experiences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.1 GeoBrain Experiences Search on Sheet Piling . . . .
7.4.2 GeoBrain Experiences Search on CPT . . . . . . . .
7.4.3 GeoBrain Experiences Search on Location . . . . . .

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133
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137
138
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142
143
143
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148
150

8 Tutorial 1: Excavation using Ka , K0 and Kp


8.1 Introduction to the case . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2 Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.1 Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.2 Project Properties . . . . . . . . . .
8.3 Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4 Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.1 Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.2 Soil Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.3 Soil Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.4 Water Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.5 Water Properties . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5 Loads and Supports . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6 Stages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7 Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7.1 Calculation Options . . . . . . . . .
8.7.2 Start Calculation . . . . . . . . . . .
8.8 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.8.1 Moment/Force/Displacement Charts .
8.8.2 Stress Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.8.3 Stress Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . .
8.9 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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153
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154
155
156
158
158
160
163
165
166
166
166
166
166
167
167
168
169
170
170

9 Tutorial 2: Excavation using c, phi and delta

vi

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171

Deltares

Contents
9.1
9.2
9.3

9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7

9.8

Introduction to the case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Changing the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soil profile deduced from a CPT file . . . . . . . . . .
9.3.1 Soil Profile from importation of a CPT-GEF file
9.3.2 Soil Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Non-horizontal surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input for vertical balance check . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.7.1 Moment/Force/Displacement Charts . . . . . .
9.7.2 Report Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.7.3 Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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171
172
173
173
176
178
179
180
180
181
182
183
184

10 Tutorial 3: Staged excavation with pre-stressed anchor


10.1 Introduction to the case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2 Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3 Water Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.4 Anchors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.5 Staged Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.5.1 Stages Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.5.2 Stages Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.6 Calculation and Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.6.1 Moment/Force/Displacement Charts . . . . .
10.6.2 Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.7 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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185
185
186
187
187
188
188
189
190
190
192
193

11 Tutorial 4: Applying loads


11.1 Introduction to the case . . . .
11.2 Inputting Loads . . . . . . . .
11.2.1 Surcharge Loads . . .
11.2.2 Horizontal Line Loads
11.3 Using Surcharge Loads . . . .
11.4 Results . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . .

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198
199

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12 Tutorial 5: Design of required sheet piling length


201
12.1 Introduction to the case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
12.2 Design Sheet Piling Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
12.3 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
13 Tutorial 6: Submerged construction of concrete floor
13.1 Introduction to the case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2 Modeling an underwater concrete floor . . . . . . .
13.3 General input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3.1 Soil Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3.2 Soil Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3.3 Water Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3.4 Water Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3.5 Uniform Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3.6 Anchors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Deltares

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205
206
207
208
209
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210
211
211

vii

D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual


13.4 Stages implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.5 Calculation and results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.6 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

212
213
214

14 Tutorial 7: Design code checking acc. CUR 166


215
14.1 Introduction to the case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
14.2 Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
14.3 Soil Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
14.4 Temporary surcharge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
14.5 Sheet Piling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
14.6 Partial factors and level variations acc. to CUR 166 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
14.7 Determine the minimum length (Steps 5 and 6 of the CUR 166 design procedure)221
14.8 Verify the modified sheet piling length according to CUR 166 design procedure, method A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
14.8.1 Verification Calculation (Method A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
14.8.2 Verification Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
14.8.3 Verification Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
14.8.4 Stability Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
14.9 Verify the modified sheet piling length according to CUR 166 design procedure, method B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
14.9.1 Verification Calculation (Method B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
14.9.2 Verification Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
14.10 Comparison between Methods A and B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
14.11 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
15 Tutorial 8: Verify anchor stability (Kranz method)
231
15.1 Introduction to the case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
15.2 Allowable anchor force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
15.3 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
16 Tutorial 9: Modeling of combi-walls
16.1 Introduction to the case . . . . .
16.2 General input . . . . . . . . . .
16.3 Combined Wall . . . . . . . . .
16.4 Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.5 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.6 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . .

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17 Tutorial 10: Non-hydrostatic pore pressure distribution


17.1 Introduction to the case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.2 Additional pore pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.3 General input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.3.1 Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.3.2 Sheet Piling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.3.3 Soil Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.3.4 Soil Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.3.5 Soil Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.3.6 Water Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.3.7 Water Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.3.8 Struts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.3.9 Stages Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Contents
17.4 Water pressure results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.5 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18 Tutorial 11: Modeling of loads with limited dimensions
18.1 Introduction to the case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.2 General input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.3 Modeling of load with limited size parallel to the sheet piling
18.4 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.5 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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247
249

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251
251
252
253
254
256

19 Tutorial 12: Prediction of feasibility using experience data


19.1 Introduction to the case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.2 Changing input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.2.1 Sheet Piling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.2.2 Surcharge load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.2.3 Soil profile deduced from a CPT file . . . . . . . . . . .
19.2.4 New calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.3 Sheet Pile Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.3.1 Sheet Pile Installation based on GeoBrain Experiences
19.3.2 Sheet Pile Installation based on NVAF Lines . . . . . .
19.4 GeoBrain Drivability Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.4.1 GeoBrain Drivability Prediction First prediction . . . .
19.4.2 GeoBrain Drivability Prediction Second prediction . .
19.5 GeoBrain Drivability Experiences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.5.1 GeoBrain Experiences Search on Sheet Piling . . . .
19.5.2 GeoBrain Experiences Search on CPT . . . . . . . .
19.5.3 GeoBrain Experiences Search on Location . . . . . .
19.6 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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257
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258
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277

20 Tutorial 13: Horizontally loaded pile (mooring post)


20.1 Introduction to the case . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.2 Pile loaded by forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.3 Soil Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.4 Horizontal Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.5 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.6 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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279
279
279
281
282
282
283

21 Tutorial 14: Horizontal pile deformation caused by embankment


21.1 Introduction to the case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.2 Pile loaded by soil displacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.3 Soil input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.4 Surcharge Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.5 Rigid Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.6 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.7 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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287
288
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290
291

22 Tutorial 15: Design code checking acc. to EuroCode 7


22.1 Introduction to the case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.2 Introduction to Eurocode 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.3 Partial factors according to Eurocode 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.4 Determine the minimum length using partial factors from Eurocode 7
22.4.1 Design Approach 1 set 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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295

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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual


22.4.2 Design Approach 1 set 2 . . . . . .
22.4.3 Design Approach 2 . . . . . . . . .
22.4.4 Design Approach 3 . . . . . . . . .
22.4.5 Results overview . . . . . . . . . .
22.5 Design calculation using Verify Sheet Piling
22.5.1 Verification calculation . . . . . . .
22.5.2 Results overview . . . . . . . . . .
22.5.3 Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.6 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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298
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301
301
302
303
304

23 Tutorial 16: Prediction of surface settlements during sheet pile installation


23.1 Introduction to the case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23.2 Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23.3 Sheet Piling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23.4 Soil Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23.5 Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23.6 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23.7 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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305
305
306
306
308
308
309
311

24 Tutorial 17: Design length of a synthetic wall


24.1 Introduction to the case . . . . . . . . . .
24.2 Design at long term (Tutorial-17a) . . . .
24.2.1 Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.2.2 Synthetic wall with wooden piles .
24.2.3 Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.2.3.1 Surfaces . . . . . . . .
24.2.3.2 Soil Materials . . . . .
24.2.3.3 Soil Profiles . . . . . .
24.2.3.4 Water Levels . . . . . .
24.2.4 Model selection . . . . . . . . . .
24.2.5 Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.2.6 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.2.7 Manual design of the wall length .
24.3 Design at short term (Tutorial-17b) . . . .
24.3.1 Adapting the properties of the wall
24.3.2 Adding a uniform load . . . . . .
24.3.3 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.4 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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313
313
316
316
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323
324
324
325
326

25 Tutorial 18: Modeling of synthetic wall with anchorage


25.1 Introduction to the case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25.2 Design at long term (Tutorial-18a) . . . . . . . . . .
25.2.1 Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25.2.2 Synthetic wall with wooden piles . . . . . . .
25.2.3 Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25.2.3.1 Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25.2.3.2 Soil Materials . . . . . . . . . . .
25.2.3.3 Soil Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . .
25.2.4 Anchor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25.2.5 Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25.2.6 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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327
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336

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Contents
25.3 Design at short term (Tutorial-18b) . . . .
25.3.1 Adapting the properties of the wall
25.3.2 Adding a uniform load . . . . . .
25.3.3 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25.4 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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338
338
338
339
339

26 Governing Equation

341

27 Lateral Earth Pressure Ratio


27.1 At rest earth pressure coefficient . . . . . . . .
27.2 Passive and active earth pressures coefficients
27.2.1 Culmann . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27.2.2 Mller-Breslau (straight slip surface) . .
27.2.3 Ktter (curved slip surfaces) . . . . . .
27.3 Surcharge according to Boussinesq . . . . . .

343
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346

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28 Soil Strength and Stiffness


347
28.1 Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
28.2 Stiffness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
28.3 Construction Stages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
29 CPT Interpretation
29.1 CPT Filtering Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29.2 CPT Interpretation Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29.2.1 CPT interpretation acc. CUR 166 . . . . . . . . .
29.2.2 CPT interpretation acc. NEN 6740 . . . . . . . .
29.2.3 CPT interpretation for Feasibility module . . . . .
29.3 Soil Materials Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29.3.1 General soil properties acc. NEN 6740 . . . . . .
29.3.2 Secant moduli of subgrade reaction acc. CUR 166

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351
351
352
352
352
353
353
354
354

30 Allowable Anchor Force


357
30.1 Short anchorage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
30.2 Long anchor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
31 Overall Stability

361

32 Vertical Force Balance

363

33 The CUR 166 step-by-step design procedure


367
33.1 Semi-probabilistic approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
33.2 Support of the CUR 166 step-by-step procedure by D-S HEET P ILING . . . . 368
33.3 Partial Safety Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
33.3.1 Partial safety factors On all stages (method A) or one stage (method B)372
33.3.2 Partial safety factors and Geometry modifications . . . . . . . . . . . 373
34 Design according to Eurocode 7
34.1 General Eurocode 7 (EN 1997-1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
34.1.1 General EC 7 Design approaches . . . . . . . .
34.1.2 General EC 7 Partial factors . . . . . . . . . . .
34.1.3 General EC 7 Geometrical data . . . . . . . . .
34.1.4 General EC 7 Determination of earth pressures
34.1.5 General EC 7 Overall Stability . . . . . . . . . .
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377
xi

D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual


34.2 Dutch Annex of the Eurocode 7 (NEN-EN 1997-1/NB) . . . . . . . . . .
34.2.1 Dutch Annex EC 7 Reliability Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . .
34.2.2 Dutch Annex EC 7 Step-by-step procedure . . . . . . . . . .
34.2.3 Dutch Annex EC 7 Partial factors and Geometry modifications
34.2.4 Dutch Annex EC 7 Overall Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
34.3 Belgian Annex of the Eurocode 7 (NBN-EN 1997-1 ANB) . . . . . . . .
34.3.1 Belgian Annex EC 7 Limit States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
34.3.2 Belgian Annex EC 7 Partial factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
34.3.3 Belgian Annex EC 7 Geometrical data . . . . . . . . . . . . .
34.3.4 Belgian Annex EC 7 Determination of earth pressures . . . .
34.3.5 Belgian Annex EC 7 Overall Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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35 Initial Stage

378
378
378
378
379
379
379
379
380
380
380
383

36 Analysis of Single Piles


36.1 Loading by soil deformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
36.1.1 Calculation of the soil displacements using the De Leeuw method .
36.1.2 Determination of the displacements, moments and forces in the pile
36.2 Loading by forces and moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
36.2.1 Brinch-Hansen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
36.2.2 Mnard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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385
385
385
388
388
389
390

37 Special Cases
37.1 Combination with piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37.1.1 Acting width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37.1.2 Modified soil reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37.2 Surcharge with limited size parallel to the sheet piling . . . . . .
37.2.1 Simple load (constant dimensions in both directions) . .
37.2.2 Complex load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37.3 Modeling concrete under water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37.4 Difference in pressure heads on both sides of the sheet pile wall
37.5 Stiffness of particular sheet pile walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37.5.1 Contiguous bored-pile wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37.5.2 Secant bored-pile wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37.5.3 Pile walls with reinforced concrete piles . . . . . . . . .

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391
391
391
391
392
393
394
394
395
397
398
398
399

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38 Settlements by vibration
401
38.1 Model description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
38.2 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
39 Benchmarks

403

Bibliography

405

xii

Deltares

List of Figures

List of Figures
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9

D-S HEET P ILING Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Stress-Strain Relationship for Anchors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soil Stress versus Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydrostatic pressure with additional pore pressures (in excess) . . .
D-S HEET P ILING Help window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Menu from the Options button of the D-S HEET-P ILING Help window
Deltares Systems website (www.deltaressystems.com) . . . . . . .
Support window, Problem Description tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Send Support E-Mail window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1
2
2
3
10
11
12
13
13

2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8

Modules window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D-S HEET P ILING main window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D-S HEET P ILING menu bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D-S HEET P ILING icon bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input Diagram window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stage Composer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pop-up menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selection of different parts of a table using the arrow cursor

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15
16
16
17
18
20
21
24

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6

Program Options window, View tab . .


Program Options window, General tab .
Program Options window, Locations tab
Program Options window, Language tab
Program Options window, Modules tab .
Error Messages window . . . . . . . .

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26
27
28
28
29
30

4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12

Model window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
User Defined Partial Factors window, EC7 General tab . . . . . . . . . . . .
User Defined Partial Factors window, EC7 NL tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
User Defined Partial Factors window, EC7 B tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
User Defined Partial Factors window, CUR tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Project Properties window, Identification tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Project Properties window, Diagram Settings tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Project Properties window, Chart Settings tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sheet Piling window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sheet Piling window (vertical balance check) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design Combined Wall window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sheet Piling window, Result of using the combined wall wizard (per center-tocenter distance) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sheet Piling Profiles Library window, Hot rolled sheet piles tab . . . . . . . .
Sheet Piling Profiles Library window, Cold formed sheet piles tab . . . . . .
Sheet Piling Profiles Library window, Synthetic sheet piles tab . . . . . . . .
Sheet Piling Profiles Library window, Piles tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sheet Piling Profiles Library window, User defined piles tab . . . . . . . . .
Piles library, Add Pile to user defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pile window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surfaces window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soil Materials window for the Ka , K0 , Kp soil parameters or Mixed models . .
Soil Materials window for the c, , soil parameters model . . . . . . . . . .

31
33
35
37
38
40
41
42
43
43
46

4.13
4.14
4.15
4.16
4.17
4.18
4.19
4.20
4.21
4.22

Deltares

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47
48
49
49
50
50
51
52
53
54
54

xiii

D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual


4.23
4.24
4.25
4.26
4.27
4.28
4.29

4.34
4.35
4.36
4.37
4.38
4.39
4.40
4.41
4.42
4.43
4.44
4.45
4.46
4.47
4.48
4.49
4.50
4.51
4.52
4.53
4.54
4.55
4.56
4.57
4.58
4.59
4.60
4.61
4.62
4.63
4.64
4.65

Soil Materials window, General sub-window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Soil Materials window, Earth pressure coefficients sub-window . . . . . . . .
Curve Settings (for all Materials) window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soil Materials window, Modulus of subgrade reaction Secant sub-window .
Secant definition of stress-displacement diagram (CUR 166) . . . . . . . . .
CUR 166 (Table 3.3) window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soil Materials window, Modulus of subgrade reaction Tangent (D-Sheet Piling Classic) sub-window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tangent definition of stress-displacement diagram (D-Sheet Piling classic) . .
Soil Materials window, Settlement by vibration sub-window . . . . . . . . . .
Soil Materials window for Single Pile loaded by forces . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soil Materials window, Modulus of subgrade reaction sub-window (Pile loaded
by forces) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soil Materials window for Single pile loaded by user-defined soil displacements
Soil Materials window for Single pile loaded by calculated soil displacements
Soil Profiles window showing empty profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soil Profiles window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Select CPT window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Select CPT for D-Sheet Piling window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Select CPT for D-Sheet Piling window after zoom in . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CPTip window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soil Profiles window after importing a CPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CPT window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Water Levels window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Water Properties window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uniform Loads window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Distribution of uniform load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surcharge Loads window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Distribution of surcharges according to the inputted values of Figure 4.48 . .
Horizontal Line Loads window (Sheet piling model) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Horizontal Forces window (Single pile model) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example of a positive horizontal line load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moments window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example of a positive moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Normal Forces window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soil Displacements window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Anchors window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stress-strain diagram for an anchor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Struts window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stress-strain diagram for a strut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spring Supports window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rigid Supports window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stages Manager window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stages Overview window for Sheet Piling model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stage Overview window for Single Pile model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5

Calculation Options window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Start Calculation window, Standard tab . . . . . . . . .
Fictive Earth Pressure Coefficients window . . . . . . .
Calculation Progress window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Piling Length tab

4.30
4.31
4.32
4.33

xiv

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55
56
56
57
58
58
59
59
60
61
62
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
71
72
72
73
74
75
75
75
76
77
77
78
79
80
81
82
82
83
84
85
86
88
89
91
92
92
93

Deltares

List of Figures
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12

5.14
5.15
5.16
5.17
5.18
5.19
5.20
5.21
5.22
5.23
5.24
5.25
5.26

Design using representative values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


EC7 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Piling Length tab - Output . . . . . .
Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Piling Length tab EC7 NL / CUR .
Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Piling Length EC7 B . . . . . . . .
Start Calculation window, Verify Sheet Piling tab EC7 General . . . . . . .
Start Calculation window, Verify Sheet Piling tab for EC7 NL and CUR methods with Partial factors in all stages (method A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Start Calculation window, Verify Sheet Piling tab for EC7 NL and CUR methods with Partial factors in verified stage only (method B) . . . . . . . . . . .
Start Calculation window, Verify Sheet Piling tab - EC7 B . . . . . . . . . . .
Start Calculation window, Allowable Anchor Force tab . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Start Calculation window, Allowable Anchor Force tab showing results . . . .
Allowable Anchor Force Results Diagram window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Start Calculation window, Overall Stability tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Start Calculation window, Overall Stability tab - EC7 General . . . . . . . . .
Start Calculation window, Overall Stability tab - EC7 NL . . . . . . . . . . .
Start Calculation window, Overall Stability tab - CUR . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Start Calculation window, Overall Stability tab - EC7 B . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overall Stability Diagram window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Run window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Start Batch Calculation window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Error Messages window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100
101
102
104
105
106
107
107
108
108
109
109
110
110

6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12
6.13
6.14
6.15
6.16
6.17
6.18
6.19
6.20
6.21

Report Selection window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Report window, Summary section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Report window, Input Data Left/Right section for Ka , K0 , Kp method . .
Report window, Input Data Left/Right section for Culmann method . . .
Report window, Soil Collapse section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Report window, Vertical Force Balance section . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Report window, Anchors/Struts section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Report window, Summary section for a CUR or EC7 NL verification . .
Report window, Summary section for a EC7-General verification . . . .
Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chart Data window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window for a CUR verification . . .
Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window for a EuroCode verification
Chart Data window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stress State Charts window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chart Data window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stress Diagrams window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Settlements by Vibration Charts window, During installation . . . . . . .
Settlements by Vibration Charts window, During removal . . . . . . . .
Settlements by Vibration Charts window, Total settlement . . . . . . . .
Active Planes Diagram window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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113
114
115
116
117
117
117
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
130
131

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5

Options under Feasibility menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Calculation progress window during Settlement by vibration calculation
textitE-Consult Sheet Pile Installation window, Show NVAF lines option
Experience lines NVAF drop-down menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E-consult Sheet Pile Installation window, Show Experiences option . .

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133
134
134
135
136

5.13

Deltares

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95
96
97
98
99

xv

D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual


7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14
7.15
7.16
7.17
7.18
7.19
7.20
7.21
7.22
7.23
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11
8.12
8.13
8.14

xvi

Region drop-down menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


GeoBrain Prediction window, First page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GeoBrain Prediction window, Menu bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GeoBrain Prediction window, Geotechnics menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GeoBrain Prediction window, Sheet pile menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GeoBrain Prediction window, Installation menu for the three methods of driving
(Vibrate, Drive and Pressing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GeoBrain Prediction window, Result menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GeoBrain Prediction window, Report menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prediction Report window, Results prediction section . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GeoBrain Experiences window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GeoBrain Experiences window, Type of similarity between the soil profile of
the GeoBrain database and the soil profile of the D-S HEET P ILING project . .
GeoBrain Experiences window, search on Sheet Piling . . . . . . . . . . . .
GeoBrain Experiences window, Detailed information on the selected project .
Detailed view of the Refine Query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GeoBrain Experiences window, Search on Sheet Piling GeoBrain Experiences window, Search on CPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GeoBrain Experiences window, Search on Location View the total per area
View individual experiences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GeoBrain Experiences window, search on Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

136
137
138
139
141
142
143
143
144
145
146
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
157
158
159
159
160
161
161
162

8.15
8.16
8.17
8.18
8.19
8.20
8.21
8.22
8.23
8.24
8.25
8.26

Single stage excavation (tutorial 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Input Diagram window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Model window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Project Properties window, Identification tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sheet Piling Profiles Library window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sheet Piling window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surfaces window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stage Composer window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input Diagram with excavation level applied on the left hand side . . . . . . .
Empty Soil Materials window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soil Materials window, General sub-window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soil Materials window, Earth pressure coefficients sub-window . . . . . . . .
Curve Settings (for all Materials) window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soil Materials window, Modulus of subgrade reaction Tangent (D-Sheet Piling Classic) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soil Materials window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soil Profiles window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input Diagram window confirming the entered soil profile . . . . . . . . . . .
Water Levels window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input Diagram confirming the entered water level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculation Options window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Start Calculation window, Standard tab to perform a standard calculation . .
Calculation Progress window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chart Data window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stress State Charts window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Effective Stress Diagram window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9.1

Single stage excavation with a non-horizontal surface (Tutorial 2) . . . . . . .

171

162
163
164
164
165
165
166
167
167
168
169
169
170

Deltares

List of Figures
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
9.10
9.11
9.12
9.13
9.14
9.15
9.16
9.17
9.18
9.19
9.20
9.21

CPT datas (Tutorial 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Model window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Select CPT window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Open window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CPTip window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soil Profiles window after importation of the CPT 01 file . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input Diagram window with new soil profile from CPT . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soil Materials window using the c, phi, delta model . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Curve Settings window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soil Materials window with Secant moduli of subgrade reaction . . . . . . . .
Surfaces window with a non-horizontal surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input Diagram window showing a non-horizontal surface . . . . . . . . . . .
Sheet Piling window showing additional parameters for the vertical balance
check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standard calculation using c, phi, delta model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculation Progress window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Report Selection window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Report window, Summary section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Report window showing vertical force balance check results . . . . . . . . .

10.1 Final situation after excavation, installation of an anchor and lowering of the
water level (tutorial 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2 Excavation stages shown separately (tutorial 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3 Surfaces window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.4 Water Levels window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.5 Anchors window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.6 Stages Manager window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.7 Stages Overview window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.8 Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window for the second stage . . . . . .
10.9 Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window for the third stage . . . . . . . .
10.10 Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window for the third stage with a new
sheet piling profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.11 Report window, Summary section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6

179
180
180
181
182
182
183
184

185
186
187
187
188
189
190
191
191
192
192

Surcharge load and horizontal line load in the last stage (tutorial 4) . . . . . . 195
Surcharge Loads window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Horizontal Line Loads window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Stages Overview window showing input for the fourth stage . . . . . . . . . 197
Input Diagram window for the fourth stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window showing the effect the applied
loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

12.1 Single stage excavation as in tutorial 1 (tutorial 5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


12.2 Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Pile Length tab . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3 Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Piling Length tab, design calculation
results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4 Sheet Piling window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.5 Output report showing the mobilized resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Deltares

172
173
173
174
174
175
175
176
177
177
178
178

201
202
202
203
203

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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual


13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6

Final situation after construction (tutorial 6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205


Overview of the construction stages (tutorial 6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Modeling concrete below the natural water level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Soil Surfaces window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Soil Profiles window, Soil profile before construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Soil Profiles window, Soil profile with concrete on the left side and additional
pore pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
13.7 Water Properties window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
13.8 Uniform Loads window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
13.9 Anchors window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
13.10 Stages Overview window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
13.11 Input Diagram window for the last stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
13.12 Stress State Charts window showing compression caused by the concrete floor 213
13.13 Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window for the last stage . . . . . . . . 214
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
14.6
14.7
14.8

Construction stages (tutorial 7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


CUR 166 (Table 3.3) window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soil Materials window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surcharge Loads window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stages Overview window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
User Defined Partial Factors window, CUR tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Piling Length tab . . . . . . . . . . .
Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Piling Length tab: Results from 20 m
down to 12 m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.9 Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Piling Length tab: Results from 14 m
down to 13 m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.10 Start Calculation window, Verify Sheet Piling tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.11 Report window, Summary section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.12 Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window for the last stage . . . . . . . .
14.13 CUR Step 6.3 window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.14 Report window, Overall Stability for the final stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.15 Start Calculation window, Verify Sheet Piling tab (Tutorial-7b) . . . . . . . . .
14.16 Report window, Summary section (Tutorial-7b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

223
224
225
226
226
227
228
229

15.1 Excavation showing anchor to be checked (tutorial 8) . . . . . . . . . . . . .


15.2 Start Calculation window, Allowable Anchor Force tab . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3 Allowable Anchor Force Results Diagram window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

231
232
233

16.1
16.2
16.3
16.4
16.5
16.6
16.7
16.8

One stage excavation with a combined wall . . . . . . . .


Combined wall example: dimensions and soil profile . . .
Design Combined Wall window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sheet Piling window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soil Materials window for Sand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Report window, Sheet Piling Properties section . . . . . .
Report window, Modulus of Subgrade Reaction paragraph
Moment/Force/Displacement Chart window . . . . . . . .

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235
236
237
238
238
239
240
241

17.1
17.2
17.3
17.4

Pit excavation with water flow under the sheet pile wall (tutorial 10)
Water pressures distribution on both sides of sheet piling . . . . .
Soil Profiles window with additional pore pressures on left side . .
Soil Profiles window with additional pore pressures on right side .

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246

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216
218
218
219
220
221
222
222

Deltares

List of Figures
17.5
17.6
17.7
17.8

18.1
18.2
18.3
18.4
18.5

Struts window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stress State Charts window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chart Data window, Water Pressure Left tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window including the effects of the
tional pore pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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addi. . .

247
248
248

Modeling a load with limited size parallel to the sheet piling (tutorial 11) . . .
Surcharge Loads window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stages Overview window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window, Results for the final stage . . .
Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window, Results for the final stage with a
new sheet piling profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

252
253
254
255

249

255

19.1 CPT datas (Tutorial 12) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


19.2 Sheet Piling window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.3 CPTip window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.4 Soil Profiles window after importation of the CPT 02 file . . . . . . . . .
19.5 Input Diagram window with new soil profile from CPT . . . . . . . . . .
19.6 E-consult Sheet Pile Installation window showing GeoBrain Experiences
19.7 E-consult Sheet Pile Installation window showing NVAF lines . . . . . .
19.8 GeoBrain Prediction window, First page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.9 GeoBrain Prediction window, Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.10 GeoBrain Prediction window, Geotechnics menu . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.11 GeoBrain Prediction window, Sheet pile menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.12 GeoBrain Prediction window, Installation menu . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.13 GeoBrain Prediction window, Result menu (first prediction) . . . . . . .
19.14 GeoBrain Prediction window, Result menu (second prediction) . . . . .
19.15 Prediction Report window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.16 GeoBrain Experiences window, First page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.17 GeoBrain Experiences window, Search on Sheet piling . . . . . . . . .
19.18 GeoBrain Experiences window, Search on Sheet piling after refinement
19.19 GeoBrain Experiences window, Detailed information on a project . . . .
19.20 GeoBrain Experiences window, First page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.21 GeoBrain Experiences window, Search on CPT . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.22 GeoBrain Experiences window, Search on Location . . . . . . . . . . .
19.23 GeoBrain Experiences window, Search on Location after zoom . . . . .

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258
259
260
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
268
269
270
271
272
273
273
274
275
276
277

20.1
20.2
20.3
20.4
20.5
20.6
20.7

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279
280
280
281
281
282
283

by embank. . . . . . .
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286
287
288
289
289

Pile (mooring post) loaded horizontally (by a ship) Tutorial 13


Model window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pile window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soil Materials window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soil Profiles window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Horizontal Forces window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window . . . . . . . . .

21.1 Horizontal pile loaded by


ment raise (tutorial 14) .
21.2 Model window . . . . . .
21.3 Soil Materials window . .
21.4 Surcharge Loads window
21.5 Rigid Supports window .

Deltares

(calculated)
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soil
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deformations caused
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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual


21.6 Input Diagram window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.7 Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.8 Report window showing the calculated soil displacements . . . . . . . . . .

290
290
291

22.1 Construction stages (tutorial 15) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


22.2 User Defined Partial Factors window, EC7 General tab . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.3 Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Piling Length tab with an AZ 17/S430
profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.4 Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Piling Length tab with an AZ 25/S430
profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.5 Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Piling Length tab for DA 1 set 1 . . .
22.6 Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Piling Length tab for DA 1 set 2 . . .
22.7 Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Piling Length tab for DA 2 . . . . . .
22.8 Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Piling Length tab for DA 3 . . . . . .
22.9 Start Calculation window, Verify Sheet Piling tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.10 Calculation Progress window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22.11 Report window, Summary section for Design Approach 1 . . . . . . . . . . .
22.12 Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window for the last stage . . . . . . . .

293
295
296
297
298
298
299
300
301
302
303
303

23.1 Geometry of Tutorial 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305


23.2 Model window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
23.3 Sheet Piling Profiles Library window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
23.4 Sheet Piling window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
23.5 Soil Materials window for Clay material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
23.6 Calculation progress window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
23.7 Settlements by Vibration Charts window, Settlement during installation . . . . 309
23.8 Settlements by Vibration Charts window, Settlement during removal . . . . . 310
23.9 Settlements by Vibration Charts window, Total settlement (installation + removal)310
23.10 Chart Data window for the Total settlement (installation + removal) . . . . . . 311

xx

24.1 One stage excavation with a ProLock Sigma combined wall (Tutorial 17) . . .
24.2 Dimensions of a ProLock Sigma wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.3 Sheet Piling window at long term (Tutorial-17a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.4 Surfaces window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.5 Stage Composer to assign the surface levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.6 Soil Materials window for Sand moderate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.7 Start Calculation window, Verify Sheet Piling tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.8 Calculation Progress window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.9 Report window - Summary for Tutorial-17a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.10 Materials window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.11 Soil Profile window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.12 Moment/Force/Displacement Chart window for long term situation - Step 6.3
24.13 Sheet Piling window at short term (Tutorial-17b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.14 Uniform Load window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.15 Stage composer to assign the uniform load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24.16 Moment/Force/Displacement Chart window for short term situation - Step 6.3

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314
317
318
318
319
320
320
321
322
322
323
324
324
325
325

25.1
25.2
25.3
25.4

328
329
331
333

One stage excavation with a ProLock Omega combined wall (Tutorial 18)
Dimensions of a ProLock Omega wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Technical data for the MK-SR anchor wall (Tutorial 18) . . . . . . . . . .
Sheet Piling window at long term (Tutorial-18a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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List of Figures
25.5 Soil Materials window for Sand moderate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25.6 Soil Materials window for Sand moderate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25.7 Anchors window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25.8 Stage composer to activate the anchor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25.9 Start Calculation window, Verify Sheet Piling tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25.10 Moment/Force/Displacement Chart window for long term situation - Step 6.3
25.11 Report window, Summary section for long term situation (Tutorial-18a) . . . .
25.12 Sheet Piling window at short term (Tutorial-18b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25.13 Moment/Force/Displacement Chart window for short term situation - Step 6.3

334
334
335
335
336
337
337
338
339

27.1 Lateral earth pressure using Culmanns method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


27.2 Stress distribution under a load column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

344
346

28.1 Elasto-plastic behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


28.2 Shift of horizontal stress values between stages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

348
349

29.1
29.2
29.3
29.4

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351
352
353
353

30.1 Stability of anchor wall for a short anchor (Kranz theory) . . . . . . . . . . .


30.2 Stability of anchor wall for a long anchor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

357
358

31.1 Circular slip surface according to Bishop method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

361

32.1 Assumed vertical friction forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


32.2 Plugged and unplugged sheet piling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

363
364

33.1 Low, nominal and high representative values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


33.2 Schematic representation of the soil stiffness, surface levels and water levels
modifications according to step 6.1 of the CUR 166 design procedure . . . .
33.3 Schematic representation of the soil stiffness, surface levels and water levels
modifications according to step 6.2 of the CUR 166 design procedure . . . .
33.4 Schematic representation of the soil stiffness, surface levels and water levels
modifications according to step 6.3 of the CUR 166 design procedure . . . .
33.5 Schematic representation of the soil stiffness, surface levels and water levels
modifications according to step 6.4 of the CUR 166 design procedure . . . .
33.6 Schematic representation of the soil stiffness, surface levels and water levels
modifications according to step 6.5 of the CUR 166 design procedure . . . .
33.7 Schematic representation of the anchor stiffness modification according to
step 9.1 of the CUR 166 design procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

367

Schematization of the CPT filtering method


CPT interpretation according to CUR 166 .
CPT interpretation according to NEN 6740 .
3-type rule with gravel from NEN . . . . . .

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370
371
371
371
372
372

35.1 Effect of a surcharge when not using the initial stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
35.2 Effect of a surcharge when using the initial stage option . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
35.3 Soil stresses on both sides of the sheet pile wall, with and without the initial
stage option being used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
36.1 Situations considered by De Leeuw method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
36.2 Non-uniform load schematized as a uniform load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
36.3 Lateral earth pressure and pile deformation by soil deformation . . . . . . . .

386
386
388

37.1 Soil reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

392

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37.2
37.3
37.4
37.5
37.6
37.7
37.8

xxii

Load distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculated load (bottom) for a load shape that is not constant (top)
Water pressure on both sides of sheet piling . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pressure diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tangent bored-pile wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spaced bored-pile wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Secant bored-pile wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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393
394
396
397
398
398
398

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List of Tables

List of Tables
2.1

Keyboard shortcuts for D-S HEET P ILING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

4.1

Relative density as a function of the consistency of the soil . . . . . . . . . .

60

5.8

Schematization of the calculation methods A and B according to EC7-NL and


CUR in case of 4 stages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
97
5.11 Schematization of the calculation methods A and B according to EC7-NL and
CUR in case of 4 stages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
99
5.15 Schematization of the calculation method according to table 21-4-9 of SB 260 102
8.1

Soil properties (tutorial 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

154

10.1 Anchor properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

188

13.1 Soil properties (tutorial 6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

209

14.1 Soil properties (tutorial 7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


14.2 Comparison of methods A and B for the maximum values in stage 4 . . . . .

216
229

16.1 Soil properties (tutorial 9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

236

17.1 Soil properties (tutorial 10) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

244

19.1 Information for feasibility prediction (Tutorial 12) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

264

20.1 Soil properties (tutorial 13) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

280

21.1 Soil properties (tutorial 14) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

286

22.1 Overview of the Design Sheet Piling Length calculation for the different design
approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

300

23.1 Soil parameters for Tutorial 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

306

24.1
24.2
24.3
24.4
24.5

Soil properties (tutorial 17) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Properties of a ProLock Sigma profile (tutorial 17) . . . . . . . . . .
Properties of the round wooden piles (tutorial 17) . . . . . . . . . .
Properties of the ProLock Sigma wall (tutorial 17) . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum calculated bending moments, per wall section (tutorial 17)

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314
315
315
316
326

25.1
25.2
25.3
25.4
25.5

Soil properties (Tutorial 18) . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Properties of a ProLock Omega profile (Tutorial 18)
Properties of the round wooden piles (Tutorial 18) .
Properties of the ProLock Omega wall (Tutorial 18)
Technical data for the GEWI Threadbar (Tutorial 18)

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28.1 Angle of wall friction values for clay, loam, sand and gravel (acc. to Table 4 of
NEN 6740:2006) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
29.1 General soil parameters from Table 1 of NEN 6740 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29.2 Secant moduli of subgrade reaction from Table 3.3 of CUR 166 . . . . . . . .

354
355

33.1 Design values of soil properties according to Step 6 of the CUR 166 procedure 370

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33.2 Design values of ground and water levels according to Step 6 of the CUR 166
procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
33.3 Partial factors applied to soil parameters according to Table 3.7 of the CUR 166
design procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
33.4 Level variations according to Table 3.7 of the CUR 166 design procedure . . 373
33.5 Partial factors applied to loads according to CUR 166 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
34.1
34.2
34.3
34.4
34.5

Partial factors for retaining structures acc. to the general Eurocode 7 . . . . .


Partial factors for overall stability acc. to Eurocode 1997-1 . . . . . . . . . .
Partial factors according to the Dutch Annex of Eurocode 7 . . . . . . . . . .
Level variations according to the Dutch Annex of Eurocode 7 . . . . . . . . .
Partial factors (for overall stability) on soil parameters acc. to the Dutch Annex
of Eurocode 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
34.6 Partial factors acc. to the Belgian annex NBN-EN 1997-1 ANB . . . . . . . .
34.7 Partial factors for overall stability acc. to Eurocode 1997-1 . . . . . . . . . .

379
380
381

36.1 E-modulus vs. unit weight (De Leeuw & Timmermans) . . . . . . . . . . . .


36.3 Values of the rheological coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

387
390

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376
377
378
379

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1 General Information
1.1

Preface
D-S HEET P ILING (formerly known as MSheet) is a tool used to design sheet pile and diaphragm
walls and horizontally loaded piles. D-S HEET P ILINGs graphical interactive interface requires
just a short training period, allowing the user to focus their skills directly on the input of sound
geotechnical data and the subsequent design of the wall or single pile. D-S HEET P ILING comes
as a standard module that can be extended with other modules to fit more advanced applications:








1.2

D-S HEET P ILING Standard module (earth pressure coefficients)


Culmann module
Eurocode 7 Verification module
Single Pile module
Feasibility module
Settlement by vibration module

Features in Standard module


This section contains an overview of the features available in D-S HEET P ILING for the design
of diaphragm and sheet pile walls. For more information on these topics, see the Reference
section and the Background section of this manual. A number of these options are indicated
in Figure 1.1.
Surcharge
Arbitrary Soil
Profiles
Anchors

Excess Pore
Pressure

Struts
forces
Moments

Staged
Constructions

Figure 1.1: D-S HEET P ILING Options

1.2.1

Sheet Piling
D-S HEET P ILING models the sheet piling as an elasto-plastic beam on a foundation of uncoupled elasto-plastic springs (representing the soil).

 Stiffness. Uniform or variable values can be used for the elastic bending stiffness and
normal stiffness along the beam axis. A library is available for quick selection of standard and user-defined sheet piling profiles. A special combined wall wizard calculates
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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual


the relevant values for walls made from a combination of sheet piling and piles.

 Geometrical Non-linear. A compressive normal force will introduce additional bending.


The user can introduce normal forces and D-S HEET P ILING will calculate the additional
moments and displacements that follow from the inputted normal force.

1.2.2

Anchors and Struts


D-S HEET P ILING models both anchors and struts using discrete springs.
tensile stress

limited capacity
pre- stress

zero pressure
condition

tensile strain

Figure 1.2: Stress-Strain Relationship for Anchors

 Anchors. Anchors are characterized by arbitrary direction, elastic normal stiffness, zero
pressure condition and limited capacity due to yielding or soil resistance (Figure 1.2).
Pre-tensioning of anchors is optional.

 Struts. Struts are characterized by elastic normal stiffness, zero tension condition and
buckling force. Pre-compression of struts is optional.

1.2.3

Soil
Horizontal soil layers can be defined manually or automatically generated by D-S HEET P ILING
from a CPT interpretation, optionally in combination with a non-horizontal ground level. D-S HEET P ILING
models the stiffness of the soil as a series of discrete, independently acting, multi-linear
springs, forming an elastic foundation for a beam (which is used to model the wall).
horizontal effective stress
virgin
loading

active yield

unloading

passive yield

reloading

relative displacement
Figure 1.3: Soil Stress versus Displacement

 Physical Non-linear. D-S HEET P ILING makes use of multi-linear relationships between
horizontal stress and displacement, with different values for active and passive yielding.
D-S HEET P ILING can determine these yield values from the well-established slip surface
theories of Culmann, Ktter or Mller-Breslau.
2

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General Information

 Elasto-Plastic. D-S HEET P ILING can accommodate the soil stiffness for the virgin loading state and the unloading/reloading state.

 Initial Stress. D-S HEET P ILING derives the initial horizontal stress from the approximate
initial vertical stress using Jkys equation for the lateral stress ratio K0 . D-S HEET P ILING
calculates additional stresses due to surcharge or a non-horizontal ground surface
based on Boussinesqs stress distribution theory.

For detailed information see chapter 27 and chapter 28.

1.2.4

Loads and Supports


D-S HEET P ILING provides the following options for defining loads and supports:

 Pore Fluid. Hydrostatic pore fluid pressure from the input of a phreatic surface position
on either side of the wall. Additional pore pressures can also be specified, varying
linearly within the relevant layers, as schematized in Figure 1.4.

hydrostatic pore
pressure

excess pore pressure

Figure 1.4: Hydrostatic pressure with additional pore pressures (in excess)

 Construction: Excavation or elevation of soil (see staged construction).


 Surcharge: Discrete or infinitely extending surcharge at ground level. The surcharge
load can be specified as uniform or varying multi-linearly.

 Forces: Line loads or distributed force loads, directed perpendicularly to the sheet pile
wall. Variable normal force along the beam axis.

 Moments: Discrete bending moments directed out-of-plane.


 Supports: Rigid supports or springs for displacement and rotation. The horizontal
displacement at the top of the sheet piling can also be defined.

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1.2.5

Staged Construction
Construction sequences can be modeled using a step-by-step (phased) analysis. This means
that soil, loads, supports, anchors and struts can be added or removed, and the water table
changed, for each stage.

1.2.6

Design Procedures

 Length optimization. D-S HEET P ILING can determine the critical length of the sheet
piling by reducing the length step-by-step until instability occurs or an admissible displacement is exceeded.

 Anchor Force. D-S HEET P ILING checks whether the available soil resistance is sufficient
for the anchor force, using a slip surface theory according to Kranz (Kranz, 1953).

1.2.7

Results
D-S HEET P ILING can display a report with graphs and tables of displacements, bending moments, shear forces, pore pressures and soil stresses along the beam axis.

1.3
1.3.1

Features in additional modules


Culmann module
As an alternative to the Ka , K0 , Kp method, the active and passive earth pressure coefficients can be determined using the c, phi, delta method based on Culmanns formulas (section 27.2.1). This method can be used in combination with non-horizontal soil surfaces and
surcharge loads, unlike the Ka , K0 , Kp method.

Eurocode 7 Verification module


Three design procedures are implemented:

 the Dutch design code CUR publication 166 (chapter 33)


 the European design code Eurocode 7 (chapter 34), using the partial factors prescribed
by either:
the General rules (Part 1) of EuroCode 7 (NEN-EN, March 2005);
the Dutch Annex of Eurocode 7 (NEN, 2012).

 

1.3.2

Different design calculations can be performed:

 Safety. D-S HEET P ILING verifies the sheet piling, according to CUR 166 and EuroCode
for a selected stage by applying certain partial safety factors.

 Length optimization. D-S HEET P ILING can determine the critical length of the sheet
piling, according to CUR 166 and EuroCode, by reducing the length step-by-step until
instability occurs or an admissible displacement is exceeded the sheet piling length, by
applying certain partial safety factors.

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General Information

 Overall Stability. D-S HEET P ILING verifies a sheet piling against loss of overall stability
by means of a Bishop calculation, according to CUR 166 and Eurocode.

Two different methods for design calculation according to CUR 166 and Eurocode 7 (NL) are
implemented: one using the partial factors prescribed by the design approach in all construction stages (method A) and the second using them only for a selected stage (method B).
A verification report containing all results according to the CUR 166 or EuroCode 7 design
procedure is also available.

1.3.3

Single Pile module

 Along the pile, several cross-sections with different widths and stiffness can be specified.

 The connection of the pile to a foundation can be modeled by defining a fixed support
or a spring support at a certain level. For the support conditions a distinction is made
between translation and rotation.

 Several soil layers can be defined, divided by horizontal layer boundaries. Soil properties are input for each layer. The bottom soil layer is assumed to be infinitely thick.

 The surface level on both sides of the pile must be identical and horizontal.
 The water level determines the hydrostatic water pressure. Additional pore pressures
can also be introduced, varying linearly across each soil layer.

 Externally calculated undisturbed soil displacements can be imposed on the pile. D-S HEET P ILING
can also calculate the influence of discrete bending moments and/or horizontal and normal forces on the pile.

 The subgrade reaction is put to a minimum (active) and maximum (passive) pressure
on the pile by definition of earth pressure coefficients. Between these extreme values,
D-S HEET P ILING will apply a linear relation between the stress and the displacement, as
defined by a modulus of subgrade reaction. The earth pressure coefficients may be
calculated using the Brinch-Hansen method (Brinch-Hansen and Christensen, 1961)
or directly inputted. The modulus of subgrade reaction may be determined using the
Mnard theory (Mnard, 1971) (only for pile loaded by forces) or directly inputted.

1.3.4

Feasibility module
The Feasibility module enables users to compare their D-S HEET P ILING sheet pile wall design
against relevant execution experience data and Dutch NVAF lines. This may help to reduce
failure costs during pile driving/vibrating. Without license this module works in Demo mode.
Currently the experiences are mainly from Dutch locations; therefore their relevancy to other
locations in the world may be limited.

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1.3.5

Settlement by vibration module


The Settlement by vibration module enables users to determine the settlements due to vibratory installation and removal of sheet piles, mainly caused by densification of the sand and
by installation or removal of a sheet pile volume. The model implemented in D-S HEET P ILING
is based on the model developed by Meijers (Meijers and Tol, Juli 2010) (Meijers, december
2007). This model calculates the densification and excess pore pressures during the installation and removal of the sheet pile.

1.4

History

 MSheet release 1.0 (1990) was based directly on MSheets forerunner DAMWAND/3,
which analyzed the construction of vertical sheet piling with horizontal ground surfaces.

 MSheet release 2.0 (1992) implemented options for non-horizontal ground surfaces
and non-uniform loads (surcharges).

 MSheet release 3.0 (1995) featured a new option for normal forces in the sheet pile
wall and also implemented a new multi-linear stress-displacement relation for the soil.

 MSheet release 4.0 (1997) featured specific design procedures, based on the CUR
design guide (CUR, 2005) for discovering the critical length and checking safety.

 MSheet release 5.0 (1998) was the first Windows version of MSheet. The improved
user manual could now also be accessed using the online Help function.

 MSheet release 5.4 (2001) featured the following new options: overall soil stability
analysis (Bishop), a sheet piling library, extended support of CUR 166, and a report
on the vertical force balance. Improvements to the user interface included user-friendly
graphical input and the Stages Overview dialog.

 MSheet Release 5.7 (2002) featured a new option for a first stage with initially nonhorizontal surfaces or initial surcharges. The release also included modules for separately licensed models. The new initial stage option necessitated a refinement of the
soil yield stress calculation, even when the option was not selected. Therefore results
from release 5.7 were different to the results of previous releases.

 MSheet release 6.1 (2004) featured a new single pile module, which supports the analysis of horizontally loaded piles. The release also included a wizard for convenient
input of combined walls. The report content could now be selected, with reports bearing graphs, and improved layout of tabular results. Reports could now be exported in
different formats, including pdf and rtf and graphical and report output for the CUR 166
verify sheet piling option was implemented and. The refined soil yield stress calculation was made optional when the initial stage option was not selected. The default,
faster, coarse method therefore yields results that are the same as the results of releases prior to release 5.7.

 MSheet release 6.2 (2005) featured the new E-Consult module that enables users to
check their MSheet design for sheet pile walls against relevant execution experience
data. This may help to reduce failure costs during pile driving/vibrating. Without license
this module works in Demo mode. Currently the experiences are mainly from Dutch
locations; therefore their relevancy to other locations in the world may be limited.

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General Information

 MSheet release 7.1 (2005) features the ability to perform a vertical balance check on
the sheet pile wall. It is now possible to specify partial factors, allowing MSheet to be
used with the Eurocode model. The updated CUR 166 procedure (2005) (CUR, 2005)
is fully integrated in this MSheet version.

 MSheet release 7.7 (2007). The partial factors and the design approaches according
to Eurocode 7 are fully supported in this MSheet version. Partial factors for loads are
added for the CUR 166 procedure. The calculation of the K 0 is modified. A shell factor
is inputted to take into account the effect of arching.

 MSheet release 7.9 (2008). Loads/Soil displacements is possible again with the module sheet piling. The moduli of subgrade reaction are automatically multiplied with the
shell factor. The allowable number of anchors, struts, surfaces, layers, profiles and surcharge loads has been increased. Presence of warnings is indicated in the progress
screen. hell factor. The allowable number of anchors, struts, surfaces, layers, profiles
and surcharge loads has been increased. Presence of warnings is indicated in the
progress screen.

 MSheet release 7.10 (2009). With the E-Consult module it is now possible to determine
the drivability of the Sheet Piling design using a prediction made with GeoBrain and to
check the Sheet Piling design by comparing it with experiences from the GeoBrain
database.

 MSheet release 8.2 (March 2010). Soil displacements calculated from De Leeuw tables are available for single pile. Importing CPT data in Geotechnical Exchange Format
(GEF) format is now possible: the automatic CPT interpretation includes two soil-type
dependent rules (acc. NEN 6740 or CUR 166), including all additional soil parameters. The Verification (EC7/CUR) module now includes also verification according to
the partial factors and method prescribed by the Dutch Annex of the Eurocode 7 (NEN,
september 2009).

 D-S HEET P ILING release 9.1 (January 2011). The name of the program has changed:
D-S HEET P ILING replaces MSheet. Performing calculations in batch is described in the
manual (section 5.4).

 D-S HEET P ILING release 9.2.1.5 (November 2011). It is possible to calculate the settlement due to vibration of the sheet piling (installing as well as uninstalling). The Belgian
annex NBN-EN 1997-1 ANB of the Eurocode 7 (NBN-EN, january 2011) is incorporated. Forces from layers acting on the sheet piling are given in the report. It is possible
to see the slide planes used to calculate the lambdas in c,phi,delta method. It is possible to change the colors of the materials. The stress state charts are available for a
verification calculation.

 D-S HEET P ILING release 9.2.3.2 (February 2013). A new class, called RC0, is added
to the Dutch Eurocode calculation, corresponding to the CUR class I for the design a
simple constructions. For vertical balance, the vertical forces due to active and passive
forces are taken by 1 m (this used to be the coating area), as prescribed in the CUR 166
recommendations. During a settlement by vibration calculation, it is possible to find the
settlements at points situated below the surface as well. For the Kranz calculation,
the loading due to anchor angle is now correctly calculated. When calculating soil
displacements with single pile, a few extra points close to the boundaries with the elastic
soil are calculated.

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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual

 D-S HEET P ILING release 9.3 (November 2013). For Eurocode 7 with Belgian annex,
it is possible to use design values in the selected stage but representative values in
the previous stages (see section 5.2.3.3), as prescribed in the Flemish norm "Standaardbestek 260" (SB260, 2012) relevant for the projects executed for the Flemish government. The yield forces and buckling forces must be inputted as design values (see
section 4.5.1 and section 4.5.2). The Eurocode 7 verification according to the Dutch
annex refers to NEN-EN 9997+C1:2012 (NEN, 2012). The Sheet Piling Library (section 4.2.3) has been updated with new profiles (Gooimeer, Heuvelman, ESC Pile China
LTD, Europile/STS, Gampet, Profextru). Two tutorials have been added in the user manual describing how to design the length of a synthetic wall (Tutorial 17 in chapter 24)
and how to model a synthetic wall with anchorage (Tutorial 18 in chapter 25).

 D-S HEET P ILING release 14.1 (July 2014). Several improvements concerns the Sheet

Piling Library:
The Sheet Piling Library has been updated with new profiles (Europile/STS, Profextru).
Cold formed sheet piles profiles are now available in the library with three qualities:
S 235, S 275 and S 355.
The maximum moment of synthetic profiles in the library is now a characteristic
value (without safety factor). During its importation, two factors are applied (the
modification factor kmod and the partial material factor M ) to get the design value
used in the calculation, see Figure 4.9.

The Verification calculation for EC7-General has been improved (names in the overview
table of the report and selection of method A or B). A warning message when starting
the program is displayed to attract the attention of the user on the importance of a good
estimation of the relative density for the calculated settlements by Vibration.

1.5

Limitations
When working with D-S HEET P ILING, the following limitations apply:

 Vertical elastic piling.


 Horizontal soil layers.
 Only diaphragm wall, sheet pile walls and single piles can be analyzed with D-S HEET P ILING.
To analyze pile groups, use the D-P ILE G ROUP program from Deltares Systems.

Minimum System Requirements


The following minimum system requirements are needed in order to run and install the D-S HEET P ILING
software, either from CD or by downloading from the Deltares Systems website via MS Internet Explorer:

 Operating systems:
    

Windows 2003,
Windows Vista,
Windows 7 32 bits
Windows 7 64 bits
Windows 8
 Hardware specifications:
1 GHz Intel Pentium processor or equivalent

1.6

Deltares

    

General Information
512 MB of RAM
400 MB free hard disk space
SVGA video card, 1024 768 pixels, High colors (16 bits)
CD-ROM drive
Microsoft Internet Explorer version 6.0 or newer (download from www.microsoft.
com)
For use of the Feasibility module an Internet connection is needed.

To display the D-S HEET P ILING Help texts properly, the Symbol TrueType font must be installed
on the system.

1.7

Definitions of symbols and Symbols

h
v
p, w
0
h0
v0
K,

Total horizontal soil stress (positive in compression)


Total vertical soil stress (positive in compression)
Pore water pressure
Effective vertical soil stress (positive in compression)
Effective horizontal soil stress (positive in compression)
Effective vertical soil stress (positive in compression)
Lateral earth pressure ratio: the ratio between the horizontal and vertical
stresses: K = =

K0
Ka
Kp
E
I
k , kb
K0
k1 , k2 . . .
K
w
W
X
B
Fv
Fmax

m;b
qc
Pr;max;point
Asteel

Deltares

h
v

Cohesion
The (Coulomb) friction angle of the soil (phi)
The (Coulomb) friction angle between the soil and sheet piling (delta)
Rotation of the sheet piling
Lateral earth pressure ratio at initial stress state (rest) for a horizontal ground
level: K0 = 1 sin
Lateral earth pressure ratio at active yielding (extension of soil)
Lateral earth pressure ratio at passive yielding (compression of soil)
Youngs Modulus
Moment of inertia
Modulus of subgrade reaction; stiffness of the soil bedding
Modulus of subgrade reaction for the unloading/reloading state
Descending values of the modulus of subgrade reaction during virgin loading
Permeability
Displacement
Section modulus
Co-ordinate along the axis of the sheet piling
Acting width of the sheet piling
Resulting vertical force
Vertical force capacity
Factor on the cone resistance
Partial material factor
Representative cone resistance
Maximum point resistance
Cross-sectional area of sheet piling per running meter

D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual


1.8

Getting Help
From the Help menu, choose the D-S HEET P ILING Help option, or press F1 for Help about the
window which is currently active.Help

Figure 1.5: D-S HEET P ILING Help window

In the window displayed (Figure 1.5), there are three ways (corresponding to three tabs) to
find a Help topic:
Contents

Click this button tab in the Help window for an overview of


the Table of Contents.

Searching by
word

Click this button to search for Help topics on the basis of


a specific word. D-S HEET P ILING will find the corresponding
Help topic from the list of the Index section (see at the end
of the document).

Searching by
word
(advanced)

Click this button to search for Help topics on the basis of


specific words. D-S HEET P ILING will find several corresponding Help topic that use those words in their description.

List Topics

In the Search tab, click this button to display a list of the


Help topics generated on the basis of the specific word
given.

Display

When a Help topic is selected, click this button to display its


content.

Hide/Show

Click this button to alternatively hide or show the searching


tabs Content, Index and Search.

Back

Click this button to go back to the previous selected Help


topic.

Print

Click this button to print the contents of the window.

10

Deltares

General Information

Options

Click this button to display the menu below (Figure 1.6).

Figure 1.6: Menu from the Options button of the D-S HEET-P ILING Help window

Hide/Show Tabs
Back
Forward
Home
Stop
Refresh
Internet Options
Print
Search Highlight
On/Off

Select this option to alternatively hide or show the searching tabs Content, Index and Search.
Select this option to go back to the previous selected Help topic.
Select this option to go forward to the preceding selected Help topic.
Select this option to go to the default internet home page.
Select this option to stop searching.
Select this option to refresh the content of the window.
Select this option to open the Internet Options window.
Select this option to print the contents of the window
Select this option to choose whether to highlight the search words
wherever they appear in the displayed text.

To display and print the Help texts properly, the Symbol TrueType font must be installed.

1.9

Getting Support
Deltares Systems tools are supported by Deltares. A group of 70 people in software development ensures continuous research and development. Support is provided by the developers
and if necessary by the appropriate Deltares experts. These experts can provide consultancy
backup as well.
If problems are encountered, the first step should be to consult the online Help at www.
deltaressystems.com menu Geo > Products. Different information about the program
can be found on the left-hand side of the window (Figure 1.7):

 In FAQ are listed the most frequently asked technical questions and their answers;
 In Release notes are listed the differences between an old and a new version;
 In Known issues are listed the bugs of the program;

Deltares

11

D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual

Figure 1.7: Deltares Systems website (www.deltaressystems.com)

If the solution cannot be found there, then the problem description can be e-mailed (preferred)
or faxed to the Deltares Systems Support team. When sending a problem description, please
add a full description of the working environment. To do this conveniently:

 Open the program.


 If possible, open a project that can illustrate the question.
 Choose the Support option in the Help menu. The System Info tab contains all relevant
information about the system and the software. The Problem Description tab enables a
description of the problem encountered to be added.

12

Deltares

General Information

Figure 1.8: Support window, Problem Description tab

 After clicking on the Send button, the Send Support E-Mail window opens, allowing
sending current file as an attachment. Marked or not the Attach current file to mail
check-box and click OK to send it.

Figure 1.9: Send Support E-Mail window

The problem report can either be saved to a file or sent to a printer or PC fax. The document
can be emailed to support@deltaressystems.nl or alternatively faxed to +31(0)88 335 8111.

1.10

Deltares
Since January 1st 2008, GeoDelft together with parts of Rijkswaterstaat /DWW, RIKZ and
RIZA, WL |Delft Hydraulics and a part of TNO Built Environment and Geosciences are forming the Deltares Institute, a new and independent institute for applied research and specialist advice. Founded in 1934, GeoDelft was one of the worlds most renowned institutes for
geotechnical and environmental research. As a Dutch national Grand Technological Institute
(GTI), Deltares role is to obtain, generate and disseminate geotechnical know-how. The institute is an international leader in research and consultancy into the behavior of soft soils
(sand clay and peat) and management of the geo-ecological consequences which arise from
these activities. Again and again subsoil related uncertainties and risks appear to be the key
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13

D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual


factors in civil engineering risk management. Having the processes to manage these uncertainties makes Deltares the obvious Partner in risk management for all parties involved in the
civil and environmental construction sector. Deltares teams are continually working on new
mechanisms, applications and concepts to facilitate the risk management process, the most
recent of which is the launch of the concept "GeoQ" into the geotechnical sector.
For more information on Deltares, visit the Deltares website: www.deltares.nl.

1.11

Deltares Systems
Deltares objective is to convert Deltares knowledge into practical geo-engineering services
and software. Deltares Systems has developed a suite of software for geotechnical engineering. Besides software, Deltares Systems is involved in providing services such as hosting online monitoring platforms, hosting on-line delivery of site investigation, laboratory test results,
etc. As part of this process Deltares Systems is progressively connecting these services to
their software. This allows for more standardized use of information, and the interpretation and
comparison of results. Most software is used as design software, following design standards.
This however, does not guarantee a design that can be executed successfully in practice, so
automated back-analyses using monitoring information are an important aspect in improving
geotechnical engineering results. The Feasibility module for D-S HEET P ILING confronts users
with experience data for vibrational sheet pile wall installation in practice. Feasibility module, such as the one used with D-S HEET P ILING, are the result of Deltares R&D for GeoBrain.
GeoBrains objective is to combine experience, expertise and numerical results into one forecast, using Artificial Intelligence, Neural Networks and Bayesian Belief Networks. For more
information about Deltares Systems geotechnical software, including download options, visit
www.deltaressystems.com.

1.12

Rijkswaterstaat
Rijkswaterstaat (RWS) is part of the Dutch Ministry for Traffic, Public Works and Water Management. RWSs tasks include the regulation, construction, management and maintenance
of public works. By supporting the development of D-S HEET P ILING, RWS is facilitating the
uniform and reliable design of sheet pile walls.
For more information on RWS, visit www.minvenw.nl.

1.13

On-line software (Citrix)


Besides purchased software, Deltares Systems tools are available as an on-line service. The
input can be created over the internet. Heavy duty calculation servers at Deltares guarantee
quick analysis, while results are presented on-line. Users can view and print results as well
as locally store project files. Once connected, clients are charged by the hour. For more
information, please contact the Deltares Sales team: sales@deltaressystems.nl.

14

Deltares

2 Getting Started
This Getting Started chapter aims to familiarize the user with the structure and user interface
of D-S HEET P ILING. The Tutorial section which follows uses a selection of case studies to
introduce the programs functions.

2.1

Starting D-S HEET P ILING


To start D-S HEET P ILING, click Start on the Windows menu bar and then find it under Programs,
or double-click a D-S HEET P ILING input file that was generated during a previous session. For
a D-S HEET P ILING installation based on floating licenses, the Modules window may appear at
start-up (Figure 2.1). Check that the correct modules are selected and click OK.

Figure 2.1: Modules window

When D-S HEET P ILING is started from the Windows menu bar, the last project that was worked
on will open automatically, unless the program has been configured otherwise under Tools:
Program Options.

2.2

Main Window
When D-S HEET P ILING is started, the main window is displayed (Figure 2.2). This window
contains a menu bar (section 2.2.1), an icon bar (section 2.2.2), an Input Diagram window
(section 2.2.3) that displays the pre-selected or most recently accessed project, a stage composer (section 2.2.4), an info bar (section 2.2.5), a title panel (section 2.2.6) and a status bar
(section 2.2.7).
The caption of the main window of D-S HEET P ILING displays the program name, followed by
the model. When a new file is created, the default model is Sheet Piling and the project name
is Project1.

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15

D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual

Figure 2.2: D-S HEET P ILING main window

2.2.1

Menu bar
To access the D-S HEET P ILING menus, click the menu names on the menu bar.

Figure 2.3: D-S HEET P ILING menu bar

The menus contain the following functions:


File

Project
Construction
Soil
Loads
Supports
Stages

16

Standard Windows options for opening and saving files as well as several D-S HEET P ILING options for exporting and printing active windows
and reports (section 3.1).
Options for selecting the project model, defining partial factors and
properties, and viewing the input file (section 4.1).
Options for defining the sheet pile/diaphragm wall, or single pile (section 4.2).
Options for defining ground surfaces, the properties and profiles of the
soil layers, water levels and water properties (section 4.3).
Options for defining distributed surcharge, forces, moments and prescribed soil displacements (section 4.4).
Options for defining anchors, struts, rigid supports and springs (section 4.5).
Options for defining construction stages (for sheet pile walls) and viewing/defining the applied loads, supports and water levels for each stage
(section 4.6).

Deltares

Getting Started

Calculation

Results

Feasibility
Tools
Window
Help

Analysis of the following, based on input values: resulting moments,


forces, displacements and stresses, stability analysis with decreasing
length of sheet piling; determining design values for the moment, anchor force and displacement according to the CUR step-by-step design procedure; checking anchor wall stability; checking overall stability
(chapter 5).
Options for displaying and creating reports on moments, displacements, shear forces, pore water pressures, effective horizontal stress
and total horizontal stress, in addition to the results of verification and
design calculations (chapter 6).
Feasibility comparison of the project using NVAF lines or the GeoBrain
database of experiences (chapter 7).
Options for editing D-S HEET P ILING program defaults and accessing the
piling library (section 3.2).
Default Windows options for arranging the D-S HEET P ILING windows
and choosing the active window.
Online Help options (section 1.8).

Detailed descriptions of these menu options can be found in the Reference section.

2.2.2

Icon bar
Use the buttons on the icon bar to quickly access frequently used functions (see below).

Figure 2.4: D-S HEET P ILING icon bar

Click on the following buttons to activate the corresponding functions:


Start a new D-S HEET P ILING project.
Open the input file of an existing project.
Save the input file of the current project.
Print the contents of the currently active window.
Display a print preview of the current contents of the Input Diagram window.
Open the Project Properties window. Here the project title and other identification
data can be entered, and the Diagram Settings and Graph Settings for the project
can be determined.
Open the Stages Overview window. The contents of each construction stage can be
composed here by selecting or deselecting the loads and supports that are available,
choosing the computation method, entering water levels, and more.
Open the Sheet Piling or Pile window (depending on the model being used), containing the properties of the sheet pile wall or single pile.
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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual

Start the main calculation.


Display the contents of online Help.
Display the first page of the Deltares Systems website: www.deltaressystems.

com

2.2.3

Input Diagram window


The Input Diagram window graphically displays the input for a selected stage.

Figure 2.5: Input Diagram window

In the upper part of the window, select one of the stages defined previously. The selected
stage will also be used in the Stage Composer (see below). Click on the buttons in the upper
part to activate the corresponding functions:
Duplicate the current stage:
Click the plus button to copy the selected stage to a new stage.
Previous stage and Next stage:
Click the arrow buttons to browse through the stages.
Rename stage:
Click this button to rename the current stage.

Double clicking in the window on items such as layers, supports and loads will open the
corresponding input windows.

18

Deltares

Getting Started
Note: In the Input Diagram window, only half of the inputted height of the anchor wall is drawn
(between the anchor rod and the bottom of the anchor wall).
Click on the buttons in the Edit or Tools panel to activate the corresponding functions:
Select and Edit
In this mode, the left-hand mouse button can be used to select previously defined
supports, loads and layers in the Input Diagram. Items can then be deleted or
modified by dragging or resizing, or by clicking the right hand mouse button and
choosing an option from the menu displayed. Pressing the Escape key will return
the user to this Select and Edit mode.
Pan button
Click this button to move the drawing by clicking and dragging the mouse.
Zoom in button
Click this button to enlarge the drawing, and then click on the drawing on the part
which is to be at the center of the new image.
Zoom out button
Click this button, then click on the drawing, to reduce the drawing.
Zoom area button
Click this button then click and drag a rectangle over the area to be enlarged. The
selected area will be enlarged to fit the window.
Measure the distance between two points
Click this button, then click the first point on the Input Diagram window and place
the cross on the second point. The distance between the two points can be read at
the bottom of the Input View window. To turn this option off, click the escape key.
Add anchor button
Click this button to add an anchor.
Add strut button
Click this button to add a strut.
Add uniform load button
Click this button to add a uniform surface load.
Add surcharge load button
Click this button to add a non-uniform surface load.
Add horizontal line load button
Click this button to add a horizontal line load or horizontal force.
Add moment button
Click this button to add a moment load.
Add spring support button
Click this button to add a spring support to reduce horizontal displacement.
Add rigid support button
Click this button to add a rigid support to prevent horizontal displacement.
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19

D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual

Undo Zoom button


Click this button to undo the zoom.
Zoom limits button
Click this button to display the complete drawing.

For more information, see section 4.3.4, section 4.4 and section 4.5.

2.2.4

Stage Composer
Use the Stage Composer to connect input data to the stage selected in the Input Diagram
window. The Stage Composer can also be used to access input windows.

Figure 2.6: Stage Composer

The Stage Composer is part of the main window, and consists of two separate boxes:
Upper
Box:
Lower
Box:

The upper box contains all of the input options. For loads and supports, this
box also indicates the number of defined loads or supports applied in the
selected stage, in relation to the total number of loads defined.
The lower box displays an overview of the input that has been defined. A
check-mark indicates that the input data has been linked to the selected
stage.
Click this button to display the Help topic of the selected input option.

20

Deltares

Getting Started
Connect to Stages
When one of the input options is selected in the upper box (single click), an overview of
available input will appear in the lower box. To connect input to a particular stage, select a
stage in the Input Diagram window and use the check-boxes in the lower box to select the
input that applies to the selected stage.
Note: The Stages Overview window (section 4.6.2) can also be used to connect input to
stages.

Opening Input windows


Double-click one of the input options in the upper box to display an input window in which
input data can be entered or adapted. The same menus are also available on the menu bar.

Using the pop-up menu


Right-click anywhere in the lower box to open the pop-up menu. This menu presents four
options to quickly select or deselect check-boxes for the available stages.

Figure 2.7: Pop-up menu

Select All

Deselect All

Apply to All
Stages
Apply from this
Stages On

2.2.5

Selects all loads or supports of the type selected in the upper box for
the current construction stage. This action is equivalent to marking all
the check-boxes one by one.
Deselects all loads or supports of the type selected in the upper box for
the current construction stage. This action is equivalent to unmarking
all the check-boxes one by one.
Marks all the check-boxes for all construction stages exactly the same
way as for the current stage.
Marks all the check-boxes for all construction stages higher than the
current one exactly the same way as for the current stage.

Info bar
This bar situated at the bottom of the Input Diagram window displays the co-ordinates of the
current position of the cursor and the distance between two points when the icon Measure the
distance between two points
is selected from the Edit panel.

2.2.6

Title panel
This panel situated at the bottom of the main window displays the project titles, as entered on
the Identification tab in the Project Properties window (section 4.1.3).

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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual


2.2.7

Status bar
This bar situated at the bottom of the main window displays a description of the selected icon
of the icon bar (section 2.2.2) or of the Input Diagram window (section 2.2.3).

2.3

Files
*.dis
*.dxf

*.err
*.gef
*.geo

*.html
*.shd
*.shi

*.shl
*.sho

*.shs

*.sti

*.pdf
*.rtf
*.txt
*.wmf

22

Displacement file (ASCII):


Contains the calculated displacements from De Leeuw tables.
Drawing Exchange Format file (ASCII):
Export file, containing the image of the current window (input diagram or output
charts and diagrams) within an added picture frame. Files of this type can be
used to import the image into applications such as AutoCAD.
Error file (ASCII):
If there are any errors in the input, they are described in this file.
Geotechnical Exchange Format file (ASCII): Contains CPT-data.
Geometry file (ASCII):
Export file for the Deltares Systems geo-softwares, containing a description of
the geometry.
HTML-files:
Export file for reports.
Dump file (ASCII):
Contains calculation results used for graphical and report output.
Input file (ASCII):
Contains the input with the problem definition. After interactive generation, this
file can be reused in subsequent D-S HEET P ILING analyses.
Earth pressure coefficient file (binary):
Working file with information on the lateral earth pressure coefficients.
Output file (ASCII):
After a calculation has been performed, all output is written to this file. If there
are any errors in the input, they are described in this file.
Setting file (ASCII):
Working file with settings data. This file doesnt contain any information that is
relevant for the calculation, but only settings that apply to the representation of
the data, such as the grid size.
D-G EO S TABILITY input file (ASCII):
Export file for D-G EO S TABILITY (formerly known as MStab), containing the input
data needed for a stability calculation in D-G EO S TABILITY.
Adobe PDF-files:
Export file for reports.
Rich text format\-files:
Export file for reports.
ASCII-text-files:
Export file for reports.
Windows Meta File (binary):
Export file for images, for instance containing the image of the current Top View
Foundation window within an added picture frame. Files of this type can be used
to import the image into applications such as Microsoft Word.

Deltares

Getting Started
2.4
2.4.1

Tips and Tricks


Keyboard shortcuts
Use the keyboard shortcuts given in Table 2.1 to directly open a window without selecting the
option from the menu bar.
Table 2.1: Keyboard shortcuts for D-S HEET P ILING

Keyboard shortcut
Ctrl + N
Ctrl + O
Ctrl + S
F12
Shift + Ctrl + C
Ctrl + P
Ctrl + M
Ctrl + H
Ctrl + U
Ctrl + T
Ctrl + I
Ctrl + W
F9
Ctrl + R
F1

2.4.2

Opened window
New
Open
Save
Save As
Copy Active Window to Clipboard
Print Report
Model
Sheet Piling
Surfaces
Soil Materials
Profiles
Stages Overview
Start Calculation
Report
D-S HEET P ILING Help

Exporting figures and reports


All figures in D-S HEET P ILING such as geometry and graphical output can be exported in WMF
(Windows Meta Files) format. In the File menu, select the option Export Active Window to
save the figures in a file. This file can be later imported in a Word document for example
or added as annex in a report. The option Copy Active Window to Clipboard from the File
menu can also be used to copy directly the figure in a Word document. The report can be
entirely exported as PDF (Portable Document Format) or RTF (Rich Text Format) file. To look
at a PDF file Adobe Reader can be used. An RTF file can be opened and edited with word
processors like MS Word. Before exporting the report, a selection of the relevant parts can be
done with the option Report Selection (section 6.1).

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23

D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual


2.4.3

Copying part of a table


It is possible to copy part of a table in another document, an Excel sheet for example. If the
cursor is placed on the left-hand side of a cell of the table, the cursor changes in an arrow
which points from bottom left to top right. Select a specific area by using the mouse (see a)
in Figure 2.8). Then, using the copy button (or ctrl+C) this area can be copied.

a)

b)

c)

d)
Figure 2.8: Selection of different parts of a table using the arrow cursor

To select a row, click on the cell before the row number (see b) in Figure 2.8). To select a
column, click on the top cell of the column (see c) in Figure 2.8). To select the complete table,
click on the top left cell (see d) in Figure 2.8). In some tables the button Copy is also present
at the left hand pane.

24

Deltares

3 General
This chapter contains a detailed description of the available menu options for inputting data
for a sheet pile or diaphragm wall project, and for calculating and viewing the results. The
examples in the tutorial section provide a convenient starting point for familiarization with the
program.

3.1

File menu
Besides the familiar Windows options for opening and saving files, the File menu contains a
number of options specific to D-S HEET P ILING:

 Copy Active Window to Clipboard


Use this option to copy the contents of the active window to the Windows clipboard so
that they can be pasted into another application. The contents will be pasted in either
text format or Windows Meta File format.

 Export Active Window

Open to open the file containing the exported window;

Open Folder to open the folder where the file was saved;

Use this option to export the contents of the active window (input diagram or output
charts and diagrams) as a Windows Meta File (*.wmf), a Drawing Exchange File (*.dxf)
or a text file (*.txt). After clicking the Save button in the Export to window, the Export
complete window opens displaying three choices:

Close to close the Export complete window.

 Export Report
This option allows the report to be exported in a different format, such as pdf, rtf or html
format.

 Page Setup
This option allows definition of the way D-S HEET P ILING plots and reports are to be
printed. The printer, paper size, orientation and margins can be defined as well as
whether and where axes are required for plots. Click Autofit to get D-S HEET P ILING to
choose the best fit for the page.

 Print Preview Active Window


This option will display a print preview of the current contents of the Input Diagram or
Results window.

 Print Active Window


This option prints the current contents of the Input Diagram or Results window.

 Print Preview Report


This option will display a print preview of the calculation report.

 Print Report
This option prints the calculation report.

3.2

Tools menu

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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual


3.2.1

Program Options
On the menu bar, click Tools and then choose Options to open the corresponding input window. In this window, the user can optionally define their own preferences for some of the
programs default values.

View

Figure 3.1: Program Options window, View tab

Toolbar Status bar


Title panel

Mark the relevant check-box to display the toolbar and/or status


bar each time D-S HEET P ILING is started.
Mark this check-box to display the project titles, as entered on the
Identification tab, in a panel at the bottom of the Input Diagram
window.

General

26

Deltares

General

Figure 3.2: Program Options window, General tab

Start-up with

Save on calculation

Use Enter key to

Feasibility

Deltares

Click one of these toggle buttons to determine how a project


should be initiated each time D-S HEET P ILING is started.
No project: Use the buttons in the toolbar or the options in the
File menu to open an existing project or to start a new one.
Last used project: The last project to be worked on is opened
automatically.
New project: A new project is created comprising a sheet pile
wall with a "dummy" soil layer on both sides.
Note that the Start-up with option is ignored when
D-S HEET P ILING is started by double-clicking on an input
file.
The toggle buttons determine how input data is saved prior to
calculation. It can either be saved automatically, using the same
file name each time, or a file name can be specified every time
the data is saved.
Use the toggle buttons to determine the way the Enter key is
used in D-S HEET P ILING: either as an equivalent of pressing the
default button (Windows style) or to shift the focus to the next
item in a window (for users accustomed to the DOS version(s) of
the program).
To use the Feasibility module, the user has to enter an identification name under User ID and a Password. Both will be provided
by Deltares Systems only for users with a license including the
use of the Feasibility module. Please contact the support team
at support@deltaressystems.nl to get them.

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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual


Locations

Figure 3.3: Program Options window, Locations tab

Working directory

Directory for user defined pile library

D-S HEET P ILING will start up with a working directory for selection
and saving of files. Either choose to use the last used directory,
or specify a fixed path.
Define the location of the file DSheetPilingProfilesUser.xml. This
file contains the user-defined library with piles and sheet piling
(section 4.2.3).

Language
In this tab, the language to be used in the D-S HEET P ILING windows and on printouts can be
selected.

Figure 3.4: Program Options window, Language tab

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General

Interface language
Output language

Currently, the only available interface language is English.


Two output languages are supported: English and Dutch. The
selected output language will be used in all exported reports and
graphs.

Modules

Figure 3.5: Program Options window, Modules tab

For a D-S HEET P ILING installation based on floating licenses, the Modules tab can be used to
claim a license for the particular modules that are to be used. If the Show at start of program
check-box is marked then this window will always be shown at start-up.
For a D-S HEET P ILING installation based on a license dongle, the Modules tab will just show
the modules that may be used.

3.2.2

Profiles Library
Refer to section 4.2.3 for a detailed description of this window.

3.3

Help menu
The Help menu allows access to different options.

3.3.1

D-S HEET P ILING Help


Get on-line help using the D-S HEET P ILING Help option (refer to section 1.8 for a detailed
description of this window);

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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual


3.3.2

Error Messages
If errors are found in the input, no calculation can be performed. Those errors must be corrected before performing a new calculation. To display details about those error messages,
select the Error Messages option from the Help menu. They are also written in the *.err file.
They will be overwritten the next time a calculation is started.

Figure 3.6: Error Messages window

A list of all possible error messages is given in section 5.5.

3.3.3

Manual
Select the Manual option from the Help menu to view the manual.

3.3.4

Deltares Systems Website


Select Deltares Systems Website option from the Help menu to visit the Deltares Systems
Website (www.deltaressystems.com) for the latest news.

3.3.5

Support
Use the Support option from the Help menu to open the Support window in which program
errors can be registered. Refer to section 1.9 for a detailed description of this window.

3.3.6

About D-S HEET P ILING


Use the About option from the Help menu to display the About D-S HEET P ILING window which
provides software information (for example the version of the software).

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4 Input
Before analysis can be started, datas for the sheet pile wall, soil, loads and supports need to
be inputted.

4.1

Project menu
Each project starts with the selection of an analysis model and the entry of general details
about the project.

4.1.1

Model
On the menu bar, click Project and then choose Model to open the input window. In this
window the required analysis models can be selected.

Figure 4.1: Model window

Model

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Select the Sheet piling option for analysis of sheet pile or diaphragm
walls.
or
Select the Single pile option for analysis of horizontally loaded piles.
The single pile option is only available in combination with the corresponding module (section 3.2.1).

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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual

Sheet piling

Single pile

4.1.2

Soil parameters model


Select the method for input of the lateral earth pressure ratio:
 the Ka , K0 , Kp basic model
 the c, phi, delta model (Culmann)
 the Mixed model to allow selection of the method for each stage
and side of the wall, using the Stages Overview window (section 4.6.2).
The Ka , K0 , Kp method gives constant earth pressure coefficients
over a soil layer, whilst the Culmann method allows them to vary. The
Culmann method also allows calculation for non-horizontal surfaces
and non-uniform loads. The C, phi, delta model is only available in
combination with the corresponding module (section 3.2.1).
Options
Mark the Check vertical balance check-box to perform a vertical
balance check.
Mark the Verification (EC7/CUR) check-box to enable the special
calculation functions for sheet piling design according to the Eurocode
7 and the CUR 166 model guidelines. This option is only available in
combination with the corresponding module (section 3.2.1).
Mark the Settlement by vibration check-box to calculate the surface
settlements during the installation of a sheet piling by vibration. Refer
to chapter 38 for background information.
Select the type of pile loading: forces or soil displacements. In case
of pile loaded by soil displacements, the soil displacements can be
either user input or automatically calculated using De Leeuw tables
(section 36.1.1).

User Defined Partial Factors


On the menu bar, click Project and then choose User Defined Partial Factors. This option
is only available if the Verification (EC7/CUR) option has be selected in the Model window
(section 4.1.1). In this window the user-defined partial factors used for the design according
to the following standard can be defined:






32

(section 4.1.2.1) the general rules of the European standard EuroCode 7;


(section 4.1.2.2) the Dutch annex of the European standard EuroCode 7;
(section 4.1.2.3) the Dutch design code CUR 166;
(section 4.1.2.4) the Belgian annex of the European standard EuroCode 7.

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Input
4.1.2.1

Eurocode 7 General
In this window (Figure 4.2) the defaults partial factors prescribed in EuroCode 7, Part 1:
General rules (NEN-EN, March 2005) are given and can be modified by the user. Those
partial factors are used for the following verification methods according to EuroCode:

 Design Sheet Piling Length (section 5.2.2)


 Verify Sheet Piling (section 5.2.3)
 Overall Stability (section 5.2.5)
The General document of the Eurocode 7 (NEN-EN, March 2005) distinguishes three different
design approaches: 1, 2 or 3.

Figure 4.2: User Defined Partial Factors window, EC7 General tab

Factors on loads

Enter the user defined partial factor applied to the different kind of
loads:
 permanent unfavorable load,
 permanent favorable load,
 variable unfavorable load,
 variable favorable load.

Factors on effect
of the loads

Enter the user defined partial factor applied to the effect of the loads:
 Factor on effect of load corresponds to the effect of permanent
loads (unfavorable and favorable) and variable favorable loads.
 Factor on variable load, unfavorable corresponds to the effect of
variable unfavorable loads.

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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual

Material factors
Overall
factors

stability

Resistance factors
Geometry modification

Enter the user defined partial factor applied to the cohesion and the
tangent value of the friction angle.
Enter the user defined partial factor applied to:
 the driving moment,
 the cohesion,
 the tangent value of the friction angle,
used during the Overall Stability verification (chapter 31).
Enter the user defined partial factor applied to the bearing capacity and
the earth resistance.
Enter the user defined surface level at the passive side: the level of the
resisting soil is lowered below the expected level by an amount equal
to the Increase retaining height percentage of the distance between
the lowest support and the excavation level, limited to a maximum (i.e.
Maximum increase retaining height).
Click this button to reset all values to the default values prescribed in
the EuroCode 7 - Part 1: General rules.

Note: The default values prescribed by Eurocode 7 are written at the left of each input area
of the User Defined Partial Factors window. If modified, the value appears in red color.
Note: According to Eurocode 7 partial factors can be applied either on the loads themselves
or on their effect. D-S HEET P ILING allows the user to choose between those two options in the
Verify Sheet Piling tab of the Start Calculation window (section 5.2.3).
For background information on EuroCode, see chapter 34.

4.1.2.2

Eurocode 7 Dutch Annex


In this window (Figure 4.2) the defaults partial factors prescribed in the Dutch Annex of the
Eurocode 7 (NEN, 2012) are given and can be modified by the user. Those partial factors are
used for the following verification methods according to Eurocode 7 NL:

 Design Sheet Piling Length (section 5.2.2)


 Verify Sheet Piling (section 5.2.3)
 Overall Stability (section 5.2.5)
The Dutch Annex of the Eurocode 7 distinguishes three different classes: RC 1, RC 2 or RC 3.

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Input

Figure 4.3: User Defined Partial Factors window, EC7 NL tab

Factors on loads

Enter the user defined partial factor applied to the different kind of
loads:
 permanent unfavorable load,
 permanent favorable load,
 variable unfavorable load,
 variable favorable load.

Material factors

Enter the user defined partial factor applied to:


 the cohesion,
 the tangent value of the friction angle,
 the modulus of subgrade reaction.

Geometry modification

(Maximum) Increase retaining height


Enter the user defined surface level at the passive side: the level of the
resisting soil is lowered below the expected level by an amount equal
to the Increase retaining height percentage of the distance between
the lowest support and the excavation level, limited to a maximum (i.e.
Maximum increase retaining height).
Change in phreatic line on passive side
Enter the user defined change in height applied to the phreatic line level
on the passive side.
Raise in phreatic line on active side
Enter the user defined increase in height applied to the phreatic line
level on the active side.

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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual

Overall
factors

stability

Vertical balance
factors

Enter the user defined partial factor applied to the soil properties:
 the cohesion,
 the tangent value of the friction angle,
 the (saturated and unsaturated) unit weight,
used during the Overall Stability verification (chapter 31).
Enter the user defined partial factor applied on the material. This input
is available only if the Check vertical balance check-box was enabled
in the Model window (section 4.1.1).
Click this button to reset all values to the default values prescribed in
the Dutch Annex of the Eurocode 7.

Note: The default values prescribed by the Dutch Annex of the Eurocode 7 are written at
the left of each input area of the User Defined Partial Factors window. If modified, the value
appears in red color.
Note: The default values prescribed by the Dutch Annex of the Eurocode 7 for RC 1 and RC 2
correspond to those of safety classes respectively II and III of the CUR recommendations,
except for the factor on driving moment in case of overall stability.

4.1.2.3

Eurocode 7 Belgian Annex


In this window (Figure 4.4) the defaults partial factors prescribed in the Belgian Annex NBNEN 1997-1 ANB of the Eurocode 7 (NBN-EN, january 2011) are given and can be modified
by the user. Those partial factors are used for the following verification methods according to
EC7 B:

 Design Sheet Piling Length (section 5.2.2)


 Verify Sheet Piling (section 5.2.3)
 Overall Stability (section 5.2.5)
In its national annex, Belgium selected Design Approach 1. Therefore, verification is performed only for the two combinations of DA1: set 1 and set 2.

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Input

Figure 4.4: User Defined Partial Factors window, EC7 B tab

Factors on loads

Enter the user defined partial factor applied to the different kind of
loads:
 permanent unfavorable load,
 permanent favorable load,- variable unfavorable load,
 variable favorable load.

Factors on effect
of the loads

Enter the user defined partial factor applied to the effect of the loads:
 Factor on effect of load corresponds to the effect of permanent
loads (unfavorable and favorable) and variable favorable loads.
 Factor on variable load, unfavorable corresponds to the effect of
variable unfavorable loads.

Material factors

Enter the user defined partial factor applied to the cohesion and the
tangent value of the friction angle.
Enter the user defined partial factor applied to the bearing capacity and
the earth resistance.
Enter the user defined surface level at the passive side: the level of the
resisting soil is lowered below the expected level by an amount equal
to the Increase retaining height percentage of the distance between
the lowest support and the excavation level, limited to a maximum (i.e.
Maximum increase retaining height).

Resistance factors
Geometry modification

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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual

Overall
factors

stability

Enter the user defined partial factor applied to the soil properties:
 the cohesion,
 the tangent value of the friction angle,
 the (saturated and unsaturated) unit weight,
used during the Overall Stability verification (chapter 31).
Click this button to reset all values to the default values prescribed in
the Belgian Annex of the Eurocode 7.

Note: The default values prescribed by the Belgian Annex of the Eurocode 7 are written at
the left of each input area of the User Defined Partial Factors window. If modified, the value
appears in red color.

4.1.2.4

CUR
In this window (Figure 4.5) the defaults partial factors prescribed in the CUR 166 Dutch design code are given and can be modified by the user. Those partial factors are used for the
following verification methods according to CUR 166:

 Design Sheet Piling Length (section 5.2.2)


 Verify Sheet Piling (section 5.2.3)
 Overall Stability (section 5.2.5)
The CUR 166 Dutch design procedure distinguishes three different safety classes called
Class I, Class II and Class III which differ by their reliability indexes, see section 33.1.

Figure 4.5: User Defined Partial Factors window, CUR tab

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Input

Factors on loads

Enter the user defined partial factor applied to the different kind of
loads:
 permanent unfavorable load,
 permanent favorable load,
 variable unfavorable load,
 variable favorable load.

Material factors

Enter the user defined partial factor applied to:


 the cohesion,
 the tangent value of the friction angle,
 the modulus of subgrade reaction.

Geometry modification

Reduction in surface level on passive side


Enter the user defined reduction in height applied to the surface level
on the passive side.
Change in phreatic line on passive side
Enter the user defined change in height applied to the phreatic line level
on the passive side.
Raise in phreatic line on active side
Enter the user defined increase in height applied to the phreatic line
level on the active side.
Enter the user defined partial factor applied to:
 the driving moment,
 the cohesion,
 the tangent value of the friction angle,
calculated or used during the Overall Stability verification (chapter 31).

Overall
factors

stability

Vertical balance
factors

Enter the user defined partial factor applied on the material. This input
is available only if the Check vertical balance check-box was enabled
in the Model window (section 4.1.1).
Click this button to reset all values to the default values prescribed in
CUR 166.

Note: The default values prescribed by CUR 166 (CUR, 2005) are written at the left of each
input area of the User Defined Partial Factors window. If modified, the value appears in red
color.
For background information on CUR 166 design method, see chapter 33.

4.1.3

Project Properties
On the menu bar, click Project and then choose Properties to open the input window. The
Project Properties window contains four tabs, which allow the settings for the current project
to be changed.

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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual


Project Properties Identification
Use the Identification tab to specify the project identification data.

Figure 4.6: Project Properties window, Identification tab

Titles

Date

Drawn by
Project ID
Annex ID

Use Title 1 to give the project a unique, easily recognizable name. Title
2 and Title 3 can be added to indicate specific characteristics of the
calculation. The three titles will be included on printed output.
The date entered here will be used on printouts and graphic plots for
this project. Either mark the Use current date check-box to automatically use the current date on each printout, or enter a specific date.
Enter the name of the user performing the calculation or generating the
printout.
Enter a project identification number.
Specify the annex number of the printout.

Mark the check-box Save as default to use these settings every time D-S HEET P ILING is started
or a new project is created.

Project Properties Diagram Settings


Use the Diagram Settings tab to specify the availability of components in the main window
and the layout settings for the Input Diagram window.

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Input

Figure 4.7: Project Properties window, Diagram Settings tab

Rulers
Large cursor
Info bar
Grid
Snap to Grid

Grid distance
Same scale for x
and y axis
Identification
names
Loads
Supports
Level markers
Material colors

Layers

Overall scale

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Mark this check-box to display the horizontal and vertical rulers.


Mark this check-box to use the large cross hair cursor instead of the
small one.
Mark this check-box to display the information bar at the bottom of the
Input Diagram window.
Mark this check-box to display a grid in each Input Diagram window.
Mark this check-box to ensure that objects align to the grid automatically when they are moved or positioned in a drawing window. This
option applies only to graphical input.
Use this field to set the distance between grid points.
Mark this check-box to use the same scale for the horizontal and vertical directions.
Mark this check-box to display the names of the soil layers in the Input
Diagram window.
Mark this check-box to display loads in the Input Diagram window. This
option is available only for a sheet pile wall or a pile loaded by forces.
Mark this check-box to display supports in the Input Diagram window.
Mark this check-box to display the markers of the phreatic levels (right
and left) and the different layers levels.
Mark this check-box to display each soil material using a different color.
It is recommended that this option is deselected if printouts are to be
photo-copied or faxed.
This option can only be used if the check-box Identification names has
been marked. Soil layers may be identified by their material name, their
index in the list of materials, or their index in the list of layers in the soil
profile.
Use these toggle buttons to indicate whether the calculated quantities
such as the stresses, displacements, moments and transverse forces
are to be displayed using a scale based upon the maximum values for
each phase (OFF) or the maximum values over all construction stages
(ON).

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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual


Project Properties Chart Settings
Use the Chart Settings tab to specify the display settings for the graphic representation of
calculation results chapter 6.

Figure 4.8: Project Properties window, Chart Settings tab

Layer
boundaries
Material colors
Draw layer over
full width
Envelope
displaying overall
minimum
and
maximum
Draw level markers
Draw sheet piling elements
Identification
names
Overall scale

4.1.4

Mark this check-box to display dotted lines between soil boundaries.


Mark this check-box to display material using different colors.
Mark this check-box to draw layers over the full width of the chart.
Mark this check-box to display a gray line showing the maximum and
minimum values for all stages.

Mark this check-box to display the markers of the phreatic levels (right
and left) and the different layers levels.
Mark this check-box to display the sheet piling element, with its name
beside.
Mark this check-box to display the names of the soil layers.
Use these toggle buttons to indicate whether the calculated quantities
such as the stresses, displacements, moments and transverse forces
are to be displayed using a scale based upon the maximum values for
each phase (Off) or the maximum values over all construction stages
(On).

View Input File


On the menu bar, click Project and then choose View Input File to display an overview of the
input data.
The data will be displayed in the D-S HEET P ILING main window. Click on the Print Active
to print the file.
Window icon

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Input
4.2

Construction menu
Every new analysis starts with the input of data on the sheet piling, combined wall or single
pile. This data will apply to every construction stage.

4.2.1

Regular sheet piling


The Sheet Piling window is available in the Construction menu only if the Sheet piling model
in the Model window (section 4.1.1) is selected. On the menu bar, click Construction and then
choose Sheet Piling to open the input window for regular sheet piling. Combined walls can
also be generated via a special wizard.
First, the top level of the sheet piling is entered. Next, click the Insert row button
to insert a
new row or click the Add row button
to add one. The stiffness and/or acting width for each
to paste the complete content from
section can be varied. Alternatively, use the Paste icon
an external source into the table.

Figure 4.9: Sheet Piling window

If the Check vertical balance option in the Model window of (section 4.1.1) is selected, the
Sheet Piling window displayed (Figure 4.10) is different from Figure 4.9, as new input data
are needed in the vertical balance check.

Figure 4.10: Sheet Piling window (vertical balance check)

Sheet piling top


level
Combined Wall
Deltares

Enter the top level of the sheet piling in relation to a freely chosen
reference level.
See section 4.2.2.
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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual

Import profile
from library
Name
Material type

Section bottom
level

Stiffness EI

Acting width

Charac.
moment
Rep.
moment

Modification
factor

Material
factor

Reduction factor
EI
Design
moment

This option allows the name and bending stiffness of the section to be
selected from a library. The library contains the standard profiles of different manufacturers and additional user-defined ones (section 4.2.3).
The default name of the section can be changed here if desired.
Select the material of the sheet piling from the available drop-down list:
User defined, Steel, Concrete, Wood, Synthetic. D-S HEET P ILING will
automatically determine the value of the material factor M as given in
the Dutch norm, except for User defined for which M must be entered
by the user.
Enter the vertical co-ordinate of the bottom of the sheet piling, in relation to the reference level. Use several sections if the bending stiffness
varies along the vertical axis of the sheet piling.
Note: Sheet piling length may not be larger than 100 m.
Enter the bending stiffness of the section (product of Youngs Modulus
E and moment of inertia I ) per running meter if it has not already been
imported from a library.
The acting width can be used when the effective width changes along
the sheet piling (section 37.1.1).
D-S HEET P ILING uses the acting width as a multiplication factor for the
sheet piling stiffness and all loads, supports and reactions, except the
normal force, see Equation 26.1 in chapter 26 .
Enter the characteristic value (i.e. without safety factors) of the allowable moment Mcharac .
The representative value of the allowable moment Mrep is automatically
calculated by the program using the following formula:

Mrep = Mcharac kmod


where kmod is the modification factor, see below.
Enter the modification factor kmod to count for duration life of the synthetic material. For long term situation, the Dutch norm NEN 6702
prescribes a modification factor of 0.45 and for short term situation, a
factor of 0.5.
Enter the material factor M , only if the User defined material type is
selected. Otherwise, the program will automatically apply the following factor (acc. to the Dutch norm) to calculate the design allowable
moment:
 For steel, M = 1
 For concrete, M = 1.1
 For wood, M = 1
 For synthetic, M = 1.2
Enter the reduction factor applied to the stiffness EI .
The design value of the maximum allowable moment Mdesign is automatically calculated by the program using the following formula:

Mdesign =

Mrep
M

This limit value is used in the diagram of the moment to help the user
to check if the maximum design moment is reached or not, see section 6.3.1.

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Input

Reduction factor
maximum
moment
Note to reduction
factor
Height
Coating area

Section area
Resisting
moment W (Feasibility)
Width of sheet
piles
Max point
resistance
(Pr;max;point)
Xi factor (depends on number of CPTs)

Enter the reduction factor applied to the maximum moment.

Enter a note to describe the reduction factor.


The thickness of the sheet piling profile, i.e. the height of the crosssection.
The area of coating of the sheet piling (> 1). This is defined as the
length of the perimeter of the sheet piling section per running meter of
wall.
Note: This parameter should be used for the vertical force balance
check (chapter 32) in the unplugged case. However, according to article 5.3 of the CUR 166 recommendations (part 1), the coating area
has to be used only in case of a single pie, not in case of a retaining
wall. Therefore, for unplugged case, the program uses a wall surface
of 1 m2 /m.
The cross-sectional area of the sheet piling, per running meter.
The section modulus (also called resisting moment in the Netherlands)
of the sheet piling, per running meter, used for a Feasibility control
(chapter 7).
The width of the sheet piles, used for the calculation of the settlements
due to vibratory installation and removal of sheet piles (chapter 38).
The representative cone resistance of the soil at the bottom of the sheet
piling. This is equal to the maximum point resistance pr;max;point as
defined in the Dutch design code NEN 6743-1:2006 (NEN, 2006b). See
chapter 32 for more information.
The factor M ;N (from Table 1 of NEN 6743:2006 (NEN, 2006b)) depending on the number N of CPTs and the number M of anchors. For N = 1 and M = 1, = 0.72 (default in
D-S HEET P ILING).

Note: If the acting width changes at the position of a load, anchor or support, D-S HEET P ILING
will use the width below this position as the acting width per meter for this load or support.

4.2.2

Combined wall wizard


In the Sheet Piling window (Figure 4.9 or Figure 4.10), click the Combined Wall button to open
the Design Combined Wall window (Figure 4.11). D-S HEET P ILING will use the properties of
the pile and the sheet piling to determine the effective bending stiffness and acting width of
the wall above and below the bottom of the sheet piling.
Note: The Combined Wall wizard will yield output of the bending moment for the center-tocenter distance between two piles, e.g. the discrete moment for a pile and the attached part
of the sheet piling For a section with single piles, the soil reaction must be manually modified
to model the effect of arching, see section 4.3.2 and section 5.2.1.
For background information on this topic, see section 37.1.

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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual

Figure 4.11: Design Combined Wall window

Name
Material type
Bottom Level
Stiffness EI
(Piles)
Stiffness EI
(Sheet pile)
Diameter
Width
Height
Maximum
moment
Section area
Coating area

46

Enter the profile name.


Select the material of the sheet piling from the available drop-down list:
User defined, Steel, Concrete, Wood, Synthetic.
Enter the bottom level for the piles and the sheet pile.
Enter the bending stiffness (product of Youngs Modulus E and moment
of inertia I) of the single piles.
Enter the bending stiffness (product of Youngs Modulus E and moment
of inertia I) of the sheet piling, per running meter.
Enter the diameter of the single piles.
Enter the width of one sheet pile.
Enter the thickness of the sheet pile profile, i.e. the height of the crosssection.
Enter the maximum allowable moment. This limit value is used in the
diagram of the moment to help the user to check if the maximum moment is reached or not, see section 6.3.1.
Enter the cross-sectional area for the piles and the sheet pile, per running meter.
Enter the area of coating of the sheet pile (> 1). This is defined as the
length of the perimeter of the sheet pile section per running meter of
wall.
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Input

Number of sheet
piles

Click the Import button to import the sheet pile or piles from the
D-S HEET P ILING library (section 4.2.3).
Enter the number of sheet piles between each pair of single piles.

Note: When using the Combined Wall wizard, the program assumes a material factor M
and a modification factor kmod of 1 (i.e. steel), see Figure 4.12. If other materials than steel
are used, the user has to enter its own values for M and kmod by selecting a User defined
material type.

Figure 4.12: Sheet Piling window, Result of using the combined wall wizard (per centerto-center distance)

4.2.3

Profiles Library
The Sheet Piling window section 4.2.1, the Combined Wall window (section 4.2.2) and the
single Pile window (section 4.2.4) allow the import of sheet piling properties from a library.
Click the
or
buttons in these windows to open the Sheet Piling Profiles window
(Figure 4.13). In this window the properties of both sheet piling and single piles can be
selected.
The window (Figure 4.17) contains separate tabs for:

 section 4.2.3.1 Steel/Concrete/Synthetic sheet pilings and piles from manufacturers/distributors;


 section 4.2.3.2 User-defined sheet pilings and piles.

4.2.3.1

Profiles Library from manufacturers/distributors


The window contains separate tabs for hot rolled steel sheet piling, cold formed steel sheet piling, synthetic sheet piling and single piles from different manufacturers/distributors. There are
also separate tabs for user-defined sheet piling and user defined single piles, see Figure 4.17.
Hot rolled sheet piles
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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual

Figure 4.13: Sheet Piling Profiles Library window, Hot rolled sheet piles tab

EI
Mmax;el
Section Area
Wel

Width

The bending stiffness.


The maximum moment for elastic behavior at zero normal force. Sxxx
means steel with a yield stress of xxx N/mm2 .
The cross sectional area of the profile. This value is not yet used by
D-S HEET P ILING.
The section modulus (also called resisting moment in the Netherlands)
for elastic behavior. This value is used for a Feasibility control (chapter 7).
The width of a single pile. D-S HEET P ILING uses this value for single pile
and combined wall analysis.
User defined profiles and groups can be added via the Add and the
Edit buttons (Figure 4.18), and deleted using the Delete button.

Cold formed sheet piles

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Input

Figure 4.14: Sheet Piling Profiles Library window, Cold formed sheet piles tab

This tab is identical to Hot rolled sheet piles tab except that the steel qualities are different: S
Hot rolled sheet piles

Figure 4.15: Sheet Piling Profiles Library window, Synthetic sheet piles tab

Piles

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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual

Figure 4.16: Sheet Piling Profiles Library window, Piles tab

4.2.3.2

User Defined Profiles Library


All properties (except width) are given per running meter for Sheet piles, Concrete sheet piles
and User defined sheet piles. The properties for Piles and User defined piles are given per
single pile.
The location of the data file containing user defined profiles can be changed via the Tools
menu section 3.2.

Figure 4.17: Sheet Piling Profiles Library window, User defined piles tab

EI

50

The bending stiffness.

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Input

Mmax;el

The maximum moment for elastic behavior at zero normal force. Sxxx
means steel with a yield stress of xxx N/mm2 . This value is not yet used
by D-S HEET P ILING.
The cross sectional area of the profile. This value is not yet used by
D-S HEET P ILING.
The section modulus (also called resisting moment in the Netherlands).
This value is not yet used by D-S HEET P ILING.
The width of a single pile. D-S HEET P ILING uses this value for single pile
and combined wall analysis.

Section Area
W
Width

User defined profiles and groups can be added via the Add and the
Edit buttons (Figure 4.18), and deleted using the Delete button.

Figure 4.18: Piles library, Add Pile to user defined

Group name
Profile name
Stiffness EI
Maximum elastic
moment
Mmax;el
Section Area
Resisting
ment W
Width

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mo-

Select or enter a name for the group of profiles.


Enter the name of the profile.
Enter the bending stiffness of the profile
Enter the maximum moment for elastic behavior with zero applied normal force. This value is not currently used by D-S HEET P ILING.
Enter the cross sectional area of the profile. This value is not currently
used by D-S HEET P ILING.
Enter the resisting moment.
This value is not yet used by
D-S HEET P ILING.
Enter the width of a single pile. D-S HEET P ILING uses this value when
performing a single pile or combined wall analysis.

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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual


4.2.4

Single Piles
The Pile window is available in the Construction menu only if the Single Pile model in the
Model window (section 4.1.1) is selected.
On the menu bar, click Construction and then choose Pile to open the input window. Every
new analysis starts with the input of data on the single pile.
to insert a new
First, the top level of the pile is entered. Next, click the Insert row button
row or click the Add row button
to add one. The stiffness and/or diameter can be varied
for each section. Alternatively, use the Paste icon
to paste the complete content from an
external source into the table.

Figure 4.19: Pile window

Pile top level


Import
profile
from library
Name
Section bottom
level
Stiffness EI
Diameter
Maximum moment
Reduction factor
EI
Reduction factor
maximum
moment
Note to reduction
factor

Enter the top level of the pile in relation to a freely chosen reference
level.
Click here to import the name, diameter and bending stiffness of the
section from the D-S HEET P ILING library (section 4.2.3).
Change the default name for the section, if desired.
Enter the vertical co-ordinate of the bottom of the pile, in relation to
the reference level. Use several sections if the bending stiffness varies
along the depth.
Enter the bending stiffness (product of Youngs Modulus E and moment
of inertia I) of the pile for each section.
Enter the equivalent diameter of the pile. D-S HEET P ILING uses this
value as the acting width for the soil reaction.
Enter the maximum allowable moment.
Enter the reduction factor applied to the stiffness EI.
Enter the reduction factor applied to the maximum moment.

Enter a note to describe the reduction factor.

Note: Input data must be design values as no safety system is included with the "Single Pile"
module.

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Input
4.3

Soil menu
The Soil menu is used to enter the soil properties for the analysis.

4.3.1

Surfaces
On the menu bar, click Soil and then choose Surfaces. In the window displayed (Figure 4.20),
the positions of the various ground surfaces, that will occur on different sides of the sheet
piling during the different stages, can be specified. Use the Stage Composer or the Stages
Overview window to connect the surfaces (for each stage) to the left or right of the sheet pile
wall.

Figure 4.20: Surfaces window

Up to 10 surfaces can be specified. To add a surface, click Add. The name of the new
surface is displayed in an appearing edit-box. Change the name as required. Enter the first
co-ordinate (horizontal in relation to the sheet piling, vertical in relation to the reference level).
Click the Add row button
to add the next co-ordinate. Alternatively, use the Paste button
, to paste the complete content from an external source into the table.
Distance & Level

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Both the Distance from the sheet piling and Level of that part of the
surface are expressed in meters. The level is specified in relation to
the reference level.
D-S HEET P ILING can only convert a non-horizontal surface to horizontal wall pressures in case of the c, phi, delta method (section 4.6.1).
The relevant calculation method must be selected for each construction stage.

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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual


4.3.2

Soil Materials for Sheet Piling


On the menu bar, click Soil and then choose Materials to open the input window. In this
window, the names and properties of the soil layers can be entered. Specify the names of the
soil materials in the left-hand table. The soil materials entered here can be connected to their
geometry using the Soil Profiles input window (section 4.3.4).
In the Soil Materials window, the following data can be added:







(section 4.3.2.1) General soil parameters for each material;


(section 4.3.2.2) Earth pressure coefficients for each material;
(section 4.3.2.3) Curve settings, to define the type of stress-displacement curve;
(section 4.3.2.4) Modulus of subgrade reaction for each material;
(section 4.3.2.5) Settlement by vibration coefficients for each material.

Figure 4.21: Soil Materials window for the Ka , K0 , Kp soil parameters or Mixed models

Figure 4.22: Soil Materials window for the c, , soil parameters model

54

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Input
Now the soil materials can be linked to soil profiles and the water properties for the soil can
be determined, both described in section 4.3.

4.3.2.1

General
The general soil parameters for a particular soil material can be specified in this sub-window
(Figure 4.23).

Figure 4.23: Soil Materials window, General sub-window

Unsat. total unit weight


Sat. total unit weight
Cohesion
Friction angle phi
Delta friction angle
Shell factor

Overconsolidation ratio
(OCR)
Grain type

4.3.2.2

Enter the weight of a unit volume of soil above the water table
(generally unsaturated).
Enter the weight of a unit volume of soil below the water table
(generally saturated).
Enter the drained cohesion.
Enter the friction angle of soil.
Enter the friction angle between soil and sheet piling. For background information, see section 28.1.
Enter the shell factor of the soil to take into account the effect
of arching. This factor will be automatically applied on passive
and active earth pressure coefficients and on moduli of subgrade
reaction. For background information, see section 37.1.2.
Enter the overconsolidation ratio of the soil.
Select the grain type: Fine or Coarse. Usually Fine is used for
clay, loam and peat whereas Coarse is used for sand and gravel.

Earth pressure coefficients


In this sub-window the earth pressure coefficients can be entered or generated. D-S HEET P ILING
will use these values only for those parts or stages where the C, , soil parameters model
(section 4.6.2) has not been selected.

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Figure 4.24: Soil Materials window, Earth pressure coefficients sub-window

Manual
Mller-Breslau
(Straight slip
surfaces)
Ktter (Curved
slip surfaces)
Active, Neutral or
Passive

4.3.2.3

Mark this check-box to enter the earth pressure coefficients manually.


Mark this check-box to get D-S HEET P ILING to determine earth pressure
coefficients according to Mller-Breslau section 27.2.2.
Mark this check-box to get D-S HEET P ILING to determine earth pressure
coefficients according to Ktter section 27.2.3.
If Manual is selected, the values for the active, neutral, and passive
earth pressure coefficients (Ka , K0 , Kp ) should be entered manually.
The following restriction applies: 0 Ka K0 Kp .
If Manual is not selected, the active, neutral, and passive earth
pressure coefficients (Ka , K0 , Kp ) are calculated automatically by
D-S HEET P ILING.

Curve Settings
In the Soil Materials window, click the Curve Settings button to open the Curve Settings (for
all Materials) window (Figure 4.25) in which the type of stress-displacement diagram that will
be used for all layers can be defined.

Figure 4.25: Curve Settings (for all Materials) window

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Input

Modulus of subgrade
reaction type

Use an unloading/
reloading curve

Number of curves for


spring characteristics

4.3.2.4

The Secant definition is based on the stress-displacement diagram according to CUR 166 of subgrade reaction. This diagram always uses three branches, with intersections at 50, 80
and 100 % of Ka Kp (see Figure 4.27 below) The slope of
the different branches is defined indirectly, via the three secant
moduli at the intersection points.
The Tangent (D-S HEET P ILING Classic) definition is based on a
user-defined number of branches (number of curves), with the
slope of each branch defined directly by the tangent modulus
(see Figure 4.30 below).
Mark this check-box to use an elasto-plastic model with a different (elastic) stiffness during unloading and reloading. Also see
the input description for the modulus of subgrade reaction (below).
Specify this value to use multiple branches in the diagram of
stress versus displacement during virgin loading. The maximum number is 4. Also see the input description for the modulus of subgrade reaction (below) and for the earth pressure
coefficients (above). This option is only used with the Tangent
(D-S HEET P ILING Classic) definition.

Modulus of subgrade reaction


The content of the sub-window Modulus of subgrade reaction depends on the selected modulus of subgrade reaction type in the Curve Settings (for all Materials) window.

Modulus of subgrade reaction Secant


This sub-window only appears if the Secant definition has been selected in the Curve Settings
window. In this sub-window the secant moduli can be defined according to CUR 166, either
by selection of a predefined soil type, or by manual input.

Figure 4.26: Soil Materials window, Modulus of subgrade reaction Secant sub-window

k1, k2, k3

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Enter values for the secant moduli at 50, 80 and 100% of Ka Kp


(Figure 4.27), on the Top side and Bottom side of each soil layer.
D-S HEET P ILING also applies the k1 value to unloading and reloading
if the Use an unloading/reloading curve option has been selected in
the Curve Settings window.

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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual

Select from CUR


166 (Table 3.3)

Click this button to select a soil type directly from table 3.3 of the
CUR 166 (CUR, 2005) (Figure 4.3.2.4). The soil type indication in the
first column includes typical values of the CPT resistance qc (in MPa)
for sand and typical values of undrained cohesion Cu (in kPa) for clay
and peat. Only lowest values are given in D-S HEET P ILING to use
the highest value the user must manually multiply the lowest value by
2.25.

horizontal stress

k1

k2

k3
kpv

50%

80%

100%

Kav

horizontal displacement
Figure 4.27: Secant definition of stress-displacement diagram (CUR 166)

Figure 4.28: CUR 166 (Table 3.3) window

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Input
Modulus of subgrade reaction Tangent (D-S HEET P ILING Classic)
This sub-window appears when the Tangent (D-S HEET P ILING Classic) definition has been
selected in the Curve Settings window. In this sub-window the tangent moduli can be manually
defined, according to the classic D-S HEET P ILING definition.

Figure 4.29: Soil Materials window, Modulus of subgrade reaction Tangent (D-Sheet
Piling Classic) sub-window

The following values can be specified for the tangent modulus of subgrade reaction at the top
and bottom sides of the soil layer (see Figure 4.30, below).
k0
unloading
/reloading
k1,. . . , k4
1-3 [%]

Enter the value for unloading/reloading, if this option was selected in


the Curve Settings window (see above).
Enter values for the tangent moduli, at the Top side and the Bottom
side of the soil layer, of the different branches.
Define the intersection points of the branches, by entering the corresponding stress levels as a percentage of Ka Kp .

horizontal soil stress H

arctan k4

passive: Kpv
arctan k3

neutral: K0v
active: Kav

2[%] 3[%]

100%

arctan k2
1[%]

arctan k1

horizontal displacement

Figure 4.30: Tangent definition of stress-displacement diagram (D-Sheet Piling classic)

Note: When importing a CPT, the tangent moduli of subgrade reaction are automatically filled
in using extrapolated values from Table 3.3 of CUR 166, as the soil materials list contains
more materials than those listed in Table 3.3 of CUR 166. The extended values can be found
in section 29.3.2.
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4.3.2.5

Settlement by vibration coefficients


The sub-window Settlement by vibration coefficients only appears if the Settlement by vibration option in the Model window was selected (section 4.1.1).

Figure 4.31: Soil Materials window, Settlement by vibration sub-window

Relative density

Enter the relative density of the soil in [%]. The relative density (or
density index) ID is the ratio of the difference between the void ratios of
a cohesion-less soil in its loosest state and existing natural state to the
difference between its void ratio in the loosest and densest states:

ID =

Horizontal permeability
Soil layer type

emax e
emax emin

100

The relative density depends on the consistency of the soil as shown


in Table 4.1. The default value in D-S HEET P ILING is 72.5%.
Enter the horizontal permeability of the soil in [m/s]. The default value
in D-S HEET P ILING is 103 m/s.
Select the type of soil from the drop-down menu.

Table 4.1: Relative density as a function of the consistency of the soil

Consistency
Very loose
Loose
Medium loose
Dense
Very dense

4.3.3

Relative density ID [%]


0 to 15
15 to 35
35 to 65
65 to 85
85 to 100

Soil Materials for Single Pile


On the menu bar, click Soil and then choose Materials to open the input window. In this
window, the names and properties of the soil materials can be entered.
Specify the names of the soil materials in the left-hand table. The soil materials entered here
can be connected to their geometry using the Soil Profiles input window (section 4.3.4).
For Single pile model, the content of the Soil Materials window depends on the loading type:

 For loading by forces and by user-defined soil displacements, the General soil parameters, the Earth pressure coefficients and the Modulus of subgrade reaction must be
specified for each material;
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Input

 For loading by calculated soil displacements, only the General soil parameters must be
specified for each material.

4.3.3.1

Soil Materials for Single pile loaded by forces

Figure 4.32: Soil Materials window for Single Pile loaded by forces

General:
Unsat. total unit
weight
Sat. total unit
weight
Cohesion
Friction angle
phi

Enter the weight of a unit volume of soil above the water table (generally
unsaturated).
Enter the weight of a unit volume of soil below the water table (generally
saturated).
Enter the drained cohesion.
Enter the friction angle of soil.

Earth pressure coefficients:


Method
Select Brinch-Hansen for determination of the earth pressure coefficient from the input cohesion and friction section 36.2.1 or Manual to
enter user-defined values.
Active, Neutral or If Manual is selected, then enter values for the Active, Neutral, and PasPassive
sive earth pressure coefficients (Ka , K0 , Kp ). The following restriction
applies: 0 Ka K0 Kp .

Note: When using the Brinch-Hansen method the same soil material should not be used at
different depths in a soil profile. Instead a copy of the soil should be made, with a different
name. See section 36.2.1 for more information.
Note: Active and neutral earth pressure coefficients normally need to be set to zero for the
situation of a single pile loaded by soil displacement. This means that the input value for the
passive earth pressure coefficient leads to the effective resisting pressure, taking the effect of
arching into account. Selecting Brinch-Hansen will cause this to happen automatically.

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Modulus of subgrade reaction: User-defined values for the modulus of subgrade reaction can
be entered in this sub-window. Alternatively, for a pile loaded by forces, D-S HEET P ILING can
calculate the modulus of subgrade reaction according to Mnards theory.

Figure 4.33: Soil Materials window, Modulus of subgrade reaction sub-window (Pile
loaded by forces)

Emod Mnard
Soil type Mnard

4.3.3.2

If Menard is selected, then D-S HEET P ILING will determine the modulus
of subgrade reaction from the input of the pressiometric modulus and
the soil type. The background description on Mnards theory (section 36.2.2) includes a correlation between the pressiometric modulus
and the cone resistance. The option Menard is only available for single
piles loaded by forces (section 4.1.1).
If Manual is selected, the values for the modulus of subgrade reaction
at the top and bottom side of a layer can be entered manually.

Soil Materials for Single pile loaded by user-defined soil displacements


The input is identical to Soil Materials window for Single pile loaded by forces (Figure 4.32)
except that the Modulus of subgrade reaction can only be user-defined.

Figure 4.34: Soil Materials window for Single pile loaded by user-defined soil displacements

4.3.3.3

Soil Materials for Single pile loaded by calculated soil displacements


The automatic calculation of horizontal soil displacements is based on De Leeuw tables
(De Leeuw, 1963). The stresses and displacements from those tables are used to automati62

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Input
cally determine the modulus of subgrade reaction at each depth. For background information,
see section 36.1.1.
The earth pressure coefficients are automatically determined at each depth using BrinchHansen theory from the input cohesion and friction.
Both values of the modulus of subgrade reaction and the passive earth pressure coefficient
can be found in the Input section of the Report window (section 6.2).

Figure 4.35: Soil Materials window for Single pile loaded by calculated soil displacements

Unsat. total unit


weight
Sat.
total unit
weight
Cohesion
Friction
angle
phi

Deltares

Enter the weight of a unit volume of soil above the water table (generally
unsaturated).
Enter the weight of a unit volume of soil below the water table (generally
saturated).
Enter the drained cohesion.
Enter the friction angle of soil.

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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual

Horizontal
havior

Elasticity (E)

4.3.4

be-

The behavior (Stiff, Elastic or Foundation) of the layer must be specified. De Leeuw theory assumes an elastic incompressible cluster of
layers based on foundation layer(s) and eventually covered with stiff
layer(s). Therefore, only the system of layers presented in the figure
below is allowed where:
Elastic and foundation layer should be present at least one time;
Stiff layer (if present) should not be positioned below elastic or foundation layer
Other systems will lead to fatal error during calculation.

Enter the elastic modulus of the elastic soil layer. Mark the Use default elasticity option to use the elasticity automatically calculated by
D-S HEET P ILING according to De Leeuw and Timmermans theory based
on the dry unit weight (section 36.1.1).

Soil Profiles
On the menu bar, click Soil and then choose Profiles to open the corresponding input window.

Figure 4.36: Soil Profiles window showing empty profile

In the input window, different profiles can be specified for each side and for each construction
stage. To add a profile, three options are available:

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Input

Once the soil materials are defined (section 4.3.2 and section 4.3.3),
click this button to add a soil profile by manual input of the Top level
and Material of each layer. Refer to section 4.3.4.1.
Click this button to add a soil profile by importing a CPTCPT from file
through the Select CPT window by either selecting an existing CPT file
(only in GEF format) or by importing a CPT from the DINO database
(Data and Information of the Subsurface of The Netherlands). Refer to
section 4.3.4.2 and section 4.3.4.3.
Click this button to delete the selected profile.
Click this button to create a copy of the selected profile: the entire
profile will be copied including the CPT-values, the layers and the additional pore pressures.

4.3.4.1

Adding Soil Profiles Manually


To create manually a new soil profile, click the Add Manually button. This creates an empty
soil profile with only one layer (from 0 m to -10 m) using as default material the first material
defined in the Soil Materials window (section 4.3.2 and section 4.3.3). Figure 4.37 shows an
example of soil profile manually inputted: note that when placing the cursor in the Material
column, an overview of the soil properties of the selected material is displayed.
Note: If no soil material was previously defined, D-S HEET P ILING uses the default empty soil
material named New Material as shown in Figure 4.36.

Figure 4.37: Soil Profiles window

Soil profile name

Deltares

This field displays the name of the selected profile. The name of
the profile can be overwritten if desired. Unique and recognizable
names should be used because the profile name is used in other
D-S HEET P ILING windows to select the appropriate soil data.

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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual

Top level [m]

Material

Ad. pore pr. at


top/bottom

Enter the level of the top of the soil layer. The layers must be entered
from top to bottom. The bottom soil layer is assumed to be infinitely
thick.
Click the input field to select one of the available soil materials. A
soil profile must be specified for each stage. On the basis of layers that are fully or partially located under the specified surface level,
D-S HEET P ILING itself defines the soil layers to profile to profile that
are present during a construction stage. However, there must be soil
present at the location of the specified surface. Because the surface
does not need to be horizontal, a soil layer may sometimes be above
the sheet piling.
Enter the additional pore water pressure at the top and bottom of each
soil layer. The additional pressure is modeled as varying linearly over
the layer. The total pore water pressure is taken as the sum of the
additional pore pressure and the hydrostatic pore water pressure (see
section 4.3.5). See the Note below.

Note: If the surface does not run horizontally, the additional pore water pressure at the
surface level is not always equal to zero. D-S HEET P ILING does not adjust the additional pore
water pressure, but displays a warning in the output file instead. A warning is also displayed
if an additional pore water pressure is entered above the water level.

4.3.4.2

Adding Soil Profiles from CPT CPT Selection


To import a CPT from a file, click the Add from CPT button to open the Select CPT window.

Figure 4.38: Select CPT window

Click on the Import from File button to open the Open dialog that allows a GEF file containing the CPT results to be selected. The GEF
file (Geotechnical Exchange Format) is a Dutch standard developed
by CUR. The results of the selected CPT are displayed in the CPTip
window (refer to paragraph Adding Soil Profiles from CPT CPT Interpretation just after for the CPT interpretation).

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Input

Click on the Import from Dino button to open the Select CPT for
D-S HEET P ILING window (Figure 4.39) that allows importing one or more
CPTs from the DINODINO database (DINO). CPT searching is performed from the Google Map. Zooming in to the location of the project
will display the CPTs as separate points (Figure 4.40). Just click on
it to display the CPT results in the CPTip window (refer to paragraph
Adding Soil Profiles from CPT CPT Interpretation just after for the
CPT interpretation).

Figure 4.39: Select CPT for D-Sheet Piling window

Click this button to display a map view including city, street and motorway names and representation.
Click this button to display a satellite view.
Click this button to display a combination of the Map and Satellite views.
Zoom in:
Click this button to enlarge the map.
Zoom out:
Click this button to reduce the map.

Minimum length
of CPTs
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Pan:
Click this button to move the map by dragging the mouse.
Enter a minimum length for the CPTs displayed on the map.

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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual

Figure 4.40: Select CPT for D-Sheet Piling window after zoom in

4.3.4.3

Adding Soil Profiles from CPT CPT Interpretation


When the CPT file is selected (either from an available file or from the DINO database), the
CPTip window opens (Figure 4.41) displaying a graphic representation of the CPT: the cone
resistance qc , the local friction and the friction ratio are displayed as black lines whereas
the pore pressures (if available) are displayed as blue line. D-S HEET P ILING automatically
interprets the imported CPT, based on the interpretation rule that is selected by the user in
the Rule selection box below the graph. On the right side of the plotted CPT, the soil layer
interpretation is drawn corresponding to the selected Rule and Minimum layer thickness.

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Input

Figure 4.41: CPTip window

Rule

Minimum
thickness

layer

Select the interpretation rule used by D-S HEET P ILING to automatically


interpret the imported CPT. Two different rules are available:
The NEN (Stress dependent) rule
The CUR rule
Each rule describes a certain soil type by defining the relationship between the CPT resistance and the Friction Ratio. For background information on both rules, refer to section 29.2.
All interpretation rules make use of one additional parameter: the minimum layer thickness, specified in the Min. layer thickness input field
below the selection list. To prevent D-S HEET P ILING from generating layers that are too thin to be significant when modeling the problem, the
minimum layer thickness should be increased.

To use the proposed soil layer interpretation, click the OK button to transport the interpretation
into a soil profile to be used in the project (Figure 4.42).

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Figure 4.42: Soil Profiles window after importing a CPT

Note: When a soil profile is determined from a CPT interpretation, the soil names and properties of the created soil materials are automatically filled in the Soil Materials window using
Table 1 of NEN 6740 for the general parameters and using an extrapolation of Table 3.3 of
CUR 166 for the secant moduli of subgrade reaction (section 29.3).
Note: If during the interpretation of a CPT, the point corresponding to the cone resistance
and the friction ratio of a layer is situated outside the limits of the diagram of the selected rule
(i.e. Figure 29.2 and Figure 29.3 in section 29.2), the program will assign an Undetermined
material to this layer with unrealistic properties. Thats why the user must always review the
automatic interpretation of the CPT before performing a calculation. In such case, the user
must select himself the appropriate material from the drop-down list of available materials
using its expertise.
Click the
button to display graphic representations of the pore pressures, the cone
resistance, the friction and the percentage of friction of the selected CPT (Figure 4.43).

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Figure 4.43: CPT window

4.3.5

Water Levels
On the menu bar, click Soil and then choose Water Levels to open the corresponding input
window. In the input window, different water levels can be specified.

Figure 4.44: Water Levels window

Name

Level [m]

Enter a name for the water level. Use unique and recognizable names,
because the water level name is used in other D-S HEET P ILING windows
to select the appropriate data.
Enter the water level (relative to the reference level).

D-S HEET P ILING models hydrostatic pore water pressures by defining the hydrostatic pressure
at a point as proportional to its depth below the water level. If a total pore pressure distribution
other than this triangular, hydrostatic, distribution is required then the user must also input
additional pore pressures for each layer (section 4.3.4).

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A water level will only be active in the stages that are selected using the Stage Composer
(section 2.2.4) or the Stages Overview window (section 4.6.2).

4.3.6

Water Properties
On the menu bar, click Soil and then choose Water to open the corresponding input window. Use the dialog box to modify the unit weight of water, if required. The default value is
9.81 kN/m3 . Mark the Save as default check-box to make the input value the default for all
future projects.

Figure 4.45: Water Properties window

After entering all the data in the Soil menu, proceed to the Loads menu.

4.4

Loads menu
The Loads menu can be used to define various types of loads.

4.4.1

Uniform Loads
This option is available only for Sheet piling model (section 4.1.1). On the menu bar, click
Loads and then choose Uniform Loads to open the corresponding input window.

Figure 4.46: Uniform Loads window

Name

Load on the left side


[kN/m2 ]

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This field displays the name of the displayed load, which can be
overwritten. Use unique and recognizable names because the
load name is used in other windows of D-S HEET P ILING to select
the appropriate data.
Enter the magnitude of the load on the left hand side of the sheet
pile wall.

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Input

Load on the right side


[kN/m2 ]
Permanent/variable

Favorable/ unfavorable

Enter the magnitude of the load on the right hand side of the
sheet piling.
Select the duration of load application, Permanent or Variable.
This option is available only if the Verification (EC7/CUR) option
is selected in the Model window (section 4.1.1).
Select the type of load, Favorable, Unfavorable or leave it DSheet Piling determined. This option is available only if the Verification (EC7/CUR) option is selected in the Model window (section 4.1.1).
Note: When the option D-Sheet Piling determined is selected
for determining if a load is either favorable or unfavorable, the
program first defines the passive side using only the surface levels at both side (the lower side is set to passive). Then the loads
situated at the passive side are considered as favorable and the
loads at the active side are considered as unfavorable. This automatic determination can therefore be incorrect in some cases;
for example, when the lower side, due to water pressures, is actually the active side. Thats why using this option requires some
careful.

A uniform load consists of a distributed vertical q-load acting on the horizontal soil surface,
from the sheet piling to infinity. The value of the q-load can be different on each side of the
sheet piling.

q-load

sheet piling
Figure 4.47: Distribution of uniform load

Note: Uniform loads can be used only with a horizontal surface.


A uniform load will only be active in the stages that are selected using the Stage Composer
(section 2.2.4) or the Stages Overview window (section 4.6.2).

4.4.2

Surcharge Loads
This option is available only for Sheet piling model (section 4.1.1). On the menu bar, click
Loads and then choose Surcharge Loads to open the corresponding input window. A nonuniform surcharge acts on the soil surface to the left or right of the sheet pile wall. Enter
value of the load at several distances from the sheet pile wall. Between these points, linear
interpolation is used. Up to 10 surcharge loads can be added.
Note: The surcharge can only be applied if the c, , soil parameters model has been
selected (section 4.1.1).

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Figure 4.48: Surcharge Loads window

Surcharge load name

Permanent/variable

Favorable/ unfavorable

Distance [m]

Load [kN/m2 ]

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This field displays the name of the displayed load, which can be
overwritten. Use unique and recognizable names because the
load name is used in other windows of D-S HEET P ILING to select
the appropriate data.
Select the duration of load application, Permanent or Variable.
This option is available only if the Verification (EC7/CUR) option
is selected in the Model window (section 4.1.1).
Select the type of load, Favorable, Unfavorable or leave it
D-S HEET P ILING determined. This option is available only if the
Verification (EC7/CUR) option is selected in the Model window
(section 4.1.1).
Note: When the option D-Sheet Piling determined is selected
for determining if a load is either favorable or unfavorable, the
program first defines the passive side using only the surface levels at both side (the lower side is set to passive). Then the loads
situated at the passive side are considered as favorable and the
loads at the active side are considered as unfavorable. This automatic determination can therefore be incorrect in some cases;
for example, when the lower side, due to water pressures, is actually the active side. Thats why using this option requires some
careful.
Enter the distance from the sheet piling to the relevant part of
the surcharge. A surcharge always acts on the soil surface. The
distances to the sheet piling are always positive and must be
entered in ascending order. The maximum number of points is
15.
Enter the magnitude of the surcharge at each point.

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load

Input

10

distance

Figure 4.49: Distribution of surcharges according to the inputted values of Figure 4.48

D-S HEET P ILING models surcharges using Boussinesqs formula, see Equation 27.7 (section 27.3).
A surcharge will only be active in the stages that are selected using the Stage Composer
(section 2.2.4) or the Stages Overview window (section 4.6.2).

4.4.3

Horizontal Line Loads / Horizontal Forces


Click Loads and then:

 for Sheet piling model, choose Horizontal Line Loads to open the corresponding input
window (Figure 4.50);

 for Single pile model, choose Horizontal Forces to open the corresponding input window
(Figure 4.51).
Horizontal line loads (or forces) are loads perpendicular to the sheet piling (or single pile),
directed towards the right. Up to 10 loads can be added.

Figure 4.50: Horizontal Line Loads window (Sheet piling model)

Figure 4.51: Horizontal Forces window (Single pile model)

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Name

Level

Load

Permanent/ variable
Favorable/ unfavorable

The name of the horizontal line load (i.e. force) can be overwritten.
Use unique and recognizable names because the load name is used in
other windows of D-S HEET P ILING to select the appropriate data.
Enter the vertical position of the line load in relation to the reference
level. The value must be above the foot, and below the top, of the
sheet piling.
Enter the magnitude of the load (in kN per running meter for sheet
piling or in kN for single pile). D-S HEET P ILING assumes that a force
with positive sign points to the right.
Select the duration of load application, Permanent or Variable. This
option is available only if the Verification (EC7/CUR) option is selected
in the Model window (section 4.1.1).
Select the type of load, Favorable, Unfavorable or leave it
D-S HEET P ILING determined. This option is available only if the Verification (EC7/CUR) option is selected in the Model window (section 4.1.1).
Note: When the option D-Sheet Piling determined is selected for determining if a load is either favorable or unfavorable, the program first
defines the passive side using only the surface levels at both side (the
lower side is set to passive). Then the loads situated at the passive
side are considered as favorable and the loads at the active side are
considered as unfavorable. This automatic determination can therefore
be incorrect in some cases; for example, when the lower side, due to
water pressures, is actually the active side. Thats why using this option
requires some careful.

level

force

sheet piling

Figure 4.52: Example of a positive horizontal line load

A horizontal line load (i.e. force) will only be active in the stages that are selected using the
Stage Composer (section 2.2.4) or the Stages Overview window (section 4.6.2).

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Input
4.4.4

Moments
On the menu bar, click Loads and then choose Moments to open the corresponding input
window. When, for example, a floor is connected to the sheet pile wall a moment load can
occur along the length of the sheet pile wall. Up to 10 moments can be added.

Figure 4.53: Moments window

Name

Level

Moment

The name of the moment load can be overwritten. Use unique and
recognizable names, because the load name is used in other windows
of D-S HEET P ILING to select the appropriate data.
Enter the vertical position of the moment in relation to the reference
level. The values must be within the range of the top and the foot of the
sheet piling.
Enter the magnitude of the moment (kN per running meter for Sheet
piling but kN for Single pile). A moment with a rotation from the positive X-axis to the positive Y-axis (counter clockwise) receives a positive
sign.

level

moment

sheet piling

Figure 4.54: Example of a positive moment

A moment will only be active in the stages that are selected using the Stage Composer (section 2.2.4) or the Stages Overview window (section 4.6.2).

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4.4.5

Normal Forces
On the menu bar, click Loads and then choose Normal Forces to open the following window.

Figure 4.55: Normal Forces window

Name

Force at

Enter a name for the force. Use unique and recognizable names, because the load name is used in other windows of D-S HEET P ILING to
select the appropriate data.
Enter the value of the normal force at the levels explained below.

Normal forces, i.e. distributed forces that act along the axis of the sheet piling section, introduce an additional (secondary) moment. Due to wall friction, the normal force (the result of
an applied vertical line load) will decrease along the depth of the sheet piling. To account for
this friction, the user may input the value of the normal force at the following levels:

 top of the sheet piling


 surface levels at the left-hand and right-hand side
 toe of the sheet piling.
If friction is to be ignored (conservative) then the same value can be entered at all levels. Up
to 10 normal forces can be added.
A normal force load will only be active in the stages that are selected using the Stage Composer (section 2.2.4) or the Stages Overview window (section 4.6.2).

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Input
4.4.6

Soil Displacements
This option is available only for Single pile loaded by soil displacements and for Sheet piling
models (section 4.1.1). On the menu bar, click Loads and then choose Soil Displacements
to open the corresponding input window. Undisturbed soil displacements can be entered at a
number of points along the total length of the pile. Up to 10 soil displacements can be entered.
See section 36.1 for background information.
Note: For Sheet piling model, soil displacements are applied only at the first stage.

Figure 4.56: Soil Displacements window

Level

Displacement

4.5

Enter the vertical position (relative to the reference level) of the points
where the soil displacement is to be defined. The first point must coincide with the top of the sheet piling, and the last point with the foot of
the sheet piling even if the displacement there is zero. The intermediate
points must be in order of decreasing level.
Enter the magnitude of the undisturbed soil displacement. A soil displacement in the direction of the positive X-axis (to the right) receives
a positive sign.

Supports menu
Anchors, struts and other supports can be defined using the options in the Supports menu.

4.5.1

Anchors
This option is available only for Sheet piling model (section 4.1.1). On the menu bar, click
Supports and then choose Anchors to open the corresponding input window.

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Figure 4.57: Anchors window

Name
Level
E-modulus
Cross section
Wall height
(Kranz)

Length
Angle

Design Yield
Force

Side

Enter the name of the anchor.


Enter the vertical co-ordinate of the connection of the anchor to the
sheet pile wall (measured relative to the reference level).
Enter the Youngs Modulus of the anchor, E.
Enter the cross-sectional area of the anchor, A.
Enter the vertical projection of the height of the anchor wall: for an
anchor wall of H and anchor bar inclined with an angle , the Wall
height (Kranz) is h cos . This parameter only needs to be specified
if performing a stability check of the anchor wall according to Kranz
(Kranz, 1953) (see chapter 30).
Enter the length of the anchor tendon.
Enter the angle between the anchor tendon and the horizontal axis. A
negative angle indicates an anchor tendon that runs downwards from
the sheet pile wall.
Enter the design value of the yield force for the anchor.
Note: According to CUR 166 (paragraph 7.2.1), to get the design yield
force Fy;d , the representative yield force Fy must be divided by a safety
factor of 1.4.
Select if the anchor is to be on the right- or left-hand side of the sheet
piling.

Refer to Tutorial 18 in chapter 25 for a concrete example of anchor system using the technical
specifications provided by the manufacturer.
Note: When determining the maximum anchor force, D-S HEET P ILING assumes that the anchor rod is attached in the middle of the anchor wall. On the top, it is assumed that the anchor
plate runs through to the surface, or at least that it may be calculated as if the anchor wall
runs through to the surface. In practice, this will be the case if the total height of the anchor
wall is greater than half the distance from the bottom of the anchor plate to the surface. When
the anchor is drawn in the Input Diagram window (section 2.2.3), only half of the inputted Wall
height of the anchor is drawn (between the anchor rod and the bottom of the anchor wall).
Anchors can be pre-tensioned with an initial force to support the sheet pile wall. Each construction stage can have its own anchors and up to 10 anchors can be added. Pre-tensioned
anchors are modeled by the pre-stress force, with no associated stiffness for the stage in
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Input
which the pre-stress force is applied. For all other stages D-S HEET P ILING models anchors
using discrete springs. D-S HEET P ILING always uses a zero pressure condition in the stress
strain relation (Figure 4.58).
tensile stress

limited capacity
pre- stress

zero pressure
condition

tensile strain

Figure 4.58: Stress-strain diagram for an anchor

D-S HEET P ILING calculates the stiffness of the anchor using the following equation:
spring constant =

modulus of elasticity area


length

(4.1)

An anchor will only be active in the stages that are selected using the Stage Composer (section 2.2.4) or the Stages Overview window (section 4.6.2).

Grout Anchors
The modeling of a grout anchor in D-S HEET P ILING depends on the type of analysis:

 For a Kranz stability analysis (section 5.2.4), CUR 166 (art. 4.7.2) and also EAU 2004
(art. 8.4.9.8) prescribe to define the (effective) length of the anchorage as the length
from the sheet pile wall to the middle of the grout body.

 For a standard calculation (section 5.2.1), nothing is prescribed by CUR 166 about the
yield force of the anchor. However, the anchor tip position depends on the tensile stress
distribution along the anchor. This differs for a mono or a duplex-anchor as shown in
art. 5.5.4 of CUR 166. As a grout anchor is often a mono-anchor, the (effective) length
of the anchorage can be defined as the length from the sheet pile wall to the third of the
grout body.

In both cases, D-S HEET P ILING doesnt calculate automatically this adapted anchor length. The
user has to define it in the Anchors window.

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4.5.2

Struts
This option is available only for Sheet piling model (section 4.1.1). On the menu bar, click
Supports and then choose Struts to open the corresponding input window (Figure 4.59).

Figure 4.59: Struts window

Name
Level
E-modulus
Cross section
Length
Angle
Design Buckling
Force

Side

Enter the name of the strut.


Enter the vertical co-ordinate of the connection between the sheet pile
wall and the strut (relative to the reference level).
Enter the Youngs Modulus of the strut, E.
Enter the cross-sectional area of the strut, A.
Enter the length of the strut.
Enter the angle between the strut and the horizontal axis. A negative
angle indicates a strut that runs downwards from the sheet pile wall.
Enter the design value of the buckling force of the strut.
Note: According to CUR 166 (paragraph 7.2.1), to get the design buckling force Fy;d , the representative buckling force Fy must be divided by
a safety factor of 1.4.
Select if the strut is to be on the right- or left-hand side of the sheet pile
wall.

Struts can be pre-compressed with an initial force to support the sheet pile wall. Each construction stage can have its own struts and up to 10 struts can be added. D-S HEET P ILING
models struts using discrete springs. D-S HEET P ILING always uses a zero tension condition in
the stress strain relation (Figure 4.60).
compressive stress

limited capacity
pre- stress

zero tension
condition

compressive strain

Figure 4.60: Stress-strain diagram for a strut

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Input
D-S HEET P ILING calculates the stiffness of the strut using the following equation:
spring constant =

modulus of elasticity area


length

(4.2)

A strut will only be active in the stages that are selected using the Stage Composer (section 2.2.4) or the Stages Overview window (section 4.6.2).

4.5.3

Spring Supports
On the menu bar, click Supports and then choose Spring Supports to open the corresponding
input window (Figure 4.61).

Figure 4.61: Spring Supports window

Name
Level
Rotation
Translation

Enter the name of the support.


Enter the vertical position of the support (relative to the reference level).
Enter the magnitude of the spring stiffness against rotation (in kNm/rad
per running meter for Sheet piling but in kN/rad for Single pile).
Enter the magnitude of the spring stiffness against translation (in
kNm/m per running meter for Sheet piling but in kN/m for Single pile).

A spring support provides an elastic resistance against translation or rotation. The stiffness of
the spring is determined using the data entered for the spring constants for translation and/or
rotation.

F = ktranslation w,

M = krotation

(4.3)

where:

F
M
ktranslation
krotation
w

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is the spring force;


is the spring moment;
is the translational spring constant;
is the rotational spring constant;
is the displacement of the sheet piling;
is the rotation of the sheet piling.

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A spring support will only be active in the stages that are selected using the Stage Composer
(section 2.2.4) or the Stages Overview window (section 4.6.2).

4.5.4

Rigid supports
On the menu bar, click Supports and then choose Rigid Supports to open the corresponding
input window (Figure 4.62).

Figure 4.62: Rigid Supports window

Name
Level
Support
type
(Prevention of...)

Enter the name of the rigid support.


Enter the vertical position of the support (relevant to the reference
level).
Click the input field to select the appropriate type of support: to prevent
either translation, or rotation, or both.

Rigid supports can be used to suppress translation and/or rotation of the sheet piling (or single
pile) at certain points. Up to 10 rigid supports can be added.
A rigid support will only be active in the stages that are selected using the Stage Composer
(section 2.2.4) or the Stages Overview window (section 4.6.2).

4.6

Stages menu
After the sheet piling, loading and supports have been defined, the construction stages can
be described.

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Input
4.6.1

Stages Manager
On the menu bar, click Stages and then choose Manager to open the input window. Click Add
to add a new stage to the list or click Insert to insert a new stage before the stage currently
selected. Click Rename to modify the current name. The Delete button removes the selected
stage from the list. Note that at least one construction stage must always be present. Up to
50 stages can be defined.See Calculation Options (section 5.1) for how to compensate for an
initial surcharge or non-horizontal surface during the first stage.

Figure 4.63: Stages Manager window

4.6.2

Stage(s) Overview
On the menu bar, click Stage(s) and then choose Overview to open the Stage(s) Overview
window. Depending on the selected model (section 4.1.1), the content of this window will be
different:

 Refer to section 4.6.2.1 for Sheet Piling model;


 Refer to section 4.6.2.2 for Single Pile model.

4.6.2.1

Stages Overview for Sheet Piling


For Sheet piling, the Stages Overview window serves the following purposes:

 An overview of loads, supports and additional data that may vary for each stage.
 Selection of specific loads, supports and additional input data for each stage.
 Input of anchor and strut forces, and the input of a prescribed pile top displacement.

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Figure 4.64: Stages Overview window for Sheet Piling model

Pile top
displacement

Passive side

86

Mark this check-box to activate a prescribed piling top displacement


for the selected stage. Positive values indicate a displacement to the
right. Displacements are specified in relation to the configuration at
the start of stage 1. If the check-box is not marked, D-S HEET P ILING
assumes that the top of the sheet piling can move freely. An alternative method of ensuring zero displacement of the top of the wall
is to use a rigid support (section 4.6.2.2).
Select from the drop-down list which side is the passive side: Left,
Right or leave D-Sheet Piling determined it automatically.
Note: The option D-Sheet Piling determined works in most of the
cases correctly. However, if this option is used simultaneously with
the option D-Sheet Piling determined to determine if the loads are
favorable or unfavorable, the automatic determination of the passive side can be incorrect because the automatic determination of
the favorable/unfavorable nature of a load is sometimes incorrect,
as explained in the note in section 4.4.1, section 4.4.2 and in section 4.4.3. Thats why using this option requires some careful.

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Input

Methods

Water levels

Surfaces

Soil profiles

Anchors

Pre-tensioning
forces

Struts

Pre-compressions

Deltares

For each side and for each stage, select the method that
D-S HEET P ILING will use to calculate the lateral earth pressure ratios:
C, phi, delta (cohesion, soil friction angle and friction angle between soil and wall): With this option selected D-S HEET P ILING
derives the lateral earth pressure coefficients using Culmanns
method. This method is the usual choice in most cases. It is based
on straight slip surfaces and includes the influence of soil weight,
non-horizontal ground surfaces and non-uniform surcharge.
Ka , K0 , Kp (active, neutral and passive lateral earth pressure coefficients): With this option selected, D-S HEET P ILING will use userspecified coefficients or ones derived automatically from the MllerBreslau equations (straight slip surface, horizontal soil surface) or
Ktter equations (curved slip surface, horizontal ground surface).
For more details, see the Soil Materials input window section 4.3.2.
For each side and for each stage, select the water level. Water
levels may be added or modified in the Water Level window (section 4.3.5).
For each side and for each stage, select one of the available ground
surfaces from the drop down list. Ground surfaces may be added or
modified in the Surfaces input window.
For each side and for each stage, select one of the available layer
profiles from the drop down list. Layer profiles may be added or
modified in the Profiles input window.
For each stage, select the anchors that are used by marking the corresponding check-boxes. Anchors may be added via the Supports
menu.
For each selected anchor, the corresponding check-box in the list of
pre-tensioning forces may be marked. Once a check-box is marked,
the pre-tensioning force can be entered in the same cell of the table.
If an anchor is deselected, the corresponding pre-tensioning also
becomes deselected, and the corresponding check-box is disabled.
Note: In case of inclined anchor, the input pre-stress force is along
the inclined anchor, not normal to the sheet piling.
For each stage, select the struts that are to be used by marking the
corresponding check-boxes. Struts may be added via the Supports
menu.
For each selected strut, the corresponding check-box in the list
of pre-compression forces may be marked. Once a check-box is
marked, the pre-compression force can be entered in the same
cell of the table. If a strut is deselected, the corresponding precompression also becomes deselected, and the corresponding
check-box is disabled.

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Spring supports
Rigid supports
Uniform loads
Surcharges
Horizontal line loads
Moments
Normal forces

Supports and loads may be selected for each stage by marking the
corresponding check boxes. Supports and loads may be entered
with the input windows in the Soil menu and the Loads menu.
Surcharges may be selected to act on either side of the sheet piling.

Note: The Soil Displacements as defined from the Loads menu (section 4.4.6) are not
present in the Stages Overview window for Sheet Piling model (Figure 4.64) because they
are applied only at the first stage.
For more detail about the menus mentioned above, see section 4.3 to section 4.5.

4.6.2.2

Stage Overview for Single Pile


The Stage Overview window allows an overall view of loads and supports being selected for
a Single Pile analysis.
Note: Working with construction stages is not possible for the Single pile model.

Figure 4.65: Stage Overview window for Single Pile model

Water levels
Surfaces

Soil profiles

Spring supports
Rigid supports
Horizontal line loads
Moments
Normal Forces

Select the water level. Water levels may be added or modified in the
Water Levels window (section 4.3.5).
Select one of the available ground surfaces from the drop-down list.
Ground surfaces may be added or modified in the Surfaces window
(section 4.3.1).
Select one of the available layer profiles from the drop down list.
Layer profiles may be added or modified in the Profiles input window
(section 4.3.4).
All supports and loads may be selected by marking the corresponding check boxes. Supports and loads may be entered using the
input windows in the Soil menu (section 4.3) and the Loads menu
(section 4.3.4).

For more details about the menus mentioned above, see section 4.3 and section 4.3.4.
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5 Calculations
5.1

Calculation Options
This option is available only for retaining walls (section 4.1.1). On the menu bar, click Calculation and then choose Options, to change the determination method for the earth pressure
coefficients according to Culmann or to reduce the wall friction angles according to CUR 166.

Figure 5.1: Calculation Options window

First stage
represents
initial situation
Coarse/Fine

Reduce delta
friction angle(s)
according to
CUR

5.1.1

Mark this check-box to let D-S HEET P ILING determine equal neutral
stresses at both sides, for initially non-horizontal surfaces or initial surcharges. The possibilities and limitations are outlined in section 5.1.1.
Also see chapter 37 for background information.
Select either the faster, classic, coarse element determination of active
and passive pressures, or the more accurate fine element determination. D-S HEET P ILING applies the fine determination implicitly when the
First stage represents initial situation option has been selected. Note
that the fine and coarse methods may yield different results, as explained in section 5.1.2.
Mark this check-box to allow reduction of the wall friction angles according to CUR 166. This means that:
for 30 , no change is made to ;
for 30 < 35 , is reduced to 16.6 ;
for > 35 , is reduced to 17.2 .
This option is only available when using the C, phi, delta soil parameters module. The check-box is marked as default.
Note: This reduction applies for both Standard and Verification calculation:
in case of a Verification calculation, this reduction applies on the (calculated) design values;
in case of a Standard calculation or a Verification calculation with
representative values (incl. step 6.5 of CUR), this reduction applies on
the representative values.

Possibilities and limitations of the option First stage represents initial situation

 Only non-uniform loads and non-horizontal surfaces are allowed in combination with
a first initial stage. Uniform loads, horizontal line loads, moments and normal forces
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cannot be used in a first initial stage.

 Sheet piling deformation will not occur in a first initial stage, unless the initial neutral soil
stress becomes equal to the active or passive value at some part along the sheet piling.

 The layers and phreatic surface in a first initial stage must be continuous at the position
of the sheet piling.

 The influence of sheet piling installation on soil stresses is not modeled.

5.1.2

Coarse vs. Fine calculation


When performing calculations D-S HEET P ILING divides the sheet pile wall into elements. See
chapter 26 for information on how this division is performed. Each element contains 5 minor
nodes. Using the fine option the earth pressure coefficients are calculated at the location of
each node. Using the coarse option the earth pressure coefficient is assumed to be constant
over the whole element.

5.2

Start Calculation for Sheet Piling


On the menu bar, click Calculation and then choose Start to start the calculation. If the input
contains no errors, the Start Calculation window will be displayed in which different types of
calculation can be performed:

 section 5.2.1: a standard calculation;


 section 5.2.2: a design of the length of the sheet piling, using or not design codes
(Eurocode and CUR 166);

 section 5.2.3: a verification of the sheet piling according to design codes (Eurocode and
CUR 166);

 section 5.2.4: a verification of the stability of the anchor;


 section 5.2.5: a verification of the overall stability using or not design code CUR 166.

5.2.1

Standard Calculation
To perform a standard calculation, select the Standard tab in the Start Calculation window
(Figure 5.2).

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Figure 5.2: Start Calculation window, Standard tab

Recalculation
earth pressure
coefficients

Start

5.2.1.1

Automatic
Selecting Automatic leaves the values of the lateral earth pressure ratios that are calculated by the Culmann (c, phi, delta) method as they
are.
Manual
In order to review or modify the lateral earth pressure ratios calculated
by the Culmann (c, phi, delta) method, select Manual and click Editor.
This will open the Fictive Earth Pressure Coefficients window, where
the values can be viewed and modified (section 5.2.1.1).
Click Start to perform the analysis (using the stated sheet piling length).
The calculation progress is displayed in the Calculation Progress window (section 5.2.1.2).

Fictive Earth Pressure Coefficients


In the Fictive Earth Pressure Coefficients window, the values of the lateral earth pressure ratios calculated by the Culmann (c, phi, delta) method can be viewed and modified (Figure 5.3).
Refer to section 27.2.1 for background information.

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Figure 5.3: Fictive Earth Pressure Coefficients window

Coefficients of
construction stage
Recalculation
Select side to
show coefficients
Level
Ka, Ko, Kp

5.2.1.2

Select the construction stage for which the earth pressure ratios are
to be modified.
Click this button to restore the original Culmann values.
The vertical position along the sheet piling for which the earth pressure coefficients have been calculated.
The vertical position along the sheet piling.
The active, neutral and passive earth pressure coefficient values,
which can be modified.

Calculation Progress
Click Start in the Start Calculation window to perform the analysis. After analysis is complete,
close the Calculation Progress window (Figure 5.4).

Figure 5.4: Calculation Progress window

A report can now be generated (section 6.2). If errors are found in the input data, any calcula92

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tion can be performed and the Error Messages window opens in which more details about the
error(s) are given. Those errors must be corrected first before performing a new calculation.
For more explanations about the possible errors and how to solve them, refer to section 5.5.
If the sheet pile wall is found to be unstable then the calculation process is stopped and the
following warning message appears: Calculation finished: Sheet piling becomes unstable.
The sheet piling is considered to be unstable if 100% of the mobilized resistance or if the displacement reaches 25% of the sheet piling length. The stage at which the instability occurred
is also indicated in the Calculation Progress window.

5.2.2

Design Sheet Piling Length


Select the Design Sheet Piling Length tab in the Start Calculation window to design the sheet
piling length.

5.2.2.1

Design Sheet Piling Length (standard)


If the option Verification (EC7/CUR) has not been selected in the Model window (section 4.1.1),
the Design Sheet Piling Length tab allows only to perform a standard design without applying
partial factors to the input values (Figure 5.5).

Figure 5.5: Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Piling Length tab

Construction
stage
Pile length From
/ Down to /
Decrement

Select the construction stage for which a stability analysis is to be used


in order to determine the minimum length for the sheet piling.
Enter the range of pile lengths over which the analysis should be performed, and the Decrement in length for each analysis step.

If the option Verification (EC7/CUR) has been selected in the Model window (section 4.1.1),
four types of design can be performed as shown in Figure 5.6:

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standard design using representative values


design according to EuroCode 7 (General rules)
design according to EuroCode 7 (Dutch Annex)
design according to CUR 166

Figure 5.6: Design using representative values

Representative

EC7 General

EC7 NL

EC7 B

CUR

94

Select this option to perform a standard design calculation using the


representative input values. This calculation is equivalent to the standard design calculation performed in Figure 5.5.
Select this option to perform a design calculation according to the Eurocode 7 design code using the partial factors prescribed in Eurocode
7 Part 1: General rules (NEN-EN, March 2005).
Select this option to perform a design calculation according to the Eurocode 7 with the recommendations and partial factors prescribed in
the Dutch annex NEN-EN 1997-1/NB and the complementary standard
NEN 9097-1.
Select this option to perform a design calculation according to the Eurocode 7 with the recommendations and partial factors prescribed in
the Belgian annex NBN EN 1997-1 ANB.
Select this option to perform a design calculation according to the
CUR 166 Dutch design code (CUR, 2005).

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5.2.2.2

Design Sheet Piling Length acc. to Eurocode 7 (General)


If EC7 General is selected (Figure 5.7) then D-S HEET P ILING will apply partial factors according
to Eurocode 7 (chapter 34).

Figure 5.7: EC7 General

Design
proach

ap-

Select the corresponding design approach for which the design calculation will be performed. See chapter 34 for more information.

Click Start to perform the analysis.

Figure 5.8: Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Piling Length tab - Output

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The report shows for each length decrement:

 the mobilized resistance, defined as the actual total passive soil reaction divided by the
capacity of the total passive soil reaction at full yield;

 the anchor force;


 the extreme values for the bending moments along the sheet piling;
 the maximum displacement along the sheet piling.
The analysis stops if the sheet piling becomes unstable. Instability is defined as reaching
100% of the mobilized resistance, or as the maximum displacement exceeding 25% of the
sheet piling length.

5.2.2.3

Design Sheet Piling Length acc. to CUR and Eurocode 7 (NL Annex)
The Dutch Annex of the Eurocode 7 (NEN, september 2009) prescribes the same design
procedure as the CUR design procedure, except that the default partial factors are different.
If CUR or EC7 NL is selected (Figure 5.9) then D-S HEET P ILING will apply step 6.3 of the CUR
design procedure (section 33.2) using the partial factors of either CUR or EC7 NL. These
factors can either be applied to the selected stage only (method B), or also to all preceding
stages (method A) (section 33.3.1).

Figure 5.9: Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Piling Length tab EC7 NL / CUR

Partial factor set

Partial
factors
(design values)
on all stages
(method A)

96

Choose the required Partial factor set for:


The safety class (Class I, II or III) of the CUR step-by-step design procedure (chapter 33).
The class (RC 1, 2 or 3) of the procedure prescribed in the Dutch Annex of Eurocode 7;
For both D-S HEET P ILING assumes that low representative values have
been entered for cohesion and friction, and the modulus of subgrade
reaction (section 4.3.2). D-S HEET P ILING will divide the input cohesion
and the angle of internal friction by class-dependent partial safety factors. D-S HEET P ILING will also divide the low representative value of the
modulus of subgrade reaction by 1.3.
Select this option to apply partial factors to all stages (method A) (section 33.3.1). All stages are therefore calculated using design values.
The functioning of method A is schematized in the second column of
Table 5.8.

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Partial
factors
(design values)
in selected stage
only (method B)

Select this option to apply partial factors on the selected stage only
(method B), which means that the selected stage is calculated using
design values whereas the previous stages are calculated using representative values (section 33.3.1). The functioning of method B is
schematized in Table 5.8.

Table 5.8: Schematization of the calculation methods A and B according to EC7-NL and
CUR in case of 4 stages

Method B(1)

Method A
Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3
Stage 4

char

char

char

char

char

char

(1)

Design values (d) in the stage to be controlled, characteristic values (char)


in previous stage(s)

5.2.2.4

Design Sheet Piling Length acc. to Eurocode 7 (Belgian Annex)


If EC7 B is selected (Figure 5.10), D-S HEET P ILING will apply design approach 1 using the
partial factors prescribed in the Belgian Annex of the Eurocode 7 (NBN-EN, january 2011)
in all the stages (i.e. method A). In accordance to this annex, design approach DA 1 is
selected and the recommended partial factors of the general Eurocode 7 are adopted except
for the variable action in set 2 which is reduced to 1.10. Moreover, in accordance to the
Belgian annex, the program will reduced the cohesion of the layer(s) situated 1 meter below
the surface level of the passive side: the cohesion has a linear distribution starting at 0 kN/m2
at the surface level.

Figure 5.10: Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Piling Length EC7 B

Set

Select the corresponding set for which the design calculation will be performed.

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5.2.3

Verify Sheet Piling


Select the Verify Sheet Piling tab in the Start Calculation window. This option is only available
with the Verification (EC7/CUR) option enabled (section 4.1.1). The verification is applicable
to a sheet pile wall with multiple or single anchorage.
The following types of verification can be performed:

 (section 5.2.3.1) Verification acc. to Eurocode 7 General rules;


 (section 5.2.3.2) Verification acc. to Eurocode 7 with Dutch annex NEN-EN 1997-1/NB
and complementary standard NEN 9097-1;

 (section 5.2.3.2) Verification acc. to CUR 166;


 (section 5.2.3.3) Verification acc. to Eurocode 7 with Belgian Annex NBN EN 19971 ANB;
To start the verification, click Start. After analysis is complete, the results can be viewed by
opening the Report window from the Results menu (section 6.2.2).

5.2.3.1

Verify Sheet Piling acc. to Eurocode 7 (General)


If Eurocode is selected, three different design approaches according to the General rules of
Eurocode 7 (NEN-EN, March 2005) can be selected (Figure 5.11).

Figure 5.11: Start Calculation window, Verify Sheet Piling tab EC7 General

Design
approach
Check stability
for all stages

98

Select the design approach according to Eurocode 7 for which the verification will be performed. See chapter 34 for more information.
Select this check-box to perform an overall stability calculation using
modified values for soil properties (cohesion, friction angle and unit
weight) depending on the Design approach chosen for all stages.

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5.2.3.2

Verify Sheet Piling acc. to CUR and Eurocode 7 (NL Annex)


The Dutch Annex of the Eurocode 7 (NEN, september 2009) prescribes the same design
procedure as the CUR design procedure, except that the default partial factors are different.
If CUR or EC7 NL is selected, two different methods according to the CUR 166 design procedure can be selected:

 If method A (Partial factors (design values) in all stages) is selected, D-S HEET P ILING
applies partial factors (corresponding to the inputted set) in all stages. All stages are
therefore calculated using design values. The functioning of method A is schematized
in the second column of Table 5.11.

 If method B (Partial factors (design values) in verified stage only ) is selected, D-S HEET P ILING
applies partial factors (corresponding to the inputted set) only in the selected final
stage(s), and all previous stages have the Representative set applied. The selected
stage is calculated using design values whereas the previous stages are calculated
using representative values. The functioning of method B is schematized in Table 5.11.
Table 5.11: Schematization of the calculation methods A and B according to EC7-NL and
CUR in case of 4 stages

Method B(1)

Method A
Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3
Stage 4

char

char

char

char

char

char

(1)

Design values (d) in the stage to be controlled, characteristic values (char)


in previous stage(s)

If the Partial factors (design values) in all stages (method A) method is selected, the following
window is displayed (Figure 5.12).

Figure 5.12: Start Calculation window, Verify Sheet Piling tab for EC7 NL and CUR methods with Partial factors in all stages (method A)

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Partial factor set

Anchor stiffness
multiplication factor
in all stages
Check stability
for all stages

Change the Partial factor set to the relevant class:


Safety class I, II or III according to CUR 166 inputted in the Default
Partial Factors window (section 4.1.2);
RC 1, 2 or 3 according to the Dutch Annex of Eurocode 7.
D-S HEET P ILING uses the partial factors set to modify the input soil
properties (cohesion, friction and modulus of subgrade reaction)
and levels during all stages.
Enter a multiplication factor for the anchor stiffness. This factor is
used in Step 9.1 of the verification (see below), for all stages. The
default value is 1.
Select this check-box to perform an overall stability calculation using:
modified values for cohesion, friction angle and driving moment for
CUR
modified values for cohesion, friction angle and unit weight for
EC7 NL
depending on the Partial factor set chosen for all stages.

If the Partial factors (design values) in all stages (method B) method is selected, the following
window is displayed Figure 5.13.

Figure 5.13: Start Calculation window, Verify Sheet Piling tab for EC7 NL and CUR methods with Partial factors in verified stage only (method B)

Stage
Verify

Partial factor set

Anchor stiffness
multiplication
factor

100

List of the stages as defined in the Stages Manager window (section 4.6.1).
Select the Stage for which verification is to be performed by marking
the relevant check-box(es). Leaving the check-box unselected means
that this stage will not be verified.
Change the Partial factor set to the relevant class:
Safety class I, II or III according to CUR 166 inputted in the Default
Partial Factors window (section 4.1.2);
RC 1, 2 or 3 according to the Dutch Annex of Eurocode 7.
D-S HEET P ILING uses the partial factors set to modify the input soil properties (cohesion, friction and modulus of subgrade reaction) and levels
during all stages.
Enter a multiplication factor for the anchor stiffness for the different
stages. This factor is used in Step 9.1 of the verification (see below).
The default value is 1.

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Check stability
for all verified
stages

Select this check-box to perform an overall stability calculation using:


modified values for cohesion, friction angle and driving moment for
CUR
modified values for cohesion, friction angle and unit weight for EC7 NL
depending on the Partial factor set chosen for all stages.

Verification consists of the execution of six steps of the CUR 166 design procedure:

 Step 6.1 and step 6.3 determine the design moment and the shear force in the sheet
piling at the Ultimate Limit using a low design value design value for the modulus of
subgrade reaction (k / k ). For step 6.1, the water and surface levels at the passive
side are increased whereas for step 6.3 they are lowered.

 Step 6.2 and step 6.4 determine the design moment and the shear force in the sheet
piling at the Ultimate Limit State using a high design value for the modulus of subgrade
reaction (k 2.25). For step 6.2, the water and surface levels at the passive side are
increased whereas for step 6.4 they are lowered.

 Step 6.5 determines the design value for deformation at the Serviceability Limit State.
 Step 9.1 determines the design value for the anchor force at the Ultimate Limit by increasing the anchor stiffness using the multiplication factor specified in the input window
(see above).

More details on the procedure are given in section 33.2.


During all steps, D-S HEET P ILING assumes that low representative values have been entered
for cohesion and friction, as well as for the modulus of subgrade reaction (see section 4.3.2).
The modified values of the soil properties and levels can be found in the verification report
(see section 6.2.2).

5.2.3.3

Verify Sheet Piling acc. to Eurocode 7 (Belgian Annex)


If EC7 B is selected, the program will perform a verification calculation according to the Belgian annex of the Eurocode 7, at ultimate limit state (combinations 1 and 2) and at serviceability limit state. Two verification methods are available. See section 34.3 for more information.

Figure 5.14: Start Calculation window, Verify Sheet Piling tab - EC7 B

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Check stability
for all stages
Partial
factors
(design values)
in all stages
(method A)
Partial
factors
(design values)
in verified stage
only (method B)

Select this check-box to perform an overall stability calculation using


modified values for soil properties (cohesion, friction angle and unit
weight).
If this method is selected, D-S HEET P ILING applies the partial safety factors in all stages. This is the design method prescribed in the Eurocode 7.
If this method is selected, D-S HEET P ILING applies the safety partial factors only in the verified stage and all previous stages used characteristic (i.e. representative) values. This is the design method prescribed in
paragraph 4.4.2 of the Flemish norm "Standaardbestek 260" (SB260,
2012) used for the projects executed for the Flemish government. The
functioning of this method is schematized in Table 5.15.

Table 5.15: Schematization of the calculation method according to table 21-4-9 of SB 260

Stage
1

Design values (d) in the stage to be controlled, characteristic values (char) in previous stage(s)
char
d

char

&

char

...

&

char

5.2.4

&

&

Allowable Anchor Force


Select the Allowable Anchor Force tab in the Start Calculation window. This option is only
available when the Verification (EC7/CUR) option has been enabled (section 4.1.1).

Figure 5.15: Start Calculation window, Allowable Anchor Force tab

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Construction
stage
Start
Draw Results

Select the stage for which the anchor force is to be verified.


Click this button to perform the verification (section 5.2.4.1).
Click this button to open the Allowable Anchor Force Results Diagram
window and view the slip surface and key data (section 5.2.4.2).

Kranz (Kranz, 1953) has derived formulas for a short anchorage; this means that the passive
slip surface from the sheet piling and the active slip surface from the anchor wall intersect. This
intersection leads to a reduced capacity of the soil resistance against the anchor force. For
a long anchorage, there is no intersection of the two slip surfaces and therefore no reduction
of soil resistance capacity. The applicability of the method for a long anchorage is limited to
anchor walls where the distance from the soil surface to the toe of the anchor wall is smaller
than approximately twice the height of the anchor wall. Grout anchors are always considered
as short anchorage. For background information, see Allowable Anchor Force in chapter 30.
Grout anchors are always considered as short anchorage. For background information, see
Allowable Anchor Force in chapter 30.

5.2.4.1

Verification Anchor Force


To perform the verification, click Start. The output displays the relevant input data, the allowable anchor force and the resulting anchor force (Figure 5.16).

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Figure 5.16: Start Calculation window, Allowable Anchor Force tab showing results

5.2.4.2

Allowable Anchor Force Results Diagram


To view the slip surface and key data, click the Draw Results button (see Figure 5.17).

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Figure 5.17: Allowable Anchor Force Results Diagram window

H
L
A
Ea
Er
Eo
Ec

Es
Ep
Fmax
Fact

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The height of the anchor wall.


The length of the anchor.
The cross sectional area of the anchor.
The horizontal component of the resulting active force on the slip plane from the
sheet piling alone.
The horizontal component of the resulting reaction force on the slip plane from
the toe of the sheet piling to the toe of the anchor wall (short anchorage).
The horizontal component of the resulting active force on the slip plane from the
anchor wall alone.
The horizontal component of the force resulting from the cohesion along the
slip plane from the toe of the sheet piling to the toe of the anchor wall (short
anchorage).
The factor due to the anchor inclination.
The horizontal component of the resulting passive force on the slip plane from
the anchor wall alone (long anchorage).
The allowable anchor force.
The representative value of the acting force.

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5.2.5

Overall Stability
Select the Overall Stability tab in the Start Calculation window. This option is only available
with the Verification (EC7/CUR) option enabled (section 4.1.1).

Figure 5.18: Start Calculation window, Overall Stability tab

Construction
stage
Representative
EC7 General

EC7 NL

CUR

EC7 B

Export calculation results to


D-Geo Stability

106

Choose the stage to be checked.


Select this option to check the overall stability using input representative values.
Select this option to check the overall stability using the partial factors on soil parameters (cohesion, friction angle and unit weight), as
prescribed by the Eurocode 1997-1 (NEN-EN, March 2005). See section 5.2.5.1 for a detailed description of the window.
Note: No partial factors on loads and earth resistance are used, in
contrast with what prescribed the Eurocode 7.
Select this option to check the overall stability using partial factors prescribed by the Dutch Annex of the Eurocode 7 (NEN, september 2009).
See section 5.2.5.2 for a detailed description of the window.
Select this option to check the overall stability using partial factors prescribed by CUR 166 (chapter 33). See section 5.2.5.3 for a detailed
description of the window.
Select this option to check the overall stability using the partial factors
on soil parameters (cohesion, friction angle and unit weight), as prescribed by the Belgian Annex of the Eurocode 7 NBN EN 1997-1 ANB.
See section 5.2.5.4 for a detailed description of the window.
Note: No partial factors on loads and earth resistance are used, in
contrast with what prescribed the Belgian annex of Eurocode 7.
Use this option to generate input for a more detailed stability analysis
with D-G EO S TABILITY (formerly known as MStab).

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5.2.5.1

Overall Stability acc. to Eurocode 7 (General)


If EC7 General is selected (Figure 5.19) then D-S HEET P ILING will apply partial factors on
soil parameters only (cohesion, friction angle and unit weight), as prescribed by the Eurocode 1997-1 (NEN-EN, March 2005). No partial factors on loads and earth resistance
are used, in contrast with what prescribed the Eurocode 7. Refer to section 34.1.5 for more
information.

Figure 5.19: Start Calculation window, Overall Stability tab - EC7 General

Design
approach

5.2.5.2

Choose the Eurocode design approach. D-S HEET P ILING will modify the
soil parameters (cohesion, friction angle and unit weight) depending on
the Design Approach chosen.

Overall Stability acc. to Eurocode 7 (NL Annex)


If EC7 NL is selected (Figure 5.20) then D-S HEET P ILING will apply partial factors according to
the Dutch Annex of the Eurocode 7.

Figure 5.20: Start Calculation window, Overall Stability tab - EC7 NL

Partial factor set

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Choose the class (RC 1, 2 or 3). D-S HEET P ILING will modify the soil
parameters (cohesion, friction angle and unit weight) depending on the
Partial factor set chosen.

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5.2.5.3

Overall Stability acc. to CUR 166


If CUR is selected (Figure 5.21) then D-S HEET P ILING will apply partial factors according to the
Dutch recommendations CUR 166.

Figure 5.21: Start Calculation window, Overall Stability tab - CUR

Partial factor set

5.2.5.4

Choose the CUR 166 safety class (Class I, II or III). D-S HEET P ILING will
modify the soil parameters (cohesion and friction angle) and the driving
moment according to CUR 166 table 2.7.

Overall Stability acc. to Eurocode 7 (Belgian Annex)


If EC7 B is selected (Figure 5.22) then D-S HEET P ILING will apply partial factors on soil parameters only (cohesion, friction angle and unit weight), as prescribed by the Belgian annex
of Eurocode 7 (NBN-EN, january 2011). No partial factors on loads and earth resistance are
used, in contrast with what prescribed the Belgian annex. Refer to section 34.3.5 for more
information.

Figure 5.22: Start Calculation window, Overall Stability tab - EC7 B

Set

Choose one of the two combinations of Design Approach 1.


D-S HEET P ILING will modify the soil parameters (cohesion, friction angle and unit weight) depending on the Design Approach chosen.

After clicking OK, D-S HEET P ILING will use Bishops method (chapter 31) to find the critical slip
circle. The critical slip circle and stability factor are shown schematically in the result window.

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Figure 5.23: Overall Stability Diagram window

5.3

Start Calculation for Single Pile


On the menu bar, click Calculation and then click Start. After analysis is complete, close the
Calculation Progress window. A report can now be generated.

5.4

Batch Calculation
D-S HEET P ILING offers the possibility to perform calculations in batch which means successive
calculations for different input files. This can be useful for time consuming calculations. To do
so, D-S HEET P ILING program must be started from the Run window by specifying its location
followed by /b, as shown in Figure 5.24.

Figure 5.24: Run window

Then the Start Batch Calculation window opens where the location of the files must be specified (Figure 5.25).

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Figure 5.25: Start Batch Calculation window

D-S HEET P ILING will run the specified files successively.

5.5

Error Messages
If errors are found in the input data, any calculation can be performed and the Error Messages
window opens in which more details about the error(s) are given. Those errors must be corrected first before performing a new calculation. Below is a list of all possible error messages
with a few explanations when needed.

Figure 5.26: Error Messages window

Sheet piling:
Maximum number of nodes exceeded!
Maximum number of different kinds of bars exceeded!

Calculation:
Stiffness matrix is not filled properly!
Ratio of stiffness sheet piling / Mod.of subgrade reaction too small!
No passive side found of the sheet piling.
Sheet piling becomes unstable (not converged)
Not converged: Maximum number of iterations exceeded
No convergence
Uplift will occur

Anchor:
Anchor above ground surface

Change the anchor properties in the


Anchor window (section 4.5.1).

Cross section for anchor incorrect (= 0)


Length for anchor incorrect (= 0)

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Read dumpfile:
Requested stage not found on dumpfile
Error found while reading dumpfile
Unable to open dumpfile

Allowable anchor force:


Anchor wall in active plane sheet piling
Bottom anchor wall on or above surface

Eurocode verification:
During Eurocode verification, the maximum allowable percentage of
Maximum
mobilization (of 100%) is reduced as a partial resistance factor is appercentage of
plied (section 4.1.2). However, the instability criterion stays at 100%
mobilization
thats why this error message is given.
exceeded

Initial calculation:
Initial stress-less situation request a continuous surface
Initial stress-less situation request the same soil profiles on both sides
Initial stress-less situation is only possible with C, phi, delta method
Initial stress-less situation : no soil displacements allowed
Initial stress-less situation : no head displacements allowed
Initial stress-less situation : no uniform distributions allowed
Initial stress-less situation : no horizontal loads or moments allowed

All the above error messages refer to the limitations of the calculation option First stage represents initial situation given in section 5.1.1.
Method Ka , K0 , Kp :
On the left side a surcharge
load is defined.
On the right side a surcharge
load is defined.
On the left side the surface is
not horizontal.

The Ka , K0 , Kp model is limited to uniform loads. In case


of surcharge, the c, phi, delta model must be used.

The Ka , K0 , Kp model is limited to horizontal surfaces. In


case of non-horizontal surfaces, the c, phi, delta model
must be used.

On the right side the surface


is not horizontal.

Design sheet piling length:


There are loads or supports below the sheet piling.
Sheet piling above surface level.

Use of method:
In the next profile(s) the difference between the highest and lowest phi in the layers is more
then 15 degrees.

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According to CUR 166 article 4.5.8, a Culmann calculation with straight slip surfaces is not
allowed. Either reduce your phis or try a Ka , K0 , Kp calculation.
In a verification the Ka , K0 and Kp are recalculated with reduced phi and deltas. This was
impossible with the next layer/layers while they have a manual given Ka , K0 and Kp .
The Ka , K0 and Kp are calculated according to Brinch Hansen per material.

General:
The stress in the layer is used in this calculation, therefore a material
should not be used in more than one layer.
The next material(s) occur in more than one layer:
No construction stages defined
Too many construction stages defined
Level of first soil displacement must coincide with top level of sheet
piling
On the left side, no surface has been selected
Level surface near sheet pile is situated above top sheet piling
Level surface near sheet pile is situated beneath toe sheet piling
More than one normal force defined

Normal force X is not constant


Normal force must be constant when two levels coincide
At least two soil displacement points required (sheet piling top and
bottom)
Levels of soil displacements are not decreasing
No points defined in surface
X-coordinates surface are not increasing
No soil layers defined
Soil profile X: Levels soil layers must be decreasing,
The soil layer X is not defined
No side defined
Not enough points defined (needs at least two)
X-coordinates of the surcharge load are not increasing
Negative values specified
Negative spring stiffness defined
No sheet piling sections defined
Too many sheet piling sections defined

Up to 50 stages
can be defined

Only one normal


force per stage is
allowed.

Up to 20 sections
can be defined.

Sheet piling length must be at least 1 m.


Sheet piling length may not be larger than 100 m.

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6 View Results
The options in the Results menu can be used to view the results of the performed calculations.

6.1

Report Selection
On the menu bar, click Results and then choose Report Selection to open the Report Selection window. In this window the report content can be selected for viewing, exporting and
printing by marking the check-boxes in the tree view.

Figure 6.1: Report Selection window

Include minor
nodes
Multiple stage
selection

Graphs

Select this option to display tabular results for every finite element node
along the sheet piling, as opposed to just the major nodes.
To apply the same result selection for all stages, first use the Multiple
stage selection tree view on the right hand side. By clicking Apply to all
stages, this general selection will be applied to the tree view on the left
hand side.
Clicking Select all and then Apply under Graphs will cause pictures of
the geometry and graphs of the moments, forces and displacements to
be included for all stages.

Click OK to generate a report with the selected content.

6.2

Report
On the menu bar, click Results and then choose Report to view the results of the analysis,
in report format with tables and graphs (section 5.2.1). Depending on the type of calculation
performed (section 5.2), the report will contain different results:
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 Results of a standard calculation (section 6.2.1)


 Results of a Verify Sheet Piling analysis according to CUR and Eurocode 7 (NL Annex)
(section 6.2.2)

 Results of a Verify Sheet Piling analysis according to Eurocode 7 (General and Belgian
annex) (section 6.2.3)

Click the Print active window


icon to print the report. Choose the Export Report option
from the File menu to save the report, for example in RTF format.

Report for a standard calculation


The report contains a selection from the following elements:

 Header with general data.


 Table of Contents.

Maxima per Stage: table overview of the extreme values for all stages;

Anchors and Struts: state and force in the anchors/struts for all relevant stages
(the force is given in the direction of the anchor/strut);

 Summary section (Figure 6.2) contains:

Calculation Errors: possible warnings indicating if instability occur during a stage;

6.2.1

Warnings: possible warnings indicating if uplift occur during a stage;

Figure 6.2: Report window, Summary section

 Input Data for all Stages section: overview of general input.


 Construction Stages section (for each stage) containing:
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Outline (Picture) shows a diagram of the geometry with layers and supports;

View Results

Input Data Left/Right gives an overview of the input for each construction stage:

If the Ka , K0 , Kp method is used for the selected side, the values of the calculated Earth pressures coefficients Ka , K0 and Kp are given in a table (see
Figure 6.3);

Figure 6.3: Report window, Input Data Left/Right section for Ka , K0 , Kp method

If the c, phi, delta method is used for the selected side, the table of the
Earth pressures coefficients is empty (see "n.a" in Figure 6.4) but an additional paragraph called Calculated Earth Pressure Coefficients Left/Right is
present: in the table displayed, column "Fictive earth pressure coefficients"
gives the values of the lateral earth pressure ratios calculated by the Culmann (c, phi, delta). These values can also be found in the Fictive Earth
Pressure Coefficients window (section 5.2.1.1). Refer to section 27.2.1 for
background information.

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Calculation Results for each construction stage;

Charts of Moments/Forces and Displacements (Picture) shows the graphical output for moments, forces and displacements along the sheet piling;

Moments/Forces and Displacements gives the tabular output for moments, forces
and displacements along the sheet piling;

Stresses gives the tabular output for stresses along the sheet piling.

Figure 6.4: Report window, Input Data Left/Right section for Culmann method

Soil Collapse (Figure 6.5) Soil Collapse gives the output of the integrated horizontal forces on the left and right hand sides. D-S HEET P ILING calculates the mobilized
force resistance from the ratio between the actual force and the maximum force
along the passive side. In cases with a single support/anchor/strut, the maximum
moment and the mobilized moment are also calculated, around the location of the
support. On the passive side, D-S HEET P ILING only takes the stress contributions
below that location into account.

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Figure 6.5: Report window, Soil Collapse section

Vertical Force Balance (Figure 6.6) gives a rough indication of the upward forces
that result from the friction by soil movement on the active and passive sides. This
method is only useful if the friction is mainly caused by excavation, e.g. not by
normal forces. For background information, refer to chapter 32.

Figure 6.6: Report window, Vertical Force Balance section

Anchors/Struts (Figure 6.7) gives the force in all anchor and strut.

Figure 6.7: Report window, Anchors/Struts section

The report is largely self-descriptive. Fragments of the result sections are displayed in Figure 6.2 to Figure 6.7. Click the Print active window
icon on the menu bar to print the report.
Choose the Export Report option from the File menu to save the report, for example in RTF
format.
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Click on the buttons at the top of the Report window to browse through the report:
Zoom in button
Click this button to enlarge the content of the selected page.
Zoom out button
Click this button to reduce the content of the selected page.
Zoom full page
Click this button to enlarge the page to fit the window.
Zoom page width
Click this button to enlarge the page width to fit the window.
Move to first page
Click this button to go to the first page of the report.
Move to previous page
Click this button to go to the previous page of the report.
Move to next page
Click this button to go to the next page of the report.
Move to last page
Click this button to go to the last page of the report.
Enter the page number to be displayed.

Report for a Verify Sheet Piling calculation acc. CUR and EC7 NL
A verification analysis according to CUR 166 or Eurocode 7 (Annex NL) is performed using the
Verify Sheet Piling tab of the Start Calculation window (section 5.2.3).The verification report
contains the same elements as described in the regular analysis report (section 6.2.1), except
for the following sections:

118

Overview per Stage and Test: table overview of the results obtained for the selected stages of the Verify Sheet Piling tab in the Start Calculation window (section 5.2.3), for six CUR 166 steps (6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5 and 9.1) plus step 6.5
using a multiplication of 1.2 for the displacement, moment and force;

Anchors and Struts: state of anchors and struts for each selected stage and for
the six CUR 166 steps (6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5 and 9.1);

Overall Stability per Stage: safety factor for each stage;

 Summary section containing (Figure 6.8):

Calculation Errors: possible warnings indicating if instability occur during a stage;

6.2.2

Warnings: possible warnings indicating if uplift occur during a stage;

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Figure 6.8: Report window, Summary section for a CUR or EC7 NL verification

 Construction Stages section (for each stage and for the six CUR 166 steps) contain-

Outline (Picture) shows a diagram of the geometry with layers and supports, including geometrical modifications by the selected safety class;

Input Data Left/Right gives an overview of the input for each construction stage,
including modifications by a selected partial factor safety class;

ing:

For the results, refer to section 6.2.1;

Refer to section 33.2 for background information on the CUR 166 verification steps. Refer to
section 34.2 for background information on the Dutch Annex of Eurocode 7.

6.2.3

Report for a Verify Sheet Piling calculation acc. EC7 General and EC7 B
A verification analysis according to Eurocode 7-General and Eurocode 7-Belgian is performed
using the Verify Sheet Piling tab of the Start Calculation window (section 5.2.3).The report
for a EC7-General and EC7-B verification contains the same elements as described in the
regular analysis report (section 6.2.1), except for the following sections:

 Summary section containing (Figure 6.9):

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Overview per Stage and Test: table overview of the results obtained for the selected stages of the Verify Sheet Piling tab in the Start Calculation window (section 5.2.3), for the selected design approach:

for the EC7-General verification: DA 1, DA 2 or DA 3;


for the EC7-Belgian verification: ANB set 1 (i.e. DA 1 set 1) and ANB set 2 (i.e.

Anchors and Struts: state of anchors and struts for each selected stage and for
the selected design approach (DA): 1, 2 or 3.

Overall Stability per Stage: safety factor for each stage;

Calculation Errors: possible warnings indicating if instability occur during a stage;

DA 1 set 2) plus an extra design approach called Deformation corresponding


to a representative calculation (no partial factors).

Warnings: possible warnings indicating if uplift occur during a stage;

Figure 6.9: Report window, Summary section for a EC7-General verification

Outline (Picture) shows a diagram of the geometry with layers and supports, including geometrical modifications by the selected design approach;

 Construction Stages section (for each stage and for the selected DA) containing:

Input Data Left/Right gives an overview of the input for each construction stage,
including modifications by the partial factors of the selected DA;

 For the results, refer to section 6.2.1;


Note: For design approaches DA 1 set 1 and DA 2, the maximum values of the bending
moment given in the Summary section of the Report can be different from those given in the
Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window (section 6.3.3) because the bending moment
given in the Report includes the partial factor on the effect of the loads whereas the actual
values in the Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window not.
Refer to section 34.1 for background information on the General Eurocode 7.

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6.3

Moments, Forces and Displacements Charts


On the menu bar, click Results and then choose Moment/Force/Displacement Charts to
view graphs of the bending moments, shear forces and displacements along the sheet piling. Depending on the type of calculation performed (section 5.2), the content of the Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window will be different:

 (section 6.3.1) Charts for a Standard calculation;


 (section 6.3.2) Charts for a Verify Sheet Piling calculation according to CUR and Eurocode 7 (NL Annex);

 (section 6.3.3) Charts for a Verify Sheet Piling calculation according to Eurocode 7
(General).

6.3.1

Charts for a Standard calculation

Figure 6.10: Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window

Click the Previous stage and Next stage icons,


, to view the results of the other construction stages. Click on the Print active window
icon to print the displayed graphics.
For the three charts, the grey dotted lines indicate the maximum values obtained from all
stages. For the Bending Moment chart (left chart of Figure 6.10), the Maximum Moment
inputted in the Sheet Piling window section 4.2.1 is also drawn as two green dotted vertical
lines (of -300 and 300 kNm in Figure 6.10).
Click the right hand mouse button, and choose View Data to open the Chart Data window
(Figure 6.11). In this window the data used to generate the charts can be viewed and copied,
for example for use in spreadsheets.

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Figure 6.11: Chart Data window

For the three charts (Bending Moments, Shear Forces and Displacement), three types of
datas are available:
Actual
Minimum
Maximum

The actual values of the selected stage.


The minimum values of all stages.
The maximum values of all stages.

Note: The anchor force Fanchor given chart data in the Shear Forces chart of the Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window is the actual total force in the anchor (normal to the
sheet piling), whilst the shear force illustrated as acting on the sheet pile wall is only the horizontal component of the anchor force. Thus the size of the jump in the shear force diagram
will only be the same as the value given for Fanchor if the anchor is horizontal.

6.3.2

Charts for a Verify Sheet Piling calculation acc. CUR and EC7 NL
A verification analysis according to CUR 166 or Eurocode 7 (Annex NL) is performed using the
Verify Sheet Piling tab of the Start Calculation window (section 5.2.3). The verification graphs
of the bending moments, shear forces and displacements along the sheet piling (Figure 6.12)
are available for the selected stage, for all six CUR 166 verification steps (6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5
and 9.1). See also the description for the Moment/Force/Displacement Charts from a regular
analysis (section 6.3.1).

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Figure 6.12: Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window for a CUR verification

Click the View Verification Step icon


to open a diagram of the changes made for the selected verification step. For background information on the CUR 166 verification steps, see
section 33.2.

6.3.3

Charts for a Verify Sheet Piling calculation acc. EC7 General and EC7 B
A verification analysis according to Eurocode 7 (General and Belgian annex) is performed
using the Verify Sheet Piling tab of the Start Calculation window (section 5.2.3). The verification graphs of the bending moments, shear forces and displacements along the sheet piling
(Figure 6.13) are available for the selected stage, only for the design approach (DA) selected
in the Verify Sheet Piling tab of the Start Calculation window (section 5.2.3).

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Figure 6.13: Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window for a EuroCode verification

Different lines are represented in the Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window:

the grey dotted line is the maximum bending moment obtained from all stages;

the black continuous line is the bending moment calculated for the selected stage,
except for design approaches DA 1 set 1 and DA 2 for which this line corresponds
to the intermediary calculated bending moment without partial factor on the effect
of the loads;

the red dotted line is the maximum (between all stages) calculated bending moment multiplied by the partial factor on the effect of the loads. For design approaches DA 1 set 2 and DA 3, the red line is indeed the grey line as any partial
factor applies on the effect of the loads. For design approaches DA 1 set 1 and
DA 2, the red line is the black continuous line multiplied by the partial factor on the
effect of the loads;

 In the Bending Moments chart, four different lines are plotted:

the green dotted vertical line is the maximum allowable moment inputted in the
Sheet piling window section 4.2.1.

the grey dotted line is the maximum shear force obtained from all stages;

 In the Shear Forces chart, two different lines are plotted:

the black continuous line is the shear force calculated for the selected stage;

the grey dotted line is the maximum displacement obtained from all stages;

 In the Displacements chart, two different lines are plotted:

the black continuous line is the displacement calculated for the selected stage;

See also the description for the Moment/Force/Displacement Charts from a regular analysis
(section 6.3.1).
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Note: For design approaches DA 1 set 1 and DA 2, the maximum moment and the maximum
shear force given in the Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window are less than those given
in the Summary section of the Report window while they should be equal. The reason for this
is that the Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window shows the intermediary calculated
moments and forces before multiplying them with the partial factor on the effect of the loads
(1.35 as default) whereas the Summary section of the Report window shows the final design
moments and forces.
Click the right hand mouse button, and choose View Data to open the Chart Data window
(Figure 6.14). In this window the data used to generate the charts can be viewed and copied,
for example for use in spreadsheets chart data.

Figure 6.14: Chart Data window

For the three charts (Bending Moments, Shear Forces and Displacement), three types of
datas are available:
Actual

Minimum
Maximum

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The actual values of the selected stage.


Note: For the chart of the Bending Moments, the actual values correspond to the black continuous line, not the red dotted line (i.e. including
partial factor on the effect of the loads).
Note: For design approaches DA 1 set 1 and DA 2, the maximum/minimum values of the bending moment can be different from
those given in the Summary section of the Report (section 6.2.3) because the bending moment given in the Report includes the partial
factor on the effect of the loads whereas the actual values in the Chart
Data window not.
The minimum values of all stages.
The maximum values of all stages.

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Stress Charts
On the menu bar, click Results and then choose Stress State Charts to open the Stress charts
window where three graphs are plotted:

 the Water Pressure graph represents the water pressure (including the user-defined
additional pore pressure) acting on the sheet pile wall at both sides;

 the Effective Stress graph represents the horizontal effective stress acting on the sheet
pile wall at both sides;

 the Resulting Stress graph has two lines:


the black line represents the resulting total stress acting on the sheet pile wall (i.e.
the difference between the horizontal total stress at the active and passive sides).
The total stress is the sum of the effective stress and the water pressure.

6.4

the red line represents the resulting effective stress acting on the sheet pile wall
(i.e. the difference between the horizontal effective stress at the active and passive
sides).

Figure 6.15: Stress State Charts window

Click the Previous stage and Next stage buttons,


struction stages.

, to view the results of the other con-

button to print the displayed graphics.Click the right hand


Click the Print active window
mouse button, and choose View Data to open the Chart Data window (Figure 6.16). In this
window the data used to generate the charts can be viewed and copied, for example for use
in spreadsheets chart data.

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Figure 6.16: Chart Data window

Water Pressure
Left
Water Pressure
Right
Resulting Stress

The water pressure (including the user-defined additional pore pressure) acting on the left side of the sheet pile wall.
The water pressure (including the user-defined additional pore pressure) acting on the right side of the sheet pile wall.
The resulting total stress (i.e. sum of the effective stress and the water
pressure) acting on the sheet pile wall (i.e. the difference between the
horizontal total stress at the active
 and passive sides):

0
0
resulting = active
+ Pw;active passive
+ Pw;passive

Effective Stress
Left
Effective Stress
Right

6.5

The horizontal effective stress acting on the left side of the sheet pile
wall.
The horizontal effective stress acting on the right side of the sheet pile
wall.

Stress Diagrams
On the menu bar, click Results and then choose Stress Diagrams to view the effective stress
, the pore pressure U and the resulting stress R acting on the sheet pile wall, displayed
over the soil, sheet piling and anchorage.

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Figure 6.17: Stress Diagrams window

Three stress representations are available:


Click the Effective Stress icon to view the horizontal effective stress acting on the
sheet pile wall at both sides.
Click the Water pressure icon to view the water pressure (including the user-defined
additional pore pressure) acting on the sheet pile wall at both sides.
Click the Resulting stress icon to view the resulting total stress (i.e. sum of the effective stress and the water pressure) acting on the sheet pile wall (i.e. the difference
between the horizontal total stress
 at the active andpassive sides):
0
0
resulting = active
+ Pw;active passive
+ Pw;passive .

Click the Previous stage and Next stage icons,


, to view the results of the other construction stages. Click the Print active window
icon to print the displayed graphics.

6.6

Settlement by Vibration Charts


This option is available only after a Settlement by Vibration calculation (section 7.1).On the
menu bar, click Results and then choose Settlement by Vibration Charts to display the settlement vs. the distance to sheet pile.
Three types of charts are displayed:

 (section 6.6.1) Settlements during installation of the sheet piling;


 (section 6.6.2) Settlements during removal of the sheet piling;
 (section 6.6.3) Total settlements.
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For each chart, three lines are shown:

 The blue line corresponds to the settlements due to sheet pile volume;
 The red line corresponds to the settlements due to densification;
 The black line corresponds to the total settlement (sum of settlements due to sheet pile
volume and due to densification).
For background information about the determination of the settlements due to vibration, refer
to chapter 38.

6.6.1

Settlements during installation of the sheet piling


Choose During installation from the drop-down menu at the top left of the Settlement by Vibration Charts window to display the settlements during installation of the sheet piling.

Figure 6.18: Settlements by Vibration Charts window, During installation

6.6.2

Settlements during removal of the sheet piling


Choose During removal from the drop-down menu at the top left of the Settlement by Vibration
Charts window to display the settlements during removal of the sheet piling.

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Figure 6.19: Settlements by Vibration Charts window, During removal

6.6.3

Total settlement
Choose Total settlement from the drop-down menu at the top left of the Settlement by Vibration
Charts window to display the total settlement due to vibration during installation and removal
of the sheet piling.

Figure 6.20: Settlements by Vibration Charts window, Total settlement

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6.7

Slide Planes C, Phi, Delta Calculation


This option is available only for the stages and sides for which the c, phi, delta method
(Culmann) for the calculation of the lateral earth pressure ratios was selected in the Stages
Overview window (section 4.6.2.1), and only for a Standard calculation (section 5.2.1) but not
after a verification calculation.On the menu bar, click Results and then choose Slide Planes
C, Phi, Delta Calculation to view the active and passive slide planes as calculated using the
Culmann theory (section 27.2.1). The method is based on the equilibrium between the different forces acting surcharge, the soil weight, the total force from the sheet piling, the normal
force and the shear force along one straight slip surface. The Culmann method takes the
stratification of soil along the slip surface into account. D-S HEET P ILING iteratively determines
a slip surface that results in the maximum active pressure and the minimum passive pressure.
From this calculated pressure, D-S HEET P ILING determines different coefficients in each point
from the top to the toe of the sheet pile wall.

Figure 6.21: Active Planes Diagram window

Click the Active slide planes icon to view the slides planes in each point along the
sheet pile wall at the left and right sides, used to calculate the active earth pressure coefficients, as given in the Fictive Earth Pressure Coefficients window (section 5.2.1.1).
Click the Passive slide planes icon to view the slides planes in each point along
the sheet pile wall at the left and right sides, used to calculate the passive earth
pressure coefficients, as given in the Fictive Earth Pressure Coefficients window
(section 5.2.1.1).

Click the Previous stage and Next stage icons,


, to view the results of the other construction stages. Click the Print active window
icon to print the displayed graphics.

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7 Feasibility
During the analysis of a sheet pile wall, after verifying the walls stability, it is also important to
perform a feasibility check. For this purpose, the use of the Feasibility module helps the user:

 to evaluate the settlements due to vibratory installation and removal of sheet piles (section 7.1);

 to evaluate the feasibility of a project by comparison with prior experiences. Two expe-

In order to check the feasibility of sheet pile driving, the NVAF (Nederlandse
Vereniging Aannemers Funderingstechnieken) NVAF lines has written a number
of instructions in a handbook (Harderwijk and NVAF/PSW, 2002) published in
2002. The Feasibility module supports part of this by means of the so-called NVAF
lines, representing the relation between the sheet piling length and the resisting
moment. These lines and the way to use them are presented in section 7.2.1.

rience sources are available in the Feasibility module:

At the same time, a project called GeoBrain Foundations (GeoBrain) was started
in 2002 at Deltares together with contractors and an engineering firm, which aims
to develop a prediction model for the feasibility of different types of geotechnical
engineering works. The details of hundreds of projects involving the driving of
sheet pilings were received for study. The Feasibility module gives access for
the user to those experiences, as explained in section 7.2.2, section 7.3 and section 7.4.

Note: When using the Feasibility module, the aim is not to judge the feasibility of the project
as input into D-S HEET P ILING but only to provide the user with experiences on practical feasibility. The user retains the final responsibility for the project.

7.1

Settlement by vibration
Settlements due to vibratory installation and removal of sheet piles are mainly caused by
densification of the sand and by installation or removal of a sheet pile volume. The model
implemented in D-S HEET P ILING is based on the model developed by Meijers (Meijers and Tol,
Juli 2010) (Meijers, december 2007). This model calculates the densification and excess pore
pressures during the installation and removal of the sheet pile. For background information,
refer to chapter 38.
The calculation of the settlement by vibration is started from the Feasibility menu by selecting
the option settlement by vibration (Figure 7.1).

Figure 7.1: Options under Feasibility menu

A window appears showing the calculation progress (Figure 7.2).


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Figure 7.2: Calculation progress window during Settlement by vibration calculation

The settlements are calculated for the active side/right side of the sheet pile and first (initial)
step. Ground level is the level next to the sheet pile wall.
Settlement results are shown in the Settlement by vibration Charts window, available from the
Results menu (section 6.6).

7.2

Sheet Pile Installation


To open the Feasibility Sheet Piling Installation window, click the Sheet Pile Installation option
from the Feasibility menu.

7.2.1

Sheet Pile Installation based on NVAF lines


When the Show NVAF lines option from the Feasibility Sheet Pile Installation window is selected, the chart shown in Figure 7.3 appears, representing the relation between the resisting
moment and the sheet pile length. Different lines are represented corresponding to different
driving strengths in kN.

Figure 7.3:
textitE-Consult Sheet Pile Installation window, Show NVAF lines option

In the Experience lines NVAF option, different lines can be selected from a drop down menu,
as shown in Figure 7.4.
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Figure 7.4: Experience lines NVAF drop-down menu

A distinction is made between High Frequency (HF ) and Low Frequency (LF ) vibrations for
the sheet pile driving. For both vibration frequencies, general charts (ending with the number
5, 10, 15 or 20, for example HF 15) and charts for the most important cities of the Netherlands
(for example HF Rotterdam) are available. The final number of the general charts corresponds
to the average cone resistance of the soil in MPa. For example, <LF 10> means sheet pilings
driven using low frequency vibrations in a soil having an average cone resistance of 10 MPa.
In the graph Resisting moment vs. Sheet Pile length, the current sheet pile input is indicated
by a blue point section 4.2.1. According to Figure 7.3, it is an <AZ 13> sheet piling profile
with a resisting moment of 1300 cm3 /m and a length of 16 m. If this point lies below the
NVAF-lines, successful pile driving is guaranteed for the selected sheet piling profile. If the
point lies above the NVAF-lines (which is the case in Figure 7.3), damage could occur during
pile driving. In the latter case, the sheet piling properties need to be changed either by decreasing the sheet pile length, or by increasing the resisting moment. New calculations must
be performed with this new profile to verify the sheet piling stability.
For a detailed description on the use of the Feasibility module with NVAF experience lines,
see the Experience data tutorial example chapter 19 or (Harderwijk and NVAF/PSW, 2002).

7.2.2

Sheet Pile Installation based on GeoBrain Experiences


When selecting the Show Experiences option from the Feasibility Sheet Pile Installation window, the chart of Figure 7.5 below appears, representing Resisting moment vs. Sheet pile
length. Each point represented corresponds to a performed project. Different colors and
markers are used for the points depending on whether the experience was Good, Moderate
or Poor.

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Figure 7.5: E-consult Sheet Pile Installation window, Show Experiences option

In the Region option, different regions from the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany can be
selected from a drop-down menu, as shown in Figure 7.6.

Figure 7.6: Region drop-down menu

To get the most relevant information about each project, move the cursor over the project. To
view all of the information, click on the project and read the following information at the right
side of Feasibility Sheet Piling Installation window:
Projectnaam
Datum uitvoering
Straat en Plaats
Sondering
Type profiel
Enkele planken
Dubbele planken
Drieling planken
Lengte van planken
Gebruikt trilblok
Hoog/laag frequent

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The name of the project.


The date of construction.
The location of the project: street and the city names.
The name of the *.gef file containing the boring results.
The type of sheet piling profile.
Single sheet piling: Ja = Yes and Nee = No.
Double sheet piling: Ja = Yes and Nee = No.
Triple sheet piling: Ja = Yes and Nee = No.
The length of the sheet piling.
The type of vibration used.
The type of vibration frequency: Hoog = High and Laag = Low.

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Project resultaat

The characteristic of the project results:


Matig = Moderate and Slecht = Poor.

Goed = Good,

In Figure 7.5 it can be seen that the blue circle and black box denoting D-S HEET P ILING and
manual input respectively lie within the general area for which experience has been obtained.
This is an indication that the installation has a fairly common combination of sheet pile length
and resisting moment, although if there are a lot of Poor experiences near to an input this
could be an indication that the combination is likely to experience problems on installation.

7.3

GeoBrain Drivability Prediction


Choose GeoBrain Drivability Prediction from the Feasibility menu to open the GeoBrain Prediction window. D-S HEET P ILING contacts on-line to the GeoBrain experience database.

Figure 7.7: GeoBrain Prediction window, First page

CPT
Resisting
moment
Sheet piling
length
Water level to
surface
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The name of the imported CPT (section 4.3.4). No CPT imported is


indicated by n.a.
The Resisting moment of the sheet piling inputted in the Sheet Piling
window (section 4.2.1).
The length of the sheet piling inputted in the Sheet Piling window (section 4.2.1).
Ground water level with respect to ground surface of the first stage (a
negative value indicates ground water is under ground surface).
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Click this button to first modify the other data before performing a prediction. When clicking this button, the user is directed through the different items of a menu bar. If the user does not know the answer to a
question, default values are used (section 7.3.1).
Click this button to predict directly, without changing the default values
for other data. When clicking this button, the user is directly directed to
the Result menu (section 7.3.5) if all required information are correct.
If not, the user is directed through the different items of a menu bar
(section 7.3.1) to fill in the missing required information.
This button is available only if a CPT was previously imported in the
Soil Profiles window (section 4.3.4).

7.3.1

GeoBrain Prediction Menu bar


When clicking the Refine button, a main screen appears with a menu bar (Figure 7.8) at the
top and the bottom. Menus named Geotechnics (section 7.3.2), Sheet pile (section 7.3.3) and
Installation (section 7.3.4) contain questions that either have been filled automatically or must
be filled by the user before performing any prediction in the Result menu (section 7.3.5) and
viewing/saving the report in the Report menu (section 7.3.6).Use the Next > and < Previous
buttons to go through this menu.

Figure 7.8: GeoBrain Prediction window, Menu bar

7.3.2

GeoBrain Prediction Geotechnics menu


The Geotechnics menu shows the imported CPT and contains geotechnical questions.

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Figure 7.9: GeoBrain Prediction window, Geotechnics menu

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Question 1

Current CPT file:


The name of the CPT file providing the soil profile of the project. By default, D-S HEET P ILING uses the imported CPT in the Soil Profiles window
(section 4.3.4). If no CPT was imported, three options are available to get
a CPT file:

 Select Upload CPT to import a GEF-CPT file by clicking the Browse


button;

 Select Search for CPT to import a GEF-CPT file from the DINO
database (Data and Information of the Subsurface of The Netherlands). The search is made using a map. Refer to (DINO) for more
information on the DINO database.

 Select Default CPT to select a GEF-CPT file from a drop-down list


containing default CPT for the main Dutch cities.
Question 2

Question 3
Question 4
Question 5
Question 6

7.3.3

Is there stiff clay present?


Select from the drop-down menu the type of stiff clay if present in the
project. Pot clay (potklei in Dutch) is a very compact black, until blackbrown clay which is present especially in the north of the Netherlands.
Boomse clay (boomseklei in Dutch) is a clay layer in the subsoil of the
east of the Netherlands and the North east of Belgium and it belongs to
the sediment formation of Rupel.
What is the thickness of the stiff clay layers? [m]
If stiff clay is present, enter the thickness of the stiff clay layers.
Ground water level with respect to ground surface [m]:
D-S HEET P ILING uses as default the ground water level of the first stage.
Are there obstacles present? Give an estimate in percentage
Enter 0 if no obstacle.
What is the condition of the subsurface on site?
Choose from the drop-down menu between Good, Moderate or Poor to
define the quality of the foundation.

GeoBrain Prediction Sheet pile menu


The Sheet pile menu contains questions about the sheet pile.

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Figure 7.10: GeoBrain Prediction window, Sheet pile menu

Question 7

Question 8

Question 9

Question 10

Question 11

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What is the length of the sheet pile to be used?


Enter the length of the sheet pile. D-S HEET P ILING uses as default the
length inputted in the Sheet Piling window section 4.2.1.
Sheet pile producer:
Select from the drop-down menu the sheet pile manufacturer if part of
D-S HEET P ILING library.
Type of sheet pile:
Select from the drop-down menu the type profile if part of the
D-S HEET P ILING library.
Resisting moment:
Enter manually the resisting moment if the sheet pile profile is not part of
the D-S HEET P ILING library.
Type of sheet pile profile:
Enter manually the sheet pile profile if the sheet pile profile is not part of
the D-S HEET P ILING library.
Weight of a single sheet pile per meter:
Enter manually the sheet pile weight if the sheet pile profile is not part of
the D-S HEET P ILING library.

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Question 12

Question 13

Question 14

7.3.4

Width single sheet pile profile:


Enter manually the sheet pile width if the sheet pile profile is not part of
the D-S HEET P ILING library.
What is the condition of the sheet piles to be used?
Select from the drop-down menu the use condition of the sheet piles (new
or used). In case of used sheet piles, indicate the state (good repair,
moderately repair or poor state).
How are the sheet piles installed?
Choose between sheet piles installed in Single, Double and Triple.

GeoBrain Prediction Installation menu


The Installation menu contains questions about the installation method.

Figure 7.11: GeoBrain Prediction window, Installation menu for the three methods of driving (Vibrate, Drive and Pressing)

Question 15

Question 16

Question 17
Question 18

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Which method of driving is used?


Choose from the drop-down menu between Vibrate, Drive or Pressing.
This choice will influence the next questions.
Do you know which vibratory hammer/pile hammer/pressing machine is
used?
If Yes, an D-S HEET P ILING library of machines is available. If No, the user
has to input manually the force/energy needed to install the sheet pile(s).
Type of vibratory hammer/pile hammer/pressing machine
If known, select a type of machine from the drop down menu.
Centrifugal force vibratory hammer/Blow energy pile hammer/Pressure
force of pressing machine
Enter the force that must be developed by the machine to install the sheet
pile.

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Question 19

7.3.5

Type of pile hammer


Only in case of driven pile, choose between diesel and hydraulic pile hammer.

GeoBrain Prediction Result menu


To start the prediction, click the Prediction button.

Figure 7.12: GeoBrain Prediction window, Result menu

7.3.6

GeoBrain Prediction Prediction Report


To get a complete report in PDF format containing the input and results, click on the link View
the report here as a pdf-file in the Report menu (Figure 7.13).

Figure 7.13: GeoBrain Prediction window, Report menu

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The Prediction Report window opens (Figure 19.15) with the default Internet Explorer program. Using the appropriate icon on the menu bar, this prediction report can either be printed
and/or saved as a PDF document.

Figure 7.14: Prediction Report window, Results prediction section

7.4

GeoBrain Drivability Experiences


Choose GeoBrain Drivability Experiences from the Feasibility menu to open the GeoBrain
Experiences window (Figure 7.15) to predict the feasibility of the design using the GeoBrain
experience database.

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Figure 7.15: GeoBrain Experiences window

The GeoBrain database can be consulted in three different ways:


Click this button to search experiences in the GeoBrain database based
on similar sheet piling length and resisting moment of the D-S HEET P ILING
project. See section 4.5 for a detailed description of the search results.
Note: The sheet piling length and resisting moment of the D-S HEET P ILING
project are inputted in the Sheet Piling window section 4.2.1 and are indicated at the top of the window (Figure 7.15).
Click this button to search experiences in the GeoBrain database based
on a similar soil profile deduced from the imported CPT. Before clicking the
CPT button, select from the drop-down menu a type of similarity between
the soil profile of the GeoBrain database and the soil profile of the current
project. See section 7.4.2 for a detailed description of the search results.
Note: The name of the imported CPT is indicated at the top of the window
(Figure 7.15); n.a. indicates that no CPT is available.
Click this button to search experiences in the GeoBrain database close to
the location of the current project, by using a map. See section 7.4.3 for a
detailed description of the search results.

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Figure 7.16: GeoBrain Experiences window, Type of similarity between the soil profile of
the GeoBrain database and the soil profile of the D-S HEET P ILING project

7.4.1

GeoBrain Experiences Search on Sheet Piling


When searching in the GeoBrain experience database projects with similar sheet piling length
and resisting moment, the GeoBrain Experiences window displays a list of projects arranged
alphabetically (Figure 7.17).

Figure 7.17: GeoBrain Experiences window, search on Sheet Piling

Page:

Click the Back button to return to the main search window (Figure 7.15).
Select a specific page by clicking on the appropriate page number. The
current page displayed is indicated by an arrow
number.

Profile
Project
Sheet pile

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below the page

Click the Next button to go to the next page.


The soil profile of the project.
The name of the project. Click on the name to access detailed information as shown in Figure 7.18.
The sheet pile profile and length.

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Equipment

Result
Refine query

The drive method (Vibrate, Drive or Pressing) and the corresponding type of machine (Vibratory hammer, Pile hammer or Pressing machine).
The quality of the project result.
Refine the search by clicking the appropriate requirement, see below
for a detailed description.

Clicking on the name of the project, give access to more detailed information on the selected
project as shown in Figure 7.18. In the window displayed, all sort information on Situation,
Geotechnics, Sheet piling, Installation, Surroundings and Experiences are available by clicking the corresponding name on the menu bar at the top. Click on Back to return to the projects
list (Figure 7.17) and inspect other projects.

Figure 7.18: GeoBrain Experiences window, Detailed information on the selected project

Using the Refine query table at the right side of the window (Figure 7.17), it is possible to
refine the search by clicking the appropriate requirement displayed in green. In parenthesis is
the number of projects of the GeoBrain database that meet this requirement.
The available requirements concern the quality of the result, the project location, some sheet
pile installation settings and some undesirable occurrences as listed below:
Result
Area
Length

Type of sheet pile,


resisting moment

Drive method
Vibratory hammer,
centrifugal force
Pile hammer, blow
energy
Pressing machine,
pressure force
Sheet pile combination

Undesirable
occurrences
Deltares

Choose between Good, Moderate or Poor.


Different regions from the Netherlands or different countries (Belgium or Germany) can be selected.
Select one of the length intervals of 5 m corresponding to the
current project. As default, D-S HEET P ILING uses the length inputted in the Sheet Piling window from the Construction menu,
section 4.2.1.
Select one of the resisting moment intervals of 500 cm3 /m corresponding to the current project. As default, D-S HEET P ILING uses
the length inputted in the Sheet Piling window from the Construction menu, section 4.2.1.
Select the drive method that will be used to install to sheet piling
(Vibrate, Drive or Pressing).
In case of vibrated pile, select one of the centrifugal force intervals used by the vibratory hammer of the current project.
In case of driven pile, select one of the blow energy intervals
used by the pile hammer of the current project.
In case of pressing pile, select one of the pressure force intervals
used by the pressing machine of the current project.
Select the appropriate sheet pile combination: only sheet piles
or combined walls (combination of sheet piles with tube piles or
H-profiles).
Select one of the undesirable occurrences in the list that are expected to occur in the current project.
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Using the Refine Query table, it is also possible to change requirements by clicking the arrow
behind the requirement, as shown in Figure 7.19 (a) for Length and Resisting moment. This
will result in an enlargement of the search results as shown in Figure 7.19 (b) allowing the
user to change the requirements.
(a)

(b)

Figure 7.19: Detailed view of the Refine Query

7.4.2

GeoBrain Experiences Search on CPT


When searching in the GeoBrain experience database projects with similar CPT, a GEF-CPT
file should have been previously imported in the Soil Profiles window (section 4.3.4). If not
the case, the window of Figure 7.20 appears. The GeoBrain Experiences window displays a
list of projects arranged alphabetically as explained in section 4.5.

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Figure 7.20: GeoBrain Experiences window, Search on Sheet Piling GeoBrain Experiences window, Search on CPT

Current CPT file

CPT similarity

The name of the CPT file providing the soil profile of the project. Three
options are available to get a CPT file:
Select Upload CPT to import a GEF-CPT file by clicking the Browse
button;
Select Search for CPT to import a GEF-CPT file from the DINO
database (Data and Information of the Subsurface of The Netherlands).
The search is made using a map. Refer to (DINO) for more information
on the DINO database.
Select Default CPT to select a GEF-CPT file from a drop-down list
containing default CPT for the main Dutch cities.
Select from the drop-down menu a type of similarity between the soil
profile of the GeoBrain database and the soil profile of the current
project.
Click this button to start the search. The GeoBrain Experiences window displays a list of projects arranged alphabetically, with the same
features as a Search on Sheet Piling. So refer to (section 7.3) for a
detailed description.

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7.4.3

GeoBrain Experiences Search on Location


When searching in the GeoBrain experience database projects situated close to the location
of the current project, the GeoBrain Experiences window displays a map of the Netherlands
(Figure 7.21).

Figure 7.21: GeoBrain Experiences window, Search on Location View the total per area

Click this button to display a map view including cities, street and
motorway names and representation.
Click this button to display a satellite view.
Click this button to display a combination of the Map and Satellite
views.
Zoom in:
Click this button to enlarge the map.
Zoom out:
Click this button to reduce the map.
Pan:
Click this button to move the map by dragging the mouse.

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Click this button to return to the main search window (Figure 7.15).

Zooming out (Figure 7.21) will display the results as pie (i.e. total experiences per area)
whereas zooming in (Figure 7.22) will display the results as separate points (i.e. individual
experiences).

Figure 7.22: View individual experiences

In case of results display as pie, click on the pie (Figure 7.23, left) to get the name of the
corresponding province and the number of projects. Click on the Click here link to display
a detailed list of those projects. Refer to section 4.5 for a detailed description of the resulting
list.In case of results display as individual points, drag the hand cursor on a point (Figure 7.23,
left) to get the name of the corresponding experience and click on the point to display more
details on this experience. Refer to section 4.5 for a detailed description of the resulting list.

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Figure 7.23: GeoBrain Experiences window, search on Location

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8 Tutorial 1: Excavation using Ka , K0 and Kp


This first tutorial considers a sheet pile retaining wall with a single excavation stage and no
change in groundwater level, as indicated in Figure 8.1. This situation might occur, for example, when creating a new waterway.
The objectives of this exercise are:

 To learn the steps needed to enter the project geometry and properties.
 To calculate and display the bending moments, shear forces and deflection of the wall,
as well as stresses in the soil, using earth pressure coefficients (Ka , K0 , Kp ).
For this tutorial the following module is needed:

 D-S HEET P ILING Standard module (earth pressure coefficients).


This tutorial is presented in the file Tutorial-1.shi.

8.1

Introduction to the case


The excavation is submerged; hence no change in groundwater level is expected. The groundwater level is located 2 meters below the initial ground level. Four different soil layers are
modeled; their parameters are provided in Table 8.1. In this example the sheet piling used
to make the wall is an AZ 13 profile, having a bending stiffness of 41370 kNm2 /m. The top
of the wall is located at ground level (GL). The toe of the wall is at GL -16 m. The surface is
excavated to GL -7 m on the left hand side of the wall.
GL=0
-2.0
CLAY

-4.0
-6.00

PEAT

CLAY
CLAY
AZ 13

-13.0

SAND

-16.0

Figure 8.1: Single stage excavation (tutorial 1)

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Table 8.1: Soil properties (tutorial 1)

Unsaturated total unit weight


Saturated total unit weight
(Drained) Cohesion
Friction angle
Delta Friction angle
Shell factor
Over-consolidation ratio (OCR)
Grain type
Mod. of sub. reaction: Virgin loading

8.2

[kN/m ]
[kN/m3 ]
[kN/m2 ]
[deg]
[deg]
[-]
[-]
[kN/m3 ]

Clay
15
16
10
17
11
1
1
Fine
2000

Peat
10
11
2
20
0
1
1
Fine
800

Sand
17
19
0
35
27
1
1
Fine
10000

Project
In the Project menu, the project model and project properties are described.

8.2.1

Model
To create a new project, follow the steps described below:
1. Start D-S HEET P ILING from the Windows task bar (Start/Programs/Deltares Systems/DSheetPiling).
2. If the D-S HEET P ILING installation is based on floating licenses then the Module window
may appear at this point. If this is the case then ensure that the modules mentioned in the
introduction of each tutorial have been selected. Click OK to close the window.
3. Click File and choose New on the D-S HEET P ILING menu bar to start a new project. This
will result in a screen similar to Figure 8.2.

Figure 8.2: Input Diagram window

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4. Click Project on the menu bar and then choose Model.
5. Select Sheet piling.
6. Select the Ka, Ko, Kp soil parameters model (Figure 8.3).

Figure 8.3: Model window

7. Deselect the option Check vertical balance as a vertical balance check is not part of this
exercise.
8. Deselect the option Verification (EC7/CUR) as a CUR or EuroCode design check is not
part of this exercise.
9. Click OK and proceed to the definition of the sheet piling.
10. A message may appear stating that for all stages the method used is set to Ka , K0 , Kp .
Click Yes to continue.
See Project Model (section 4.1.1) for a detailed description of this window.

8.2.2

Project Properties
To give the project a meaningful description, follow the steps described below:
11. On the menu bar, click Project and then choose Properties to open the Project Properties
window Figure 8.4.
12. Fill in <Tutorial 1 for D-S HEET P ILING > and <Excavation using Ka, Ko and Kp> for Title
1 and Title 2 respectively in the Identification tab. The settings of the other tabs of the
Project Properties window are set to their default values.

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Figure 8.4: Project Properties window, Identification tab

See Project Properties window (section 4.1.3) for a detailed description of this window.

8.3

Construction
This menu deals with the input of the retaining structure. In this example the sheet piling data
needs to be specified.
To enter the sheet piling data:
13. Click Construction on the menu bar and choose Sheet Piling or click on the Sheet piling
on the icon bar.
button
14. In the input window displayed (Figure 8.6), enter the top and toe level of the sheet piling. In
this case, the top level (Sheet piling top level) is at 0.0 m and the bottom (Section bottom
level) at -16 m.
15. The bending stiffness can be entered manually, or imported from the library that is integrated in D-S HEET P ILING. To use the library, click the . . . button.
16. In the Sheet Piling Profiles Library window (Figure 8.5), select Arcelor profile <AZ 13>
and in the Select maximum moment sub-window, select <S240> which means steel with
a yield stress of 240 N/mm2 . This will give a sheet piling with a bending stiffness of
41370 kNm2 /m and a maximum allowable moment in elastic behavior of 312 kNm/m.

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Figure 8.5: Sheet Piling Profiles Library window

17. Use the Select button to return to the Sheet Piling menu. The sheet properties of the
selected sheet pile type will be displayed in the window.

Figure 8.6: Sheet Piling window

18. Click OK to close the Sheet Piling window. The next stage is to define the ground surface
positions.
Note: The default acting width is 1.0 m. This allows for easy interpretation of output results
as the acting width is a multiplication factor for the sheet piling stiffness and all loads, supports
and reaction forces except the normal forces. Normal forces are always inputted per acting
width of the construction. For more information on normal forces, see section 4.4.5. The
acting width needs only be changed in the case of a combined wall consisting of sections with
different acting widths. For more detail, please refer to section 4.2.1.
See section 4.2 for a detailed description of the Construction menu.

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8.4

Soil
In the menu item Soil the soil surfaces, properties and soil profile can be specified. Water
levels, pore pressures additional to those caused by the water level, and water properties are
also defined here.

8.4.1

Surfaces
After defining the sheet piling, the ground surfaces must be defined. In D-S HEET P ILING, this
is done by first specifying different surface levels and then specifying which surface levels are
active on the left and right hand side of the excavation.
In this project, two horizontal surfaces need to be defined. The ground level surface (named
<GL>) at 0 m, and the surface for the excavation level at -7 m. After defining these surfaces,
the <GL> surface needs to be active on the right hand side and the <GL-7> excavation level
on the left hand side.

Define surfaces
Choose Soil and then Surfaces to display an input window in which the following should be
done:
19. Rename the first surface <GL>. Enter <0.00> m for the vertical Level. As the surface is
horizontal, the distance parameter may be ignored.
20. Click Add to add a surface with the name <GL-7> and enter <-7.00> m for its vertical
level, as indicated in Figure 8.7.

Figure 8.7: Surfaces window

21. Click OK.


Note: D-S HEET P ILING displays an overview of the surfaces defined in the lower box of the
Stage Composer sub-window (if Surface left or Surface right has been selected), as indicated
in Figure 8.8. See also activate surfaces in the next section.

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Activate surfaces
Which surfaces should be applied on the left and right hand sides of the sheet piling may now
be selected. This selection is made using the Stage Composer located at the left hand side
of the main window for D-S HEET P ILING.
22. Click Surface left and select the surface with description, <GL-7>.
23. Click Surface right and select the surface with description, <GL>.

Figure 8.8: Stage Composer window

Notice that on activating the surfaces, the Input Diagram changes to the actual situation. The
Input Diagram now indicates the excavation level, as shown in Figure 8.9.
See Surfaces (section 4.3.1) for a detailed description of the Surfaces window.

Figure 8.9: Input Diagram with excavation level applied on the left hand side

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8.4.2

Soil Materials
The properties of each soil layer need to be defined before the location of the layer itself is
specified. Input of the soil profile is described in the next section.
For D-S HEET P ILING, material properties are divided into three groups:

 General properties
 Earth pressure coefficients
 Modulus of subgrade reaction

General properties
24. To enter the layer properties, click Soil and then choose Materials on the menu bar to
display the input window shown in Figure 8.10.

Figure 8.10: Empty Soil Materials window

25. Rename the soil layer name New Material to <Clay>.


26. Enter the required General data, for the first layer <Clay> as indicated in Figure 8.11 in
accordance with Table 8.1. The Friction angle phi, the Delta friction angle (representing
the friction between the soil and the sheet pile wall), the Shell factor, the Overconsolidation
ratio and the Grain type are not inputted at this stage.
Note: When the unsaturated unit weight of a soil layer is not relevant because it is always
below the water table, any value entered in the Unsaturated total unit weight box will not be
used.

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Figure 8.11: Soil Materials window, General sub-window

Note: Input of the internal friction angle is not required when the earth pressure coefficients
are entered manually. Input of cohesion is always required, see section 28.1 for more detail.

Earth pressure coefficients


In D-S HEET P ILING, earth pressure coefficients can be entered manually or calculated using
an automatic procedure from a relation between the cohesion, the internal friction angle and
the delta friction angle.

Figure 8.12: Soil Materials window, Earth pressure coefficients sub-window

27. Select Mller-Breslau (straight slip surfaces) to automatically generate earth pressure coefficients according to the Mller-Breslau method.Selecting either Mller-Breslau or Ktter
enables input of the Friction angle phi, the Delta friction angle, the Overconsolidation ratio
and the Grain type.
28. Enter <17> for Friction angle phi and <11> for Delta friction angle, as indicated in Figure 8.12.
29. Leave the Shell factor, the Overconsolidation ratio (OCR) and the Grain type to their default
values.
Note: The Mller-Breslau method of determining earth pressure coefficients is based upon
straight slip surfaces. This method has limitations, as described in the NEN 6740, art. 12.4.2
(NEN, 2006a) and CUR 166 (CUR, 2005). Generally the Mller-Breslau method is used when
the soils friction angle is equal or less than 30 . The Ktter method is generally used for
larger friction angles. For more information see section 27.2.2 and section 27.2.3. The method
selected also has an impact on the way the delta friction angle is determined. Suggestions for
correlations between the friction angle and the delta friction angle can be found in Table 28.1.

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Modulus of subgrade reaction
D-S HEET P ILING offers two ways to input the modulus of subgrade reaction: manually or according to the Dutch design standard for sheet-pilings (CUR 166). The latter is done by
selecting a predefined soil type. In this example the modulus of subgrade reaction is entered
manually.
30. Click the Curve Settings button in the Soil Materials window, the window shown in Figure 8.13 appears.
31. Select Tangent (D-S HEET P ILING Classic) to enter the modulus of subgrade reaction manually.
32. Make sure the check-box Use unloading/reloading curve is not marked. Marking this
check-box is only necessary when using an elasto-plastic model which follows a different branch of the curve for unloading than for reloading. This example just uses a simple
elastic model.

Figure 8.13: Curve Settings (for all Materials) window

33. Select <1> in the Number of curves for spring characteristics box. When entering the
moduli of subgrade reaction manually, the user defines the number of curves for spring
characteristics, which is the number of branches (with a different inclination) that will be
used in the multi-linear relationship between horizontal soil stress and displacement. This
number can vary from 1 to 4. In this simple example, only one branch is used.
34. Click OK to close the Curve Settings window.
35. Enter the values of the Modulus of subgrade reaction for the only branch selected (Figure 8.14). According to Table 8.1 in the case description, this value is k1 = 2000 kN/m3
(virgin loading) for both the top and the bottom of the layer.

Figure 8.14: Soil Materials window, Modulus of subgrade reaction Tangent (D-Sheet Piling Classic)

36. Repeat this process for the two other soil materials by adding two additional materials,
<Peat> and <Sand>, and entering the soil properties from Table 8.1in the same way as
for the clay layer (Figure 8.15). Please note that for sake of simplicity, the properties of the
second clay layer are identical to the properties of the first layer. In this case the properties
only need to be entered once. Note that for friction angles larger than 30 degrees it is

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advised to use the Ktter method to determine the values for Ka , K0 and Kp . Hence,
select this method for the sand layer in this example.

Figure 8.15: Soil Materials window

37. Click OK to confirm the input data for the layer properties.
See section 4.3.2 for a detailed description of this window. The next stage is to enter the
profile of layer positions.

8.4.3

Soil Profiles
Once the layer properties have been entered, one or more soil profiles can be specified.
To do this, the top level of each layer is input, and one of the previously defined soils is
selected. It is also possible to specify an additional pore pressure distribution. In this exercise
no additional pore pressures are considered. Pore pressures resulting from the groundwater
level are entered as water levels, as described in the next section.
Enter the soil profile by following these steps:
38. Click Soil and then choose Profiles.
39. Define the positions of each layer by specifying the layer top, as indicated in Figure 8.16.
40. Leave the additional pore pressures at their default values (0.00), as only hydrostatic pore
pressures act in this example.

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Figure 8.16: Soil Profiles window

See section 4.3.4 for a detailed description.


After entering the soil profile, the Input Diagram window should appear as indicated in Figure 8.17.

Figure 8.17: Input Diagram window confirming the entered soil profile

Note: The bottom level of the layer is not entered: D-S HEET P ILING assumes the lowest layer
to extend to the bottom of the sheet piling.

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8.4.4

Water Levels
By default D-S HEET P ILING assumes the water level to be at 0.0 m. In this example the water
level is located at -2.0 m on both sides of the wall (a submerged excavation).
Follow these steps to enter the groundwater level:
41. Click Soil and then choose Water Levels.
42. Click on the default name New Water level and change it to <WL=GL-2>.
43. Specify the level at <-2.00 m> and close the window by clicking on the OK button.

Figure 8.18: Water Levels window

See section 4.3.5 for a detailed description of this window.


After entering the water level, the Input Diagram window should appear as indicated in Figure 8.19.

Figure 8.19: Input Diagram confirming the entered water level

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8.4.5

Water Properties
The unit weight of water can be changed in the Water Properties window. The default value is
9.81 kN/m3 . For this tutorial example the default value is used. See section 4.3.6 for additional
information.

8.5

Loads and Supports


In this tutorial example no loads or supports are used. Loads and supports are used in the
next tutorial examples: loads in tutorial 4 (chapter 11) and supports in tutorial 3 (chapter 10).

8.6

Stages
The excavation of the soil on the right hand side of the sheet pile wall is the only stage
considered in this tutorial, so no further input is required.

8.7
8.7.1

Calculation
Calculation Options
44. Click Calculation and then choose Options to open the Calculation Options window. The
First stage represents initial solution option is only required when a sheet pile wall is added
in a situation where the initial soil surface bears a surcharge or is not horizontal. Therefore
this box need not be selected. For more details please refer to section 5.1.

Figure 8.20: Calculation Options window

45. Accept the default Coarse as this model does not contain any loads or slopes close to the
sheet piling (see the Note below).
46. Click OK to close this window.
Note: In D-S HEET P ILING the earth pressure coefficients are calculated at certain nodes along
the wall. The Coarse method only calculates the values of the earth pressure coefficients at
major nodes. The Fine method calculates the values at the minor nodes as well (five times
more). Therefore, calculation with the Fine method takes significantly longer. It should be
noted that the results may differ slightly according to the method employed. These differences
occur mostly at slopes or loads close to the sheet piling. In these cases the Fine method is
recommended, in other cases faster calculations can be made with the Coarse method. For
more information, see section 5.2.1.

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8.7.2

Start Calculation
Now that all input has been entered, the calculation can be executed.
47. To start calculation, select Calculation from the menu and then choose Start or press the
function key F9.

Figure 8.21: Start Calculation window, Standard tab to perform a standard calculation

48. In the Standard tab displayed (Figure 8.21), click Start to calculate the results. D-S HEET P ILING
opens the Save As window if the project has not already been saved to disk.
49. Specify a project name, <Tutorial-1> for example (this name will be referred to in other
tutorial examples). During the analysis, a Calculation Progress window appears (Figure 8.22).

Figure 8.22: Calculation Progress window

50. Click Close once the analysis has been completed. The results can now be displayed
using the Result menu.
See section 5.2.1 for additional information.

8.8

Results

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8.8.1

Moment/Force/Displacement Charts
51. To view the resulting moments, forces and displacements in graphical form click Results
and then choose Moment/Force/Displacement Charts. This will produce the following
graphical output (Figure 8.23).

Figure 8.23: Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window

As expected, the maximum displacement is at the top of the sheet pile wall. Shear forces
and moments are nil at the top and the bottom of the sheet piling as the displacement is not
constrained here. The magnitude of the maximum moment in the sheet pile wall is around
160 kNm, which is less than this sections maximum moment for elastic behavior, so the wall
will not fail in bending. The sections maximum moment for elastic behavior for AZ 13 profile is
312 kNm as shown under Mmax;el (for the yield strength) in the Sheet Piling Profiles Library
window (Figure 8.5).
Note: When the magnitude of the moment is more than the maximum allowable moment for
elastic behavior, the moment chart is represented in red line, which is not the case for this
tutorial (see Tutorial 3, section 10.6.1 for an example).
Note: The chart data can be viewed and then copied by clicking the right-hand mouse button
in the Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window and select View Data. The table of data is
then displayed as shown in Figure 8.24.

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Figure 8.24: Chart Data window

8.8.2

Stress Charts
52. To view the graphical results of the water pressure, resulting stress in the sheet piling and
effective stress in the soil, click Results and then choose Stress State Charts. This will
produce the following graphical output (Figure 8.25).

Figure 8.25: Stress State Charts window

The discontinuities in the effective stress distribution coincide with the junction of two layers,
as the properties of each layer are different.

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8.8.3

Stress Diagrams
53. To view the effective stress distribution displayed on top of an image of the construction,
click Results and then choose Stress Diagrams. This will produce the following graphical
output (Figure 8.26).

Figure 8.26: Effective Stress Diagram window

This effective stress distribution is the same as the third chart of Figure 8.25, but it is displayed
on top of the Input Diagram. To view the water pressure and resulting stress click on the Mode
icons to the left of the diagram. Maximum values are displayed at the bottom of the window.
More results and information are available in a report. How to choose and view the content of
a report is described in the next tutorial (chapter 9).

8.9

Conclusion
Various input windows are used to enter the details of a project that is to be modeled and
analyzed. Once these details have been input, they can be used to calculate a range of
results, including bending moments, shear forces and displacement in the sheet pile wall and
the effective soil stresses. One way to view these results is to display them graphically on the
screen.

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This second tutorial example extends the first tutorial by changing one of the surfaces to be
non-horizontal, as indicated in Figure 8.1. The soil profile is determined from the interpretation
of an existing Cone Penetration Test (CPT)CPT. A vertical balance check is also performed
as part of this exercise using the point resistance deduced from the CPT results.
The objectives of this exercise are:







To enter a non-horizontal surface.


To determine a soil profile by importing a CPT.
To learn about the differences between the Ka , K0 , Kp and c, phi, delta methods.
To calculate earth pressure coefficients using the c, phi, delta method.
To perform a vertical force balance check.

For this example, the following modules are needed:

 D-S HEET P ILING Standard module (earth pressure coefficients)


 Culmann module.
This tutorial is presented in the file Tutorial-2.shi and uses the CPT-GEF file Tutorial-2 CPT 01.gef.

9.1

Introduction to the case


This excavation is the same as that modeled in the first tutorial, except that the shape of
the ground surface on the right-hand side is no longer horizontal. This shape change has
been caused by an excavation that takes place after the sheet pile wall has been installed.
Moreover, the soil profile is determined by interpreting (using the Dutch Standard NEN) a
cone penetration tests (CPT) already carried out at the proposed location. The CPT data
(cone resistance and friction) have been saved in a GEF file (Geotechnical Exchange Format)
and are presented in Figure 9.2.
2.0

2.0

GL=0.0
-1.5

-2.0

-7.0

Soil profile from CPT

AZ 13

-16.0

Figure 9.1: Single stage excavation with a non-horizontal surface (Tutorial 2)

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Figure 9.2: CPT datas (Tutorial 2)

9.2

Changing the Model


Soil strength is a function of various factors, including the effective stress and the stress history
of the soil. It is therefore normal for the strength of a soil layer to vary with the depth in the layer.
The c, phi, delta method as offered by the c, phi, delta soil model module of D-S HEET P ILING is
therefore preferable in general as it calculates the earth pressure coefficients over the depth
of a soil layer, whereas the Ka , K0 , Kp method assumes the same earth pressure coefficients
at all depths in a soil layer. The c, phi, delta model can be used in situations where there
is an applied surcharge or the surface is not horizontal, whereas the Ka , K0 , Kp model is
limited to horizontal surfaces and uniform loads. For more information, see section 4.1.1.
This tutorial involves a non-horizontal surface, so before the calculation can be performed the
c, phi, delta model needs to be selected.
1. Open the first tutorial by clicking Open in the File menu and selecting the appropriately
named tutorial, i.e. <Tutorial-1.shi>.
2. Save the project with a new name by clicking Save As in the File menu and by entering
<Tutorial-2> as project name.
3. On the menu bar, click Project and then choose Properties to open the Project Properties
window.
4. Fill in <Tutorial 2 for D-S HEET P ILING > and <Excavation using c, phi and delta> for Title
1 and Title 2 respectively in the Identification tab.
5. Click Project on the menu bar and then choose Model.
6. Select the c, phi, delta model (Figure 9.3).
7. Mark the Check vertical balance check-box to perform this check along with the standard
calculations.
8. Unmark the Verification (EC7/CUR) check-box as a design code verification is not part of
this exercise.
9. Click OK to apply these changes. A window will appear asking for confirmation of this
change; select Yes to continue, using the c, phi, delta model.

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Figure 9.3: Model window

9.3

Soil profile deduced from a CPT file


To create the soil profile, it can either be added manually or using a CPT. In the second case,
the CPT can either be imported from an existing file or from the Dutch CPT database named
DINO (Data and Information of the Subsurface of The Netherlands) (DINO). In this tutorial,
the soil profile is deduced by interpretation of the available CPT data.

9.3.1

Soil Profile from importation of a CPT-GEF file


10. Click Soil on the menu bar and then choose Profiles.
11. Click the Add from CPT button at the left-bottom of the Soil Profiles window. The Select
CPT window opens (Figure 9.4).

Figure 9.4: Select CPT window

12. Click the Import from file button. In the Open window displays, select the CPT-GEF file
named <Tutorial-2 CPT 01.gef> from the Project/Tutorials directory where the program
was installed (Figure 9.5).

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Figure 9.5: Open window

The CPTip window opens (Figure 9.6) where the CPT results (cone resistance, friction and
friction ratio) are displayed. At the right of the window, D-S HEET P ILING automatically interprets
the imported CPT into a soil profile, based on the interpretation rule that is selected by the
user in the Rule selection box.

Figure 9.6: CPTip window

13. Select <NEN (Stress Dependent)> as CPT interpretation Rule and leave the Minimum
layer thickness to its default value <0.50 m>.
14. Click OK to go back to the Soil Profiles window (Figure 9.7) which now contains a new
profile named CPT 01 corresponding to the CPT.

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Figure 9.7: Soil Profiles window after importation of the CPT 01 file

15. Select the previously manually added profile named <New Profile> and click the Delete
button to delete it as it is not used anymore.
16. Click OK to see the effect in the Input Diagram window.
17. Use the Zoom buttons in the Edit panel to enlarge the limits of the diagram and see the
different layers of the new soil profile imported from CPT (Figure 9.8).

Figure 9.8: Input Diagram window with new soil profile from CPT

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9.3.2

Soil Materials
When a soil profile is determined from a CPT interpretation, the soil names and properties of
the created soil materials are automatically filled in the Soil Materials window using Table 1
of NEN 6740 for the general parameters and using an extrapolation of Table 3.3 of CUR 166
for the secant moduli of subgrade reaction (section 29.3). However, the Secant modulus of
subgrade reaction in the Soil Materials window must be selected to use those extrapolated
values.
18. Open the Soil Materials window from the Soil menu and note that below the previously inputted soil materials (Clay, Peat and Sand), 11 new soil materials have been automatically
created and their general parameters filled in (Figure 9.9).

Figure 9.9: Soil Materials window using the c, phi, delta model

Note: When using the c, phi, delta model, the earth pressure coefficients are implicitly calculated by D-S HEET P ILING using Culmanns method. Therefore the sub-window Earth pressure
coefficients of the Soil Materials window disappears (compared to the previous tutorial) as
can be seen in Figure 9.9.
The three secant moduli of subgrade reaction are also automatically filled for those 11 materials; however the current modulus is the Tangent modulus with only one slope. Therefore, the
Secant option first needs to be activated.
19. Delete the Clay, Peat and Sand materials by selecting them and clicking the Delete button,
as they are not used anymore.
20. Click the Curve Settings button.
21. In the Curve Settings window, select the Secant option (Figure 4.25).

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Figure 9.10: Curve Settings window

22. Click OK to see the effect in the Soil Materials window (Figure 9.11).
23. Click OK to close the window.

Figure 9.11: Soil Materials window with Secant moduli of subgrade reaction

Note: The Secant definition is based on the stress-displacement diagram according to CUR
166. This diagram always uses three branches, with intersections at 50, 80 and 100% of
Ka Kp . The slope of the different branches is defined indirectly, via the three secant moduli
at the intersection points.

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9.4

Non-horizontal surface
Change the current input by modifying the geometry of the surface linked to the right hand
side of the sheet pile wall, following these steps:
24. Choose Soil and Surfaces to display an input window in which the surface on the right
hand side of the sheet pile wall can be changed.
25. Select the first surface, named <GL>.
26. Fill in the values that are listed in the table of Figure 9.12 below.

Figure 9.12: Surfaces window with a non-horizontal surface

27. Click OK to see the result of this change to the form of the surface named <GL> in the
Input Diagram window (Figure 9.13).

Figure 9.13: Input Diagram window showing a non-horizontal surface

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9.5

Input for vertical balance check


The vertical balance check checks that the sum of the forces acting downwards on the sheet
pile wall does not exceed the resistance of the soil at the toe of the wall. For more information,
see chapter 32.
In order to do this various parameters need to be input:
28. Open the Sheet Piling window from the Construction menu or click on the Sheet piling
button
on the icon bar.
29. In the Vertical balance sub-window, enter the maximum point resistance, Maximum Point
resistance (Pr;max;point), as <6.330 MPa>, and a Xi factor of <0.72> as prescribed
in Table 1 of NEN 6743-1:2006 (NEN, 2006b). Additional information may be found in
section 4.2.1. Note that some other parameters have appeared in the Sheet Piling window,
as indicated in Figure 9.14. As the sheet pile type was selected from the library, these have
been added automatically. For a user-defined sheet pile the values of these parameters
would need to be input at this stage.
30. Click OK to close the window.
Note: The maximum point resistance Pr;max;point value used here is actually the maximum
pile tip resistance as defined in the Dutch design code NEN 6743-1:2006 (NEN, 2006b). It is
derived from a combination of cone resistances. For more information see also (chapter 32).
The program D-Foundations (formerly known as MFoundation) for the design of bearing piles
based on CPT has been used to determine this value and leads to 6329.716 kPa.

Figure 9.14: Sheet Piling window showing additional parameters for the vertical balance
check

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9.6

Calculation
The forces, moments and displacements for this project will need to be recalculated as the
input has been changed.
31. Select Calculation from the menu bar and then choose Start or press the function key F9.

Figure 9.15: Standard calculation using c, phi, delta model

32. Click Start to start the calculation. Earth pressure coefficient recalculation is left as Automatic since manual modification is only required in exceptional situations where the user
wishes to specify earth pressure coefficients individually (section 37.1.2).
33. The Calculation Progress window indicates that the Calculation is finished but there are
errors or warnings (see summary in report) (Figure 9.16). Those warnings are detailed in
the Report window, see section 9.7.3.

Figure 9.16: Calculation Progress window

34. Click Close to close the window.


Note: If the c, phi, delta model is not selected then D-S HEET P ILING cannot perform the
calculation and an error message will be displayed. If this occurs, simply change the model in
the Model window to c, phi, delta and start the calculation again.

9.7

Results

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9.7.1

Moment/Force/Displacement Charts
35. To view the results of this calculation click on Moment/Force/Displacement Charts in the
Results menu.

Figure 9.17: Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window

It can be seen that part of the moment chart (red line) exceeds the maximum allowable moment (dotted green line) of 312 kNm. That means the selected sheet piling section must be
changed to avoid failing in bending. By selecting an AZ 19 profile, the maximum moment for
elastic behavior is raised to 466 kNm.
36. In the Sheet Piling window, click the . . . button to open the Sheet Piling Profiles Library
window.
37. In the Sheet Piling Profiles Library window, select Arcelor profile <AZ 19> and in the
Select maximum moment sub-window.
38. Use the Select button to return to the Sheet Piling menu.
39. Click OK to confirm.
40. Perform a new calculation and check that the magnitude of the maximum calculated moment (449.2 kNm) is now less than the maximum allowable moment (Figure 9.18).

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Figure 9.18: Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window

These results can also be found in the report, so long as the appropriate content has been
selected in the Report Selection window.

9.7.2

Report Selection
This window allows selection of the report content for viewing, exporting and printing, by
marking the check-boxes in the tree view (Figure 9.19).
41. Click Results and then Report Selection to open the Report Selection window.
42. Click on the Select All button at the bottom of the window to get a detailed report.
43. Click OK to generate a report with the selected content.

Figure 9.19: Report Selection window

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9.7.3

Report
The total report contains full details of the input, a results overview, and graphical and tabular
results.
44. To view the report with the selected content, click Results on the menu bar and select
Report. Results can be found by looking in this report, or they can be displayed visually,
as described in section 8.8.
45. In the Summary section of the Report, the warning message given in the Calculation
Progress is explained (Figure 9.20): there is a large difference between the friction angles
of the different layer of the profile.

Figure 9.20: Report window, Summary section

46. Click File and choose Print Preview Report to preview the report as it will be printed. In
the Print Preview window, click File and choose Save As to export the report to Rich Text
Format (RTF) files. Files of this type can be used for further editing with a text editor.
To check if the vertical force balance criteria have been met, ensure the Vertical force balance
option has been selected in the tree view of the Report Selection window, opened from the
Results menu. Then display the report by clicking on Results and then Report. Results are
given for unplugged and plugged cases in the latter the soil in the concave parts of the sheet
piling cross-section is considered as contributing to the cross-sectional area of the base of the
sheet pile. Therefore looking at the results of the unplugged case is more conservative. It can
be seen (Figure 9.21) that the sum of the vertical forces (9.58 kN unplugged and 7.09 kN
plugged) is much less than the vertical force capacity of the soil at the toe of the sheet pile
wall (59.51 kN unplugged and 1382.57 kN plugged). The report writes explicitly that the
Resultant goes up which means that the vertical toe capacity is sufficient.

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Figure 9.21: Report window showing vertical force balance check results

Note: If the vertical force capacity is not sufficient then modifications to the soil friction
direction can be made, as described in chapter 32.

9.8

Conclusion
This tutorial shows that the c, phi, delta method is generally preferable because it includes
the influence of soil weight and gives a more detailed representation of the soil strength. This
tutorial has also shown how to input the necessary parameters for, and access the results of,
a vertical force balance check.

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D-S HEET P ILING is based on the engineering practice of having a phased design, using more
that one stage during construction. In the first two tutorial examples, only one phase was
considered for simplicity, and the user could ignore the staged approach of D-S HEET P ILING.
Staged calculations are necessary because the sheet piling must be stable in all phases during construction, and because the construction sequence influences the results of subsequent
stages.
The objectives of this exercise are:

 To analyze the construction of a sheet pile wall using more than one stage and to check
that the sheet piling is stable in all phases of construction.
 To apply an anchor.
 To lower the water level on one side of the sheet pile wall.
For this example, the following module is needed:

 D-S HEET P ILING Standard module (earth pressure coefficients).


This tutorial is presented in the file Tutorial-3.shi.

10.1

Introduction to the case


The same layer profile, sheet piling type and layer properties as the first tutorial example chapter 8 are used. A pre-stressed anchor is added during one of the three stages of construction
that are modeled. For the sake of simplicity, the earth pressure coefficients (Ka , K0 , Kp ) model
is used.
25.0
GL=0
-2.0

2.0
CLAY

-4.0
-6.0

PEAT

CLAY
AZ 13

-13.0

SAND

-16.0

Figure 10.1: Final situation after excavation, installation of an anchor and lowering of the
water level (tutorial 3)

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For this example the three stages of construction are as follows:

 Stage 1 (Initial stage), the soil surfaces on the left and the right hand sides of the sheet
pile wall are at -2 m and 0 m respectively, and the water level is at -2 m.

 Stage 2 (Apply anchor), a row of anchors is installed with one anchor every 3 m, on the
right hand side at -1.5 m. The properties of the anchors are laid out in Table 10.1, along
with their conversion to values per running meter.

 Stage 3 (Excavate and lower water table), the soil on the left hand side is excavated to
-7 m and the water level on that side is also lowered to -7 m.
pre-stress 80 kN/m'
-2.0

stage 1

stage 2

-7.0

stage 3

Figure 10.2: Excavation stages shown separately (tutorial 3)

10.2

Surfaces
To model the staged excavation, one more surface level needs to be input for the left side of
the sheet pile wall.
1. First, open the input file that was saved earlier under the name <Tutorial-1.shi>, and save
it with the name <Tutorial-3>.
2. On the menu bar, click Project and then choose Properties to open the Project Properties
window.
3. Fill in <Tutorial 3 for D-Sheet Piling> and <Staged excavation with pre-stressed anchors>
for Title 1 and Title 2 respectively in the Identification tab.
4. Open the Surfaces window from the Soil menu.
5. Click the Insert button.
6. Change the name of this new surface into <GL-2> and enter the level as -2 m.

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Figure 10.3: Surfaces window

10.3

Water Levels
The two water levels that will be used in the different stages should be entered:
7. Open the Water Levels window in the Soil menu.
8. Add another water level as indicated in Figure 10.4 below.

Figure 10.4: Water Levels window

10.4

Anchors
The anchor that will be applied in the third stage needs to be entered.
9. Open the Anchors window from the Supports menu.
10. Specify the anchor parameters as given in the last column of Table 10.1. Anchor parameters should be entered per running meter.
11. Click OK to close the window.

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Table 10.1: Anchor properties

Property
Youngs modulus
Cross section
Wall height
Length
Angle
Design yield force

Value per anchor


2.1 108 kN/m2
12.0 10-24 m2
2.0 m
25.0 m
0
720.0 kN

Value per meter acting width


2.1 108 kN/m2
4.0 10-4 m2 /m
2.0 m
25.0 m
0
240.0 kN/m

Figure 10.5: Anchors window

10.5

Staged Construction
Although all the additional data has now been entered, it has yet to be connected to any
construction stages. It is helpful to understand that D-S HEET P ILING uses building blocks
to compose the input of its calculations. First, all buildings blocks are defined in the input
dialogs. Then they are assembled to make the construction stages.

10.5.1

Stages Manager
After the new water levels, surfaces and anchors have been defined, the construction stages
can be specified.
12. Click Stages on the menu bar and choose Manager.
13. In the input window displayed, rename <New Stage> as <Excavation -2m>.
14. Add two more stages by using the Add button and name them <Apply anchor> and
<Excavation and lowering WL -7m>.

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Figure 10.6: Stages Manager window

When adding or inserting a construction stage, a copy is made of the current stage. This
implies that three equal stages are now present.

10.5.2

Stages Overview
The construction stages need to be assembled from the defined building blocks.
on
15. Click the Overview option in the Stages menu or click on the Stage overview button
the icon bar. The window displayed enables assembly of the construction stages from the
building blocks that have been defined.
16. Select the Water levels and Surfaces as shown in Figure 10.7.
17. Select the anchor in the last two stages.
18. Enter a pre-stress force of 80 kN/m after selecting the <Anchor> in the Pre-tensioning
forces sub-window.
Note: Anchors should normally be applied as a separate stage. When anchors are combined
with other loads, such as a change in excavation level, or change in water level the stiffness
is active prior to applying the loads.
Note: Anchor pre-stress forces need only be entered for the first stage that they are applied.
For the first stage where an anchor is added, the anchor is modeled as a force applied to the
wall, with no associated stiffness. For subsequent stages D-S HEET P ILING models the anchor
as a spring.
Note: The excavation and the lowering of the water table are implemented by changing the
water level and the surface, not by changing the soil profile.

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Figure 10.7: Stages Overview window

10.6

Calculation and Results


The input of the construction stages is now finished. The calculation can be started:
19. Click Start in the Calculation menu to open the Start Calculation window or press the
function key F9.
20. Click Start to perform the calculation. The message Calculation finished in the Calculation
Progress window indicates that the sheet piling is stable in all stages. If the wall was
unstable in any stage then a message would indicate so at this point.

10.6.1

Moment/Force/Displacement Charts
21. Inspect the moments, forces and displacements by opening the output window in the Result menu. To view a different stage either use the drop down list at the top of the window
or use the Previous stage and Next stage arrows,
, to move forward and backward
through the stages.
For example, in the second stage the applied anchor pre-stress force can be seen to be 80 kN
as expected, as indicated in Figure 10.8. In the final stage it can be seen that the anchor force
has risen to about 147 kN, as indicated in Figure 10.9.

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Figure 10.8: Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window for the second stage

Figure 10.9: Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window for the third stage

Moreover, in the final stage, part of the moment chart (red line) exceeds the maximum allowable moment (dotted green line) of 312 kNm, as shown in Figure 10.9. That means the
selected sheet piling section must be changed to avoid failing in bending. By selecting an
AZ 13 profile with a yield stress of 270 N/mm2 (section S270) instead of 240 N/mm2 (current
S240 section), the maximum moment for elastic behavior is raised to 351 kNm.
22. In the Sheet Piling window, click the
button to open the Sheet Piling Profiles Library
window.
23. In the Select maximum moment sub-window, select <S270> which means steel with a
yield stress of 270 N/mm2 This will give a maximum allowable moment in elastic behavior
of 351 kNm/m.
24. Perform a new calculation and check that the magnitude of the maximum moment (346.0 kNm)
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is now less than this sections maximum moment for elastic behavior which means the wall
will not fail in bending (Figure 10.10).

Figure 10.10: Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window for the third stage with a new
sheet piling profile

Note: Changing the maximum moment section of the sheet piling has any effect on the
calculated bending moments as the stiffness is unchanged. Only the maximum allowable
moment (dotted green lines) will be shifted making the calculated moment acceptable.

10.6.2

Report
25. The Summary section of the Report window (Figure 10.11) shows that the anchor is elastic
in both stages.

Figure 10.11: Report window, Summary section

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10.7

Conclusion
This third tutorial example analyzes the construction of a sheet pile wall using more than one
stage and checks that the wall is stable in all phases of construction. It also shows how to
apply a pre-stressed anchor and lower the water level on one side of the wall. However, in
the final stage, the maximum moment exceeded the maximum moment for elastic behavior.
Therefore, the sheet piling section has been changed to avoid failure in bending.

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11 Tutorial 4: Applying loads


The input of this example is based on the results of the tutorial example Tutorial 3: Staged
excavation with pre-stressed anchor chapter 10. A final stage is added to model the effect
of a traffic load along the edge of the retaining wall, and a force from boat moorings on a
windy day. These are modeled as a surcharge load and a horizontal line load respectively, as
indicated in Figure 11.1.
The objectives of this exercise are:

 To learn how loads, such as surcharges and horizontal line loads, are modeled in
D-S HEET P ILING;

 To note that when a surcharge load is applied, only the c, phi, delta method can be
used.
For this example, the following modules are needed:

 D-S HEET P ILING Standard module (earth pressure coefficients)


 Culmann module
This tutorial is presented in the file Tutorial-4.shi.

11.1

Introduction to the case


The same layer profile, sheet piling type and layer properties as the third tutorial example are
used. A fourth stage is added in which a traffic load of 20 kN/m2 and a horizontal load of
50 kN/m representing ships mooring are applied. See also Figure 11.1 for an overview.
25.0
2.0
2.0 kN/m2
GL=0
50 kN/m
-2.0

2.0
CLAY

anchor level -1.5m

-4.0
-6.0

PEAT

CLAY
AZ 13

-13.0

SAND

-16.0

Figure 11.1: Surcharge load and horizontal line load in the last stage (tutorial 4)

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1. Open the input file <Tutorial-3.shi>, and save it with a new name: <Tutorial-4>.
2. On the menu bar, click Project and then choose Properties to open the Project Properties
window.
3. Fill in <Tutorial 4 for D-Sheet Piling> and <Applying loads> for Title 1 and Title 2 respectively in the Identification tab.

11.2

Inputting Loads
In stage 4, a surcharge load will be applied, together with a horizontal line load applied to the
top the sheet pile wall and directed to the left.

11.2.1

Surcharge Loads
Surcharge loads can only be analyzed if the c, phi, delta model is used.
4. In the Project menu select Model and select c, phi, delta soil parameters.
To input the surcharge, modeling the traffic load:
5. Click Loads in the menu bar and then choose Surcharge Loads.
6. In the input window displayed, define a load with the name <Traffic load>, working from
a distance <0 m> to a distance <2 m> from the sheet pile wall, with a magnitude of
<20 kN/m2 >.
7. Click OK to confirm the input.

Figure 11.2: Surcharge Loads window

Note: Surcharge loads which have the same value throughout and continue to a very long
distance from the wall can be modeled using the Uniform Loads option. See section 4.4.1 for
more information.

11.2.2

Horizontal Line Loads


To input the horizontal line load, modeling the moorings:
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8. Click Loads in the menu bar and then choose Horizontal Line Loads.
9. In the input window displayed, define a load with the name <Mooring force>, acting at a
level of 0 m and with a magnitude of -50 kN/m.
10. Click OK to confirm the input.

Figure 11.3: Horizontal Line Loads window

11.3

Using Surcharge Loads


Now that the loads have been defined, they can be introduced in a new stage.
11. Open the Stages Manager and select the last stage.
12. Click the Add button to add a stage, that is copied from the selected stage and change the
name to <Loads applied>.
13. Open the Stages Overview window and select <Traffic load> acting on the right hand side
and <Mooring force> in the last stage. Apply all other levels, supports and so on as in the
fourth stage.

Figure 11.4: Stages Overview window showing input for the fourth stage

14. Click OK to see the representation of the traffic load and the mooring force in the fourth
stage of the Input Diagram window (Figure 11.5).

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Figure 11.5: Input Diagram window for the fourth stage

A new calculation can now be made.


15. Select Calculation from the menu and then choose Start or press the function key F9.
16. In the Start Calculation window, click Start to perform the calculation.
17. Close the Calculation Progress window when finished.
Note: If the c, phi, delta model is not selected then D-S HEET P ILING cannot perform the
calculation and an error message will be displayed. If this occurs, simply change the model in
the Model window to c, phi, delta and start the calculation again.

11.4

Results
18. Open the Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window from the Results menu for a graphical overview of the effect of applying the loads in the final stage.
It can be seen that the displacement at the top is around zero, while the maximum displacements are around 100 mm, the magnitude of the bending moments is slightly reduced, the
shear force has increased and the anchor force is now around 190 kN/m.

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Figure 11.6: Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window showing the effect the applied
loads

11.5

Conclusion
This tutorial shows how to input a surcharge load and a horizontal line load. When a surcharge
load is applied, only the c, phi, delta - model (Culmann) can be used.

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12 Tutorial 5: Design of required sheet piling length


In the previous tutorial examples, the sheet piling length was assumed to be 16 m, and the calculations showed that the sheet piling was stable. The design met the basic requirements.In
practice, the engineer is not only interested in stability and other technical requirements such
as allowable forces, moments and displacements, but also in the cost of the design. A shorter
length sheet piling will cost less, therefore the engineer may wish to know the shortest length
of the sheet piling for which the design is still stable.
The objective of this exercise is:

 To use D-S HEET P ILING to find the shortest sheet piling length for which the design is still
stable.
For this example, the following module is needed:

 D-S HEET P ILING Standard module (earth pressure coefficients)


This tutorial is presented in the file Tutorial-5.shi.

12.1

Introduction to the case


The input file of Tutorial 1 is used to design the sheet piling length.
GL=0
-2.0
CLAY

-4.0
-6.00

PEAT

CLAY
CLAY
AZ 13

-13.0

SAND

-16.0

Figure 12.1: Single stage excavation as in tutorial 1 (tutorial 5)

1. Open <Tutorial-1.shi> and save it under the name <Tutorial-5>.


2. On the menu bar, click Project and then choose Properties to open the Project Properties
window.
3. Fill in <Tutorial 5 for D-S HEET P ILING > and <Design of required sheet piling length> for
Title 1 and Title 2 respectively in the Identification tab.

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12.2

Design Sheet Piling Length


To determine the shortest length for the sheet piling:
4. Click Start in the Calculation menu or press the function key F9 to open the Start Calculation window.
5. Select the Design Sheet Piling Length tab.
6. In the window displayed, specify a step-by-step reduction from 18 m to 8 m, using a decrement of 1 m, as indicated in Figure 12.2. This will cause the sheet pile wall to be successively analyzed for sheet piling lengths between these values, reducing by the decrement
each time.

Figure 12.2: Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Pile Length tab

7. Click Start to start the calculation. The following results will be displayed:

Figure 12.3: Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Piling Length tab, design calculation
results

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Instability occurs at a length of 11 m. As decrements of 1.0 m were used, it can be concluded
that the sheet piling needs to be at least 12 m long.
The calculation can be repeated for shorter decrements, over a smaller range, for further
optimization. Once the length is optimized a calculation needs to be performed using the
optimized length. This will provide the additional output information.
To change the sheet piling length to this more economical value of 12 m:
8. Open the Sheet Piling window from the Construction menu.
9. Change the Section bottom level to <-12> m.

Figure 12.4: Sheet Piling window

10. Click OK to confirm.


11. Select Start under the Calculation menu or press the function key F9.
12. In the Start Calculation window displayed select the Standard tab to perform a standard
calculation.
13. Click Start to start the calculation.
14. Once the calculation is complete click Close.
15. Open the Report window from the Results menu to view the results as shown in Figure 12.5.
It can be seen that the maximum mobilized resistance (section 5.2.2) is around 63% and
therefore the design is indeed stable. Moreover, the maximum moment (158.7 kN) is less that
the maximum allowable moment for elastic behavior (312 kNm for the actual wall section).

Figure 12.5: Output report showing the mobilized resistance

Note: D-S HEET P ILING defines instability as occurring when either 100% of the resistance has
been mobilized or when the maximum displacement exceeds 25% of the sheet piling length.
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For more information, see section 5.2.2.

12.3

Conclusion
D-S HEET P ILING can be used to analyze a range of sheet piling lengths to determine the shortest length for which the wall will still be stable. This length can then be input by the user if
desired.

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13 Tutorial 6: Submerged construction of concrete floor


This tutorial example shows how to use D-S HEET P ILING to model a piled concrete floor which
is constructed underwater, with the excavation subsequently being dried above the level of
the floor. The presence of an impermeable layer of concrete on one side of the wall, at a level
lower than the natural water table, requires some careful modeling in order to represent the
situation correctly.
The objective of this exercise is:

 To model the effect of a concrete floor positioned below the natural water level.
For this example, the following modules are needed:

 D-S HEET P ILING Standard module (earth pressure coefficients)


 Culmann module.
This tutorial is presented in the file Tutorial-6.shi.

13.1

Introduction to the case


This tutorial example involves a pit excavation with an anchored sheet pile wall and an underwater concrete floor. The floor is supported by tension piles to prevent uplift after the pit is
pumped dry for use as an underground car park.

15.0
-4.0
-4.5
-6.0

TOP SAND

CLAY

-10.0
PU 6
CONCRETE

SAND

-11.0

-16.0

Figure 13.1: Final situation after construction (tutorial 6)

Construction is to be carried out in 4 stages:

 Stage 1: Excavation of the left hand surface from -4 m to -6 m.


 Stage 2: Installation of an anchor on the right hand side at -5.5 m, with a pre-stress
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force of 200 kN/m.
 Stage 3: Excavation on the left hand side to -11 m.
 Stage 4: De-watering of the pit by reducing the water level to -11 m and construction of
1 m of concrete on the bottom.
-6.0

Initial stage (not modeled)

Stage 1

pre-stress 200 kN/m'


-6

-11.0

Stage 2

Stage 3

-11.0

Stage 4

Figure 13.2: Overview of the construction stages (tutorial 6)

13.2

Modeling an underwater concrete floor


The first point of attention is the water pressures acting on the bottom of the concrete floor in
the final stage. As the sand layer beneath the concrete floor is permeable, pore pressures left
and right need to be equal, once the pit is pumped dry. D-S HEET P ILING allows for the input of
a water level left and right of the retaining structure. As the excavation is made dry in the final
stage, a water level equal to the bottom of the concrete floor is entered (see A in Figure 13.3).
Using the option to enter an additional pore pressure profile, the total water pressures left and
right are made equal (see B, Figure 13.5). The magnitude of the additional pore pressure that
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needs to be applied is (11 - 4.5) 10 = 65 kN/m2 .

Forces from tension piles

Water pressure

Figure 13.3: Modeling concrete below the natural water level

Secondly, the effect of the tension piles underneath the floor, preventing the floor from uplift in
the final stage needs modeling. The difference in water level heights on each side of the wall
results in an up thrust acting on the base of the concrete floor. This up thrust is countered
by the pull of the floors tension piles. Note that the weight of the concrete is not taken into
account as it is assumed to be born by the piles and therefore will not act on the soil layers
directly below the concrete. In this example, the water level is at -4.5 m on the right hand side,
and at -11 m on the left hand side, i.e. touching the bottom of the impermeable concrete floor.
Therefore the magnitude of this load that needs to be applied is (11 - 4.5) 10 = 65 kN/m2 .
For background information on this topic, see section 37.3.

13.3

General input
The following steps permit the definition of the model, the sheet piling, the soil surfaces and
the water levels for this tutorial:
1. Create a new project by clicking New Project in the File menu.
2. On the menu bar, click Project and then choose Properties to open the Project Properties
window.
3. Fill in <Tutorial 6 for D-S HEET P ILING > and <Submerged construction of concrete floor>
for Title 1 and Title 2 respectively in the Identification tab.
4. Open the Model window from the Project menu.
5. Select Sheet piling as the Model and select Mixed since the c, phi, delta method allows
greater precision for the soil layer stiffness modeling, but the concrete is simplest to model
using Ka , K0 , Kp and therefore different methods will be applied to different materials.
6. Deselect the Check vertical balance and the Verification (EC7/CUR) options as they are
not used in this example.
7. Open the Sheet Piling window from the Construction menu or click on the Sheet piling
button
on the icon bar.
8. Select an Arcelor PU 8R sheet piling (click on the . . . button and select the <PU 8R>
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profile from the <Arcelor> library with a <S240> section).
9. Enter a top level of -4 m and a bottom level of -16 m, i.e. a length of 12 m.
10. Open the Surfaces window from the Soil menu and define surfaces named <-4>, <-6>,
<-10> and <-11> with levels <-4 m>, <-6 m>, <-10 m> and <-11 m> respectively.

Figure 13.4: Soil Surfaces window

13.3.1

Soil Materials
The concrete is modeled as an extra soil layer. The Youngs modulus of the concrete is
E = 20 GPa and the width of the (symmetrical) pit excavation is b = 40 m. The modulus of
subgrade reaction of the concrete layer can be calculated from this data in the following way:

K=

20 106
E
=
= 1 106 kN/m3
b/2
40/2

(13.1)

The unit weight of the concrete is not zero, but it is modeled here as almost zero because it is
assumed that the floors weight is transmitted to the support piles and therefore does not act
on the soil directly below the floor. Phi and delta are modeled as zero to better represent the
homogeneous, as opposed to granular, nature of concrete when compared to soil. The value
for the cohesion is taken as half the compressive strength of the concrete, so that with Kp = 1
the passive stress is equal to the concretes compressive stress see Equation 28.2.
11. Open the Layers window from the Soil menu, and select Tangent modulus of subgrade
reaction, with 1 curve for spring characteristics in the window opened by clicking on the
Curve Settings button.
12. For concrete select Manual to input the Earth pressure coefficients. The behavior of concrete is well modeled using, use Ka = K0 = 0 and Kp = 1, provided the cohesion has been
defined as described above.
13. For the other soil materials select Ktter (curved slip surfaces) for automatic calculation of
the earth pressure coefficients using Ktters method (the Mller-Breslau method should
not be used because the sands have high friction angles; for the clay either method could
be used, using Ktter for all layers has been chosen for consistency). When using the
Culmann method, the input of the earth pressure coefficients will be ignored, but these
coefficients are needed for when the Ka , K0 , Kp method is selected, as will be the case for
the left hand side once the concrete is in place. Then define the sands, clay and concrete
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Table 13.1: Soil properties (tutorial 6)

Unsaturated total unit weight


Saturated total unit weight
(Drained) Cohesion
Friction angle
Delta friction angle
Shell factor
Overconsolidation ratio (OCR)
Grain type
Mod. sub. reaction at top
Mod. sub. reaction at bottom
Earth pressure coefficients

[kN/m ]
[kN/m3 ]
[kN/m2 ]
[deg]
[deg]
[-]
[-]
[kN/m3 ]
[kN/m3 ]
[-]

Top Sand
17
20
0
30
20
1
1
Fine
5000
5000
Ktter

Clay
15
15
2
20
10
1
1
Fine
500
800
Ktter

Sand
17
20
0
35
23
1
1
Fine
10000
10000
Ktter

Concrete
0.01
0.01
15000
0
0
1
1
Fine
1 106
1 106
Manual

as described in Table 13.1.

13.3.2

Soil Profiles
In this exercise two soil profiles need to be specified. One profile that represents the situation
up to the point where the concrete floor in constructed. The second profile is used on the left
hand side, including the concrete floor and the water pressure acting on the concrete floor,
using additional pore pressures. The second profile needs to be active when the floor is being
constructed and the pit is pumped dry.
14. Open the Soil Profiles window from the Soils menu and define two soil profiles. Input the
soil profiles left and right as indicated in Figure 13.5 and Figure 13.6.

Figure 13.5: Soil Profiles window, Soil profile before construction

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Figure 13.6: Soil Profiles window, Soil profile with concrete on the left side and additional
pore pressures

13.3.3

Water Levels
15. Open the Water Levels window from the Soil menu
16. Define two water levels with names <WL-4.5> and <WL-11> at levels <-4.5> m and
<-11> m respectively. The level <WL-11> is the water level for the left hand side once
the excavation has been dewatered.
17. Click OK.

13.3.4

Water Properties
18. Open the Water Properties window from the Soil menu.
19. Enter a unit weight of <10 kN/m3 > to be in accordance with the previously calculated
additional pore pressures.

Figure 13.7: Water Properties window

20. Click OK.

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13.3.5

Uniform Loads
21. In the Uniform Loads window of the Loads menu, add a load with the name <Forces from
piles> and with a magnitude of <65 kN/m2 > on the left hand side. The right hand side
should remain at <0 kN/m2 >.
22. Click OK to close the window.

Figure 13.8: Uniform Loads window

Note: The sum of the weight of the concrete floor and the forces of the piles connected to
the floor equals the excess pore water pressure: there must be equilibrium at the base of the
floor.

13.3.6

Anchors
The anchor that will be applied in the third stage needs to be entered.
23. Open the Anchors window from the Supports menu.
24. Input a <15.0 m> long anchor on the <Right> side named <Anchor>, at level <-5.5 m>,
with a Youngs modulus of <2.1 108 kN/m2 >, a cross-section of <8 104 m2 /m>,
<0 m> wall height and <0> inclination angle, and a design yield force of <600 kN/m>.

Figure 13.9: Anchors window

25. Click OK to confirm.

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13.4

Stages implementation
The construction stages now have to be assembled from the defined building blocks.
26. Open the Stages Manager window from the Stages menu.
27. Define four stages with the names <Excavation to -6m>, <Anchor on right side>, <Excavate
to -11> and <Dewatering left side>.
28. Click the Overview option in the Stages menu or click on the Stage overview button
on
the icon bar.
29. For all stages the c, , method is selected except for stage 4, where the Ka , K0 , Kp method
is used on the side of the concrete i.e. on the left side.
30. Select the Water levels, Surfaces and Soil profiles as shown in Figure 13.10.
31. Select the anchor from stages 2. For stage 2, enter a pre-stress force of <200 kN/m2 >
after selecting pre-stressed anchor check-box in the Pre-tensioning forces sub-window.
32. Select the Uniform load <Forces from piles> for the final stage.

Figure 13.10: Stages Overview window

33. Click OK to see the effect in the last stage of the Input Diagram window (Figure 13.11).

Figure 13.11: Input Diagram window for the last stage

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13.5

Calculation and results


34. Start the Calculation saving the file under the name <Tutorial-6>.
35. After calculation is complete, open the Stress State Charts window from the Results menu.
The Resulting Stress chart for stage 4 (Figure 13.12) shows that the concrete layer exercises a compressive shear force on the sheet piling in this stage.
36. In addition, by clicking the right-hand mouse button, the View Data window shows that the
pore water pressure below the level of the floor is the same on both sides of the sheet pile
wall, as expected (i.e. 65 kN/m2 ).

Figure 13.12: Stress State Charts window showing compression caused by the concrete
floor

The Resulting Stress graph has two lines:

 the black line represents the resulting total stress acting on the sheet pile wall (i.e. the
difference between the horizontal total stress at the active and passive sides). The total
stress is the sum of the effective stress and the water pressure.
 the red line represents the resulting effective stress acting on the sheet pile wall (i.e.
the difference between the horizontal effective stress at the active and passive sides).
37. Open the Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window from the Results menu. The Bending Moment chart for stage 4 (Figure 13.13) shows that the maximum allowable moment
is not reached which means no failure by bending.

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Figure 13.13: Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window for the last stage

13.6

Conclusion
Concrete floors that are below the natural water table can be modeled as a soil layer with
relevant properties. The effects caused by the absence of water above the impermeable floor
are modeled by a uniform load acting on the floor, and a water table with additional pore
pressures below the floor.
It should be noted that in this tutorial the anchor is applied under water, which is not very
realistic. It would me more appropriate to first lower the water table to a level that allows
for construction of the anchor. In that case, modeling the water pressures in the sand and
clay layers would need extra attention. As the short term behavior of the clay layer can be
assumed impermeable this needs similar attention as for the modeling of the concrete floor.

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14 Tutorial 7: Design code checking acc. CUR 166


In this tutorial, the application of the CUR 166 design procedure (CUR, 2005) is followed, using
slightly modified input values compared to Tutorial 3 Staged excavation with pre-stressed
anchors that was presented in the preceding sections. A design of the sheet pile length
is performed according to the CUR 166 design procedure by prescribing partial factors on
soil properties and also variations of the soil and water levels. See chapter 33 (CUR 166
step-by-step design procedure)for background information.
The objectives of this exercise are:

 To select the modulus of subgrade reaction from Table 3.3 of the CUR 166 design code.
 To design the sheet piling length according to the CUR 166 design code by performing a
standard verification of the sheet piling stability for different lengths, using partial factors
and level variations for all stages.
For this example, the following modules are needed:

 D-S HEET P ILING Standard module (earth pressure coefficients)


 Culmann module
 Eurocode 7 Verification module.
This tutorial is presented in the files Tutorial-7a.shi and Tutorial-7b.shi.

14.1

Introduction to the case


The geometry is the same as for Tutorial 3 (Figure 14.1) but the soil properties are slightly
modified, as shown in Table 14.1. Also the method for determining the earth pressure coefficients is to be changed to the Culmann method (c, phi, delta model) as the CUR 166 design
procedure is available only with this model. A fourth stage is added during which a temporary
surcharge of 40 kN/m2 is applied on the right side (see Figure 14.1).

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Table 14.1: Soil properties (tutorial 7)

Clay
Unsaturated total unit weight
[kN/m ]
15
Saturated total unit weight
[kN/m3 ]
16
2
(Drained) Cohesion
[kN/m ]
10
Friction angle
[deg]
17
Delta Friction angle
[deg]
11
Shell factor
[-]
1
Over-consolidation ratio (OCR)
[-]
1
Grain type
Fine
Secant moduli of subgrade reaction (from CUR 166 Table 3.3):
k1
[kN/m3 ]
4000
3
k2
[kN/m ]
2000
k3
[kN/m3 ]
800
3

Peat
10
11
2
20
0
1
1
Fine

Sand
17
19
0
35
27
1
1
Fine

2000
800
500

20000
10000
5000

Figure 14.1: Construction stages (tutorial 7)

The CUR 166 design procedure distinguishes three safety classes, corresponding to three
different reliability indices . In this tutorial, the selected safety class is class II, which corresponds to considerable damage in the case of overall failure and minor personal safety risks,
and has a reliability index = 3.4.
The design of the sheet pile wall with a single anchor is performed by determining the minimum length of the sheet piling using a stability analysis. For different lengths, D-S HEET P ILING
checks that the mobilized resistance does not reach 100% and that the maximum displace216

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ment does not exceed 25% of the sheet pile length. During each analysis with a given sheet
pile length, five combinations (referred as steps 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4 and 6.5) of modified soil
properties, surface levels and water levels are checked. See section 33.2 for a description of
those five combinations and the design values used, as well as the other steps supported by
D-S HEET P ILING.
The CUR 166 procedure allows application of partial factors and level variations:

 during all stages (i.e. Method A), as performed by Tutorial-7a;


 or during just the most unfavorable stage (i.e. Method B), as performed by Tutorial-7b.
Method A is more conservative (section 33.3.1). User-defined partial factors and level changes
can also be applied, once they have been defined in the User Defined Partial Factors window
(section 4.1.2).
Note: When performing a CUR verification for Safety Class III a partial factor of 1.25 also
needs to be applied to unfavorable uniform loads (see section 33.2). For all other cases the
partial factor is 1.00. As D-S HEET P ILING cannot tell which loads are favorable and which are
unfavorable, the user themselves needs to specify the partial factor to be applied to each
uniform load in the Uniform Loads window (section 4.4.1).

14.2

Model
First modify the method for the determination of the earth pressure coefficients.
1. Open the input file <Tutorial-3.shi>, and save it with name <Tutorial-7a>.
2. On the menu bar, click Project and then choose Properties to open the Project Properties
window.
3. Fill in <Tutorial 7 for D-S HEET P ILING > and <Design code checking acc. CUR 166> for
Title 1 and Title 2 respectively in the Identification tab.
4. Open the Model window from the Project menu, and select the C, phi, delta soil parameters
model and the Verification (EC7/CUR) option.
5. Click OK to confirm this choice.

14.3

Soil Materials
Next, modify the general properties and the modulus of subgrade reaction of the three soil
materials by direct selection from CUR 166 table 3.3.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Select the Materials option from the Soil menu.


Open the Curve Settings window by clicking the Curve Settings button.
Select the Secant option and click OK to confirm.
Click the Select From CUR 166 (Table 3.3) button to display the CUR 166 (Table 3.3)
window (Figure 14.2).
10. Select the values of successively Clay moderate, Peat moderate and Sand moderate for
the soil types <Clay>, <Peat> and <Sand>.

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Figure 14.2: CUR 166 (Table 3.3) window

Figure 14.3: Soil Materials window

14.4

Temporary surcharge
To input the temporary surcharge in stage 4:
11. Click Loads in the menu and choose Surcharge Loads.
12. Define a load with the name <Temporary load>, working from a distance <2 m> to a
distance <5 m> from the sheet pile wall, with a magnitude of <40 kN/m3 >.
13. In the Verification sub-window at the top right, define the load as <Variable> (which means
temporary) and <Unfavourable> as it is on the active side.
14. Click OK to confirm.

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Figure 14.4: Surcharge Loads window

Note: The Verification sub-window in the Surcharge Loads window is only available if the
Verification (EC7/CUR) option in the Model window was marked.
A last stage where the surcharge applies should now be created:
15. In the Stages Manager window add a new stage named <Apply load>.
16. Click OK.
17. Open the Stages Overview window and select <Temporary load> acting on the right side
for stage 4. Apply in stage 4 the same levels, supports and so on as in stage 3 as shown
in Figure 14.5.
18. Click OK.

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Figure 14.5: Stages Overview window

14.5

Sheet Piling
The sheet piling needs to be changed as the surcharge load previously defined will increase
the calculated moment along the sheet piling.
19. Open the Sheet Piling window from the Construction menu.
20. Select an Arcelor <AZ 17> profile from the library, with a <S430> section.

14.6

Partial factors and level variations acc. to CUR 166


21. Open the User Defined Partial Factors window from the Project menu, and select the CUR
tab.
22. Click on the Reset button to reset all values to the default values prescribed by the CUR 166
(Figure 14.7).

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Figure 14.6: User Defined Partial Factors window, CUR tab

The default values prescribed by CUR 166 (CUR, 2005) are written at the left of each input
area of the User Defined Partial Factors window. If modified, the value appears in red color.

14.7

Determine the minimum length (Steps 5 and 6 of the CUR 166 design procedure)
The following steps determine the minimum sheet pile length according to the CUR 166 design
procedure. All stages are checked implicitly for method A, with level variations and partial
factors applied for all stages.

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Figure 14.7: Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Piling Length tab

23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

Select Start from the Calculation menu or press the function key F9.
In the Start Calculation window, select the Design Sheet Piling Length tab.
Select the CUR design code.
Select the last Construction stage <4: Apply load>, to check all stages up to and including
the final stage.
Select the Partial factor set (safety class) <Class II>.
Select Partial factors (design values) in all stages (method A).
Specify checks for the Pile Length ranging From <20 m> Down to <12 m> with a Decrement of <1 m>.
Click the Start button.

The results (Figure 14.8) show that for a length of 13 m the sheet piling becomes unstable as
the mobilized resistance reaches 100%. Therefore, the minimum length is 14 m.

Figure 14.8: Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Piling Length tab: Results from 20 m
down to 12 m

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Note: D-S HEET P ILING assumes input of low representative values for soil strength and stiffness when applying partial factors section 33.1.
31. Check that the last stage is indeed the most critical by repeating the above steps, selecting
each of the other stages. Note that the sheet piling does indeed become unstable in the
final stage earlier than in the others.
To get a more accurate result of when the piling becomes unstable or when the anchor yields,
the Pile length inputs at the top of the window must be adapted.
32. Select the final stage as this is the most critical, enter a pile length From <14 m> Down to
<13 m> with a Decrement of <0.25 m> and click Start again.

Figure 14.9: Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Piling Length tab: Results from 14 m
down to 13 m

The results (Figure 14.9) show that the minimum stable length is 13.75 m. It seems acceptable
to reduce the sheet piling length from 16 m to 14 m, whilst still leaving a good safety margin.
See section 5.2.2 for more details on designing sheet piling lengths.

14.8

Verify the modified sheet piling length according to CUR 166 design
procedure, method A
The sheet piling design calculation just performed (section 14.7) does not provide a lot of
results about the moments, shear forces and displacements of the wall, or about which combination between steps 6.1 to 6.5 gives the most unfavorable results. It does not check all
combinations required according to CUR 166. To get all of this information, a Verify Sheet
Piling calculation must be performed for the modified length of 14 m.
33. Open the Sheet Piling window from the Construction menu.
34. Change the Section bottom level from <-16 m> to <-14 m>.
35. Click OK to confirm.

14.8.1

Verification Calculation (Method A)


36. Select Start from the Calculation menu or press the function key F9.
37. Select the Verify Sheet Piling tab in the Start Calculation window displayed.
38. Select the CUR design code.
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39. Select Partial Factors (design values) in all stages (method A) as partial factors are applied
to all construction stages for a Method A check.
40. Select the Partial factor set (safety class) <Class II> and leave the Anchor stiffness multiplication factor as its default value of <1>.
41. Mark the Check stability for all stages check-box to check the overall stability of this project
according to step 11.3 of the CUR 166 design procedure.
42. Then click the Start button.

Figure 14.10: Start Calculation window, Verify Sheet Piling tab

See section 5.2.3 for more details on verifying sheet piling.

14.8.2

Verification Report
43. To view the results of the verification, choose Report in the Results menu.

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Figure 14.11: Report window, Summary section

In the Summary section at the beginning of the Report, it can be seen that the results for step
6.3 are the same as those of Figure 14.9 for a sheet pile length of 14 m. (The Design Sheet
Piling Length option only checks for step 6.3 as it is intended as a rough guide rather than
a full verification.) In other words, the maximum moment is -704.90 kNm and the maximum
mobilized resistance is 87.5%. As the maximum displacement is given only for step 6.5 in the
Summary section, no direct comparison is possible with the value of -182.3 mm found from
Figure 14.9. The displacements diagram must be used.

14.8.3

Verification Charts
44. Open the Verification Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window from the Results menu.
In the window displayed (Figure 14.12), note that the maximum displacement occurs when
selecting the last construction stage and <Step 6.3> at the top of the window. The maximum
displacement is equal to -182.3 mm, the value obtained from the Design Sheet Piling Length
in Figure 14.9 for a sheet pile length of 14 m.Also note that the moment doesnt exceed the
maximum allowable moment (dotted green line) of 716 kNm.

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Figure 14.12: Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window for the last stage

at the top of the window to open a diagram of the


45. Click the View Verification Step icon
changes made for the verification step 6.3 (Figure 14.13).

Figure 14.13: CUR Step 6.3 window

According to the default level variations for class II given in Figure 14.6, step 6.3 includes the
following geometry changes:

 the water level is lowered by 0.2 m on the passive side


 the surface level is lowered by 0.3 m on the passive side
 the water level is highered by 0.05 m on the active side.
For background information on the CUR 166 verification steps, see section 33.2.

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14.8.4

Stability Verification
46. In the Report window, use the Move to next page
and Move to previous page
to see the Overall Stability results for stage 4 (Figure 14.14).

buttons,

The overall stability for the verified stage is estimated using the Bishop method with circular
slip planes. See chapter 31 for background information. As the stability factor is more than 1
for all stages, the wall will be stable according to the Bishop method.

Figure 14.14: Report window, Overall Stability for the final stage

Note: The Overall Stability can also be determined using the Overall Stability tab of the Start
Calculation window by selecting the appropriate safety class and stage.
The verification report also contains the modified values of the soil parameters and levels.
See section 6.2.2 and section 6.3.2 for more details on the verification report and charts.

14.9

Verify the modified sheet piling length according to CUR 166 design
procedure, method B
In the previous paragraph, a Method A design according to the CUR 166 procedure was
performed, which means that partial factors and level variations were applied to all stages.
To perform a Method B design, these partial factors need to be applied only to the most
unfavorable stage.

14.9.1

Verification Calculation (Method B)


47. Save the current file as <Tutorial-7b>.
48. Open the Start Calculation window from the Calculation menu or press the function key
F9.
49. In the Verify Sheet Piling tab, select the CUR design code.
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50. Select Partial Factors (design values) in verified stage only in the CUR method subwindow as design values according to the CUR 166 procedure are applied to only one
stage for a Method B check.
51. Mark the fourth check-box to select stage 4 as a Stage for which verification is to be
performed. Then select the Partial factor set <II> for this stage and leave the Anchor
stiffness multiplication factor as its default value of <1>.
52. Mark the Check stability for all verified stages check-box to check the overall stability of
this stage of the project according to step 11.3 of the CUR 166 design procedure.
53. Then click the Start button.

Figure 14.15: Start Calculation window, Verify Sheet Piling tab (Tutorial-7b)

See section 5.2.3 for more details on verify sheet piling calculations.
Note: Method B applies partial factors and level changes only to the final stage. Therefore,
theoretically, every stage must be verified as the final stage, using the appropriate safety
class. The stages to be verified as a final stage are selected in the Verify Sheet Piling tab of
the Start Calculation window. To perform a complete method B verification for a construction
with n stages involves n! calculations. For this tutorial it has been decided to only check the
final stage. Anything cant be concluded about the performance of the previous construction
stages. Refer to section 33.3.1 for more information about the differences between method A
and method B.

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Table 14.2: Comparison of methods A and B for the maximum values in stage 4

Method A (Tutorial-7a)
Method B (Tutorial-7b)

14.9.2

Displac.

Moment

Shear force

[mm]
-125.8
-128.3

[kNm]
-702.0
-694.7

[kN]
-223.1
-222.2

Mob. perc.
moment
[%]
76.3
86.4

Mob. perc.
resis.
[%]
79.6
88.6

Verification Report
54. To view the results, select Report in the Results menu.

Figure 14.16: Report window, Summary section (Tutorial-7b)

14.10

Comparison between Methods A and B


After comparison with the results of the previous calculation where the partial factors were
applied to all stages (Figure 14.10), some differences appear on the calculated values of
stage 4 as shown in Table 14.2. However, as those differences are quite small, it can be
deduced that the influence of the differences in the three first stages on the last stage is
minimal in this tutorial case.
Applying partial factors on the representative input values in all stages will give different results
to when applying them only in one of the stages. The CUR 166 design procedure allows both
methods. Applying partial factors to the final stage only (method B) can result in a more
economical design, but requires verification of each stage as the final stage.

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14.11

Conclusion
The Design Sheet Piling Length option allows the minimum stable length for the sheet piling
to be found, using a global check according to CUR 166. After inputting this new length, a
complete verification can be performed with the Verify Sheet Piling option giving more final
results. CUR Method A (Tutorial-7a) applies the same partial factor set to all construction
stages whereas CUR Method B (Tutorial-7b). In this tutorial, the maximum allowable moment
for elastic behavior is reached; the sheet piling profile should therefore be changed to avoid
failure in bending.

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15 Tutorial 8: Verify anchor stability (Kranz method)


This example illustrates how to check the stability of an anchor wall. For background information, see "Allowable Anchor Force" chapter 30. The objectives of this exercise are:

 To check the stability of an anchor applied to a sheet pile wall.


 To learn how to increase the allowable force for an anchor.
For this example, the following modules are needed:

 D-S HEET P ILING Standard module (earth pressure coefficients)


 Culmann module
 Eurocode 7 Verification module
This tutorial is presented in the file Tutorial-8.shi.

15.1

Introduction to the case


The same input file as Tutorial 3 is used. The anchor plate/wall stability is only checked for the
last stage as it is the most unfavorable stage for which the anchor is present. The geometry
of this situation is shown in below.

25.0
GL=0
-2.0

2.0
CLAY

-4.0
-6.0

PEAT

CLAY
AZ 13

-13.0

SAND

-16.0

Figure 15.1: Excavation showing anchor to be checked (tutorial 8)

1. Open the input file <Tutorial-3.shi>, and save it with a new name: <Tutorial-8>.

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15.2

Allowable anchor force


The verification of the anchor stability is performed using the Allowable Anchor Force tab in the
Start Calculation window. However, this option is available only if the Verification (EC7/CUR)
option in the Model window is selected.
2. Open the Model window from the Project menu.
3. On the menu bar, click Project and then choose Properties to open the Project Properties
window.
4. Fill in <Tutorial 8 for D-S HEET P ILING > and <Verify anchor stability (Kranz method)> for
Title 1 and Title 2 respectively in the Identification tab.
5. In the window displayed, select the c, phi, delta model and the Verification (EC7/CUR)
option.
6. Click OK to close the window. A Confirm window appears. Click OK to confirm this choice.
7. In the Calculation menu, select Start to open the Start Calculation window or press the
function key F9.
8. Select the Allowable Anchor Force tab to check if the stability of the anchor is reached.
9. Select the last stage in the Construction stage sub-window and click the Start button.

Figure 15.2: Start Calculation window, Allowable Anchor Force tab

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According to the results (Figure 15.2), the actual representative anchor force is 135 kN
whereas the allowable anchor force is 196 kN. Therefore, the anchor wall is stable.
Note: The Actual anchor force CUR is not available because no verification calculation
according to CUR was previously performed.
There are different ways to increase the allowable anchor force in case of unstable anchors:
inclining the anchor downwards, increasing the sheet piling length, increasing the anchor
length, or lowering the application point of the anchor. To decrease the actual anchor force,
the anchor properties must be modified, or the spacing between anchors can be reduced
this will correspond to an increase in the cross sectional area per running meter (/m).
10. Click the Draw Results button. The window displayed (Figure 15.3) shows the active and
passive slip surfaces on the anchor wall.
For more details on the passive and active anchor wall pressures calculation, see chapter 30.

Figure 15.3: Allowable Anchor Force Results Diagram window

15.3

Conclusion
D-S HEET P ILING can calculate the allowable force in an anchor making it possible for the user
to compare this value to the actual force in the anchor. To increase the allowable anchor force
the sheet piling length can be increased, the anchor can be inclined, it can be made longer or
it can be applied lower down the wall.

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16 Tutorial 9: Modeling of combi-walls


This example illustrates the analysis of a combined wall with a variable flexural stiffness. For
background information, see section 37.1.
The objectives of this exercise are:

 To enter a combined pile and sheet piling wall using D-S HEET P ILINGs combined wall
wizard.

 To make the necessary correction to the modulus of subgrade reaction to compensate


for arching of the piles below the depth of the sheet piling.
For this example, the following module is needed:

 D-S HEET P ILING Standard module (earth pressure coefficients)


This tutorial is presented in the file Tutorial-9.shi.

16.1

Introduction to the case


This example models a single stage excavation with a combined wall consisting of King piles
connected along the upper part by sheet piling, as show in Figure 16.1. It follows that the
flexural stiffness of the upper and lower parts is different. The soil profile consists of two clay
layers of thickness 5 m and 1 m respectively, with a sand layer below. The layer properties
are provided in Table 16.1.
GL=0
-1.0

HZ775C-12+PU12

CLAY

-5.0
DEEP CLAY

-6.0

DEEP CLAY

SAND
SAND
HZ775C-12

-10.0

Figure 16.1: One stage excavation with a combined wall

The center-to-center distance between the piles is 2.33 m. The King pile is an H-profile, by
Arbed, type HZ775C-12, has a diameter of 0.53 m, a wall thickness of 10 mm and a flexural
stiffness of 843759 kNm2 . The sheet piling between each pair of piles consist of three sheet
piling sections, type PU 12, each part having a width a 0.6 m and a flexural stiffness of
45360 kNm2 /m. The length of the piles is 10 m and the length of the sheet piling is 5 m.
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Table 16.1: Soil properties (tutorial 9)

Unsaturated total unit weight


Saturated total unit weight
(Drained) Cohesion
Friction angle
Delta friction angle
Shell factor
Over-consolidation ratio (OCR)
Grain type
Mod. of sub. reaction: Virgin loading

[kN/m ]
[kN/m3 ]
[kN/m2 ]
[deg]
[deg]
[-]
[-]
[kN/m3 ]

Clay
14
14
2
20
10
1
1
Fine
800

Deep Clay
14
14
5
20
10
2
1
Fine
1600

Sand
17
20
0
30
20
2.5
1
Fine
25000

Plan view

2,33m

sheet piling
(EI=45360 kNm2/m)
RL 0m

clay
RL -5m
clay/2
RL -6m

0,6m
5m

sand
RL -10m

0,53m

Pile (EI=843759 kNm2)

Figure 16.2: Combined wall example: dimensions and soil profile

One section of the combined wall, consisting of one pile and three sheet-piling parts, will be
considered for calculation purposes. Output of discrete moments and forces is required for
this section. The calculation of the action width and the flexural stiffness per running meter
can be performed conveniently, by using the combined wall wizard (section 4.2.2).
The amount of soil that will react if pile displacement occurs is usually larger than the pile width
as a result of arching. Therefore the soil properties along the lower part of the combined wall
must be modified, using a shell factor s of 2 for clay and 2.5 for sand. These values are
obtained from tests or calculations. For more information, see section 37.1.2. A shell factor of
1 is applied for soils in contact with the sheet piling as the sheet piling prevents arching from
taking place.

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16.2

General input
1. Create a new project by clicking New Project in the File menu, and save it with the name
<Tutorial-9>.
2. On the menu bar, click Project and then choose Properties to open the Project Properties
window.
3. Fill in <Tutorial 9 for D-S HEET P ILING > and <Modeling of combi-walls> for Title 1 and Title
2 respectively in the Identification tab.
4. Open the Model window from the Project menu and select Ka, Ko, Kp soil parameters,
deselect the Check vertical balance and the Verification (EC7/CUR) options as they are
not used in this example.

16.3

Combined Wall
Now the combined wall shown in Figure 16.2 can be modeled.
5. Open the Sheet Piling window from the Construction menu or click on the Sheet piling
button
on the icon bar.
6. Click on the Combined Wall. . . button.
7. In the window displayed, select the appropriate pile and sheet pile types that will be used
in the wall by clicking the
button: for the Piles, select the <HZ775C-12> type with
section S240 and for the Sheet pile select the <PU 12> type. The Name and the Stiffness
EI are automatically filled in. Enter the Number of sheet piles between each pair of piles
as 3. For the other values, see Figure 16.3 below or refer to Figure 16.2.

Figure 16.3: Design Combined Wall window

8. Click OK to confirm the input.


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tomatically calculated by D-S HEET P ILING in the Sheet Piling window, as shown in Figure 16.4
below.

Figure 16.4: Sheet Piling window

The combination wall calculation process is also explained in section 37.1.

16.4

Soil
The following steps permit the definition of the soil materials, surfaces, profiles and water
levels for this tutorial:
9. Open the Surfaces window from the Soil menu and define two surfaces with names <Left>
and <Right> with levels 0 m and -5 m respectively.
10. Open the Soil Materials window from the Soil menu, and define the soils using the parameters given in Table 16.1, using the Mller-Breslau (straight slip surfaces) method for an
automatic calculation of the Earth pressure coefficients by D-S HEET P ILING. Select Tangent
with <1> as the Number of curves for spring characteristics in the Curve Settings window
to allow input of the modulus of subgrade reaction as given in Table 16.1.

Figure 16.5: Soil Materials window for Sand

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11. Open the Profiles window from the Soil menu and define the soil profile shown in Figure 16.1, with the top levels of <Clay>, <Deep Clay> and <Sand> at 0 m, -5 m and -6 m
respectively.
12. Open the Water Levels window of the Soil menu, and define a water level named <WL>
at -1 m.
13. Open the Stages Overview window of the Stages menu to define the left and right surfaces.
14. In the Start Calculation window, click OK to calculate the results.

16.5

Results
The calculation results can be found in the report.
15. Start the calculation by selecting Start in the Calculation menu and clicking OK. When the
calculation is complete close the Calculation Progress window.
16. In the Results menu, click Report.

Figure 16.6: Report window, Sheet Piling Properties section

In the Input Data section of the report, the input data can be found. The stiffness EI of the
upper and lower sections is given in kNm2 in the column Corrected stiffness EI. This value
corresponds to the stiffness per running meter calculated in section 16.3, multiplied by the
acting width:

 Upper section: EI = 3.9717 105 2.33 = 9.2541 105 kNm2


 Lower section: EI = 1.5920 106 0.53 = 8.4376 105 kNm2
Note: In the column Stiffness EI, the stiffness is presented as discrete bending stiffness per
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acting width (kNm2 /m) and not per meter!
In the Modulus of Subgrade Reaction paragraph of the report (Figure 16.7), note that the
values of the moduli of subgrade reaction correspond to the user-defined values (Figure 16.5)
multiplied by the shell factor:

 For Clay: k = 800 1 = 800 kN/m3


 For Deep Clay: k = 1600 2 = 3200 kN/m3
 For Sand: k = 25000 2.5 = 62500 kN/m3

Figure 16.7: Report window, Modulus of Subgrade Reaction paragraph

The resulting moments and forces apply to one full section of the wall, consisting of one pile
and three sheet-piling parts. The maximum moment acting on the upper 5 m can be seen
by opening the Moment/Force/Displacement Charts from the Results menu and right clicking
over the moment graph to select the Chart Data. Scrolling down to a Depth of 5 m shows
that the maximum moment in this part is around 120 kNm at the level of -5 m. The maximum
moment acting on the lower 5 m is around 216 kNm. The pile therefore has to be able to resist
216 kNm. If the maximum is reached in the upper part, it is common practice to assume that
this maximum moment acts on the pile only. The dimensioning of the sheet piling is usually
based on the transmission of moments in the horizontal direction, and is therefore outside
the scope of this example. In this tutorial, the maximum allowable moment for the pile only is
2184 kNm (according to Figure 16.3). Therefore, this maximum is not reached.

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Figure 16.8: Moment/Force/Displacement Chart window

16.6

Conclusion
The combined wall wizard is a useful tool for inputting a combined wall: it converts the constituent parts into the correct D-S HEET P ILING model. Moduli of subgrade reaction need to be
modified for the soil materials where only the piles are present, to compensate for arching.

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17 Tutorial 10: Non-hydrostatic pore pressure distribution


In this example, the sheet pile wall has a water-retaining function in addition to the standard
soil-retaining function. The difference in water pressures on either side of the wall gives rise to
water seepage under the toe of the wall. This effect is taken into account in D-S HEET P ILING by
inputting appropriate additional pore pressures. For background information, see section 37.4.
The objectives of this exercise are:

 To calculate and input the additional pore pressure distribution in order to model the
total pore pressures caused by the water flow under the toe of the sheet piling.
 To analyze the effect of these pressures on the sheet pile wall.
For this example, the following module is needed:

 D-S HEET P ILING Standard module (earth pressure coefficients)


This tutorial is presented in the file Tutorial-10.shi.

17.1

Introduction to the case


This example involves a pit excavation in stratified soil. On the right hand side, the surface
level is 0 m. The water table is at -1 m. The pit is excavated on the left hand side to 9 m. The pit excavation is kept dry by means of a dewatering systems. The water table in
the pit excavation is at -10 m. This means that there is a difference in water pressure of
9 10 = 90 kPa. Two struts at -2 m and -7 m support the sheet piling.

5.0m
GL=0
-1.0
-2.0
Strut 1

-7.0
CLAY

Strut 2

-9.0
-10.0

AZ 14
CLAY

-13.0

PEAT

SAND

-12.0
PEAT

-18.0

Figure 17.1: Pit excavation with water flow under the sheet pile wall (tutorial 10)

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Table 17.1: Soil properties (tutorial 10)

Unsaturated total unit weight


Saturated total unit weight
(Drained) Cohesion
Friction angle phi
Delta friction angle
Shell factor
Over-consolidation ratio (OCR)
Grain type
Earth pressure coefficients
Mod. of sub. reaction (top side)
Mod. of sub. reaction (bottom side)
Permeability

17.2

[kN/m ]
[kN/m3 ]
[kN/m2 ]
[deg]
[deg]
[-]
[-]

[kN/m3 ]
[kN/m3 ]
[m/s]

Clay
14
14
5
17
11
1
1
Fine
Mller
800
1 200
108

Peat
11
11
2
20
0
1
1
Fine
Mller
500
500
109

Sand
17
20
0
32
21
1
1
Fine
Ktter
10 000
20 000
103

Additional pore pressure


The sand is relatively permeable. The pressure head differences occur, therefore, over the
clay layer and the peat layer. To determine the effect of the water flow, the additional pore
water pressures are calculated on both sides of the sheet piling using Equation 37.8 in section 37.4:

Wi = h w

di
1
Pd
i
ki
k

(17.1)

On the low side this leads to:

108
1
= 9 10 9
10

Wclay = 9 10
Wpeat

2
108

1
109

2
108

1
109

1
 = 5.45 kN/m2
+ 1019 + 10118
1
 = 27.27 kN/m2
+ 1019 + 10118

(17.2)
(17.3)

On the high side this leads to:

11

108
1
= 9 10 9
10

Wclay = 9 10
Wpeat

2
108

1
109

2
108

1
109

1
 = 30 kN/m2
(17.4)
+ 1019 + 10118
1
 = 27.27 kN/m2
+ 1019 + 10118
(17.5)

Note that the sum of the magnitudes of these additional pore pressures is 90 kN/m2 (ignoring
rounding errors) which is the same as the pressure difference between the levels of the two
phreatic surfaces. It can also be seen that the water pressure on both sides of the toe of the
sheet pile is the same: 8 10 + (5.45 + 27.27) = 17 10 - (30.00 + 27.27) = 112.7

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0.0
-1.0

clay

Wpeat
-9.0

Wclay

-10.0

Wpeat
25.5
62.8

20.0
30.0

Wclay
62.8

80.0

peat

62.7

-13.0

120.0

sand

60.0

total
pressure

-12.0

110.0

hydrostatic
pressure

92.7

total
pressure

150.0

hydrostatic
pressure

Figure 17.2: Water pressures distribution on both sides of sheet piling

Note: In general, this approximation method is sufficient. For cases with a major difference
in water pressure, or for very critical cases, a flow calculation should be performed using a
specialized program, such as Deltares Systems MSeep.

17.3

General input
The geometry of Figure 17.1 is inputted in D-S HEET P ILING.
1. Create a new file with the name <Tutorial-10>.
2. On the menu bar, click Project and then choose Properties to open the Project Properties
window.
3. Fill in <Tutorial 10 for D-S HEET P ILING > and <Non-hydrostatic pore pressure distribution>
for Title 1 and Title 2 respectively in the Identification tab.

17.3.1

Model
4. In the Model window, select the Ka, Ko, Kp soil parameters model.
5. Deselect the Check vertical balance and the Verification (EC7/CUR) options as they are
not used in this tutorial.

17.3.2

Sheet Piling
6. In the Sheet Piling window, define a sheet pile with a stiffness of 44730 kNm2 /m by choosing an <AZ 14> profile from <Arcelor> with a <S320> section in the Sheet Piling Profiles
Library window.
7. Enter its top and bottom positions according to Figure 17.1.

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17.3.3

Soil Surfaces
8. In the Surfaces window, define two surfaces with names <Left> and <Right> respectively
at level <-9 m> and <0 m>.

17.3.4

Soil Materials
9. In the Soil Materials window, define the three materials as shown in Table 17.1.

17.3.5

Soil Profiles
10. In the Soil Profiles window, enter the additional pore water pressures distribution as shown
in Figure 17.2 and calculated in section 17.2. The <Clay> layer is separated at the water
table level into two layers (as shown in Figure 17.3 for the left side and Figure 17.4 for
the soil profile on the right side). D-S HEET P ILING will assume a linear distribution between
these values.

Figure 17.3: Soil Profiles window with additional pore pressures on left side

Figure 17.4: Soil Profiles window with additional pore pressures on right side

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17.3.6

Water Levels
11. In the Water Levels window, define two water levels with names <WL-1> and <WL-10>
respectively at levels <-1 m> and <-10 m>.

17.3.7

Water Properties
12. In the Water Properties window, enter a unit weight of <10 kN/m3 > to be in accordance
with the previously calculated additional pore pressures.

17.3.8

Struts
13. In the Struts window from the Supports menu, define two struts at levels -2 m and -7 m
with properties as indicated in Figure 17.5. As only half of the problem is considered due
to symmetry, the length of the strut needs to be entered as 5.0 m. In this example buckling
is not taken into account, therefore a large value for the buckling force is entered.

Figure 17.5: Struts window

17.3.9

Stages Overview
14. In the Stages Overview window, activate these different inputs as indicated in Figure 17.1
by selecting them in the appropriate sub-window.

17.4

Water pressure results


The water pressure distribution calculated by D-S HEET P ILING can be checked.
15. In the Start Calculation window click Start.
16. In the Stress State Charts window of the Results menu (Figure 17.6), click the right mouse
button and select View Data.

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Figure 17.6: Stress State Charts window

17. In the window displayed (Figure 17.7), read the water pressures values at different depths
at the left side in the Water Pressure Left tab. They are the sum of the excess pore
pressure and the hydrostatic water pressure (w depth).

Figure 17.7: Chart Data window, Water Pressure Left tab

18. Open the Moment/Force/Displacements window to view the effect of this seepage on the
construction.

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Figure 17.8: Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window including the effects of the additional pore pressures

17.5

Conclusion
Water flow under the toe of a sheet pile wall causes a pore pressure distribution in the surrounding soil that is not proportional to the depth below the water table. The correct total
pressure distribution can be modeled by calculating and inputting additional pore pressures
for each soil layer.

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18 Tutorial 11: Modeling of loads with limited dimensions


This example illustrates the method used to calculate the effect on a sheet pile wall of a
surcharge load with limited dimensions in two directions. This could be, for instance, the load
from a crane near a harbor wall. For background information, see section 37.2.
The objective of this exercise is:

 To model a load with limited size in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the sheet
pile wall.
For this example, the following modules are needed:

 D-S HEET P ILING Standard module (earth pressure coefficients)


 Culmann module
This tutorial is presented in the file Tutorial-11.shi.

18.1

Introduction to the case


This tutorial example models a harbor wall construction, similar to the construction in Tutorial
3. The sheet pile wall is designed to resist a platform load (extending infinitely) of 20 kN/m2
In addition, there is a crane load of a total of F = 600 kN, acting over a surface area of
b = 1.5 m L = 1.5 m. The front of the crane is located at d = 1.5 m behind the wall, as
indicated in Figure 18.1. The lower part of Figure 18.1 also indicates how this load is to be
modeled.

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Platform load = 20 kN/m2

Top view

Crane load F = 600 kN


1,5m

d1=1.5m

45o

d2=2.25m

q1
q2
Platform load = 20 kN/m2
GL=0
-1.5

-2.0
2.0

CLAY
PEAT
-7.0

AZ 13

CLAY

CLAY
-13.0

SAND

-16.0

Figure 18.1: Modeling a load with limited size parallel to the sheet piling (tutorial 11)

18.2

General input
1. Open <Tutorial-3.shi> by clicking Open in the File menu, and save it with the name
<Tutorial-11>.
2. On the menu bar, click Project and then choose Properties to open the Project Properties
window.
3. Fill in <Tutorial 11 for D-S HEET P ILING > and <Modeling of loads with limited dimensions>
for Title 1 and Title 2 respectively in the Identification tab.
4. Open the Model window from the Project menu and select the C, phi, delta soil parameters
model since surcharge loads are used in this example.
5. Deselect the Check vertical balance and the Verification (EC7/CUR) options as they are
not used in this example.

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18.3

Modeling of load with limited size parallel to the sheet piling


The crane load has a limited size parallel to the sheet piling. In order to model it in D-S HEET P ILING,
this load is considered in two parts in order to roughly model the changing width of the load
spread as a function of its distance from the sheet pile wall. Each part is modeled as being
distributed over an assumed load spread angle of 45 (see Figure 18.1). This produces the
following distribution formula:

qi =

F
L

L b L + 2di

(18.1)

F
600
=
= 88.89 kN/m2
b (L + 2d1 )
1.5 (1.5 + 2 1.5)

(18.2)

Therefore:

q1 =

(from 1.5 m to 2.25 m behind the wall)

q2 =

F
600
=
= 66.67 kN/m2
b (L + 2d2 )
1.5 (1.5 + 2 2.25)

(18.3)

(from 2.25 m to 3 m behind the wall).


Note: This crane load could be treated as just one part, since it has a rectangular shape. It
has been considered in two parts for better accuracy. For more information on modeling loads
with limited dimensions see section 37.2.
The platform and crane loads can now be inputted:
6. Select Uniform Loads in the Loads menu, and enter a load of 20 kN/m2 on the right side.
Use the name <Platform load> for easy reference in the Stages Overview.
7. Select Surcharge Loads in the Loads menu to enter the crane load.
8. In the window displayed, add a surcharge with the name <Crane load> as shown in
Figure 18.1. The <Crane load> has the distribution given in Figure 18.2 below.

Figure 18.2: Surcharge Loads window

9. In the Stages Manager window, add a fourth stage, named <Platform load and crane
load>.
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10. In the Stages Overview window, activate the uniform load and the surcharge by selecting
them in the Surcharges right sub-window, as indicated in Figure 18.3.

Figure 18.3: Stages Overview window

11. Start the calculation by selecting Start from the Calculation menu.

18.4

Results
As a result of the platform load and the crane load the bending moments have increased, as
indicated in Figure 18.4.
12. Open the Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window to see the effect of the increased
loading. The maximum bending moment has increased to 514 kNm and exceeds now the
maximum allowable moment (dotted green line) of 351 kNm, as shown in Figure 18.4. That
means the selected sheet piling section must be changed to avoid failing in bending. By
selecting an AZ 13 profile with a yield stress of 430 N/mm2 (section S430), the maximum
moment for elastic behavior is raised to 559 kNm.

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Figure 18.4: Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window, Results for the final stage

13. In the Sheet Piling window, click the . . . button to open the Sheet Piling Profiles Library
window and select <S430>.
14. Perform a new calculation and check that the magnitude of the maximum moment is now
less than this sections maximum moment for elastic behavior which means the wall will
not fail in bending (Figure 18.5).

Figure 18.5: Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window, Results for the final stage with
a new sheet piling profile

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18.5

Conclusion
Loads with a limited size parallel to the sheet pile wall need to be adjusted so their effect can
be correctly calculated. This modification is performed by assuming the load acts over the
wall within the limits of lines extending at 45 from the front of where the load is applied.

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This tutorial example looks at the risk of pile driving failure that may occur in practice. The
risk of pile driving failure largely depends on the sheet pile length, resisting moment, soil
conditions and of course the pile driving equipment. In general a sheet pile wall design is
checked according to design standards. Using the Feasibility module it is possible to check
the feasibility of the design as well.
The objectives of this exercise are:

 To check the sheet pile installation feasibility using the Dutch NVAF-experience lines
and the experiences from the GeoBrain experiences database (GeoBrain).

 To predict the feasibility using forecasting models in GeoBrain.


 To compare the current design with experiences in the GeoBrain experience database.
For this example, the following modules are needed:

 D-S HEET P ILING Standard module (earth pressure coefficients)


 Culmann module
 Feasibility module
This tutorial is presented in the file Tutorial-12.shi and uses the CPT-GEF file Tutorial-12 CPT 02.gef.

19.1

Introduction to the case


This tutorial involves the three stages excavation as used in Tutorial 7 (chapter 14). The
groundwater level is located 2 meters below the initial ground level. The sheet piling is an
Arcelor AZ 19 profile, section S430. The top of the wall is located at ground level (GL) and the
toe of the wall is at GL -16 m.
In Tutorial 7a, the design was checked for stability according to the CUR 166 design procedure. In this tutorial, the added value of the D-S HEET P ILING Feasibility module is used to
provide pile driving experience data to aid the user in feasibility decisions. Different checks
are performed:

 (section 19.3.2) Results of the D-S HEET P ILING design are compared to (NVAF) charts
for different kind of piling driving vibrators and different soil conditions;

 (section 19.3.1) Results of the D-S HEET P ILING design are displayed on graphs for comparison with the GeoBrain experiences;
 (section 19.4) A prediction of the feasibility of the design is performed, using additional
data as a CPT in GEF format and some additional information concerning the equipment, the foundation and the condition of the sheet piles;
 (section 19.5) A prediction of the feasibility of the design is performed, by simply searching experiences in the GeoBrain database similar to the D-S HEET P ILING project. Search
can be based either on sheet pile (section 19.5.1), on CPT (section 19.5.2) or on location (section 19.5.3).
For more information on the Feasibility module, see chapter 7.
The soil profile is deduced from the results of the provided CPT-GEF file using the interpretation rule prescribed by CUR.
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Figure 19.1: CPT datas (Tutorial 12)

19.2
19.2.1

Changing input
Sheet Piling
Prediction of feasibility is based, among other things, on the resisting moment W of the sheet
piling. If Tutorial 7 was created without the Feasibility module, it is possible that the resisting
moment is not yet inputted. First check this in the Sheet Piling window:
1. Open <Tutorial-7a.shi> and save it with the name <Tutorial-12>.
2. In the Identification tab of the Project Properties window, change Title 1 and Title 2 to
respectively <Tutorial 12 for D-S HEET P ILING > and <Prediction of feasibility using experience data>.
3. In the Model window, deselect the option Verification (EC7/CUR) as it is not used.
4. Open the Sheet Piling window from the Construction menu.
5. If the last column Resisting Moment W (Feasibility) is not filled (i.e. 0), click the Browse
button in the Import profile from library column to open the Sheet Piling Profiles Library
window. If the resisting moment is already filled (i.e. 1665 cm3 /m), directly go to step 23.
6. Select Arcelor profile <AZ 19> with a steel quality <S430>.
7. Click the Select button to return to the Sheet Piling window (Figure 19.2). The resisting
moment should now be equal to 1940 cm3 /m.
8. Enter a Section bottom level of <-16 m>.
9. Click OK to close the window.

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Figure 19.2: Sheet Piling window

19.2.2

Surcharge load
10. In the Surcharge Loads window, change the magnitude of the load called Temporary load
to <10 kN/m2 >.
11. Click OK to confirm.

19.2.3

Soil profile deduced from a CPT file


In this tutorial, the soil profile is deduced from the interpretation of the available CPT-GEF file.
12. Click Soil on the menu bar and then choose Profiles.
13. Click the Add from CPT button at the left-bottom of the Soil Profiles window. The Select
CPT window opens.
14. Click the Import from file button. In the Open window displays, select the CPT-GEF file
named <Tutorial-12 CPT 02.gef> from the Project/Tutorials directory where the program
was installed.
The CPTip window opens (Figure 19.3) where the CPT results (cone resistance, local friction
and friction ratio) are displayed. At the right of the window, D-S HEET P ILING automatically
interprets the imported CPT into a soil profile, based on the interpretation rule that is selected
by the user in the Rule selection box.

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Figure 19.3: CPTip window

15. Leave the CPT interpretation Rule and the Minimum layer thickness to their defaults and
click OK to go back to the Soil Profiles window (Figure 19.4) which now contains a new
profile named CPT 02 corresponding to the CPT.

Figure 19.4: Soil Profiles window after importation of the CPT 02 file

16. Select the previously manually added profile named <New Profile> and click the Delete
button to delete it as it is not used anymore.
17. Click OK to see the effect in the Input Diagram window.
18. Use the Zoom buttons in the Edit panel to enlarge the limits of the diagram and see the
different layers of the new soil profile imported from CPT (Figure 19.5).

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Figure 19.5: Input Diagram window with new soil profile from CPT

Note that the top layer of the new soil profile is now situated below the ground surface.
19. In the Soil Profiles window, increase the Top level of the top layer to <0 m>.

19.2.4

New calculation
20. In the Calculation menu, select Start to open the Start Calculation window or press the
function key F9.
21. Click Start to start the calculation.
22. In the Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window, check that the maximum moment of
834 kNm is not reached for all stages.

19.3

Sheet Pile Installation


To check the sheet pile installation feasibility, the corresponding window must first be displayed:
23. From the Feasibility menu, select the Sheet Pile Installation option. D-S HEET P ILING will
now contact, on-line, with the GeoBrain experience database (GeoBrain).

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19.3.1

Sheet Pile Installation based on GeoBrain Experiences


A comparison with the experiences from the GeoBrain database is of interest:
24. In the Feasibility Sheet Pile Installation window, the option Show Experiences is by default
selected.
A screen similar to Figure 19.6 will appear. The number of experiences can be different
from Figure 19.6 as the GeoBrain database continuously grows. Users without a license
for the Feasibility module will only see a limited number of experiences. Once again, the
D-S HEET P ILING design will appear as a blue dot.

Figure 19.6: E-consult Sheet Pile Installation window showing GeoBrain Experiences

For this tutorial example, the D-S HEET P ILING design is within range of experiences and seems
to be surrounded by different experiences labeled as Good project result (green crosses).
The user should check if these experiences are indeed comparable to the D-S HEET P ILING
design.
25. Select one of the nearby Good experiences, using the mouse. On the right hand side,
additional information, including a soil profile is shown.
Please refer to Sheet Pile Installation based on GeoBrain Experiences (section 7.2.2) for a
translation of the Dutch headings and a detailed description of this window.

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19.3.2

Sheet Pile Installation based on NVAF Lines


A theoretical comparison with the Dutch NVAF lines can also be of interest:
26. In the Feasibility Sheet Pile Installation window, select the Show NVAF lines in the upper
left hand corner of the window.
In the window displayed (Figure 19.7), the LF 5 chart is selected by default for low frequency
driving in a soil with an average cone resistance of 5 MPa along the pile.

Figure 19.7: E-consult Sheet Pile Installation window showing NVAF lines

The current sheet piling input is indicated by a blue mark. As this mark lies below the NVAFlines, successful pile driving should be guaranteed for this type of sheet piling with a length of
16 m and a resisting moment of 1940 cm3 /m.
By selecting different graphs from the Experience lines NVAF list it can be seen that the design
considered does not meet the feasibility criteria for all combinations of cone resistances and
frequencies. Hence some care should be taken. From the graphs one can also get an idea
of the capacity needed for successful pile driving. In this case (LF 5) a minimum capacity of
800 kN seems necessary.
Note: By selecting a different sheet pile profile (i.e. different resisting moment W ) and/or
by entering a different sheet pile length in the Sheet Piling window, the user must close and
re-open to the Feasibility Sheet Pile Installation window to see the influence on the feasibility.
See section 7.2.1 for a detailed description of this window.

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19.4

GeoBrain Drivability Prediction


To predict the feasibility of the design, a CPT in GEF format needs to be imported and
some additional information concerning the equipment, the foundation and the condition of
the sheet-piles need to be known. All information is summarized in Table 19.1.
Table 19.1: Information for feasibility prediction (Tutorial 12)

Parameter
CPT
Location
Type of stiff clay layers
Thickness of the stiff clay layers
Obstacles
Condition of subsurface
Condition sheet piles
Sheet piles installed in . . .
Installation Method
Equipment known
Type

19.4.1

1st prediction
2nd prediction
Tutorial-13 CPT 02.gef
Zuid-Holland
boulder clay
3m
0
Good
Used-moderate
New
Double
Single
Vibrating
Yes
PVE 2323 VM
PVE 110M

GeoBrain Drivability Prediction First prediction


Now a GEF-CPT file has been imported, the first prediction using GeoBrain can start:
27. In the Feasibility menu, choose GeoBrain Drivability Prediction. D-S HEET P ILING will now
contact, on-line, to the GeoBrain experience database.

Figure 19.8: GeoBrain Prediction window, First page

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At the top of the GeoBrain Prediction window displayed (Figure 19.8), available data are indicated: the name of the CPT previously imported (section 19.2.3), the Sheet piling length
and Resisting moment of this tutorial previously inputted in the Sheet Piling window (section 19.2.1) and the Water level to surface of this tutorial previously inputted in the Water
Levels window. It is possible to make a rough prediction with only this information by clicking
Predict. To get a better prediction follow the steps from step 29 below.
28. In the GeoBrain Prediction window displayed (Figure 19.8), click Refine to add the information given in Table 19.1.

Figure 19.9: GeoBrain Prediction window, Introduction

29. In the window displayed (Figure 19.9), click Continue.


A main screen appears, showing the imported CPT amongst other information. Both questions 1 and 4 have been filled automatically, but questions 2, 3, 5 and 6 need to be filled using
the information of Table 19.1:
30. Select <boulder clay> as type of present stiff clay from the drop down for Question 2 and
enter a thickness of <3 m> for Question 3.
31. Enter <0> obstacle for Question 5 and select <good> as condition of the subsurface on
site from the drop down menu for Question 6 as shown in Figure 19.10.

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Figure 19.10: GeoBrain Prediction window, Geotechnics menu

Note: The soil profile determined in Figure 19.10 uses the 3-types with gravel from NEN rule
(section 29.2.3) as CPT interpretation rule and a minimum layer thickness of 0.2 m whereas
the soil profile determined in the Soil Profiles window (Figure 19.4) uses the CUR rule (section 29.2.1) as CPT interpretation rule and a minimum layer thickness of 0.5 m. Those explain
the differences between both profiles.
32. To enter the Sheet pile information, click Next.

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Question 7 has already been entered, but Questions 8, 13 and 14 need to be filled using the
information of Table 19.1.
33. Select <ArcelorMittal> as producer and <Z-profiel AZ19> as type of sheet pile for Question 8. Questions 9 to 12 are automatically filled in.
34. Select <used sheet piles, moderately repair> for Question 13 and select <Double> for
Question 14 from the drop down menus as shown in Figure 19.11.

Figure 19.11: GeoBrain Prediction window, Sheet pile menu

35. To enter the Installation information, click Next.


Questions 15 to 18 need to be filled using the information of Table 19.1.
36. Select <Vibrate> from the drop down menu for Question 15, select yes for Question 16
and select <PVE 2323VM> for Question 17 as shown in Figure 19.12.

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Figure 19.12: GeoBrain Prediction window, Installation menu

37. To access to the prediction results click Next.


38. The result is showed in a color bar (Figure 19.13), indicating no risk (green) to unacceptable risk (red).

Figure 19.13: GeoBrain Prediction window, Result menu (first prediction)

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In this case the risk is Large to Not feasible. At the bottom of the window (Figure 19.13), five
measures are indicated which might reduce the risk. For example, using a different vibratory hammer with a centrifugal force exceeding 2000 kN and installing single new sheet pile
instead might reduce the risk.

19.4.2

GeoBrain Drivability Prediction Second prediction


To reduce the risk, a second prediction is performed using both measures indicated above.
To enter these changes follow the steps below:
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.

Click on the Sheet pile menu.


Change Question 14 in option <Single>.
Change Question 13 in option <new sheet piles>.
Click on the Installation menu.
Change Question 17 in <PVE 110M> and note the force changes from 1350 kN into
2250 kN, which exceeds 2000 kN as recommended in Figure 19.13.
44. To perform a second prediction with those new measures, click on the Result menu.
Note that the risk decreased as it is now Small to Reasonably large. Fewer measures (two
instead of five) are indicated at the bottom, below the bars (Figure 19.14). They both concern
the choice of the sheet pile profile.

Figure 19.14: GeoBrain Prediction window, Result menu (second prediction)

It is possible to get a complete report in PDF format containing the input and results.
45. Click on the link Go to Report to download the input and results as a pdf-file at the bottom
of the Result menu of the GeoBrain Prediction window.
46. Click again on the link View the report here as a pdf-file.
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The Prediction Report window opens (Figure 19.15) with the default Internet Explorer program. Using the appropriate icon on the menu bar, this prediction report can either be printed
and/or saved as a PDF document.

Figure 19.15: Prediction Report window

See section 7.3 for a detailed description of this window.

19.5

GeoBrain Drivability Experiences


To predict the feasibility of the design, the GeoBrain experience database can also be used.
47. In the Feasibility menu, choose GeoBrain Drivability Experiences.

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Figure 19.16: GeoBrain Experiences window, First page

Note: At the top of the GeoBrain Experiences window displayed (Figure 19.16), available
data are indicated: the name of the CPT previously imported (section 19.2.3) and the Sheet
piling length and Resisting moment of this tutorial, as previously inputted in the Sheet Piling
window (section 19.2.1).
To consult the GeoBrain database, three different searches can be performed:

 (section 19.5.1) Search experiences based on similar sheet piling length and resisting
moment of the project;
 (section 19.5.2) Search experiences based on a similar soil profile deduced from the
imported CPT;
 (section 19.5.3) Search experiences close to the location of the current project, by using
a map.

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19.5.1

GeoBrain Experiences Search on Sheet Piling


To search in the experience database of GeoBrain projects with similar sheet piling length and
resisting moment:
48. Click on the Sheet piling button.
The GeoBrain Experiences window displays a list of 35 projects arranged alphabetically (Figure 19.17). The number of experiences can be different from Figure 19.17 as the GeoBrain
database continuously grows.

Figure 19.17: GeoBrain Experiences window, Search on Sheet piling

Using the Refine query table at the right side of the window (Figure 19.17), it is possible
to refine the search by selecting the appropriate requirement using the information given in
Table 19.1for the second prediction:
49.
50.
51.
52.

Select <Good> as quality of the Result.


Select <vibrate> as Drive method.
Select <very heavy, 2000 kN or more> as Vibratory hammer centrifugal force.
Select <Only sheet piles> as Sheet pile combination.

Those choices will result in decreasing the number of similar projects from 35 to 2, as shown
in Figure 19.18.

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Figure 19.18: GeoBrain Experiences window, Search on Sheet piling after refinement

Using the Refine Query table, it is also possible to change requirements by clicking the arrow
behind the requirement.
Detailed information on each project can also be displayed:
53. Click on the name of the first project.

Figure 19.19: GeoBrain Experiences window, Detailed information on a project

In the window displayed (Figure 19.19), all sort information on Situation, Geotechnics, Sheet
piling, Installation, Surroundings and Experiences are available by clicking the corresponding
name.
54. Click on Back to return to the projects list of Figure 19.18 and inspect other projects if
wanted.

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See section 4.5 for a detailed description of this window.

19.5.2

GeoBrain Experiences Search on CPT


To search in the GeoBrain database projects with similar soil profile:
55. Click on the Back button to return to the first search page.
56. Select <Moderate similarity> from the drop-down menu and click on the CPT button (Figure 19.20).

Figure 19.20: GeoBrain Experiences window, First page

The GeoBrain Experiences window displays a list of 2 projects arranged alphabetically (Figure 19.21). The number of experiences can be different from Figure 19.21 as the GeoBrain
database continuously grows. As previously (section 19.5.1) it is possible to access to detailed
information on each project by clicking on its name. Selecting a less strict similarity condition
in the first page, for example <Moderate similarity>, will result in much more projects in the
resulting list.

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Figure 19.21: GeoBrain Experiences window, Search on CPT

See section 7.4.2 for a detailed description of this window.

19.5.3

GeoBrain Experiences Search on Location


To search in the GeoBrain experience database projects situated close to the location of the
tutorial project using a map:
57. Click on the Back button to return to the first search page.
58. Click on the Location button.

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Figure 19.22: GeoBrain Experiences window, Search on Location

In the map of the Netherlands displayed (Figure 19.22), a zoom on the desired location must
be performed:
59. Use the Zoom in button
and the Hand cursor
to reduce the map to the Zuid-Holland
(Figure 19.23 left) and then continue to the city of Rotterdam (Figure 19.23 right), for
example. Zuid-Holland (Figure 19.23 left) and then continue to the city of Rotterdam (Figure 19.23 right), for example.

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Figure 19.23: GeoBrain Experiences window, Search on Location after zoom

Depending on the zoom intensity, results will be displayed as pie (Figure 19.23 left) or as
separate points (Figure 19.23 right). Clicking on the pie or on the point(s) will display the
details of the corresponding project(s).
See section 7.4.3 for a detailed description of this window.

19.6

Conclusion
After checking a sheet pile wall for stability, the Feasibility menu can be used to check the
chosen sheet piling feasibility for driving. The chosen sheet piling can be compared to the
GeoBrain experience database and NVAF-lines. If the sheet piling is changed to give better
driving feasibility then it needs to be re-checked for stability.

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20 Tutorial 13: Horizontally loaded pile (mooring post)


This tutorial example illustrates the use of the Single pile model in D-S HEET P ILING. The calculation of forces and displacements for a mooring pile loaded by a ship is performed here.
The objective of this exercise is:

 To use the single pile model of D-S HEET P ILING to analyze a pile subjected to a horizontal
force.
For this example, the following modules are needed:

 D-S HEET P ILING Standard module (earth pressure coefficients)


 Single pile module
This tutorial is presented in the file Tutorial-13.shi.

20.1

Introduction to the case


In this example, the stability of a mooring post that is subject to a ship load is verified. The
maximum displacement of the pile is to be calculated in order to check that it is less than
10 cm. Figure 20.1 shows the problem geometry, and the relevant soil parameters are given
in Table 20.1.
Ship load 500 kN

-0.5

-2.0
-4.5
-6.8

CLAY

-8.3

SAND

-9.6

CLAY 2

-11.6

SAND 2

-13.2

CLAY 3

SAND 3

SAND 3

-20.5

Figure 20.1: Pile (mooring post) loaded horizontally (by a ship) Tutorial 13

20.2

Pile loaded by forces


1. Create a new project by selecting New in the File menu.
2. On the menu bar, click Project and then choose Properties to open the Project Properties
window.
3. Fill in <Tutorial 13 for D-S HEET P ILING > and <Horizontally loaded pile> for Title 1 and
Title 2 respectively in the Identification tab.
4. Select the Single pile model in the Model window from the Project menu.
5. Choose the first option for this model: Pile loaded by forces.
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Table 20.1: Soil properties (tutorial 13)

Unsat. unit weight


Sat. total unit weight
(Drained) Cohesion
Friction angle
E-Modulus Mnard
Soil type Mnard

[kN/m ]
[kN/m3 ]
[kN/m2 ]
[deg]
[kN/2 ]
[-]

Clay
15
15
0
22.5
2000
Clay

Sand
18
20
0
32.5
2000
Sand

Clay 2
15
15
10
22.5
4000
Clay

Sand 2
18
20
0
32.5
4000
Sand

Clay 3
17
17
10
17.5
4000
Clay

Sand 3
18
20
0
32.5
9000
Sand

Figure 20.2: Model window

6. Click OK to close the window.


To enter the pile data:
7. Open the Pile window from the Construction menu or click on the Pile button
on the
icon bar.
8. Enter a pile consisting of one single element named <Mooring post>, with a Pile top level
of <-0.5 m> and a Section bottom level of <-20.5 m>, i.e. a length of 20 m.
9. In this example a steel tubular pile is used, having a Diameter of 1200 mm, i.e. <1.2 m>,
a Stiffness EI of <4 000 000 kNm2 > and a Maximum moment for elastic behavior of
<3800 kNm>. Enter a Reduction factor for EI and for the maximum moment of <1> as
no reduction factor is used in this project.

Figure 20.3: Pile window

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Note: The Pile window is similar to the Sheet Piling window for the Sheet Piling model,
but the parameters differ because of the dimensions of the input.Also the available options in
the main menu are slightly different. Note also that working with construction stages is not
possible for the single pile model.

20.3

Soil Profile
10. Open the Surfaces window from the Soil menu, and define a surface at -4.5 m.
11. Open the Soil Materials window from the Soil menu, and define the soils as given in Table 20.1. Select Brinch-Hansen as the method to be used to calculate the earth pressure
coefficients.

Figure 20.4: Soil Materials window

12. Enter the Soil Profiles as shown in Figure 20.5.

Figure 20.5: Soil Profiles window

13. Open the Water Levels window from the Soil menu, and enter a water level of <-2 m>.
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Note: The Brinch-Hansen and Menard method automatically takes into account the effect of
arching (section 36.2), but if the user chooses to define their own coefficients then they must
modify them as described in section 36.1. When using the Brinch-Hansen method, the same
soil layer should not be used at different depths in a profile, as the strength is a function of
depth. Instead a copy of the soil layer, with a different name, should be made for the second
depth. It is also recommended that thick soil layers are split into two or more thinner layers
section 36.2.1.

20.4

Horizontal Force
14. Open the Horizontal Forces window from the Loads menu and enter a horizontal force
named <Ship load> of <500 kN> at a level of <-0.5 m>.

Figure 20.6: Horizontal Forces window

15. Select these different inputs in the Stage Overview window, such as the <Ship load> to
activate them.

20.5

Results
16. Start a calculation and save the project using <Tutorial-13> as file name. Note that the
pile is stable as no message is displayed to the contrary.
17. Open the Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window to view the results of the calculation.
The maximum displacement of the pile is around 9 cm, which meets the condition that was
stated in the case description, of a maximum allowable displacement of 10 cm. The maximum
allowable bending moment of 3800 kNm is also not exceeded.

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Figure 20.7: Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window

20.6

Conclusion
D-S HEET P ILING allows the modeling of simple single pile models, loaded by forces and moments. The single pile module allows the effect of arching to be taken into account, by application of Brinch-Hansens theory. The input and calculation method is similar to that for a
sheet pile wall.

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21 Tutorial 14: Horizontal pile deformation caused by embankment


This tutorial gives another example of using the Single pile model in D-S HEET P ILING. In this
example the option Pile loaded by soil displacements is used.
The objectives of this exercise are:

 To define the behavior of the layers for soil displacements calculation;


 To analyze a single pile that is loaded by soil deformations.
For this example, the following modules are needed:

 D-S HEET P ILING Standard module (earth pressure coefficients)


 Single pile module
This tutorial is presented in the file Tutorial-14.shi.

21.1

Introduction to the case


In this case, calculations will be made for a foundation pile below a building. The building is
situated near a site where a road embankment will be constructed. It needs to be verified that
the maximum moment experienced by the pile after the embankment is built does not exceed
the maximum allowable value of 1000 kNm.
For this project, the road embankment is implemented as a surcharge load and the soil displacements caused by this road embankment are automatically calculated, by D-S HEET P ILING
using the De Leeuw tables (De Leeuw, 1963). De Leeuw tables (De Leeuw, 1963).
Note: An alternative to De Leeuw tables is to calculate the soil displacements at the location
of the pile caused by the road embankment using finite element program. In such case,
the output displacements of this FEM analysis are used as User defined displacements in
D-S HEET P ILING.

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Table 21.1: Soil properties (tutorial 14)

Unsat. unit weight


Sat. unit weight
(Drained) Cohesion
Friction angle
Behavior

[kN/m ]
[kN/m3 ]
[kN/m2 ]
[deg]

Sand1
18
20
0
30
Stiff

Clay1
15
15
10
25
Elastic

Clay2
15
15
5
25

Clay3
15
15
5
25

Clay4
15
15
3
25

Sand2
18
20
0
35
Foundation

-0.5
-1.5
-2.5

SAND 1
CLAY 1

-4.5

CLAY 2
-6.5
CLAY 3
-8.5
CLAY 4

-10.5
-12.5
SAND 2

Figure 21.1: Horizontal pile loaded by (calculated) soil deformations caused by embankment raise (tutorial 14)

Note: Active and neutral earth pressure coefficients normally need to be set to zero for the
situation of a single pile loaded by soil displacement. This means that the input value for the
passive earth pressure coefficient leads to the effective resisting pressure, taking the effect
of arching into account. Selecting the option Pile loaded by calculated soil displacements
will cause this to happen automatically because in such case the Brinch-Hansen method is
automatically used for the calculation of the earth pressure coefficients.

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21.2

Pile loaded by soil displacements


1. Create a new project and save it with the name <Tutorial-14>.
2. On the menu bar, click Project and then choose Properties to open the Project Properties
window.
3. Fill in <Tutorial 14 for D-S HEET P ILING >, <Horizontal pile deformation caused> and <by
soil embankment> for Title 1, Title 2 and Title 3 respectively in the Identification tab.
4. Select the Single pile model in the Model window from the Project menu.
5. Choose the second option for this model: Pile loaded by soil displacements and the User
defined displacements.

Figure 21.2: Model window

6. Click OK to close the window.


To enter the pile data:
7. Open the Pile window from the Construction menu or click on the Pile button
on the
icon bar.
8. Enter a pile consisting of one single element, with a Pile top level of <-0.5 m> and a
Section bottom level of <-12.5 m>, i.e. a length of 12 m. The Stiffness EI of the pile is
<63900 kNm2 >, the Diameter is <40 cm> and the Maximum moment is <300 kNm>.
Enter a Reduction factor for EI and for the maximum moment of <1> as no reduction
factor is used in this project.

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21.3

Soil input
9. Open the Surfaces window from the Soil menu, and define a surface at level <-0.5 m>.
10. Open the Soil Materials window from the Soil menu, and define the materials according
to Table 21.1. For Elastic materials, mark the Use default elasticity check-box to leave
D-S HEET P ILING estimate the elasticity using the unsaturated unit weight as explained in
section 36.1.1.

Figure 21.3: Soil Materials window

11. Open the Soil Profiles window from the Soil menu, and define manually the soil profile as
shown in Figure 21.1.
12. Open the Water Levels window from the Soil menu, and enter a water level of <-1.5 m>.

21.4

Surcharge Load
The road embankment is implemented as a surcharge load. D-S HEET P ILING will automatically calculate the soil displacements caused by this road embankment using the De Leeuw
tables(De Leeuw, 1963).
13. Open the Surcharges Loads window from the Loads menu.
14. Enter the road embankment properties given in Figure 21.4 below.

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Figure 21.4: Surcharge Loads window

15. Active the surcharge load in the Stage Composer by selecting it.

21.5

Rigid Support
16. Open the Rigid Supports window from the Supports menu.
17. Enter a rigid support which suppresses Translation of the sheet piling at level <-0.5 m>.
This represents the resistance to translation provided by the connection of the pile to the
building.

Figure 21.5: Rigid Supports window

18. Active the rigid support in the Stages Composer by selecting it.
The Input Diagram window confirms the entered Soil Displacements and Rigid Supports.

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Figure 21.6: Input Diagram window

21.6

Results
19. Start a calculation, and note that the pile is stable, as no message is displayed to the
contrary.
20. Open the Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window.

Figure 21.7: Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window

The Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window (Figure 21.7) shows that the maximum moment in the pile is around 182 kNm, which is much less than the allowable maximum (i.e.
1000 kNm), so constructing the road embankment should not cause problems for this pile.
In the Displacements chart, the dotted line corresponds to the calculated soil displacements.
The numerical values can be found in the report.

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21. Open the Report window to see the Calculated Displacements with Tables from De Leeuw
section (Figure 21.8).

Figure 21.8: Report window showing the calculated soil displacements

Note: The results of a calculation are highly influenced by the soil displacements and the
value of the horizontal subgrade modulus in the displacing soil layers.

21.7

Conclusion
D-S HEET P ILING also allows the analysis of single piles subjected to impose soil deformations.
Those soil displacements can either be user-defined or automatically calculated displacements from De Leeuw tables.

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22 Tutorial 15: Design code checking acc. to EuroCode 7


In this tutorial, the Eurocode 7 design procedure is applied, using the prescribed partial factors. The same project as Tutorial 7 chapter 14 is used, except that the design code is now
different.
The objective of this exercise is:

 To verify the stability of a sheet pile wall according to Eurocode 7.


 To determine the design moment according to Eurocode 7.
For this example, the following modules are needed:

 D-S HEET P ILING Standard module (earth pressure coefficients)


 Culmann module
 Eurocode 7 Verification module
This tutorial is presented in the file Tutorial-15.shi.

22.1

Introduction to the case


The same input file as Tutorial 7 chapter 14 is used, but the design of the sheet pile wall with
a single anchor and a temporary surcharge is performed by applying the EuroCode design
Code instead of the Dutch CUR 166 recommendation. The project geometry is illustrated in
Figure 22.1.

Figure 22.1: Construction stages (tutorial 15)

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22.2

Introduction to Eurocode 7
According to the Eurocode 7, three Design Approaches, with different partial factors are defined for the Ultimate Limit State. The Design Approach used will depend on the choice of the
country where the verification is performed/the construction takes place, in order to conform
to their design methods. It should be verified that a rupture or excessive deformation will not
occur with the appropriate set of partial factors applied.
The partial factors recommended by Eurocode 7 (NEN-EN, March 2005) are given in Figure 22.2. These partial factors apply to actions or their effects, ground resistance and material properties. In this tutorial, the verification is performed for three design approaches of the
Eurocode 7: design approaches 1, 2 and 3.
According to EuroCode 7, use of the Culmann method (delta, c, phi soil parameters) for
the calculation of the active and passive earth pressure coefficients is acceptable.For the
calculation of the
neutral earth pressure coefficient, the formula used in D-S HEET P ILING (k0 =
(1 sin ) OCR) is the one prescribed in the Eurocode for a horizontal ground surface.

22.3

Partial factors according to Eurocode 7


The stages are the same as for Tutorial 7:
1. Open the input file <Tutorial-7a.shi>, and save it with name <Tutorial-15>.
2. In the Project Properties window, fill in <Tutorial 17 for D-S HEET P ILING > and <Design
code checking acc. to Eurocode 7> for Title 1 and Title 2 respectively in the Identification
tab.
3. In the Sheet Piling window, modify the Section bottom level to <-14 m>.
4. Open the Default Partial Factors window from the Project menu, and select the EC7 General tab.
5. Click on the Reset button to reset all values to the default values prescribed by the Eurocode 7 (NEN-EN, March 2005) (Figure 22.2).

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Figure 22.2: User Defined Partial Factors window, EC7 General tab

Note: The default values of the User Defined Partial Factors window can be modified to be
in accordance with the values prescribed in the National Annex of the EuroCode 7 of each
European country. The EC7 NL tab prescribed the values given by the Dutch National Annex
(NEN, september 2009).

22.4

Determine the minimum length using partial factors from Eurocode 7


The minimum sheet pile length is first determined according to the Eurocode 7 for the four
design approaches. Level variations and partial factors given in Figure 22.2 are applied for all
stages.

22.4.1

Design Approach 1 set 1


6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Select Start from the Calculation menu or press the function key F9.
In the Start Calculation window, select the Design Sheet Piling Length tab.
Select EuroCode and Design approach 1 set 1.
Select the last Construction stage <4: Load>.
Specify checks for the Pile Length ranging From <20 m> Down to <12 m> with a Decrement of <1 m>.
11. Click the Start button.

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Figure 22.3: Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Piling Length tab with an
AZ 17/S430 profile

The results (Figure 22.3) show that for a length of 20 m the maximum allowable moment is
reached. Therefore, a different sheet piling profile must be selected with a higher maximum
allowable moment.
12. Open the Sheet Piling window from the Construction menu.
13. Select an Arcelor <AZ 25> profile from the library, with a <S430> section.
14. In the Design Sheet Piling Length tab of the Start Calculation window perform a new design
calculation by clicking the Start button.
The results (Figure 22.4) show that for a length of 13 m the sheet piling becomes unstable
as the mobilized resistance reaches 100%. Therefore, the minimum length is approximately
14 m.

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Figure 22.4: Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Piling Length tab with an
AZ 25/S430 profile

15. Check that the last stage is indeed the most critical by repeating the above steps, selecting
each of the other stages. Note that the sheet piling does indeed become unstable in the
final stage earlier than in the others.
To get a more accurate result of when the piling becomes unstable or when the anchor yields,
the Pile length inputs at the top of the window must be adapted.
16. Select the final stage as this is the most critical, enter a pile length From <14 m> Down to
<13 m> with a Decrement of <0.25 m> and click Start again.

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Figure 22.5: Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Piling Length tab for DA 1 set 1

The results (Figure 22.5) show that the minimum stable length is approximately 13.25 m.

22.4.2

Design Approach 1 set 2


17. Repeat the design length procedure described above for design approach 1 set 2. The
minimum stable length (with anchor yielding) is 16.75 m as shown in Figure 22.6.

Figure 22.6: Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Piling Length tab for DA 1 set 2

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22.4.3

Design Approach 2
18. Repeat the design length procedure for design approach 2. The minimum stable length is
14 m as shown in Figure 22.7.

Figure 22.7: Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Piling Length tab for DA 2

Note: For design approach 2, the maximum allowable percentage of mobilization is not 100%
but 100%/1.40 = 71.7% as the partial resistance factor is 1.4 for this design approach instead
of 1.0 for the others (see Figure 22.2). Thats why for a length of 14 m with a mobilized
resistance of 75.6% (> 71.7%) the sheet piling is considered as unstable.

22.4.4

Design Approach 3
19. Repeat the design length procedure described above for design approach 3. The minimum
stable length (with anchor yielding) is 16.75 m as shown in Figure 22.8.

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Figure 22.8: Start Calculation window, Design Sheet Piling Length tab for DA 3

22.4.5

Results overview
The results obtained for each design approach are summarized in the following table.
Table 22.1: Overview of the Design Sheet Piling Length calculation for the different design
approaches

Design
Design
Approach length
[m]
DA 1 set 13.25
1
DA 1 set 16.75
2
DA 2
14.25
DA 3
16.75

Mob. resist.
[%]
100.0

Anchor
force
[kN]
212.04

Max.
moment
[kNm]
867.3

Max.
placem.
[mm]
163.5

77.4

240.00

667.8

2023.0

70.9
77.4

212.42
240.00

910.4
667.8

109.6
2023.0

dis-

For this project, the design sheet piling length can vary from 13.25 m to 16.75 m depending
on the chosen design approach: both design approaches DA 1 set 2 and DA 3 give the largest
sheet piling length (including anchor yielding) whereas design approach DA 1 set 1 gives the
smallest sheet piling length (without anchor yielding).
Results of DA 1 set 2 (Figure 22.6) and DA 3 (Figure 22.8) are identical because both approaches use the same default partial factors (Figure 22.2). Both approaches give the largest
design length.
For DA 2, the maximum allowable percentage of mobilization is not 100% but 100%/1.40 = 71.7%
as the partial resistance factor is 1.4 for this design approach instead of 1.0 for the others (see
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Figure 22.2).

22.5

Design calculation using Verify Sheet Piling


The sheet piling design calculation just performed (section 22.4) does not provide a lot of
results about the moments, shear forces and displacements of the wall. To get all of this
information, a Verify Sheet Piling calculation must be performed for the design length. In this
tutorial, only design approach 1 set 1 is verified but the same verification can be performed
for the other approaches.

22.5.1

Verification calculation
For design approach 1 set 1, the results (Figure 22.5) show that the minimum stable length
is approximately 13.25 m. It seems acceptable to reduce the sheet piling length from 14 m to
13.5 m, whilst still leaving a good safety margin.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

Open the Sheet Piling window from the Construction menu.


Change the Section bottom level to <-13.5 m>.
Click OK to confirm.
Select the Start option from the Calculation menu or press the function key F9.
In the Start Calculation window, select the Verify Sheet Piling tab.
Choose EuroCode and then select Design approach 1.

Figure 22.9: Start Calculation window, Verify Sheet Piling tab

26. Click Start to perform the design calculation.

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Figure 22.10: Calculation Progress window

At the end of the calculation, the message Calculation finished: sheet piling becomes unstable
appears in the Calculation Progress window (Figure 22.10), which means that the current
length of the sheet piling is not acceptable according to Design Approach 1 of the EuroCode 7.
The report results must be therefore investigated.
27. Click on the Close button to close the Calculation Progress window.

22.5.2

Results overview
To view the results of this verification:
28. Select the Report option from the Results menu.
The Summary section of the Report window (Figure 22.11) shows that the sheet pile wall is
considered as stable according to Design Approach 1 set 1 but unstable according to Design
Approach 1 set 2 of Eurocode 7 for stage 3.

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Figure 22.11: Report window, Summary section for Design Approach 1

22.5.3

Charts
29. Open the Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window from the Results menu.

Figure 22.12: Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window for the last stage

The maximum moment and the maximum shear force for stage 4 given at the bottom of the

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Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window (Figure 22.12) are respectively 666.5 kNm and
210.0 kN. These are less than those given in the Summary section of the Report window,
respectively 899.8 kNm and 283.5 kN (Figure 22.11) while they should be equal. The reason
for this is that the Moment/Force/Displacement Charts window shows the intermediary calculated moments and forces before multiplying them with the partial factor on the effect of the
loads (1.35 in this tutorial) whereas the Summary section of the Report window shows the
final design moments and forces. Moreover, in the moment chart, two lines are represented:

 The continuous line with a maximum value of 666.5 kNm corresponds to the intermediary calculated moments: black line corresponds to values below the maximum allowable moment whereas red line corresponds to values above the maximum allowable
moment;
 The red dotted line with a maximum value of 899.8 kNm corresponds to the intermediary
calculated moments multiplied by the partial factor on the effect of the loads (i.e. 1.35
in this tutorial, therefore: 666.5 1.35 899.8);
 The green dotted vertical line (1056 kNm) corresponds to the maximum allowable moment as inputted in the Sheet Piling window.
As part of the moment chart exceeds the maximum allowable moment (dotted green line), the
selected sheet piling section should be changed to avoid failing in bending.

22.6

Conclusion
D-S HEET P ILING allows the user to check a sheet pile wall according to the Eurocode 7, which
will become the only relevant design code for geotechnical projects in Europe within the next
few years. In this tutorial, the partial factors prescribed in EuroCode 7, Part 1: General rules
(NEN-EN, March 2005) have been used. However, each country can prescribed its own
design method and partial factors via the National Annex of the Eurocode. As information,
D-S HEET P ILING now supports the Dutch Annex.

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23 Tutorial 16: Prediction of surface settlements during sheet pile


installation
This tutorial example looks at the surface settlements during the installation of a sheet piling
by vibration.
The objective of this exercise is:

 To predict to surface settlements during the sheet pile installation.


For this example, the following modules are needed:

 D-S HEET P ILING Standard module (earth pressure coefficients)


 Culmann module
 Settlement by vibration
This tutorial is presented in the file Tutorial-16.shi.

23.1

Introduction to the case


This tutorial involves the four stages excavation as used in Tutorial 7. The groundwater level
is located 2 meters below the initial ground level. The sheet piling is an Arcelor AZ 19 profile,
section S430. The top of the wall is located at ground level (GL) and the toe of the wall is at
GL -16 m.

Figure 23.1: Geometry of Tutorial 16

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Table 23.1: Soil parameters for Tutorial 16

Unsaturated total unit weight


Saturated total unit weight
Relative density
Horizontal permeability
Soil type

[kN/m ]
[kN/m3 ]
[%]
[m/s]
[-]

Clay
15
16
35
10-8
Clay

Peat
10
11
15
10-9
Peat

Sand
17
19
72.5
10-3
Sand

The soil parameters needed for a settlement by vibration calculation are given in Table 23.1.

23.2

Model
1. Open <Tutorial-7a.shi> and save it with the name <Tutorial-16>.
2. In the Identification tab of the Project Properties window, change Title 1 and Title 2 to respectively <Tutorial 16 for D-S HEET P ILING > and <Prediction of settlements by vibration>.
3. In the Model window, deselect the option Verification (EC7/CUR) as it is not used and
select the Settlement by vibration option.

Figure 23.2: Model window

23.3

Sheet Piling
Prediction of settlement by vibration is based, among other things, on the geometry of the
sheet piling:
4. Open the Sheet Piling window from the Construction menu.
5. Click the Browse button in the Import profile from library column to open the Sheet Piling
Profiles Library window.
6. Select Arcelor profile <AZ 19> with a steel quality <S430>.

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Figure 23.3: Sheet Piling Profiles Library window

7. Click the Select button to return to the Sheet Piling window (Figure 19.2). The needed
parameters are automatically filled in.
8. Enter a Section bottom level of <-16 m> and leave the Number of simultaneously installed
piles to <2>.

Figure 23.4: Sheet Piling window

9. Click OK to close the window.

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23.4

Soil Materials
10. In the Soil menu, select Materials to open the Soil Materials window.
11. Enter the values given in Table 23.1for the Relative density, the Horizontal permeability
and the Soil layer type.
12. Click OK to confirm the input.

Figure 23.5: Soil Materials window for Clay material

23.5

Calculation
13. In the Feasibility menu, select Settlement by vibration to start the calculation.
A window appears showing the calculation progress. The calculation can take some time.

Figure 23.6: Calculation progress window

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23.6

Results
14. To see the charts output, select Settlement by Vibration Charts from the Results menu.
The Settlement by vibration Charts window displays the settlement vs. the distance to sheet
pile. The settlements are calculated for the active side (i.e. right side in this example) of the
sheet pile and first step.
Three types of charts are displayed:

 Settlements during installation of the sheet piling (Figure 23.7);


 Settlements during removal of the sheet piling (Figure 23.8);
 Total settlements (Figure 23.9).
15. Choose During installation from the drop-down menu at the top left of the Settlement by
Vibration Charts window to display the settlements during installation of the sheet piling
(Figure 23.7).

Figure 23.7: Settlements by Vibration Charts window, Settlement during installation

16. Choose During removal from the drop-down menu at the top left of the Settlement by
Vibration Charts window to display the settlements during removal of the sheet piling (Figure 23.8).

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Figure 23.8: Settlements by Vibration Charts window, Settlement during removal

17. Choose Total settlement from the drop-down menu at the top left of the Settlement by
Vibration Charts window to display the settlements due to installation + removal of the
sheet piling (Figure 23.9).

Figure 23.9: Settlements by Vibration Charts window, Total settlement (installation + removal)

For each chart, three lines are shown. The blue line corresponds to the settlements due to
sheet pile volume. The red line corresponds to the settlements due to densification. The black
line corresponds to the total settlement (sum of settlements due to sheet pile volume and soil

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densification).
18. Click the right hand mouse button and select View Data to open the Chart Data window
(Figure 23.10).
In this window the data used to generate the charts can be viewed and copied, for example for
use in spreadsheets. For this tutorial, the maximum settlement after installation and removal
of the sheet pile wall is estimated to 23.5 mm, which is acceptable.

Figure 23.10: Chart Data window for the Total settlement (installation + removal)

23.7

Conclusion
After checking a sheet pile wall for stability, the Settlement by vibration option from the Feasibility menu can be used to evaluate the settlements due to vibratory installation and removal
of the sheet pile wall.

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24 Tutorial 17: Design length of a synthetic wall


This example illustrates the modeling of a synthetic wall: a combination of a ProLock synthetic
profile and wooden piles. For background information, visit www.prolock.nl.
The objectives of this exercise are:

 To enter a combined wall consisting of three sections


 To make the necessary correction to compensate for arching of the piles below the
depth of the synthetic wall

 To design manually the combined wall length with the allowable bending moment
For this example the following modules are needed:

 D-S HEET P ILING Standard module (earth pressure coefficients)


 Culmann module
 Eurocode 7 Verification module
This tutorial is presented in the files Tutorial-17a.shi and Tutorial-17b.shi.

24.1

Introduction to the case


This example models a single stage excavation with a combined wall consisting of a ProLock
Sigma profile and wooden piles. The wooden piles are inserted in the ProLock Sigma profile. The wooden piles are longer than the profile. Because of decomposition of wood, the
contribution of the wooden piles above the water level is neglected (Figure 24.2).
The soil profile consists of a clayey sand land layer and a sand layer. The layer properties
are provided in Table 24.1. On the excavated site the surface is not horizontal. An occasional
uniform surcharge of 2 kPa can be present on the right surface.

Figure 24.1: One stage excavation with a ProLock Sigma combined wall (Tutorial 17)

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To start, the calculation is made for a synthetic profile length of 1.5 m, with 2 wooden piles
per meter and for a pile tip level of -2.5 m, as shown in Figure 24.1. This tutorial will show
that the calculated bending moment for such construction exceeds the allowable moment
(section 24.2.6). Thats why the synthetic profile must be lengthened from 1.5 m to 2 m
(section 24.2.7).
The question is to design the wall for two situations:

 long term situation, without the surcharge (Tutorial-17a),


 short term situation, with the surcharge (Tutorial-17b).

Figure 24.2: Dimensions of a ProLock Sigma wall

Table 24.1: Soil properties (tutorial 17)

Unsaturated total unit weight


Saturated total unit weight
(Drained) Cohesion
Friction angle
Delta friction angle
Shell factor
Over-consolidation ratio
Grain type
Mod. of sub. reaction, first branch
Mod. of sub. reaction, second branch
Mod. of sub. reaction, third branch

314

[kN/m ]
[kN/m3 ]
[kN/m2 ]
[deg]
[deg]
[-]
[-]
[kN/m3 ]
[kN/m3 ]
[kN/m3 ]

Sand, clayey
16
18
0
27.5
18.33
1
1
Fine
12000
6000
3000

Sand, moderate
18
20
0
32.5
21.67
2
1
Fine
20000
10000
5000

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The properties of the ProLock Sigma profile are shown in Table 24.2. The properties of the
(soft) wooden piles used in this project are provided in Table 24.3, per pile and per linear
meter (considering 2 wooden piles per linear meter).
Table 24.2: Properties of a ProLock Sigma profile (tutorial 17)

Flexural strength fm;char


Partial material factor M
Modification factor kmod
Section modulus W
Allowed bending moment
Youngs modulus at SLS Erep
Youngs modulus at ULS Ed
Flexural stiffness at SLS EIrep
Flexural stiffness at ULS EId

60.0
1.20
0.45 long term
223
5.02 kNm/m long term
2 300
697
30.7
9.3

N/mm2
0.50 short term
cm3 /m
5.58 kNm/m short term
N/mm2
N/mm2
kNm2 /m
kNm2 /m

Table 24.3: Properties of the round wooden piles (tutorial 17)

Number of piles
Diameter
Strength class
Flexural strength
Partial material factor
Modification factor
Height factor
Design flexural strength(1)
Modulus of elasticity
Resisting moment(2)
Allowed bending moment(3)
Bending stiffness

long term
short term
long term
short term
SLS
ULS
long term
short term
SLS
ULS

(1)

fu;d = fm;rep kmod kh /m

(2)

also called section modulus

(3)

Mmax = W fu;d

[m]
[mm]

fm;rep
m
kmod

[N/mm2 ]
[-]
[-]

kh
fu;d

[-]
[N/mm2 ]

Erep
Ed
W
Mmax

[N/mm2 ]

EIrep
EId

[kNm2 ]

[cm3 ]
[kNm]

per pile
1
100
C18
18.0
1.3
0.55
0.70
1.084
8.26
10.51
9000
6000
98
0.81
1.03
44
29

per m
2

196
1.62
2.06
88
59

Because the wooden piles are inserted in the ProLock Sigma profile, the properties of both
the synthetic profile and the wooden pile are added to get the properties of the wall, as shown
in Table 24.4.

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Table 24.4: Properties of the ProLock Sigma wall (tutorial 17)

Resisting moment
Allow. moment long term
Allow. moment short term
Bending stiffness at SLS
Bending stiffness at ULS

24.2
24.2.1

[cm3 /m]
[kNm/m]
[kNm/m]
[kNm2 /m]
[kNm2 /m]

ProLock
Sigma
223
5.02
5.58
31
9

Wooden
piles (2)
196
1.62
2.06
88
59

ProLock Sigma wall


with wooden piles
419
6.64
7.63
119
68

Design at long term (Tutorial-17a)


Project
To create a new project, follow the steps described below:
1. Start D-S HEET P ILING from the Windows task bar (Start/All Programs/Deltares Systems/DSheet Piling).
2. Click File and choose New on the D-S HEET P ILING menu bar to start a new project.
3. Click Project on the menu bar and then choose Model.
4. Select Sheet piling.
5. Select the Mixed model (Figure 24.3).
6. Deselect the option Check vertical balance as a vertical balance check is not part of this
exercise.
7. Select the option Verification (EC7/CUR) as a EuroCode design check will be performed.
8. Save the project with name <Tutorial-17a> by clicking Save in the File menu.
To give the project a meaningful description, follow the steps described below:
9. Open the Project Properties window from the Project menu or click on the Project Properties icon
on the icon bar.
10. Fill in <Tutorial 17 for D-Sheet Piling> and <ProLock Sigma with 2 wooden piles per
meter> for Title 1 and Title 2 respectively in the Identification tab.

24.2.2

Synthetic wall with wooden piles


The combined wall shown in Figure 24.2 can be modeled.
11. Open the Sheet Piling window from the Construction menu or click on the Sheet piling
button
on the icon bar.
12. In the window displayed, define the top part consisting of only sheet profiles as the contribution of the wooden piles above the water level (i.e. -0.5 m) is neglected because of
decomposition of wood. Use the Import profile button to import the specifications of the
ProLock Sigma profile. Change the Modification factor into <0.45>. Enter a Reduction
factor EI and a Reduction factor maximum moment of <1> as no reduction factor is used
in this project.
13. In the second row, define the second part of the synthetic wall consisting of the ProLock
Sigma profile with 2 wooden piles per meter as given in Table 24.4 (Figure 24.3).
14. In the third row, define the lowest part consisting of only 2 wooden piles. The properties given in the last column of Table 24.3 correspond to a width of 200 mm (2 piles).
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The request values in the Sheet Piling window are per running meter. All the values
of the table must therefore be divided by 0.2 m (i.e. the Acting width) to get an input in running meter: W = 196/0.2 = 980 cm3 /m, Mmax =1.62/0.2 = 8.09 kNm/m and
EI = 88/0.2 = 442 kNm2 /m.
15. Click OK to confirm the input.

Figure 24.3: Sheet Piling window at long term (Tutorial-17a)

Note: For the bending stiffness EI , the maximum value (between SLS and ULS) given in
Table 24.3 is used as it provides the maximum calculated bending moment.
Note: The use of the Combined Wall tool as in Tutorial 9 (chapter 16) is not applicable in this
tutorial because the wooden piles are inserted into the synthetic profile.

24.2.3

Soil
In the menu Soil, the soil materials, the surfaces, the soil profile and the water levels for this
tutorial can be specified.

24.2.3.1

Surfaces
On the excavated side, the surface is not horizontal. This can be defined in the Surfaces
window:
16. Open the Surfaces window from the Soil menu and define a surface with name <Right>
with level 0 m.
17. Define a second surface with name <Left> and fill in the values that are listed in the table
of Figure 24.4.

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Figure 24.4: Surfaces window

Which surfaces should be applied on the left and right hand sides of the sheet piling may now
be selected. This selection is made using the Stage Composer located at the left side of the
Input Diagram window.
18. In the upper box of the Stage Composer, click Surface left and select the surface with
description <Left> in the lower box (Figure 24.5). The effect can be directly seen in the
Input Diagram window.
19. Repeat this for Surface right by linking it with the <Right> surface.

Figure 24.5: Stage Composer to assign the surface levels

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24.2.3.2

Soil Materials
20. Open the Soil Materials window from the Soil menu, and define the soils using the parameters given in Table 24.1, using the Mller-Breslau (straight slip surfaces) method for an
automatic calculation of the Earth pressure coefficients by D-S HEET P ILING. Select Tangent
with <3> as the Number of curves for spring characteristics in the Curve Settings window
to allow input of the modulus of subgrade reaction as given in Table 24.1.

Figure 24.6: Soil Materials window for Sand moderate

24.2.3.3

Soil Profiles
21. Open the Profiles window from the Soil menu and define the soil profile shown in Figure 24.1, with the top levels of <Sand, clayey> and <Sand, moderate> at 0 m and -1.5 m
respectively.

24.2.3.4

Water Levels
22. Open the Water Levels window of the Soil menu, and define a water level named <WL>
at <-0.5 m>.

24.2.4

Model selection
Slopes can only be analyzed if the c, phi, delta model is used, thats why the left side of the
construction is analyzed with the c, phi, delta model whereas the right side is analyzed with
the Ka , K0 , Kp model.
23. Click the Overview option in the Stages menu or click on the Stage overview button on the
icon bar.
24. Select method <C, phi, delta> for the Left side.
25. Click OK to confirm.

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24.2.5

Calculation
The verification of the synthetic wall is made according to the Dutch Annex of the Eurocode 7.
26.
27.
28.
29.

Select the Start option from the Calculation menu or press the function key F9.
In the Start Calculation window, select the Verify Sheet Piling tab.
Choose EC7 NL and then select Partial factors (design values) in all stages (method A).
Select <RC 0> as Partial factor set.

Figure 24.7: Start Calculation window, Verify Sheet Piling tab

24.2.6

Results
30. Click Start to perform the design calculation. When the calculation is complete, an error
message appears at the bottom of the window (Figure 24.8).

Figure 24.8: Calculation Progress window

31. Close the Calculation Progress window and open the Report form the Results menu to get
more details about this error message.
32. Go to paragraph 2 named Summary using the Move to next page
button.

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Figure 24.9: Report window - Summary for Tutorial-17a

The Calculation Errors section (Figure 24.9) indicates that the sheet piling becomes unstable.
For steps 6.3 and 6.4, the sheet piling is unstable and no results are available.

24.2.7

Manual design of the wall length


The bottom position of the middle part of the wall (i.e. synthetic profile with two wooden piles)
can be first lowered by 0.5 m and a new calculation must be performed to check the moments:
33. Open the Sheet Piling window form the Construction menu and change the Section bottom
level of the middle part of the wall into <-2 m>.
A shell factor of 1 is applied for soils in contact with the sheet piling as the sheet piling prevents
arching from taking place. As a consequence, the Sand, moderate layer must be divided into
2 layers, from -1.5 m to -2 m and below -2 m with a shell factor of 1 and 2 respectively.
34.
35.
36.
37.

Open the Materials window.


Select material named Sand, moderate.
Click the
button.
Rename the created material with <Sand, moderate no shell> and change the Shell factor
into <1> (Figure 24.10).

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Figure 24.10: Materials window

38. Open the Soil Profile window and enter the new profile (Figure 24.11).

Figure 24.11: Soil Profile window

39. Perform a new calculation. No error message appears at the end of the calculation.
40. Open the Moment/Force/Displacement Chart window to inspect the results (Figure 24.12).

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Figure 24.12: Moment/Force/Displacement Chart window for long term situation - Step
6.3

The maximum calculated moment (2.2 kNm) is now situated in the middle part of the wall
(composed of the ProLock Sigma profile and 2 wooden piles per meter). In this part, the allowable moment (5.56 m) is higher than in the lowest part (1.62 kNm), thats why the maximum
calculated moment now passes.
Note: Usually, to design the length of the wall, the option Design Sheet Piling Length is used
(section 5.2.2). However, in case of combined wall, this option can be used only to design the
lower part of the wall (i.e. wooden piles), but not the upper part. Thats why, the design length
will be determined manually, by changing the bottom level of the ProLock Sigma profile.

24.3

Design at short term (Tutorial-17b)


The design must also be verified at short term situation, where an occasional uniform surcharge can be present at the active side.
41. Save the current project with a new name by clicking Save As in the File menu and by
entering <Tutorial-17b> as project name.

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24.3.1

Adapting the properties of the wall


The allowable bending moment at short term is higher than at long term, so it must be updated:
42. Open the Sheet Piling window from the Construction menu or click on the Sheet piling icon
on the icon bar.
43. In the window displayed, change the Maximum moment for the three parts using the values
given in Table 24.4.
44. Click OK to confirm the input.

Figure 24.13: Sheet Piling window at short term (Tutorial-17b)

24.3.2

Adding a uniform load


For the short term, a uniform surcharge of 2 kPa is present on the right surface:
45. Click Loads in the menu bar and then choose Uniform Loads.
46. In the input window displayed, define a load with the name <Surface load>, with a magnitude of <2 kN/m2 >. The load is defined as <Permanent> and <Unfavourable> as it is
on the active side.
47. Click OK to confirm the input.

Figure 24.14: Uniform Load window

48. Activate the Surface load in the Stage Composer by selecting Uniform loads in the upper
box and by marking Surface load in the lower box (see Figure 24.15).
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Figure 24.15: Stage composer to assign the uniform load

24.3.3

Results
The verification calculation at short term can now be performed:
49. Start the calculation by pressing the function key F9 and clicking Start. No error message
appears at the end of the calculation.
50. Open the Moment/Force/Displacement Chart window to inspect the results (Figure 24.16):
the allowable moment is not exceeded in all calculation steps.

Figure 24.16: Moment/Force/Displacement Chart window for short term situation - Step
6.3

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24.4

Conclusion
A design calculation at long and short term for a combined wall consisting of a ProLock Sigma
profile and wooden piles has been performed. The maximum calculated bending moments
per section of the wall are reported in Table 24.5, for two different lengths of the ProLock
profile. With a length of 2 m, the maximum calculated moments do not exceed the allowable
moments; the strength of the wall is therefore enough.
Table 24.5: Maximum calculated bending moments, per wall section (tutorial 17)

Section

Long term situation (Tutorial-17a):


ProLock Sigma profile
ProLock Sigma + 2 wooden piles
2 wooden piles
Short term situation (Tutorial-17b):
ProLock Sigma profile
ProLock Sigma + 2 wooden piles
2 wooden piles

First case
Allowable Length Max.
moment
moment
[kNm]
[m]
[kNm]

Second case
Length Max.
moment
[m]
[kNm]

5.02
5.56
1.62

0.5
1
1

0.5
1.5
0.5

0.11
2.19
1.17

5.58
6.64
2.06

0.5
1
1

0.5
1.5
0.5

0.19
3.01
1.91

Note: The stability of the wall is secured. A shorter length of the piles (i.e. a tip level at -2 m
instead of -2.5 m) is not possible as this will lead to an unstable wall.

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25 Tutorial 18: Modeling of synthetic wall with anchorage


This example illustrates the modeling of a ProLock anchored combined wall. This wall is a
combination of a synthetic profile and wooden piles. For background information, visit www.
prolock.nl.
The objectives of this exercise are:

 To enter a combined wall consisting of three sections;


 To make the necessary correction to compensate for arching of the piles below the
depth of the synthetic wall;
 To design manually the combined wall length with the allowable bending moment;
 To apply an oblique anchor;
 To determine the input data of the anchor form the technical specifications given by the
manufacturer.
For this example the following modules are needed:

 D-S HEET P ILING Standard module (earth pressure coefficients)


 Culmann module
 Eurocode 7 Verification module
This tutorial is presented in the files Tutorial-18a.shi and Tutorial-18b.shi.

25.1

Introduction to the case


This example models a single stage excavation with an anchored combined wall consisting
of a ProLock Omega profile and wooden piles. The wooden piles are inserted in the ProLock
Omega profile. The wooden piles are longer than the profile. Because of decomposition of
wood, the contribution of the wooden piles above the water level is neglected (Figure 25.2).
The soil profile consists of a clayey sand land layer, a clay layer and a sand layer. The layer
properties are provided in Table 25.1. An occasional uniform surcharge of 5 kPa can be
present on the right surface.

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Figure 25.1: One stage excavation with a ProLock Omega combined wall (Tutorial 18)

To start, the calculation is made for a synthetic profile length of 3 m, with 2 wooden piles per
meter and for a pile tip level of -4 m, as shown in Figure 25.1. A row of inclined anchors is
installed at level -0.25 m, with one anchor every 2 m. This tutorial will show that the calculated
bending moment for such construction does not exceed the allowable moment.
Note: As the construction is loaded by the vertical component of the anchor force, the bearing
capacity of the piles has to be verified. This verification is not part of this tutorial.
The question is to design the wall for two situations:

 long term situation, without the surcharge (Tutorial-18a),


 short term situation, with the surcharge (Tutorial-18b).

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Tutorial 18: Modeling of synthetic wall with anchorage

Figure 25.2: Dimensions of a ProLock Omega wall

Table 25.1: Soil properties (Tutorial 18)

Unsaturated total unit weight


Saturated total unit weight
(Drained) Cohesion
Friction angle
Delta friction angle
Shell factor
Over-consolidation ratio
Grain type
Mod. of sub. reaction, 1st branch
Mod. of sub. reaction, 2nd branch
Mod. of sub. reaction, 3rd branch

[kN/m3 ]
[kN/m3 ]
[kN/m2 ]
[deg]
[deg]
[-]
[-]
[kN/m3 ]
[kN/m3 ]
[kN/m3 ]

Sand,
clayey

Clay

16
18
0
27.5
18.33
1
1
Fine
12000
6000
3000

15
15
2
25
16.67
1 or 1.5
1
Fine
2000
800
500

Sand,
moderate,
shell
18
20
0
32.5
21.67
2
1
Fine
20000
10000
5000

The properties of the ProLock Omega profile are shown in Table 25.2. The properties of the
(soft) wooden piles used in this project are provided in Table 25.3, per pile and per linear
meter (considering 2 wooden piles per linear meter).

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Table 25.2: Properties of a ProLock Omega profile (Tutorial 18)

Table 25.3: Properties of the round wooden piles (Tutorial 18)

Number of piles
Diameter
Strength class
Flexural strength
Partial material factor
Modification factor
Height factor
Design flexural strength(1)
Modulus of elasticity
Resisting moment(2)
Allowed bending moment(3)
Bending stiffness

long term
short term
long term
short term
SLS
ULS
long term
short term
SLS
ULS

(1)

fu;d = fm;rep kmod kh /m

(2)

also called section modulus

(3)

Mmax = W fu;d

[m]
[mm]

fm;rep
m
kmod

[N/mm2 ]
[-]
[-]

kh
fu;d

[-]
[N/mm2 ]

Erep
Ed
W
Mmax

[N/mm2 ]

EIrep
EId

[kNm2 ]

[cm3 ]
[kNm]

per pile
1
150
C18
18.0
1.3
0.55
0.70
1
7.62
9.69
9000
6000
331
2.52
3.21
224
149

per m
2

662
5.04
6.42
447
298

Because the wooden piles are inserted in the ProLock Omega profile, the properties of both
the synthetic profile and the wooden pile are added to get the properties of the wall, as shown
in Table 25.4.

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Table 25.4: Properties of the ProLock Omega wall (Tutorial 18)

Resisting moment
Allow. moment long term
Allow. moment short term
Bending stiffness at SLS
Bending stiffness at ULS

[cm3 /m]
[kNm/m]
[kNm/m]
[kNm2 /m]
[kNm2 /m]

ProLock
Omega
315
7.09
7.88
91
28

Wooden
piles (2)
662
5.04
6.42
224
149

ProLock Omega wall


with wooden piles
977
12.13
14.29
538
326

The anchor is chosen from the JLD anchor systems: a MK-SR anchor wall with the characteristics given in Figure 25.3 and a GEWI anchor bar of 16 mm diamter and 6 m length
(Table 25.5).

Figure 25.3: Technical data for the MK-SR anchor wall (Tutorial 18)

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Table 25.5: Technical data for the GEWI Threadbar (Tutorial 18)

25.2
25.2.1

Design at long term (Tutorial-18a)


Project
This tutorial is based on the previous tutorial (chapter 24) as the input is quite similar:
1. Open the previous tutorial by clicking Open in the File menu and selecting <Tutorial17a.shi>.
2. Save the project with a new name by clicking Save As in the File menu and by entering
<Tutorial-18a> as project name.
To give the project a meaningful description, follow the steps described below:
3. Open the Project Properties window from the Project menu or click on the Project Properties icon
on the icon bar.
4. Fill in <Tutorial 17 for D-Sheet Piling> and <ProLock Omega with 2 wooden piles per
meter> for Title 1 and Title 2 respectively in the Identification tab.

25.2.2

Synthetic wall with wooden piles


The combined wall shown in Figure 25.2 can be modeled.
5. Open the Sheet Piling window from the Construction menu or click on the Sheet piling
button
on the icon bar.
6. In the window displayed, define the top part consisting of only sheet profiles as the contribution of the wooden piles above the water level (i.e. -0.5 m) is neglected because of
decomposition of wood. Use the Import profile button to import the specifications of the
ProLock Omega profile. Change the Modification factor into <0.45>.
7. In the second row, define the second part of the synthetic wall consisting of the ProLock
Omega profile with 2 wooden piles per meter as given in Table 25.4.
8. In the third row, define the lowest part consisting of only 2 wooden piles. The properties given in the last column of Table 24.3 correspond to a width of 300 mm (2 piles).

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The request values in the Sheet Piling window are per running meter. All the values
of the table must therefore be divided by 0.3 m (i.e. the Acting width) to get an input
in running meter: W = 662/0.3 = 2207 cm3 /m, Mmax =5.04/0.3 = 16.80 kNm/m and
EI = 224/0.3 = 1491 kNm2 /m.
9. Click OK to confirm the input.

Figure 25.4: Sheet Piling window at long term (Tutorial-18a)

Note: For the bending stiffness EI , the maximum value (between SLS and ULS) given in
Table 25.3 is used as it provides the maximum calculated bending moment.
Note: The use of the Combined Wall tool as in Tutorial 9 (chapter 16) is not applicable in this
tutorial because the wooden piles are inserted into the synthetic profile.

25.2.3

Soil
In the menu Soil, the soil materials, the surfaces, the soil profile and the water levels for this
tutorial can be specified.

25.2.3.1

Surfaces
On the excavated side, the surface is horizontal, on the contrary of the previous tutorial. This
can be changed in the Surfaces window:
10. Open the Surfaces window from the Soil menu and define the surface named <Left> with
<-2.5 m>.

25.2.3.2

Soil Materials
Both clay layers (with and without arching effect) are added to the list of materials:
11. Open the Soil Materials window from the Soil menu, and add the <Clay> material by
clicking the
button. Enter the parameters given in Table 24.1, using the MllerBreslau (straight slip surfaces) method for an automatic calculation of the Earth pressure
coefficients by D-S HEET P ILING and using a Shell factor of <1>.
12. Click again the
button to duplicate this layer and rename the created material with
<Clay, shell>. Change the Shell factor into <1.5>.
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Figure 25.5: Soil Materials window for Sand moderate

25.2.3.3

Soil Profiles
13. Open the Profiles window from the Soil menu and define the soil profile shown in Figure 25.1, with the top levels of <Sand, clayey>, <Clay>, <Clay, shell> and <Sand,
moderate, shell> at 0 m, -2 m, -3 m and -3.5 m respectively.

25.2.4

Anchor
For this project, an anchor wall type MR-SR in combination with a GEWI bar 16 mm are
chosen and represented in Figure 25.6.

Figure 25.6: Soil Materials window for Sand moderate

The input parameters for the anchor needed by the program first have to be determined (per
running meter) using the datas given in Figure 25.3 and Table 25.5:

 the Youngs modulus is that one of steel: E = 2.05 108 kN/m2 ;


 the cross sectional area must include the effect of possible corrosion (1.75 mm after 50
2
year): A = ((16 1.75) /2) = 123 mm2 .
Per running meter, the section becomes: A = 123 10-6 /2 = 6.136 10-5 m2 /m.
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 the height of the MR-SR wall is 317.5 mm. But the wall height as input value in
D-S HEET P ILING in the vertical projection of the wall height:

H = 317.5 cos 35 = 0.26 m;


 the length is the total length of the anchor system (bar + anchor):
L = 6 m + 436.9 mm = 6.44 m;
 the (representative) yield force Fy is determined using the tensile strength ft = 550 N/mm2 :
Fy = ft A = 550 123 = 67.50 kN.
To get the design yield force, a safety factor of 1.4 is applied according to CUR 166
recommendations: Fy;d = Fy /1.4 = 48.21 kN.
Per running meter, the force becomes: Fy;d = 48.21 kN/2 m = 24.11 kN/m.
14.
15.
16.
17.

Open the Anchors window from the Supports menu.


Enter <JLD MR-SR anchor + GEWI d16> as name (Figure 25.7).
Specify the anchor parameters as determined above.
Click OK to close the window.

Figure 25.7: Anchors window

To activate the anchor:


18. In the upper box of the Stage Composer, click Anchors and select the anchor <JLD MRSR anchor + GEWI d16> in the lower box (Figure 25.8). The effect can be directly seen in
the Input Diagram window.

Figure 25.8: Stage composer to activate the anchor

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25.2.5

Calculation
The verification of the synthetic wall is made according to the Dutch Annex of the Eurocode
7, with safety class RC1.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.

Select the Start option from the Calculation menu or press the function key F9.
In the Start Calculation window, select the Verify Sheet Piling tab.
Choose EC7 NL and then select Partial factors (design values) in all stages (method A).
Select <RC 1> as Partial factor set.
Click Start to perform the calculation.

Figure 25.9: Start Calculation window, Verify Sheet Piling tab

25.2.6

Results
No error occurred. The charts of the bending moment can be inspected:
24. In the Results menu, click Moment/Force/Displacement Chart.
25. Inspect the results for the available steps (i.e 6.3, 6.4 and 6.5) using the Next step
button.
For the middle section of the wall (ProLock Omega with 2 wooden piles, the maximum calculated moment (10.0 kNm) does not exceed the allowable moment (12.10 kNm), likewise for
the lowest section of the wall composed of 2 wooden piles per meter (Figure 25.10).

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Figure 25.10: Moment/Force/Displacement Chart window for long term situation - Step
6.3

26. The Summary section of the Report window (Figure 25.11) shows that the anchor is elastic
in all CUR steps.

Figure 25.11: Report window, Summary section for long term situation (Tutorial-18a)

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25.3

Design at short term (Tutorial-18b)


The design must also be verified at short term situation, where an occasional uniform surcharge can be present at the active side.
27. Save the current project with a new name by clicking Save As in the File menu and by
entering <Tutorial-18b> as project name.

25.3.1

Adapting the properties of the wall


The allowable bending moment at short term is higher than at long term, so it must be updated:
28. Open the Sheet Piling window from the Construction menu or click on the Sheet piling icon
on the icon bar.
29. In the window displayed, change the Maximum moment for the three parts using the values
given in Table 25.4.
30. Click OK to confirm the input.

Figure 25.12: Sheet Piling window at short term (Tutorial-18b)

25.3.2

Adding a uniform load


For the short term, a uniform surcharge of 5 kPa is present on the right surface:
31. Click Loads in the menu bar and then choose Uniform Loads.
32. In the input window displayed, define a load with the name <Surface load>, with a magnitude of <5 kN/m2 >. The load is defined as <Permanent> and <Unfavourable> as it is
on the active side.
33. Click OK to confirm the input.
34. Activate the Surface load in the Stage Composer by selecting Uniform loads in the upper
box and by marking Surface load in the lower box.

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25.3.3

Results
The verification calculation at short term can now be performed:
35. Start the calculation by pressing the function key F9 and clicking Start. No error message
appears at the end of the calculation.
36. Open the Moment/Force/Displacement Chart window to inspect the results (Figure 25.13):
the allowable moment is not exceeded in all calculation steps.

Figure 25.13: Moment/Force/Displacement Chart window for short term situation - Step
6.3

In the three sections of the combined wall, the maximum calculated moment does not exceed
the allowable moment (Figure 25.13).

25.4

Conclusion
A design calculation at long and short term for an anchored combined wall consisting of
a ProLock Omega profile and wooden piles and a JLD anchor has been performed. The
maximum calculated bending moments per section do not exceed the allowable moment. The
stability of the anchored wall is therefore enough.

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26 Governing Equation
The retaining wall is modeled as an elastic beam on a foundation of uncoupled springs (representing the soil). D-S HEET P ILING applies the assumption of Bernoulli; this means that crosssections of the beam are assumed to remain straight and perpendicular to the beam axis. The
behavior of such a beam can be described by the following differential equation:

b EI

d4 w
d2 w
+
N

= b f (x, w)
dx4
dx2

(26.1)

where:

w
f
EI
x
N
b

is the horizontal displacement of the beam, in m;


is the total pressure on the beam per running meter, including the reaction of the
soil springs, in kN/m;
is the flexural stiffness of the beam (E = Youngs modulus, I = moment of inertia) in
kNm2 /m;
is the co-ordinate along the axis of the beam, in m;
is the normal force in the beam, in kN;
is the acting width of the beam, in m.

D-S HEET P ILING solves Equation 26.1 numerically using the finite element method. This means
that the wall is divided into a number of sub-sections (called elements) that are connected at
the edges. These connections are called nodes. At these nodes, the displacements and
rotations of both connected elements are equal, thus creating a continuous beam.
D-S HEET P ILING automatically defines the position of the nodes. Nodes are always created at:






boundaries of soil layers


boundaries of water pressures
boundaries of wall segments with different properties
points with discontinuities (for example, an anchor point).

The length of an element never exceeds 1/20 of the total wall length. Each element is further
sub-divided into 5 sections. Displacements, shear forces, bending moments and horizontal
water and soil pressures are determined for each boundary of a section.

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27 Lateral Earth Pressure Ratio


The lateral earth pressure ratio K is defined as the ratio between the horizontal and vertical
effective stresses.

K=

h0
v0

(27.1)

This ratio depends on the stress state:

 Initial Stress (section 27.1): D-S HEET P ILING uses Jkys formula to determine the lateral
stress ratio at initial stress;

 Yield (section 27.2): D-S HEET P ILING uses slip surface theories to determine the lateral
stress for active and passive yielding. Passive yielding occurs when the ultimate soil
stress under compression is reached. Active yielding occurs when the ultimate soil
stress under extension is reached.

Surcharge
When a surcharge is present, D-S HEET P ILING determines an additional lateral pressure ratio,
using Boussinesqs formula (see Equation 27.7 in section 27.3), to obtain the neutral earth
pressure. The Culmann method is used to determine the active and passive earth pressures.

27.1

At rest earth pressure coefficient


D-S HEET P ILING determines the neutral coefficient of earth pressure (at rest) for a horizontal
soil surface using Jky formula (Jky, 1948) for coarse grain:


K0 =

27.2

OCR (1 sin )
for coarse grain
sin

OCR
(1 sin ) for fine grain

(27.2)

Passive and active earth pressures coefficients


D-S HEET P ILING uses slip surface theories to determine the lateral stress for active and passive
yielding. Passive yielding occurs when the ultimate soil stress under compression is reached.
Active yielding occurs when the ultimate soil stress under extension is reached.
The assumed shape of the slip surface will influence the calculated earth pressure values.
Theoretically, straight slip surfaces only occur when wall friction is absent. Since wall friction
is always present in reality, actual slip surfaces will always be curved. However, when determining the active lateral earth pressure there is just a minor difference between values based
on straight and curved slip surfaces. On the other hand, a passive lateral earth pressure
based on a straight slip surface can considerably exaggerate the real value. This is especially true for soils with high friction angles (). The Mller-Breslau and Culmann methods of
determining earth pressure coefficients are based upon straight slip surfaces. Using straight
slip surfaces has limitations, as described in the NEN 6740, art. 12.4.2 (NEN, 2006a) and
CUR 166 (CUR, 2005). Generally the Mller-Breslau (and Culmann) method is used when
the soils friction angle, phi, is equal or less than 30 . The Ktter method is generally used for
larger friction angles. The method selected also has an impact on the way the delta friction

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angle is determined. Suggestions for correlations between the friction angle and the delta
friction angle are available in literature.
The information in the following sections describes how D-S HEET P ILING determines the yield
values of the lateral stress ratio for the following methods:

 section 27.2.1 Culmann: straight slip surfaces with arbitrary directions;


 section 27.2.2 Mller-Breslau: straight slip surface, assuming zero weight and horizontal surface;

 section 27.2.3 Ktter: curved slip surface, assuming zero weight and horizontal surface.

27.2.1

Culmann
For non-horizontal soil surfaces, values of the coefficients of active and passive lateral earth
pressure (Ka and Kp ) can be found using Culmanns formulas (Culmann, 1866).
B

W
N
Q
T

Q
B
W

Figure 27.1: Lateral earth pressure using Culmanns method

The method is based on the equilibrium between the applied surcharge B , the soil weight
W , the total force from the sheet piling Q, the normal force N and the shear force T along
one straight slip surface, as illustrated below. The Culmann method takes the stratification of
soil along the slip surface into account. D-S HEET P ILING iteratively determines a slip surface
that results in the maximum active pressure and the minimum passive pressure. From this
calculated pressure, D-S HEET P ILING determines different coefficients in each point from the
top to the toe of the sheet pile wall.
The slip surfaces resulting in the maximum active pressure and the minimum passive pressure
are available in the Slide Planes C, Phi, Delta Calculation window (section 6.7).

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Lateral Earth Pressure Ratio


27.2.2

Mller-Breslau (straight slip surface)


The formula of Mller-Breslau (Mller-Breslau,
1906) assumes a straight slip surface with an


angle in homogeneous soil: 4 2 .


D-S HEET P ILING uses the following equations, which have been simplified by assuming a vertical sheet pile wall and horizontal ground surface:

cos2
Ka = 
2
q
sin sin(+)
1+
cos

(27.3)

and

cos2

Kp = 
1

sin sin(+)
cos

2

(27.4)

where is the angle of wall friction and is the soil friction angle.
The validity of Equation 27.4 is limited to the following conditions for sheet pilings with a rough
surface:

 30 for rough steel sheet pilings and comparable walls


 35 for rough concrete sheet pilings.
Negative values cannot be entered. D-S HEET P ILING will add a negative sign to when
determining Kp .

27.2.3

Ktter (curved slip surfaces)


For calculations based on curved slip surfaces, D-S HEET P ILING uses formulas based on Ktters equations (Ktter, 1903). These equations assume the following:

 an unloaded horizontal soil surface


 homogeneous soil with a volumetric weight of zero
 a slip plane consisting of a logarithmic spiral and a straight part.

Ka =

n

o
1 sin sin (2 + )
exp + + 2 tan
(1 + sin )
2

with : cos (2 + ) =

Kp =

sin
sin

n

o
1 sin sin (20 + )
exp
+ + 20 tan
(1 + sin )
2

with : cos (20 + ) =

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(27.5)

(27.6)

sin
sin

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27.3

Surcharge according to Boussinesq


D-S HEET P ILING uses Boussinesqs formula to determine the additional horizontal earth pressures due to the surcharge loads (Boussinesq, 1885). D-S HEET P ILING also models a nonhorizontal surface as a horizontal surface with an applied surcharge load.
Note: If the distance between the surcharge and the wall exceeds 5 times the height of the
wall, D-S HEET P ILING does not take the surcharge into account.
The formula is based on the principle of superposition. A specific surcharge can therefore be
achieved by applying multiple line loads. Since the original formula is valid for a homogeneous,
semi-infinite solid, some adaptation is needed in order to include the influence of the sheet
pile wall. Therefore, a multiplication factor f is applied to the Boussinesq stress, resulting in
the following formula:

H = f

2P x2 y
(x2 + y 2 )2

(27.7)

where:

H
f

L
P
x, y

is the additional horizontal earth pressure due to line load;


is themultiplication factor (influence of the sheet pile wall):
1
if xi > L
f=
2 xi /L if xi L
is the length of the sheet pile in m;
is the line load in kN/m;
are the horizontal and vertical coordinates in m.

Note: If Kp < Ka and/or K0 < Ka , then D-S HEET P ILING will calculate new K0 and/or Kp
ratios: Kp = Ka and/or K0 = Ka . The additional horizontal earth pressure due to load q
becomes:

H =

KP
[(1 2 ) + sin 1 cos 1 sin 2 cos 2 ]

(27.8)

Figure 27.2: Stress distribution under a load column

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28 Soil Strength and Stiffness


D-S HEET P ILING uses an elasto-plastic description to model the strength and the stiffness of
soil. In an elasto-plastic description, the equivalent stiffness during virgin loading differs from
the elastic stiffness during unloading/reloading. The strength and stiffness can be changed
between different construction stages.

28.1

Strength
When applying the calculation formulas of Mller-Breslau or Ktter, D-S HEET P ILING uses the
equations below to determine the yield stresses from the active and passive lateral effective
earth pressures:

a0 = Ka v0 2c

p
Ka
p
0
0
p = Kp v + 2c Kp

(28.1)
(28.2)

with v 0 and p 0 a 0.
The linear distribution of vertical stress that D-S HEET P ILING assumes in order to apply these
formulas is only accurate for zero or uniform loads and horizontal surfaces.

Wall Friction
The values given in Table 28.1 Angle of wall friction values for clay, loam, sand and gravel
(acc. to Table 4 of NEN 6740:2006) for the angle of wall friction are prescribed by
NEN 6740:2006 (Table 4) for clay, loam, sand and gravel. In the case of peat, the angle of
wall friction should be set to zero.
Table 28.1: Angle of wall friction values for clay, loam, sand and gravel (acc. to Table 4 of
NEN 6740:2006)

Wall surface
Very rough
Rough
Semi-rough
Smooth

28.2

Roughness
> 10 d50
0.5 10 d50
0.1 - 0.5 d50
< 0.1 d50

for straight slip surface


0.67
0.67

for curved slip surface

2 - 2.5 with a maxi-

0.33
0

mum of 7.5
0.5
0

Stiffness
The modulus of subgrade reaction, k describes the ratio between an increment of horizontal
stress and an increment of sheet pile wall displacement.

k=

dH
dWH

(28.3)

The modulus of subgrade reaction is not a constant value, but actually depends on the depth
in the soil and the magnitude of the deformation. Correlation with other data is commonly
used (for example, with a cone penetration resistance qc or a Youngs modulus). General
guidelines on how to determine the modulus of subgrade reaction are contained in Terzaghi
(Terzaghi, 1955) and Mnard (Mnard, 1971). For Dutch conditions, additional guidelines are
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provided in CUR publication 166 (CUR, 2005). Fortunately, the influence of a change in the
value of k on the resulting moments, forces and displacements is relatively small, since the
effect of k is only to the power of 1/4 (see Equation 26.1 in chapter 26).
Unloading in D-S HEET P ILING results in elasto-plastic behavior, as shown in Figure 28.1, below.

B
displacement w

Figure 28.1: Elasto-plastic behavior

28.3

Construction Stages
In D-S HEET P ILING, a calculation may involve several construction stages. From stage to
stage soil pressures can change due to excavation, a change in the water table, etc.
In such a case, D-S HEET P ILING uses the following calculation procedure to determine the soil
stress and stiffness.

 If the vertical stress changes, D-S HEET P ILING performs a shift in the diagram that relates
the horizontal stress to the displacement. The horizontal stress increment is related to
the vertical stress increment by means of H = K0 V (see Figure 28.2 below).

 New horizontal soil pressures acting on the wall (h *) are determined on the basis of
the new spring characteristics (k *) and the wall displacement from the previous stage
(w0 in the illustration).
 These new pressures mean that there is no longer equilibrium for the wall displacement
w0 . Therefore, new displacements are calculated (based on the new spring characteristics).
Note: In Figure 28.2 the new spring (i.e. modulus of subgrade reaction k ) is usually identical
to the spring of the previous stage k , except in few cases:

 When arching occurs, the modulus of subgrade reaction k must be multiplied by the
shell factor s. This is done automatically by the program, see Equation 37.3 in section 37.1.2;

 When a slope is present, k must be reduced compare to the horizontal situation. This
is not done by the program, the user has to determine and enter the new value in the
Soil Materials window (section 4.3.2.4);
 When excavation occurs, the modulus of subgrade reaction can be slightly reduced.
This is not done by the program.

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Soil Strength and Stiffness


horizontal earth
pressure
p
*h

arctan k*

arctan k

p
h= Ko v

displacement w

Figure 28.2: Shift of horizontal stress values between stages

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29 CPT Interpretation
When a soil profile is determined from the results of a CPT, different interpretation rules are
available in D-S HEET P ILING based on the soil classification of Dutch recommendations or
standards (section 29.2). The properties of the materials from those soil classifications are
determined using Table 1 of NEN 6740 for the general parameters and using an extrapolation
of Table 3.3 of CUR 166 for the secant moduli of subgrade reaction (section 29.3).

29.1

CPT Filtering Method


Before the interpretation rules presented below are applied, a filtering of the CPT datas is
performed. The brut CPT datas are first averaged every 3 depth-points to get the average
value Xmean3 . Then the depth is divided into sub-layers of thickness equal to the Minimum
layer thickness Hmin inputted in the Soil Profiles window (section 4.3.4). For each sub-layer,
a filtered data Xf ilter equal to the average of the Xmean3 contained in the sub-layer. This
method is illustrated in Figure 29.1. A soil material is then deduced from the filtered data
using one of the available CPT interpretation rules (section 29.2).

Figure 29.1: Schematization of the CPT filtering method

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29.2

CPT Interpretation Rules


For the CPT interpretation, two different rules can be used in D-S HEET P ILING to determine the
soil profile from the cone resistance and the friction ratio values:

 section 29.2.1: CUR rule based on the CUR 166 recommendations;


 section 29.2.2: NEN (Stress dependent) rule based on the NEN 6740 standard.
Moreover, when using the Feasibility module, a different simplest rule is used, called 3-type
rule with gravel from NEN (section 29.2.3), based on a simplification of the interpretation rule
prescribed by NEN 6740.

29.2.1

CPT interpretation acc. CUR 166


The CUR rule is based on the soil classification from CUR 166 recommendations and includes 6 soil material types as shown in Figure 29.2.

Figure 29.2: CPT interpretation according to CUR 166

29.2.2

CPT interpretation acc. NEN 6740


The NEN (Stress dependent) rule is based on the soil classification from NEN 6740 Dutch
standard and includes 14 soil material types as shown in Figure 29.3. The cone resistance
measured by the CPT is adapted to take into account the actual effective stress at the measured depth using the following formula:


qc;N EN = qc;meas

352

100
v

0.67

Deltares

CPT Interpretation

Figure 29.3: CPT interpretation according to NEN 6740

29.2.3

CPT interpretation for Feasibility module


The soil profile displayed in the GeoBrain Drivability Prediction (section 7.3) and Experiences
(section 7.4) windows uses a special interpretation rule called the 3-type with gravel from
NEN rule. This rule is based on the CUR 166 recommendations and includes 4 soil material
types as shown in Figure 29.4.

Figure 29.4: 3-type rule with gravel from NEN

29.3

Soil Materials Properties

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29.3.1

General soil properties acc. NEN 6740


The general soil parameters automatically filled by D-S HEET P ILING are the high representative
values prescribed in Table 1 of NEN 6740 (Table 29.1).
Table 29.1: General soil parameters from Table 1 of NEN 6740

Material

unsat
3

Gravel, slightly silty, loose


Gravel, slightly silty, moderate
Gravel, slightly silty, stiff
Gravel, very silty, loose
Gravel, very silty, moderate
Gravel, very silty, stiff
Sand, clean, loose
Sand, clean, moderate
Sand, clean, stiff
Sand, slightly silty, moderate
Sand, very silty, loose
Loam, slightly sandy, weak
Loam, slightly sandy, moderate
Loam, slightly sandy, stiff
Loam, very sandy, stiff
Clay, clean, weak
Clay, clean, moderate
Clay, clean, stiff
Clay, slightly sandy, weak
Clay, slightly sandy, moderate
Clay, slightly sandy, stiff
Clay, very sandy, stiff
Clay, organic, weak
Clay, organic, moderate
Peat, not preloaded, weak
Peat, moderate preloaded, moderate

29.3.2

[kN/m ]
18
19
20
19
20
21
18
19
20
19
19
20
21
22
20
17
19
20
18
20
21
20
15
16
12
13

sat

c
3

[kN/m ]
20
21
22
21
22
22.5
20
21
22
21
21
20
21
22
20
17
19
20
18
20
21
20
15
16
12
13

[kN/m ]
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
2.5
3.8
1
5
13
15
5
13
15
1
1
1
2.5
5

[ ]
35
37.5
40
32.5
35
40
32.5
35
40
32.5
30
30
32.5
35
35
17.5
17.5
25
22.5
22.5
27.5
32.5
15
15
15
15

Secant moduli of subgrade reaction acc. CUR 166


The values of the secant modulus of subgrade reaction automatically filled by D-S HEET P ILING
are extrapolated from Table 3.3 of CUR 166 and given in Table 29.2.

354

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CPT Interpretation
Table 29.2: Secant moduli of subgrade reaction from Table 3.3 of CUR 166

Material

kh;1

kh;2
3

Gravel, slightly silty, loose


Gravel, slightly silty, moderate
Gravel, slightly silty, stiff
Gravel, very silty, loose
Gravel, very silty, moderate
Gravel, very silty, stiff
Sand, clean, loose
Sand, clean, moderate
Sand, clean, stiff
Sand, slightly silty, moderate
Sand, very silty, loose
Loam, slightly sandy, weak
Loam, slightly sandy, moderate
Loam, slightly sandy, stiff
Loam, very sandy, stiff
Clay, clean, weak
Clay, clean, moderate
Clay, clean, stiff
Clay, slightly sandy, weak
Clay, slightly sandy, moderate
Clay, slightly sandy, stiff
Clay, very sandy, stiff
Clay, organic, weak
Clay, organic, moderate
Peat, not preloaded, weak
Peat, moderate preloaded, moderate

Deltares

[kN/m ]
20000
40000
54000
14000
20000
40000
12000
20000
40000
16000
14000
4000
6000
8000
6000
2000
4000
6000
3000
5000
7000
5000
1000
2000
1000
2000

kh;3
3

[kN/m ]
10000
20000
27000
7000
10000
20000
6000
10000
20000
8000
7000
2000
3000
4000
3000
1000
2000
3000
1500
2500
3500
2500
500
1000
500
1000

[kN/m3 ]
5000
10000
13500
3500
5000
10000
3000
5000
10000
4000
3500
1000
1500
2000
1500
500
1000
1500
750
1250
1750
1250
250
500
250
500

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356

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30 Allowable Anchor Force


D-S HEET P ILING checks if the stability of the anchor wall is influenced by the stability of the
sheet piling. D-S HEET P ILING assumes straight slip planes for this check and uses the Culmann
method to determine the active slip plane from the rotation point of the sheet pile wall and the
passive plane from the toe of the anchor wall. The rotation point of the sheet pile wall is taken
to be the first point above the toe of the wall for which the shear force is zero.

 If the slip planes intersect, the anchor is treated as a short anchorage (section 30.1)
and a slip plane from the rotation point of the sheet piling to the toe of the anchor wall
is assumed according to Kranz theory (Kranz, 1953).

 If the slip planes do not intersect, the anchor is treated as a long anchorage (section 30.2) and the plate is analyzed as a stand-alone anchorage plate.

Grout anchors are always considered as a short anchorage.

30.1

Short anchorage
For a short anchorage, the active and passive slip planes intersect, as shown in Figure 30.1.
The analysis is therefore performed assuming a deep slide plane between the retaining wall
rotation point and the toe of the anchor wall.
passive slip
plane

active slip
plane

Eo

Ec

H
Ea

Er

= arc tan

H -T
L cos B

rotation point

Figure 30.1: Stability of anchor wall for a short anchor (Kranz theory)

Note: The angle of the active slip plane and the positions of the rotation point in Figure 30.1
are automatically determined by the program. The rotation point is the first point below the
excavation level for which the calculated shear force in nil.
The equilibrium of the forces from the sheet piling, the anchor plate, the slip plane, the weight
of vertical soil slices and the loads lead to the allowable anchor force:

P =

Deltares

Ea (E0 + Er ) + Ec
Es

(30.1)

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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual


where:

Ea

is the active pressure on the sheet pile:

Ea = 12 Ka H 2 2c
E0

Ka H + Ka q H ;

is the active pressure on the anchor wall:

Eo = 12 Ka T 2 2c

Ka T + Ka q T ;
is the horizontal pressure on deep slide plane:
Er = L cos 0 H+T
2 + q tan ( );
is the horizontal cohesive force along the slide plane:
EC = c L cos ;
is the factor due to the anchor inclination:

Er
Ec
Es

ES = cos beta sin tan( )


Ka

is the lateral earth pressure ratio at active yielding:

Ka =

1sin
1+sin

is the effective soil unit weight, in kN/m3 ;


is the surface load in kN/m2 ;
is the distance between the level of the top of the sheet pile wall and the level at
which the maximum bending moment occurs.

q
H

Note: Calculation of the allowable anchor force P is performed for two cases: Ea and Er
calculated with and without loads, and the minimum is used.

30.2

Long anchor
For a long anchorage, the active and passive slip planes do not intersect, as indicated in
Figure 30.2.

Ep
E0

Figure 30.2: Stability of anchor wall for a long anchor

The equilibrium of the forces from the sheet piling and the anchor plate lead to the allowable
anchor force:

P = Ep E0

(30.2)

where:

Ep

is the passive pressurep


on the anchor wall:

Ep = 1/2Kp T 2 2c Kp T + Kp qT
358

Deltares

Allowable Anchor Force

E0

is the active pressure on the anchor wall:

Ka

is the lateral earth pressure ratio at active yielding:

E0 = 1/2Ka T 2 2c Ka T
Ka =

Kp

1 sin
1 + sin

is the lateral earth pressure ratio at passive yielding:

Kp =

1 + sin
1 sin

Note: The applicability of the method for long anchorage is limited to anchor walls where

T is smaller than approximately twice the height of the anchor wall. If this is not the case, a
warning message will be displayed.
Note: Calculation of the allowable anchor force P is performed for two cases: Ep calculated with and without loads, and the minimum is used. Moreover, only Surcharge loads
(section 4.4.2) are taken into account (not Uniform Loads section 4.4.1).
Note: For long anchorage, the anchor force P is also checked for a short anchor (Kranz theory) because it has been noticed that for long anchorage in some cases de Kranz verification
can be decisive.

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31 Overall Stability
D-S HEET P ILING uses the Bishop method with circular slip planes to estimate the overall soil
stability (Janbu et al., 1956).
A stability analysis according to Bishop assumes a circular slip surface, defined by a center
point and a tangent line. D-S HEET P ILING uses a grid of trial center points for the center of the
slip surface. The initial center points range from 4 m above to 4 m below the top of the sheet
piling in the vertical direction, and from 1 m to 7 m from the sheet piling on the passive side
in the horizontal direction. The grid spacing is 1 meter in each direction. Twelve trial tangent
lines are used, ranging from 1 m below the toe of the sheet piling to half the length of the
sheet piling below the toe. D-S HEET P ILING iteratively moves the grid of trial center points in
the direction of the lowest safety factor. D-S HEET P ILING assumes that all uniform loads end at
a distance from the wall of 5 times the length of the sheet piling. D-S HEET P ILING does not take
into account any stability reduction due to an intersection of the slip plane with the anchorage
plate.

peat

peat

clay

sand

AZ 13

clay

sand

Figure 31.1: Circular slip surface according to Bishop method

Optionally an input file and geometry file can be written for further stability analysis with
D-G EO S TABILITY (formerly known as MStab), see section 5.2.5. Cohesion and phi are written as representative values. A non-uniform surcharge from D-S HEET P ILING is written to the
D-G EO S TABILITY input file as a mean value. This may create a small difference between the
stability results from D-G EO S TABILITY and D-S HEET P ILING.

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32 Vertical Force Balance


The vertical force balance check checks that the sum of the forces acting downwards on the
sheet pile wall does not exceed the resistance of the soil at the toe of the wall. D-S HEET P ILING
determines the resulting vertical force in the upward direction. Usually a negative value will
result, meaning the actual force is acting downward and will be transmitted to the soil at the
toe of the sheet piling.
D-S HEET P ILING considers the following contributions to the vertical force acting on the sheet
pile wall:







Normal forces acting on the wall;


The vertical component of anchor forces;
The resulting force downwards from friction on the active side;
The resulting force upwards from friction on the passive side.
The dead weight of the sheet piling is neglected. The resulting vertical force by friction
is determined by integration along the sheet piling, assuming that the vertical stress is
equal to the horizontal stress times the tangent of the wall friction angle .

D-S HEET P ILING cannot determine the vertical forces caused by soil friction in detail, because
the required knowledge of the relative vertical displacement history is not produced as a result
of D-S HEET P ILING analysis. By default D-S HEET P ILING uses the safe assumption that friction
acts downwards on the active side, and upwards on the passive side (Figure 32.1). This
assumption is only useful if the default direction of the friction along the sheet piling is mainly
caused by the effect of the excavation itself. This may not be the case when normal force
loading also occurs.

Figure 32.1: Assumed vertical friction forces

The calculated resulting vertical force is compared to the vertical force capacity of the soil:

 If Fv Fmax , the vertical force capacity is sufficient


 If Fv > Fmax , the vertical force capacity is not sufficient

Fmax =

Pr;max;point A b
m;b

(32.1)

where:

Fmax

Deltares

is the vertical force capacity;

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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual

M ;N

pr;max;point
A
b
m;b

is a factor that depends on the number M of piles and on the number N


of CPTs (see Table 1 of NEN 6743:2006 (NEN, 2006b)). For N = 1 and
M = 1, = 0.72;
is the maximum representative point resistance (see below);
is the cross-sectional area (unplugged pile only, plugged pile and soil),
see below;
is the acting width;
is the partial material factor.

For the calculation of the vertical force capacity of the soil Fmax , D-S HEET P ILING performs
this check for the case where plugging does not occur and also where it does (Figure 32.2).
In this latter case the area is taken to be the cross-sectional area of the sheet piling plus
the area of the plugged soil. However, for the calculation of the resulting vertical force Fv
in the unplugged case, a wall surface of 1 m2 /m is used instead of the paint surface (Acoat )
in accordance with the CUR 166 recommendations (part 1), leading therefore to the same
results for both plugged and unplugged cases.

Figure 32.2: Plugged and unplugged sheet piling

The maximum point resistance, pr;max;point is a special average cone resistance, as defined
in the Dutch design code NEN 6743-1:2006 article 5.4.2.2 (NEN, 2006b):

Pr;max;point

1
= p s
2

qc;I;mean + qc;II;mean
+ qc;III;mean
2


(32.2)

where:

qc;I;mean

qc;II;mean

qc;III;mean

Deq

is the mean cone resistance over trajectory I, that runs from the pile point
level to a level that is at least 0.7 times and at most 4 times the equivalent
diameter (Deq ) deeper (with this lower depth selected to make pr;max;point a
minimum). If b > 1.5 a, then Deq is equal to a.
is the mean cone resistance over trajectory II, starting at the bottom of trajectory I and ending at the pile point, with this value not larger than the previous
value in the trajectory;
is the mean cone resistance over trajectory III, between the pile point level to
a level 8 times the equivalent diameter higher, with this value not larger than
the previous value in the trajectory;
is the equivalent pile
pdiameter:

Deq = 1.13 a b/a


where a and b are respectively the smallest and the largest dimensions of the

364

largest cross-section of the pile point;


is the pile factor, ranging from 0.5 for some bored piles types to 1.0 for some
driven piles;
is the pile base shape factor;
is the pile base cross-section shape factor.
Deltares

Vertical Force Balance


For special exceptions and further definition of factors see the standard NEN 6743 (NEN,
2006b) (also available in English).
The CUR method allows some modifications to be made should the vertical balance not be
met, as described below:
If the vertical balance is not met, assuming wall friction upwards on the passive side and
downwards on the active side, then the wall begins to move downwards (relative to the soil on
both sides of the wall). This means that the friction on the active side will now also be acting
upwards. The user can therefore enter a negative value for , the wall friction angle, in the
bottom layer on the active side only (a new soil type will need to be defined with this new wall
friction value, and the active and passive sides will need different profiles). This will have the
effect of reversing the friction direction on the side with this negative . If the vertical force
balance is still not met with this different friction direction in the bottom layer then the friction
direction in the second layer up on the active side can also be reversed in the same manner,
and so on.

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33 The CUR 166 step-by-step design procedure


In general, sheet piling design involves the analysis of all relevant Ultimate Limit States (Failure) and Serviceability Limit States during each stage of construction. The CUR step-by-step
procedure described in CUR publication 166 (CUR, 2005) was developed to design a sheet
pile wall with a single anchorage, using a semi-probabilistic method. As described below,
D-S HEET P ILING supports specific parts of the CUR design procedure.

33.1

Semi-probabilistic approach
A probabilistic design is based on a particular required safety level that is related to the probability of an occurrence. In this semi-probabilistic approach, variations of soil properties, sheet
piling properties, loading and geometry are taken into account by dividing representative values (also called characteristic values) by so-called partial safety factors. A representative
value can be a low value, a nominal (average/mean) value or a high value. The low and high
values are usually defined as the values that will be exceeded by 5 % of the samples during
testing.
The values of the partial safety factors are determined by the mechanism being considered,
by the variation of the parameter, and by the required safety level. The value of a partial safety
factor for a certain parameter is usually indicated by design codes or guidelines. The partial
safety factors are determined by the mechanism being considered, by the variation of the
parameter, and by the required safety level. The value of a partial safety factor for a certain
parameter is usually indicated by design codes or guidelines.
The use of representative values in combination with partial factors yields a high and/or low
design value for each parameter. Analysis of different combinations of the high and low values of parameters inside a variation study can be used to check whether failure is always
prevented or if serviceability is still ensured at the required safety level.

Probability
of this value
occuring

5%

5%

low

normal

high

value

Figure 33.1: Low, nominal and high representative values

The partial safety factors provided in design guidelines are in turn derived from the required
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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual


values of a reliability index . The equation below, for example, produces the low design value
for a normally distributed parameter X with mean and standard deviation .

X =

(33.1)

The in this expression is used as an influence parameter to model the predominance of the
parameter in relation to the considered failure mechanism.
The CUR design procedure distinguishes the following three safety classes, with corresponding reliability indexes:
Class I
Class II
Class III

33.2

Relatively simple constructions, no personal safety risks and relatively minor


damage in the case of overall failure. = 2.5
Considerable damage in the case of overall failure; minor personal safety
risks. = 3.4
Major damage in the case of overall failure and/or considerable personal
safety risks. = 4.2

Support of the CUR 166 step-by-step procedure by D-S HEET P ILING


In CUR publication 166 (CUR, 2005), the design of a sheet piling with single anchorage is
summarized by defining 11 steps. D-S HEET P ILING supports particular parts of the following
steps:
Step 5:

Step 6:

368

Determine the minimum length of the sheet piling using a stability analysis
(section 5.2.2) including modified soil properties, surface levels and water
levels. Modification is performed according to sub-step 6.3 (as described
below)
Determine the design values for sheet piling dimensions
Five combinations of modified soil properties, surface levels and water levels. Those five combinations are referred as sub-steps 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4 and
6.5.Modified soil properties are calculated by applying partial factors on the
input low representative values for cohesion, friction and modulus of subgrade
reaction of the soil. Modified ground and water levels are calculated by applying level variations on the input water levels at the active and passive sides
and on the input ground level at the passive side. Figure 33.2 to Figure 33.6
gives a schematic representation of the modifications for each sub-steps and
Table 33.1gives an overview of the design values for each sub-steps.If safety
classes I, II or III are selected, the values of the partial factors and level variations defined in the User Defined Partial Factors window (section 4.1.2) are
used.

Deltares

The CUR 166 step-by-step design procedure

Step 7:

Step 9:

Step 9.7:

Step 10:

Step 11.1:
Step 11.3:

Deltares

The design values for the Surcharges (section 4.4.2) and Uniform Loads
section 4.4.1 are calculated using the input partial factor in the corresponding window. Values of partial factors for permanent or temporary loads are
prescribed in table 3.7 of (CUR, 2005). Mean values of bending stiffness
section 4.2.1 and anchor stiffness (section 4.5.1) must be entered. See tables 3.1 and 3.3 of (CUR, 2005) for representative values of soil parameters.
D-S HEET P ILING offers the Lowest values of the modulus of subgrade reaction according to table 3.3 in section 4.3.2. If the Highest values are required the user needs to input them manually, multiplying the Lowest value
by 2.25.For a given length of the sheet piling, D-S HEET P ILING calculates the
maximum moment and the maximum displacement obtained from the five
sub-steps. If 100% of the mobilized resistance or if a displacement of 25%
of the sheet piling length are reached, the sheet piling is considered to be
unstable.
Determine the design moment (section 5.2.3) in the sheet piling by performing
analysis for the five combinations of Step 6 presented above. The design
moment corresponds to the maximum moment determined from the five substeps.
Determine the design anchor force (section 5.2.3) by performing analysis for
the five combinations of Step 6 presented above using a higher value for the
anchor stiffness. This new stiffness is determined using a multiplication factor
specified by the user (see the Verify Sheet Piling tab of the Start Calculation
window in section 5.2.3) according to the selected safety class. The design
anchor force corresponds to the maximum anchor force determined from the
five sub-steps.
Check vertical force balance (section 6.2) with the simplified assumption of
total friction on the active and passive sides. If the vertical balance is not met
then reversal of the wall friction force direction in the lower layers is permitted.
See chapter 32 for background information.
Determine the design displacements (section 5.2.3) from the Serviceability
Limit calculation which corresponds to Step 6.5. This means that the input
low representative values for the cohesion, friction and modulus of subgrade
reaction are used to find the design value, with no modification on the input
ground and water levels needed.
Check anchor wall stability (section 5.2.4) using the Kranz method. See chapter 30 for background information.
Check overall sheet piling stability (section 5.2.5) using the Bishop method.
The strength parameter of cohesion and the friction angle phi are divided by
1.5 and 1.2 respectively, for all safety classes (for safety classes see section 33.1). The driving moment is multiplied by 0.9 (class I), 1.0 (class II)
or 1.1 (class III) as prescribed in table 3.11 from CUR 166. For background
information, see chapter 31.

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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual


Table 33.1: Design values of soil properties according to Step 6 of the CUR 166 procedure

Step

Limit

kd(1)

cd

tan d

tan d

6.1
ULS
klow,rep /k
clow,rep /c
tan low,rep /tan
tan low,rep /tan
6.2
ULS
khigh,rep / 1.0 clow,rep /c
tan low,rep /tan
tan low,rep /tan
6.3
ULS
klow,rep /k
clow,rep /c
tan low,rep /tan
tan low,rep /tan
6.4
ULS
khigh,rep / 1.0 clow,rep /c
tan low,rep /tan
tan low,rep /tan
6.5
SLS
klow,rep
clow,rep
tan low,rep
tan low,rep
(1)
The high representative value of the modulus of subgrade reaction khigh,rep is determined
by multiplying the input low representative value klow,rep by 2.25.

Table 33.2: Design values of ground and water levels according to Step 6 of the CUR 166
procedure

Step
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5

Limit
ULS
ULS
ULS
ULS
SLS

Ground (GL)
Passive side
GLrep - GLpas
GLrep - GLpas
GLrep - GLpas
GLrep - GLpas
GLrep

Water level (WL)


Passive side
WLrep + WLpas
WLrep + WLpas
WLrep - WLpas
WLrep - WLpas
WLrep

Active side
WLrep + WLact
WLrep + WLact
WLrep + WLact
WLrep + WLact
WLrep

step 6.1

Figure 33.2: Schematic representation of the soil stiffness, surface levels and water levels
modifications according to step 6.1 of the CUR 166 design procedure

370

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The CUR 166 step-by-step design procedure

step 6.2

Figure 33.3: Schematic representation of the soil stiffness, surface levels and water levels
modifications according to step 6.2 of the CUR 166 design procedure

step 6.3

Figure 33.4: Schematic representation of the soil stiffness, surface levels and water levels
modifications according to step 6.3 of the CUR 166 design procedure

step 6.4

Figure 33.5: Schematic representation of the soil stiffness, surface levels and water levels
modifications according to step 6.4 of the CUR 166 design procedure

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D-S HEET P ILING, User Manual

step 6.5

Figure 33.6: Schematic representation of the soil stiffness, surface levels and water levels
modifications according to step 6.5 of the CUR 166 design procedure

step 9.1

Figure 33.7: Schematic representation of the anchor stiffness modification according to


step 9.1 of the CUR 166 design procedure

Note: For steps 6.1 to 6.4, if the water level exceeds the ground level when increased, then
it is set equal to the ground level.

33.3
33.3.1

Partial Safety Factors


Partial safety factors On all stages (method A) or one stage (method B)
The CUR 166 procedure itself does not prescribe whether partial factors on strength and load
should be applied to all construction stages, or just to the stage that is checked. Application of
partial factors during only one stage can be beneficial, because it allows lower safety factors to
be applied during previous stages. D-S HEET P ILING supports the application of partial factors
to both individual stages (method B) and to all construction stages (method A) (section 33.2).
Method A applies the partial factor set to all construction stages. Method B checks all stages
as a final stage. Method B assumes low representative values, with no partial factors, for
all stages apart from the final stage being checked. The partial factors corresponding to the
selected safety class are only applied to the final stage. Using method B allows each stage
to be checked (as a final stage) using a different safety class, which can result in a more
economical design. Method A, however, gives a more conservative approach and requires
372

Deltares

The CUR 166 step-by-step design procedure


less calculation.

33.3.2

Partial safety factors and Geometry modifications


Table 33.3: Partial factors applied to soil parameters according to Table 3.7 of the
CUR 166 design procedure

Parameter
Cohesion
Tangent Phi
Tangent Delta

c
tan

Class I
1.00
1.05

Class II
1.00
1.15

Class III
1.10
1.20

Table 33.4: Level variations according to Table 3.7 of the CUR 166 design procedure

Level
Surface level (passive side)
Phreatic line (passive side)
Phreatic line (active side)

GLpas
WLpas
WLact

Class I
0.20
0.15
0.05

Class II
0.30
0.20
0.05

Class III
0.35
0.25
0.05

Table 33.5: Partial factors applied to loads according to CUR 166

Load effect
Permanent unfavorable
Permanent favorable
Temporary unfavorable
Temporary favorable

Deltares

Class I
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.000

Class II
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.00

Class III
1.00
1.00
1.25
0.00

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34 Design according to Eurocode 7


D-S HEET P ILING allows designing a sheet piling wall according to the European standard Eurocode 7, using either the methods and partial factors prescribed in:

 section 34.1: The general Eurocode 1997 - Part 1: General rules (NEN-EN, March
2005);

 section 34.2: The Dutch annex of the Eurocode 7 (NEN, september 2009) which prescribes the same design procedure as the CUR 166 design procedure (CUR, 2005),
except that the default partial factors are different;
 section 34.3: The Belgian annex of the Eurocode 7 (NBN-EN, january 2011).

34.1
34.1.1

General Eurocode 7 (EN 1997-1)


General EC 7 Design approaches
According to the General Eurocode 7, four Design Approaches, with different partial factors
are defined for the Ultimate Limit State.






Design Approach 1, set 1


Design Approach 1, set 2
Design Approach 2
Design Approach 3

The Design Approach used will depend on the choice of the country where the verification is
performed/the construction takes place, in order to conform to their design methods. It should
be verified that a rupture or excessive deformation will not occur with the appropriate set of
partial factors applied.

34.1.2

General EC 7 Partial factors


For the design of the retaining wall, the verification of structural (STR) and geotechnical (GEO)
limit states is applied, considering the procedure described in section 2 of Eurocode 1997-1
(NEN-EN, March 2005). The partial factors can be found in Annex A.3 of Eurocode 7:

 Table A.3 gives the recommended partial factors on actions or on the effects of actions;
 Table A.4 gives the recommended partial factors for soil parameters;
 Table A.13 gives the recommended partial resistance factors for retaining structures.
For design approaches DA 1 combination 2 and DA 3, the partial factors are applied on
the loads whereas for design approaches DA 1 combination 1 and DA 2, the partial factors
are applied on the effect of the loads. In this second case, D-S HEET P ILING multiplies the
calculated moments and shear forces with a factor of 1.35 and applies a partial factor of only
1.1 (= 1.5/1.35) instead of 1.5 to the temporary unfavorable loads.
The partial resistance factor R;e has an effect on the maximum percentage of mobilized
resistance by decreasing it to a limited value of 100%/R;e instead of 100%.

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Table 34.1: Partial factors for retaining structures acc. to the general Eurocode 7

DA 1
set 1
Partial factors on actions (F ) or the effects of actions (E ):
Permanent, unfavorable
G;dst 1.35
Permanent, favorable
G;stb 1
Temporary, unfavorable
Q;dst 1.5
Temporary, favorable
Q;stb 0
Partial factors on soil parameters (M ):
Tangent of the angle of shearing resis.

1
Effective cohesion
c0
1
Undrained shear strength
cu
1
Unconfined strength
qu
1
Weight density

1
Partial resistance factors (R ):
Bearing capacity
R;v
1
Sliding resistance
R;h
1
Earth resistance
R;e
1

34.1.3

DA 1
set 2

DA 2

DA 3

1
1
1.3
0

1.35
1.
1.5
0

1
1
1.3
0

1.25
1.25
1.4
1.4
1

1
1
1
1
1

1.25
1.25
1.4
1.4
1

1
1
1

1.4
1.1
1.4

1
1
1

General EC 7 Geometrical data


Ground surfaces
According to Eurocode 7, the level of the resisting soil is lowered below the nominally expected
level by an amount a equal to 10% of the distance between the lowest support and the
excavation level, limited to a maximum of 0.5 m.

Water levels
The design input value for the position of the phreatic surfaces and the free water is defined
by the user.

34.1.4

General EC 7 Determination of earth pressures


At rest values of earth pressure
For the calculation of the
neutral earth pressure coefficient, the formula used in D-S HEET P ILING
(K0 = (1 sin ) OCR) is the one prescribed in the EuroCode 7.

Limiting values of earth pressure


According to the general EuroCode 7, the active and passive earth pressure may be calculated using the Culmann method (delta, c, phi soil parameters) as it takes into account the
relative movement of the soil and the wall at failure and the corresponding shape of the failure
surface.

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Intermediate values of earth pressure
According to the general EuroCode 7, the intermediate values of earth pressure may be calculated using a spring constant method, which is the case in D-S HEET P ILING.

34.1.5

General EC 7 Overall Stability


To check that an overall stability failure of the sheet piling will not occur, the verification of
structural (STR) and geotechnical (GEO) limit states is applied, considering the procedure
described in section 11 of Eurocode 1997-1 (NEN-EN, March 2005). The partial factors can
be found in Annex A.3 of Eurocode 7:

 Table A.3 gives the recommended partial factors on actions or on the effects of actions;
 Table A.4 gives the recommended partial factors for soil parameters;
 Table A.14 gives the recommended partial resistance factors for overall stability.
Note: D-S HEET P ILING is not a program dedicated to overall stability and performs therefore a
quick stability check by applying partial factors only on soil parameters. For a complete overall
stability check, the user has to divide the calculated resisting moment by R;e . Besides,
if approaches DA 1,1 or DA 2 are used, the user has to multiply the driving moment (i.e.
resulting effect of the actions on the failure surface) by E . If approaches DA 1,2 or DA3 are
used, the user has to enter a design magnitude for loads.
The soil parameters of cohesion and friction angle are divided by the prescribed partial factors.
For the unit weight, low and high design values are used (i.e. input representative values are
respectively divided and multiplied by the prescribed partial factor. The minimum calculated
overall stability factor of both calculations is kept.
Table 34.2: Partial factors for overall stability acc. to Eurocode 1997-1

DA 1
set 1
Partial factors on actions (F ) or the effects of actions (E ):
Permanent, unfavorable
G;dst 1.35
Permanent, favorable
G;stb 1
Temporary, unfavorable
Q;dst 1.5
Temporary, favorable
Q;stb 0
Partial factors on soil parameters (M ):
Tangent of the angle of shearing resis.

1
Effective cohesion
c0
1
Undrained shear strength
cu
1
Unconfined strength
qu
1
Weight density

1
Partial resistance factors (R ):
Earth resistance
R;e
1

DA 1
set 2

DA 2

DA 3

1
1
1.3
0

1.35
1.
1.50
0

1
1
1.3
0

1.25
1.25
1.4
1.4
1

1
1
1
1
1

1.25
1.25
1.4
1.4
1

1.1

The overall sheet piling stability is checked using the Bishop method (chapter 31). According
to Eurocode 1997-1, circular slip surfaces where ground or embankment material is relatively
homogeneous and isotropic can be assumed.

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34.2

Dutch Annex of the Eurocode 7 (NEN-EN 1997-1/NB)


The Dutch Annex of the Eurocode prescribed the same step-by-step design procedure as
in the Dutch recommendations CUR 166 (section 33.2) applying partial factors on either all
stages (method A) or only one stage (method B) except that the safety classes, partial safety
factors and geometrical modifications are different.

34.2.1

Dutch Annex EC 7 Reliability Classes


The Dutch Annex of the Eurocode 7 distinguishes the following three reliability classes, with
corresponding reliability indexes:

 Reliability Class 1: Relatively simple constructions, no personal safety risks and relatively minor damage in the case of overall failure. = 2.5
 Reliability Class 2: Considerable damage in the case of overall failure; minor personal
safety risks. = 3.4
 Reliability Class 3: Major damage in the case of overall failure and/or considerable
personal safety risks. = 4.2

34.2.2

Dutch Annex EC 7 Step-by-step procedure


The Dutch Annex of Eurocode 7 (NEN, september 2009) prescribed the same step-by-step
procedure as the CUR 166 procedure. Refer to section 33.2 for a completed description.

34.2.3

Dutch Annex EC 7 Partial factors and Geometry modifications


The partial factors recommended by the standard NEN 9097-1 (complementary standard to
Eurocode 7) (NEN, september 2009) are given in Table 34.3and used as default values in
D-S HEET P ILING (section 4.1.2). These partial factors apply to loads and material properties.
Table 34.3: Partial factors according to the Dutch Annex of Eurocode 7

Partial factors on loads:


Permanent, unfavorable
Permanent, favorable
Temporary, unfavorable
Temporary, favorable
Partial factors on soil materials:
Cohesion
Tangent phi and tangent delta
Modulus of subgrade reaction

RC1

RC2

RC3

1.00
1.00
1.00
0.00

1.00
1.00
1.10
0.00

1.00
1.00
1.25
0.00

1.15
1.15
1.30

1.25
1.175
1.30

1.40
1.20
1.30

The Dutch annex the level of the resisting soil is lowered below the nominally expected level
by an amount a equal to 10% of the distance between the lowest support and the excavation
level, limited to a maximum of 0.5 m.

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Table 34.4: Level variations according to the Dutch Annex of Eurocode 7

Parameter
Increase retaining height
Max. increase retaining height
Change in phreatic line on passive side
Raise in phreatic line on active side

34.2.4

GLpas
WLpas
WLact

RC1
RC2
RC3
max(10% H; GLpas )
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.20
0.25
0.25
0.05
0.05
0.05

Dutch Annex EC 7 Overall Stability


The prescribed safety factor for soil parameters (Table 32-5) are given in article A.3.2(1)P of
NEN 1997-1/NB. The cohesion and friction angle are divided by the prescribed partial factors.
For the unit weight, low and high design values are used (i.e. input representative values are
respectively divided and multiplied by the prescribed partial factor. The minimum calculated
overall stability factor of both calculations is kept.
Table 34.5: Partial factors (for overall stability) on soil parameters acc. to the Dutch Annex
of Eurocode 7

Soil parameter
Effective cohesion
Friction angle
Unit weight

34.3
34.3.1

Symbol

c0
0

RC1
1.30
1.20
1.00

RC2
1.45
1.25
1.00

RC3
1.60
1.30
1.00

Belgian Annex of the Eurocode 7 (NBN-EN 1997-1 ANB)


Belgian Annex EC 7 Limit States
In its national annex NBN-EN 1997-1 ANB, Belgium selected Design Approach DA 1 for verification at Ultimate Limit and prescribed partial factors equal to 1 for verification at Serviceability
Limit State.

34.3.2

Belgian Annex EC 7 Partial factors


In its national annex NBN-EN 1997-1 ANB, Belgium adopted the recommended partial factors
and geometry modifications of Annex A of the general Eurocode 7-1 except for the variable
action in set 2 which is reduced to 1.10. The partial factors can be found in Annex A.3 of the
Belgian annex:

 Table A.3 ANB gives the recommended partial factors on actions or on the effects of
actions;

 Table A.4 ANB gives the recommended partial factors for soil parameters;
 Table A.13 ANB gives the recommended partial resistance factors for retaining structures.

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Table 34.6: Partial factors acc. to the Belgian annex NBN-EN 1997-1 ANB

Combination 1
Partial factors on actions (F ) or the effects of actions (E ):
Permanent, unfavorable
G;dst
1.35
Permanent, favorable
G;stb
1
Temporary, unfavorable
Q;dst
1.5
Temporary, favorable
Q;stb
0
Partial factors on soil parameters (M ):
Tangent phi
0
1
Effective cohesion
c0
1
Undrained strength
cu
1
Unit weight

1
Partial resistance factors (R ):
Bearing capacity
R;v
1
Sliding resistance
R;h
1
Earth resistance
R;e
1

Combination 2
1
1
1.1
0
1.25
1.25
1.4
1
1
1
1

For combination 2, the partial factors are applied on the loads whereas for combination 1,
the partial factors are applied on the effect of the loads. In this second case, D-S HEET P ILING
multiplies the calculated moments and shear forces with a factor of 1.35 and applies a partial
factor of only 1.1 (= 1.5/1.35) instead of 1.5 to the temporary unfavorable loads.

34.3.3

Belgian Annex EC 7 Geometrical data


Belgium adopted the recommended geometrical data of the general Eurocode 7-1, as given
in section 34.1.3.

34.3.4

Belgian Annex EC 7 Determination of earth pressures


In its national annex, Belgium added an extra article to paragraph 9.5.3 regarding cohesive
soils: the cohesion of the first meter below the excavation level is limited. A linear increase of
the cohesion is assumed from 0% at the excavation level to 100% one meter below that level.

34.3.5

Belgian Annex EC 7 Overall Stability


As the Belgian annex NBN-EN 1997-1 ANB doesnt provide alternative information about
overall stability, the design procedure as given in the general Eurocode 1997-1 is used. Refer
to section 34.1.5 for a detailed description. Concerning the partial factors, Belgium adopted
the recommended values of Annex A of the general Eurocode 1997-1 except for the variable
action in combination 2 which is reduced to 1.10.

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Table 34.7: Partial factors for overall stability acc. to Eurocode 1997-1

Combination 1
Partial factors on actions (F ) or the effects of actions (E ):
Permanent, unfavorable
G;dst
1.35
Permanent, favorable
G;stb
1
Temporary, unfavorable
Q;dst
1.5
Temporary, favorable
Q;stb
0
Partial factors on soil parameters (M ):
Tangent of the angle of shearing resis- f
1
tance
Effective cohesion
c0
1
Undrained shear strength
cu
1
Unconfined strength
qu
1
Weight density

1
Partial resistance factors (R ):
Earth resistance
R;e
1

Deltares

Combination 2
1
1
1.1
0
1.25
1.25
1.4
1.4
1
1

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35 Initial Stage
D-S HEET P ILING offers a special option to deal with initially non-horizontal surfaces, or initial
surcharges. A previously existing sheet pile wall will deform if a surcharge is later applied or
the surface profile altered, whereas if there is a surcharge already present or if the ground
surface is not horizontal at the time of installation, the sheet pile wall will not deform until a
change is made at a later time.

Without the initial stage option


When this option is not used, a non-horizontal surface or surcharge in the first stage will cause
deformations of the sheet piling. It is assumed that a non-horizontal surface or surcharge on
one side of the sheet piling will only cause additional horizontal stresses on that side of the
sheet pile wall.

loading of sheet pile


wall as as result of
a non-horizontal
surface or a surcharge

Figure 35.1: Effect of a surcharge when not using the initial stage

h.load.lef t = fh.lef t h.boussinesq.lef t

(35.1)

h.load.right = fh.lef t h.boussinesq.right

(35.2)

The stress following from the Boussinesq assumption is multiplied by a factor f to account for
the existence of the sheet piling, see section 27.3.

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With the initial stage option
When the initial stage option is used, D-S HEET P ILING simply assumes that the initial stress
contribution resulting from a non-horizontal surface or an initial surcharge is transferred to
both sides of the sheet piling, see Equation 35.3.

loading of left hand


side of sheet pile wall
as the result of a
non-horizontal surface or
a surcharge

loading of left hand


side of sheet pile wall
as the result of a
non-horizontal surface or
a surcharge

Figure 35.2: Effect of a surcharge when using the initial stage option

h.load.left = h.load.right = h.boussinesq.left + h.boussinesq.right

(35.3)

The neutral stress changes when the initial stage option is used, whilst the active and passive
yield stresses remain the same as when the initial stress option is not used. This is illustrated
in Figure 35.3 below.
same side as surcharge
horizontal
stress

side without surcharge

horizontal
stress

with initial

a
n

without initial

without initial
with initial

displacement

displacement

Figure 35.3: Soil stresses on both sides of the sheet pile wall, with and without the initial
stage option being used

On both sides of the sheet piling, the same value of initial neutral horizontal stress will result,
as long as the theoretical neutral stress is within the yield limits (a < n < p ). If this
condition can not be satisfied on a certain side however, the neutral stress will be set equal to
the yield limit, and deformation of the sheet piling will occur.
The load correction by the initial option remains active during all following stages, as long as
the soil is not excavated. See Equation 35.4 and Equation 35.5.

384

h.correction.left = (1 fh.left ) h.boussinesq.left + h.boussinesq.right

(35.4)

h.correction.right = (1 fh.right ) h.boussinesq.right + h.boussinesq.left

(35.5)

Deltares

36 Analysis of Single Piles


D-S HEET P ILINGs single pile module calculates the bending moment and deformation of a
single pile, due to lateral deformations of the soil or due to discrete forces and moments
applied to the pile itself.
The solution method for single piles used by D-S HEET P ILING is the same as the solution
method for a sheet pile wall chapter 26 although some changes have been made to account
for the differences between a long wall and a single pile (where arching occurs).

36.1

Loading by soil deformations


When surcharges are applied to a soil surface (for example, when creating a dam or when
making excavations), there will be both vertical and horizontal movements of the soil. If piles
are present, these soil displacements will cause pressure against the piles. This results in
additional bending moments and displacements to those generated by the loads at the pile
head. Since piles are usually only designed for axial loading, these lateral loads could quite
easily become a critical factor in the design.
To calculate the effect of soil displacements on a pile, the following steps should be performed:

 Determine the soil displacements which would exist at the location of interest, where
the pile not presents, using one of both options:

 Calculated soil displacements by D-S HEET P ILING using the De Leeuw tables (section 36.1.1);
 User defined soil displacements calculated from an other program, for example a finite
element program;

 Use D-S HEET P ILING to determine the displacements, moments and forces in the pile as
a result of these input undisturbed soil displacements (section 36.1.2).

36.1.1

Calculation of the soil displacements using the De Leeuw method


Principles of De Leeuw method
The De Leeuw method (De Leeuw, 1963) estimates the horizontal displacements based on an
elastic solution for a single elastic incompressible layer, characterized by the Youngs modulus
E , and loaded by a uniform load with a certain width. The solution assumes that the horizontal
deformations of the elastic layer are always constrained at the bottom by a stiff foundation
layer. Optionally the deformations can also be constrained by a stiff layer at the top.
The method considers the following two situations (Figure 36.1):

 I: elastic layer on a rigid base;


 II: elastic layer on a rigid base with a stiff layer on top.

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Figure 36.1: Situations considered by De Leeuw method

Note: In case of an inputted embankment load, D-S HEET P ILING schematizes it as an equivalent uniform load with a certain width as illustrated in Figure 36.2.

Figure 36.2: Non-uniform load schematized as a uniform load

Limitations
The method has the following limitations:

 As Poisson ratio = 0.5 is used (i.e. incompressible layer), this gives the elastic response of the soil in an undrained situation, so in fact directly after applying the load;
additional horizontal deformations due to consolidation are not accounted for;

 The thickness of the stiff top layer is not taken into account.
 The horizontal distance of the pile to the boundaries of the surcharge load is limited to
6 times the thickness of the elastic layer.

386

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Analysis of Single Piles


Elasticity modulus
The Youngs modulus of the elastic layer can either be directly prescribed by the user or automatically estimated by D-S HEET P ILING from the average unit weight of the elastic layers.
D-S HEET P ILING determines the average unit weight avg of several soft layers using the following formula:
n
P

avg =

i hi

i=1

(36.1)

where:

i
n
hi
H

is the unit weight of elastic layer i;


is the number of elastic layers;
is the thickness of elastic layer i;
is the total thickness of the elastic layers.

The elasticity modulus is then derived from the dry unit weight by linear interpolation in the
table below, according to De Leeuw & Timmermans.
Table 36.1: E-modulus vs. unit weight (De Leeuw & Timmermans)

[kN/m ]
10
13
18
19

E
[kN/m2 ]
575
1000
1500
2800

Modulus of subgrade reaction


The modulus of subgrade reaction can either be directly prescribed by the user or automatically estimated by D-S HEET P ILING using the following formula:

k=

h0
uh

(36.2)

where:

is the effective horizontal stress against a not-moving pile:


 In the foundation layer: h = 0;
 In the elastic layer, h is calculated with De Leeuw tables (De Leeuw, 1963);
 If a stiff layer is present, h = 0 in the stiff layer and surface.

uh

is the horizontal soil displacement calculated with De Leeuw tables (De Leeuw,
1963).

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36.1.2

Determination of the displacements, moments and forces in the pile


D-S HEET P ILING determines the displacements and forces in the pile by assuming that the soil
reaction is caused by the difference between the pile displacements and soil displacements if
the pile were not present (Figure 36.3).

Figure 36.3: Lateral earth pressure and pile deformation by soil deformation

D-S HEET P ILING does not consider geometrical non-linearity while the prescribed soil displacements are being applied. A normal force (such as the weight of a building supported by the
pile) will therefore not affect the bending moment during analysis of prescribed displacements.

Soil reaction
D-S HEET P ILING uses Equation 28.1 and Equation 28.2 to determine the active and passive
lateral pressures from the input of the lateral earth pressure coefficients. The soil stiffness is
determined from the input of the modulus of subgrade reaction. When performing single pile
calculations based upon soil displacements the user needs to take the effect of arching into
account by suitable modification of the earth pressure coefficients. Ka and K0 are usually
modeled as zero, whilst Kp needs to be determined specially:
In soil layers with soil displacements a calculation has to be made for the situation without
a pile. This calculation gives the soil displacements, U , and change in soil pressure ( )
on the location of the pile. The horizontal subgrade modulus can then be calculated in this
way: Khor = s 2 /U . In this formula s is the shell factor (in soft layers mostly 1.5).
Alternatively, the passive earth pressure coefficient, Kp can be calculated automatically by
selecting the Brinch-Hansen method (see section 36.2.1) in which case Ka and K0 will be
set to zero.
When calculating for piles loaded by soil displacements, the results of the calculation are
highly influenced by the soil displacements and the value of the horizontal subgrade modulus
in the displacing soil layers.

36.2

Loading by forces and moments


For a single pile loaded by forces, D-S HEET P ILING offers the following alternatives for the direct
input of the soil strength and stiffness by forces.

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Analysis of Single Piles


36.2.1

Brinch-Hansen
D-S HEET P ILING uses Equation 36.3 to determine the passive pressure against the pile according to Brinch-Hansen (Brinch-Hansen and Christensen, 1961).

p = Kq v0 + Kc c, a = 0, n = 0

(36.3)

Kq and Kc are factors of Brinch-Hansen for piles:

Kq =

Kc =

Kq0 + Kq q

D
B

(36.4)

D
B

(36.5)

D
1 + q
B
Kc0 + Kc c
1 + c

D
B

where:

 
 

+
e( 2 +)tan cos tan

Kq0 = e( 2 +)tan cos tan


4
2
h
i
4 2 
+
tan

0
(
)
Kc = e 2
+
1 cot
cos tan
4
2
Kq = Kc K0 tan
Kc = Nc d
c
4
d
c = 1.58 + 4.09 tan
h
 
i
Nc = etan tan2
+
1 cot
4
2
K0 = 1 sin for OCR = 1

Kq0
K0 sin


0
Kq Kq
sin 4 + 2
 
K0
c = c 0 2 sin
+
Kc Kc
4
2
q =

D is the average depth at the middle of the layer [m].


By identification with thep
usual formula for the calculation of the passive earth pressure
0

p = Kp v + 2c Kp , it can be deduced:

Kp = Kq
c Kc
c = p
2 Kq

Passive earth pressure coefficient [-]


Adapted cohesion [kN/m2 ]

This method automatically takes the effect of arching into account.


As the pressure is a function of depth, the same soil material cannot be used in D-S HEET P ILING
at different depths. Instead, if the same soil type occurs at different depths then a copy of the
soil type needs to be made for each instance of the soil type. It is also recommended that
thick layers are split into two or more layers for better representation of the change in passive
pressure with depth.

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Table 36.3: Values of the rheological coefficient

Over consolidated
Normally consolidated
Decomposed, weathered

36.2.2

Peat
1
-

Clay
1
2/3
1/2

Loam
2/3
1/2
1/2

Sand
1/2
1/3
1/3

Gravel
1/3
1/4
1/4

Mnard
D-S HEET P ILING uses Equation 36.6 to determine the modulus of subgrade reaction according
to Mnard (Mnard, 1971). This method automatically takes the effect of arching into account.

1
=
kh

1
R
3Em 1.3R0 2.65 r0

4(2.65) +3
2R
Em
18

+ R

if R R0

(36.6)

if R < R0

where:

kh
Em
R0
R

is the modulus of horizontal subgrade reaction;


is the pressiometric modulus, in kN/m2 .
is a constant: R0 = 0.3 m.
is half width of the pile, in m;
is the rheological coefficient depending on the kind of the soil and the soil conditions.
In Table 36.3 some general values are presented. D-S HEET P ILING uses the values
of normally consolidated soil.

The following correlation between Em and qc (cone resistance) can be used:


Peat:
Em = (3-4) qc
Clay:
Em = (2-3) qc
Loam:
Em = (1-2) qc
Sand:
Em = (0.7-1) qc
Gravel:
Em = (0.5-0.7) qc

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37 Special Cases
D-S HEET P ILING can be used to make calculations for a number of situations that deviate from
standard daily practice.

37.1

Combination with piles


In the case of combinations of long piles with shorter sheet piling elements, the acting width
can be used to influence the soil pressures and other loads that act on the upper (long piles
and sheet piling) and lower (long piles only) parts of the wall. Using the acting width allows
direct output of the discrete bending moments in the piles. For the part with only piles, the soil
reaction data must be modified in order to model arching.

37.1.1

Acting width

 Berlin Walls. Berlin Walls are a combination of I-shaped piles, with horizontal planks
inserted in the upper part. If the bending stiffness of the planks is negligible then
direct output of the true bending moment of each pile can be produced. The Combined Wall wizard (section 4.2.2) automatically converts the wall into the appropriate
D-S HEET P ILING model. For example, if the piles of a Berlin wall are positioned 3 m
center-to-center and the width of the flange is 0.4 m, for the upper part an acting width
of b = 3 m is used and the stiffness of a pile is divided by 3: EI = EIpile /3. For the
lower part with only piles, the width of the soil that acts on a single pile is b = 0.4, the
stiffness is divided to give EI = EIpile /0.4.

 Combined walls. The Combined Wall wizard (section 4.2.2) automatically converts
a combined wall, which is made from a combination of regular sheet piling parts with
tubular piles, into the appropriate D-S HEET P ILING model. For instance, for piles positioned 3 m center-to-center, with an outer diameter of 0.8 m with the sheet piling parts
contributing to the bending stiffness: For the upper part, an acting width of b = 3 m is
used, and the stiffness of the section is divided by 3: EI = EIsection /3. For the lower
part with only piles, the acting width is b = 0.8 m and the pile stiffness is again by the
acting width: EI = EIpile /0.8

37.1.2

Modified soil reaction


The equivalent width of the soil that will react if pile displacement occurs is usually larger than
the pile width, as a result of arching. Guidelines for the determination of the discrete active
and passive soil reaction on piles are given for example by Brinch-Hansen (Brinch-Hansen
and Christensen, 1961).
A simplified way to deal with the effects of arching is, given a certain pile width bpile , to
assume an equivalent soil width beq . Then the passive lateral earth pressure coefficient and
the modulus of subgrade reaction per running meter should be multiplied by the shell factor
beq
, and active lateral earth pressure coefficient should be divided by this factor (Figure 37.1).
b
pile

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p = K*p v
k*

p = Kp v

a = Ka v
a = K*a v

Figure 37.1: Soil reaction

The resulting equations for the soil pressure (per unit area) are:

s=

beq
bpile

Kp = s Kp

k =sk
Ka
Ka =
s

(37.1)
(37.2)
(37.3)
(37.4)

The shell factor s is a user defined input value in the Soil Materials window (see section 4.3.2).
D-S HEET P ILING modifies automatically the passive and active earth pressure coefficients Kp
and Ka according to Equation 37.2 and Equation 37.4 respectively and the modulus of subgrade reaction according to Equation 37.3.
Tutorial 10 (chapter 16) gives an example of the application of this method.

37.2

Surcharge with limited size parallel to the sheet piling


D-S HEET P ILING assumes that a surcharge will act until infinity in the direction parallel to the
sheet piling. In practice, there will be situations in which the size of the surcharge is limited in
the direction parallel to the sheet piling.
There are various approximation methods available which take account of the load distribution.
The method outlined below is very common.

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37.2.1

Simple load (constant dimensions in both directions)


sheet piling

q' = q

1
1+2d

load
l + 2d

surface level

45o

sheet piling

Figure 37.2: Load distribution

The influence of a top load q (with constant dimensions b l) on the sheet pile wall can be
calculated in the following way:

 The top load is assumed to be distributed over an angle of 45 from the front of the load
(see Figure 37.2, left). This produces the following load formula:

q0 =

l
q
l + 2d

(37.5)

 The load q calculated in this way is then entered as being applied over the distance
between d and d + b behind the wall (see Figure 37.2, right). The influence of this load
can now be calculated using D-S HEET P ILING.

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37.2.2

Complex load
If the dimensions of the top load in both directions are not constant, the load can be divided
into n sub-loads with constant dimensions. The formula for the calculated load is given in
Figure 37.3. Load distribution should always be assumed to start from the side that is closest
to the sheet pile wall.
sheet piling

load q

d1

l3

l2

l1

d2
d3

q'n = q

q'2
q'1

ln
ln + 2dn

q'3

Figure 37.3: Calculated load (bottom) for a load shape that is not constant (top)

This method can also be used if the load in the direction perpendicular to the wall is indeed
constant, but it extends so far away from the wall that division into a number of sub-loads is
more economical. It must always be assumed that load distribution starts from the side that is
closest to the sheet piling.
See chapter 18 for a tutorial example of the application of this method.

37.3

Modeling concrete under water


Concrete is often used at the base of a pit excavation. The concrete helps to keep the pit
dry (once existing water has been removed from the pit) and it can also function as strutting
between the walls enclosing the pit excavation.
The presence of this impermeable layer of concrete maintains the water level below it. However, if the water table on the other side of the sheet pile wall is higher than the floor of the
394

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pit then the water pressures on the excavated side will not start at zero at the water level, and
the floor will experience uplift. The concrete floor will need to be piled in order to resist this
uplift force. These effects can be modeled in different ways. One of the methods is described
below, and consists of the following steps:

 The underwater concrete is modeled as a soil layer. This means that the concrete is
considered as a system of vertically unlinked elasto-plastic springs, in the same way as
other soil layers. Fixed values should be used for the characteristics of the soil layer.

The water pressure against the bottom of the underwater concrete can be modeled in the
following way:

 The soil water table is set at the level of the bottom of the concrete floor.
 A uniform load acting on the top of the concrete layer is entered, with a size equal to
the direct water pressure under the floor. This load represents the forces acting on the
floor from the floors piles.

 For all soil layers under the floor, an excess pore water pressure is entered which is the
same as the top load. This causes the water pressure distribution to be correct.

 d = n = 0 is used for the concrete, assuming that the uplift forces on the floor and
the weight of the floor are transmitted to piles and therefore do not act on the soil layer
directly below the concrete.

See chapter 13 for a detailed tutorial example of the application of this method.

37.4

Difference in pressure heads on both sides of the sheet pile wall


In addition to a soil-retaining function, sheet pile walls also often have a water-retaining function. In this case, the water pressure on both sides of the sheet piling will be different. The
difference in water pressure gives rise to a water flow under the toe of the sheet piling.
This flow affects the pressure against the sheet piling in two ways:

 The water flow changes the water pressure that is directed immediately against the wall.
Because of this, the pressure on the side of the wall with the highest water pressure will
decrease, while the pressure on the other side will increase. At the toe of the wall, the
pressure difference is zero.

 Due to the change in the water pressures, the effective stress in the soil mass around
the wall also changes. This will cause the effective stress against both sides of the wall
to change.

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sheet piling

p2 - p1
d2
hydrostatic pressure
d1
w1

w2

hydrostatic pressure
p1

p2

Figure 37.4: Water pressure on both sides of sheet piling

In general, the approximation methods described below will be sufficient. For cases with a
major difference in water pressure, or for very critical cases, a flow calculation should be
performed using a specialized flow program, such as Deltares Systems MSeep.

Approximation method for sheet pile wall in homogenous soil


For homogenous soil, the following method can be used (in accordance with EAU 1990, article
2.10.3.2, page 65):

 A pore water under-pressure is entered on the side with the highest pressure:
w =

0.7 h
p
Y2
d2 + (d1 d2 )

(37.6)

 On the other side, an excess pore water pressure is entered in accordance with:
w = +

0.7 h
p
Y1
d1 + (d1 d2 )

(37.7)

where:

h
d1 , d2
Y1 , Y2

is the maximum pressure difference;


is the thickness of soil through which the water flows on low/high side;
is the distance from water table on low/high side to toe of wall.

It should be noted that when using this method, a minor difference in water pressure remains
at the toe.

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Special Cases
Approximation method for sheet pile wall in stratified soil
When the soil structure is stratified, the pressure head differences mostly occur over the layers
that have low permeability. The flow resistance of the relatively permeable layers is negligible.
The jump in pore water pressure over layer i can be calculated using the following formula:

wi = h w

di
1
Pd
i
ki
k

(37.8)

where:

di
ki
h

is the layer thickness in m;


is the permeability of the layer in m/s;
is the difference in phreatic levels.

Figure 37.5 is a diagram of the pressure in a stratified soil, as calculated using the equation
given above.

d1, k1

hydrostatic
pressure

d3, k3

d2, k2

flow

Figure 37.5: Pressure diagram

See chapter 17 for a tutorial example of the application of this method.

37.5

Stiffness of particular sheet pile walls

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37.5.1

Contiguous bored-pile wall


The contiguous bored-pile wall is either tangent to the adjacent pile (Figure 37.6) or spaced
incrementally greater than the pile diameter (Figure 37.7). In the case where the pile is spaced
to provide a gap, the soil must be suitable so as not to slough during excavation of the structure. The gaps are eventually grouted to provide a water barrier.

Figure 37.6: Tangent bored-pile wall

Figure 37.7: Spaced bored-pile wall

A contiguous bored-pile wall can be modeled in D-S HEET P ILING by inputting an equivalent
stiffness of:

EI =

D4
Epile
64 d

(37.9)

For tangent bored-pile wall for which D = d, Equation 37.9 becomes:

EI =

37.5.2

D3
Epile
64

(37.10)

Secant bored-pile wall


Secant bored-pile walls are formed by constructing intersecting concrete piles (Figure 37.8).

Figure 37.8: Secant bored-pile wall

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They can be modeled in D-S HEET P ILING by inputting an equivalent stiffness of:

EI =

D4
(6 sin 4 + 8 sin 2 12) Epile
384 d

(37.11)

and an equivalent section of:

S=

D2
( + sin 2 2)
4d

(37.12)

with: = arccos (d/D)

37.5.3

Pile walls with reinforced concrete piles


In contiguous or secant bored-piles walls, the piles can be reinforced with either steel rebar or
with steel beams and are constructed by either drilling under mud or augering.
In case of reinforced concrete piles, Equation 37.9 and Equation 37.11 given above must be
adapted to take the reinforcement effect into account.
For tangent pile wall:

EI =

D3
Econcrete + Isteel (Esteel Econcrete )
64

(37.13)

For spaced pile wall:



1 D4
EI =
Econcrete + Isteel (Esteel Econcrete )
d 64

(37.14)

For secant bored-pile wall:

EI =

D4
(6 sin 4 + 8 sin 2 12) Econcrete
384 d
+ Isteel (Esteel Econcrete ) (37.15)

where:

Econcrete
Esteel
Isteel

Deltares

is the elastic modulus of the concrete in kPa;


is the elastic modulus of the steel in kPa;
is the inertia of the steel section in m4 /m.

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38 Settlements by vibration
38.1

Model description
Settlements due to vibratory installation and removal of sheet piles are mainly caused by
densification of the sand and by installation or removal of a sheet pile volume. The model
implemented in D-S HEET P ILING is based on the model developed by Meijers (Meijers and Tol,
Juli 2010) (Meijers, december 2007). This model calculates the densification and excess pore
pressures during the installation and removal of the sheet pile.
The densification or generation of excess pore pressures is calculated from the shear strain
amplitude and the number of loading cycles. The used model is the so called C/L model. The
propagation of vibrations is calculated using a stress attenuation formulation. Dissipation of
excess pore pressures is calculated with a standard consolidation equation with both vertical
and radial dissipation. For a more detailed description of the modeling reference is made to
the literature (Meijers and Tol, Juli 2010) (Meijers, december 2007).
For the calculation of the densification an axial symmetric geometry is used. The dimensions
are among others determined by the cross section area
The program calculates the situation for installation of the sheet piles. For the situation of
removal it is taken that the densification at the not-excavated site amounts 20% of the densification during installation. With this the settlements during removal and the total settlement
are calculated. The used expressions are:

 Installation: z (r) = zdensif ication (r) zsheet volume (r)


 Removal: z (r) = 0.2 zdensif ication (r) zsheet volume (r)
 Total (installation + removal): z (r) = 1.2 zdensif ication
Please be aware that for the excavated and back-filled site the settlements during removal are
not predicted with the present implementation of the model.

38.2

Parameters
The model uses a large number of parameters. In the implementation in D-S HEET P ILING, one
part of them is fixed parameters whereas the other part is user-defined parameters.
The user-defined parameters are:








Soil layer type,


Relative density;
Permeability;
Ground water level;
Ground level, defined in the Surface Level window;
The tip level of the sheet pile.

The other soil parameters are derived from a correlation with the relative density.
The fixed parameters are:
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 Frequency of the vibrator: f = 38 Hz;


 Installation speed 2 m/min (in this parameters also the effect of multiple sheet piles on
the densification is accounted for);

 Minimum and maximum porosity (nmin = 0.33 and nmax = 0.45);


 Ratio angle of interface friction and angle of internal friction (/ = 1 is used);
 Parameter for the stress attenuation with distance (n = -1 is used).

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39 Benchmarks
Deltares Systems commitment to quality control and quality assurance has led them to develop a formal and extensive procedure to verify the correct working of all of their geotechnical
engineering tools. An extensive range of benchmark checks have been developed to check
the correct functioning of each tool. During product development these checks are run on a
regular basis to verify the improved product. These benchmark checks are provided in the
following sections, to allow the user to overview the checking procedure and verify for themselves the correct functioning of D-S HEET P ILING.
The benchmarks are subdivided into five separate groups as described below.

 Group 1 Benchmarks from literature (exact solution) Simple benchmarks for which
an exact analytical result is available from literature.

 Group 2 Benchmarks from literature (approximate solution) More complex benchmarks described in literature for which an approximate solution is known.

 Group 3 Benchmarks from spread sheets Benchmarks which test program features
specific to D-S HEET P ILING.

 Group 4 Benchmarks generated by D-S HEET P ILING Benchmarks for which the reference results are generated using D-S HEET P ILING.

 Group 5 Benchmarks compared with other programs Benchmarks for which the
results of D-S HEET P ILING are compared with the results of other programs.
The number of benchmarks in group 1 will probably remain the same in the future. The reason
for this is that they are very simple, using only the most basic features of the program.
The number of benchmarks in group 2 may grow in the future. The benchmarks in this chapter
are well documented in literature. There are no exact solutions available for these problems,
however in the literature estimated results are available. When verifying the program, the
results should be close to the results found in the literature.
The number of benchmarks in groups 3, 4 and 5 will grow as new versions of the program are
released. These benchmarks are designed so that (new) features specific to the program can
be verified. The benchmarks are kept as simple as possible so that only one specific feature
is verified from one benchmark to the next.
As much as software developers would wish they could, it is impossible to prove the correctness of any non-trivial program. Re-calculating all the benchmarks in this report, and making
sure the results are as they should be, proves to some degree that the program works as it
should. Nevertheless, there will always be combinations of input values that will cause the
program to crash or to produce wrong results. Hopefully by using the verification procedure
the number of ways this can occur will be limited.
The benchmarks are all described in detail in the Verification Report available in the installation directory of the program.
The input files can be found on CD-ROM or can be downloaded from our website www.
deltaressystems.com.
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Bibliography
Boussinesq, J., 1885. Application des Potentiels lEtude de lEquilibre et du Mouvement des
Solides Elastiques. Gauthier-Villars, Paris. 346
Brinch-Hansen, J. and N. H. Christensen, 1961. The Ultimate Resistance of Rigid Piles
Against Transversal Forces. Brinch-Hansen, J. and Christensen, N.H.; The Ultimate Resistance of Rigid Piles Against Transversal Forces, Bulletin no. 12 of the Geoteknisk Institut,
1961. 5, 389, 391
Culmann, K., 1866. Die Graphische Statik. Zrich. 344
CUR, 2005. Publikatie 166: Damwanconstructies. 4e druk (Design Guide Sheet Piling, in
Dutch) . 6, 7, 39, 58, 94, 161, 215, 221, 343, 348, 367, 368, 369, 375
De Leeuw, E. H., 1963. Tabellen ter bepaling van horizontale spanningen en verplaatsingen
in een homogene elastische laag van eindige dikte. Laboratorium voor Grondmechanica,
Delft (The Netherlands). SE-58-IX-b. 62, 285, 288, 385, 387
DINO. URL www.dinoloket.nl, database (Data en Informatie van de Nederlandse Ondergrond), Data and Information of the Subsurface of The Netherlands. 67, 140, 149, 173
GeoBrain. URL www.geobrain.nl/funderingstechniek, database. 133, 257, 261
Harderwijk and NVAF/PSW, 2002. Schadevrij installeren van stalen damwand in Nederland.
. 133, 135
Jky, J., 1948. Minimum value of earth pressure. Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Soil Mech. Found.
Engg. I, Rotterdam. 343
Janbu, N., L. Bjerrum and B. Kjaernsli, 1956. Veiledning ved lsing av fundamenteringsoppgaver (Soil mechanics applied to some engineering problems). Norwegian Geotechnical
Institute Publ. 16. Oslo. 361
Ktter, F., 1903. Die Bestimmung des Druckes an gekrmmten Gleitflchen. Sitzungsbericht
Kn. Preu. Ak. d. Wissenschaften, Berlin. 345
Kranz, E., 1953. ber die Verankerung von Spundwnden. Verlag Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn. 4,
80, 103, 357
Meijers, P., december 2007. Settlement during vibratory sheet piling Dissertatie TU Delft. .
6, 133, 401
Meijers, P. and A. F. v. Tol, Juli 2010. Voorspelling maaiveldzakking door het in en uittrillen
van damwanden. GEOtechniek pages 4045. 6, 133, 401
Mnard, L., 1971. Mthode gnrale de calcul dun rideau ou dun pieu sollicit horizontalement en fonction des rsultats pressiomtriques. Sols-soils VI: 2223. Mnard, L., Et.
Al. 5, 347, 390
Mller-Breslau, H., 1906. Erddruck auf Sttzmauern. Verlag Krner, Stuttgart. 345
NBN-EN, january 2011. NBN-EN 1997-1 ANB:2011 Ontw (Belgian Design Code). Eurocode
7: Geotechnisch ontwerp Deel 1: Algemne regels (National Annex of Eurocode 7:
Geotechnical design Part 1: General rules), 1st edition, Draft. 7, 36, 97, 108, 375

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NEN, 2006a. NEN 6740:2006. Geotechniek - TGB 1990 - Basiseisen en belastingen
(Geotechnics - TGB 1990 - Basic requirements and loads), in Dutch. 161, 343
, 2006b. NEN 6743-1:2006, Dutch Design Code TGB; Calculation method for bearing
capacity of pile foundation Compression Piles. 45, 179, 364, 365
, 2012. NEN 9997-1+C1:2012. Geotechnisch ontwerp van constructies - Deel 1: Algemene
regels (Geotechnical design of structures - Part 1: General rules), in Dutch. 4, 8, 34
, september 2009. NEN 9997-1:2009 Ontw (Dutch Design Code). Geotechnisch ontwerp
van constructies - Samenstelling van NEN-EN 1997-1, NEN-EN 1997-1/NB Nationale bijlage en NEN 9097-1 Aanvullingsnorm bij NEN-EN 1997-1 (Geotechnical design of structures - Composition of NEN-EN 1997-1 and NEN-EN 1997-1/NB national annex and NEN
9097-1 complementary standard to NEN-EN 1997-1), Draft. 7, 96, 99, 106, 295, 375, 378
NEN-EN, March 2005. NEN-EN 1997-1:2005 (Dutch Design Code). Eurocode 7: Geotechnisch ontwerp Deel 1: Algemne regels (Eurocode 7 - Geotechnical design, Part 1: General rules). 4, 33, 94, 98, 106, 107, 294, 304, 375, 377
SB260, 2012.
sie
1.0.

Standaardbestek 260 voor Kunstwerken en Waterbouw verURL


http://www.vlaanderen.be/nl/publicaties/detail/
standaardbestek-260-voor-kunstwerken-en-waterbouw. 8, 102

Terzaghi, K., 1955. Evaluation of coefficients of subgrade reaction. Gotechnique Vol. 5, no.
4. 347

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