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UFPE Recife: Shipbuilding Competitiveness

Work breakdown and competitiveness


Paul Stott
July 2013

Shipbuilding production processes

How are ships produced?

To answer this we are going to start the journey near the end of the process
with the assembly of the ship (the ERECTION process) and then go back
to the beginning to look at the processes involved in more detail.

Shipbuilding production processes


The traditional approach to shipbuilding was construct the hull
piece by piece and then install outfit.
In modern shipbuilding, ships are built from steel units
commonly known as BLOCKS.

Shipbuilding production

This is a typical BLOCK leaving fabrication ready for erection on the building
berth.

Shipbuilding production

This is a typical BLOCK leaving fabrication ready for erection on the building
berth.

Note that this block:


Includes outfit as well as steel
Is painted

Shipbuilding production

This is what the erection of the blocks in a building dock looks like when it is
very well done.

The steelwork process


Ships are assembled from blocks, which form the product from steel
assembly processes in a shipyard
The block is the interim product produced by the steel shops
How is the block put together and what are the interim products that
are assembled to produce it?

Typical steel structure of a tanker

Steel manufacture processes

This is a complex structure


As with any complex product assembly is achieved by splitting work up into
smaller interim products
Assembly is achieved through the hierarchy of stages with different interim
products at each stage

The following diagrams are by kind permission of Malcolm


Bell Associates (Malta)

3D solid model

2 Blocks (P&S)

CAD model exploded at second level


Block assembly analysis

1 Blocks = 4 units + 4 sub assemblies

CAD model Block Breakdown


Unit definition

1 Unit = 5 sub assemblies

Steel manufacture processes

Assembly: the hierarchy of stages (terminology varies)

Piece parts
Minor assembly
Sub assembly
Unit assembly
Block assembly
Ship

Steel manufacture processes

A simplified shipyard layout showing the


relationship between the interim products
and the arrangement of facilities in a
shipyard
Source: Ship Construction, DJ Eyres, page 113

Steel manufacture processes


The logic of the flow can be seen externally in the shape of a shipyard

Shipbuilding production

The use of blocks has improved efficiency and shortened cycle times
The tendency is to move towards larger blocks and this permits greater
efficiency
Why?

Why are larger blocks better?

The larger the block the less work that needs completing in the dock or on
the berth
The heavier the block can be the more outfit that can be integrated before
erection.

Outfit installation

HHI claims 90% work completion on block

Why are larger blocks better?

There is a fundamental relationship between the stage of work and the cost
of work in a shipyard.
Exercise
I am going to ask three students to write the word WELD
on four different pieces of paper.

WELD

Why are larger blocks better?

There is a fundamental relationship between the stage of work and the cost
of work in a shipyard.

Position 1 downhand

Why are larger blocks better?

There is a fundamental relationship between the stage of work and the cost
of work in a shipyard.

Position 1 downhand
Position 2 vertical

Why are larger blocks better?

There is a fundamental relationship between the stage of work and the cost
of work in a shipyard.

Position 1 downhand
Position 2 vertical
Position 3 overhead

Why are larger blocks better?

There is a fundamental relationship between the stage of work and the cost
of work in a shipyard.

Position 1 downhand
Position 2 vertical
Position 3 overhead
Position 4 overhead whilst standing on a chair
Position 5 overhead whilst shut in a cupboard
Downhand (with the help of gravity) with perfect access to the work is by far the
standing on a chair

easiest way to do any work.


Once not downhand gravity no longer helps and work is no longer selfsupporting extra support is needed.
Overhead is by far the most difficult and therefore by far the most expensive.
If work is done also in small cramped spaces or at a height, the difficulty and
cost get even higher due to access for tools, parts and and workers.

Cost of work by stage


12
12
10

8
6
4
2

4
1

Relative cost of work (manhours) by stage of construction

Why?........

Cost of work by stage


Fewer manhours are needed at earlier stages of
production because:

Supply routes are short


Access is open and easy
Workshops provide ideal working conditions
Access to automation and machinery
Crane accessibility is good
Work can be done down-hand
Staging is unlikely to be required
Conflict with other work will be minimum

For this reason the integration of outfit work with steelwork, as opposed to the
traditional sequential approach, has been a major driver in the increase of
productivity in shipbuilding

Ship construction processes

In reality many yards struggle to achieve the ideal

Ship construction processes

Erection stage practices that lead to high costs:


Small block size
Poor steelwork accuracy or deliberate incorporation of
surplus steel for trimming
Low outfit work content
Low completion of hot work meaning that painting can
not take place before erection
The need for staging (scaffolding)

Maximum block size


What is it that determines the maximum size of block that a shipyard can achieve?

Maximum block size


What is it that determines the maximum size of block that a shipyard can achieve?

The capacity of the final assembly cranes


Capacity of the transport system to get blocks to the
final assembly site
The door dimensions on leaving the steel workshops*
The footprint dimensions of the block assembly work
stations
The crane height in the block assembly area

* To get over limitations like this, blocking of smaller UNITS may


take place in the open after leaving the steel shops

Maximum block size

Blocks and their components should as far as possible


be free-standing or SELF-JIGGING during
manufacture.
This avoids the need to spend money on building
support structures or JIGS to hold the work in place.
Curved pieces may not be self supporting and jigs will
be needed.
The use of adjustable PIN JIGS saves money on setup for curved units.

Outfit installation
Shipbuilding is not only about the steelwork, however
what about the outfitting?
Integration of steelwork and outfitting is vital in modern
shipbuilding.

Outfit installation
Q: When is the best time to install a
piece of outfit?

A: As early in the steelwork


fabrication process as possible

Why?........

Outfit installation
12
12
10

8
6
4
2

4
1

Relative cost of work (manhours) by stage of construction


(lecture 4)
Integration of steel and outfit also shortens the total build
time

Outfit installation
Ship outfitting maxim No. 1:
It is essential to productivity and competitiveness that
outfit work and steelwork are integrated as far as
possible and that outfit items are fitted at the earliest
possible stage

Piece parts
OUTFIT INSTALLATION

Minor assembly

Sub assembly
Unit assembly
Block assembly
Ship

Outfit installation
Outfit installation stages by increasing cost

On sub-assembly
On Unit
On Block: open sky
On Berth: open sky
On Block: closed
On Berth: closed
Post-launch

Cost increases
because of more
difficult access and
more difficult working
conditions

Outfit installation

Pre-outfitted deckhead unit showing the open sky stage

Outfit installation
Open sky

Open sky
closing

HHI claims 90% completion on block

Outfit installation
Q: What is the best form in which to
install a piece of outfit?

A: As part of an outfit assembly

Why?........

Outfit installation

c.f.

Optimum ease of access and least cost in a workshop


environment

Outfit installation

Cabin or bathroom units are often bought-in ready


finished

Outfit installation
Ship outfitting maxim No. 2:
It is essential to productivity and competitiveness that
outfit items are installed in units or assemblies
wherever possible, rather than piece by piece.

Technology progress

Outfit installation

The next stage is to understand why this look


so easy but in reality is very hard to achieve