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Sling Safety

Introduction
The ability to handle materials-to move them from one location to another, whether during transit or at the
worksite-is vital to all segments of industry. Materials must be moved, for example, for industry to manufacture,
sell, and utilize products. In short, without materials-handling capability, industry would cease to exist.
To varying degrees, all employees in numerous workplaces take part in materials handling. Consequently, some
employees are injured. In fact, the mishandling of materials is the single largest cause of accidents and injuries in
the workplace. Most of these accidents and injuries, as well as the pain and loss of salary and productivity that
often result, can be readily avoided. Whenever possible, mechanical means should be used to move materials to
avoid employee injuries such as muscle pulls, strains, and sprains. In addition, many loads are too heavy andior
bulky to be safely moved manually. Various types of equipment, therefore, have been designed specifically to aid in
the movement of materials: cranes, derricks, hoists, powered industrial trucks, and conveyors.
Because cranes, derricks, and hoists rely upon slings to hold their suspended loads, slings are the most commonly
used materials handling apparatus. This booklet offers information on the proper selection, maintenance, and use
of slings.
This booklet is designed to assist sling operators to understand and comply with OSHA's regulation on slings,
published on June 27, 1975, in the Federal Register under Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1910.184.
All employers should be aware that there are certain states (and similar jurisdictions) which operate their own
programs under agreement with the U.S. Department of Labor, pursuant to section 18 of the Act. The programs in
these jurisdictions may differ in some details from the federal program. (See list of States with Approved Plans
listed at the end of this booklet.)
Importance of the Operator
The operator must exercise intelligence, care, and common sense when selecting and using slings. Slings must be
selected in accordance with their intended use, based upon the size and type of load, and the environmental
conditions of the workplace. All slings must be visually inspected before use to ensure their effectiveness.
A well-trained operator can prolong the service life of equipment and reduce costs by avoiding the potentially
hazardous effects of overloading equipment, operating it at excessive speeds, taking up slack with a sudden jerk,
and suddenly accelerating or decelerating equipment. The operator can look for causes and seek corrections
whenever a danger exists. He or she should cooperate with coworkers and supervisors and become a leader in
carrying out safety measures-not merely for the good of the equipment and the production schedule but, more
importantly, for the safety of everyone concerned.
Sling Types
The dominant characteristics of a sling are determined by the components of that sling. For example, the strengths
and weaknesses of a wire rope sling are essentially the same as the strengths and weaknesses of the wire rope of
which it is made.
Slings are generally one of six types: chain, wire rope, metal mesh, natural fiber rope, synthetic fiber rope, or
synthetic web. In general, use and inspection procedures tend to place these slings into three groups: chain, wire
rope and mesh, and fiber rope web. Each type has its own particular advantages and disadvantages. Factors to
consider when choosing the best sling for the job include the size, weight, shape, temperature, and sensitivity of
the material to be moved, as well as the environmental conditions under which the sling will be used.
Chains
Chains are commonly used because of their strength and ability to adapt to the shape of the load. Care should be
taken, however, when using alloy chain slings because sudden shocks will damage them. Misuse of chain slings
could damage the sling, resulting in sling failure and possible injury to an employee.
Chain slings are the best choice for lifting very hot materials. They can be heated to temperatures of up to 1,000
Fahrenheit (538 centigrade); however, when alloy chain slings are consistently exposed to service temperatures in
excess of 600 Fahrenheit (3 16 centigrade), operators must reduce the working load limits in accordance with the
manufacturer's recommendations.
All sling types must be visually inspected prior to use. When inspecting alloy steel chain slings, pay special
attention to any stretching, wear in excess of the allowances made by the manufacturer, and nicks and gouges.
These signs indicate that the sling may be unsafe and they must be removed from service.
Wire Rope
A second type of sling is made of wire rope. Wire rope is composed of individual wires that have been twisted to
form strands. Strands are then twisted to form a wire rope. When wire rope has a fiber core, it is usually more
flexible but is less resistant to environmental damage. Conversely, a core that is made of a wire rope strand tends
to have greater strength and is more resistant to heat damage.
Wire rope may be further defined by the "lay." The lay of a wire rope describes the direction the wires and strands
are twisted during the construction of the rope. Most wire rope is right lay, regular lay-which means that the strands
pass from left to right across the rope and the wires in the rope are laid opposite in direction to the lay of the
strands. This type of rope has the widest range of applications.
Lang lay (where the wires are twisted in the same direction as the strands) is recommended for many excavating,
construction, and mining applications, including draglines, hoist lines, dredgelines, and other similar lines.
Lang lay ropes are more flexible and have greater wearing surface per wire than regular lay ropes. In addition, since

the outside wires in lang lay rope lie at an angle to the rope axis, internal stress due to bending over sheaves and
drums is reduced causing lang lay ropes to be more resistant to bending fatigue.
A left lay rope is one in which the strands form a left-hand helix similar to the threads of a left-hand screw thread.
Left lay rope has its greatest usage in oil fields on rod and tubing lines, blast hole rigs, and spudders where rotation
of right lay would loosen couplings. The rotation of a left lay rope tightens a standard coupling.
Wire Rope Sling Selection. When selecting a wire rope sling to give the best service, there are four characteristics to
consider: strength, ability to bend without distortion, ability to withstand abrasive wear, and ability to withstand
abuse.
1. Strength-The strength of a wire rope is a function of its size, grade, and construction. It must be sufficient to
accommodate the applied maximum load. The maximum load limit is determined by means of an appropriate
multiplier. This multiplier is the number by which the ultimate strength of a wire rope is divided to determine the
working load limit. Thus, a wire rope sling with a strength of 10,000 pounds (4,545 kilograms) and a total working
load of 2,000 pounds (909 kilograms) has a design factor (multiplier) of 5. New wire rope slings have a design factor
of 5. As a sling suffers from the rigors of continued service, however, both the design factor and the sling's ultimate
strength are proportionately reduced. If a sling is loaded beyond its ultimate strength, it will fail. So, older slings
must be more rigorously inspected to ensure that rope conditions adversely affecting the strength of the sling are
considered in determining if a wire rope sling should be allowed to continue in service.
2. Fatigue (Bending without Failure)-A wire rope must have the ability to withstand repeated bending without the
wires failing from fatigue. Fatigue failure of the wires in a wire rope is the result of the development of small cracks
from repeated applications of bending loads. It occurs when ropes make small radius bends. The best means of
preventing fatigue failure of wire rope slings is to use blocking or padding to increase the radius of bend.
3. Abrasive Wear-The ability of a wire rope to withstand abrasion is determined by the size, number of wires, and
construction of the rope. Smaller wires bend more readily and therefore offer greater flexibility but are less able to
withstand abrasive wear. Conversely, the larger wires of less flexible ropes are better able to withstand abrasion
than are the smaller wires of more flexible ropes.
4. Abuse-All other factors being equal, misuse or abuse of wire rope will cause a wire rope sling to become unsafe
long before any other factor. Abusing a wire rope sling can cause serious structural damage to the wire rope, such
as kinking or bird caging, which reduces the strength of the wire rope. (In bird caging, the wire rope strands are
forcibly untwisted and become spread outward.) So, to prolong the life of the sling and protect the lives of
employees, the manufacturer's suggestion for safe and proper use of wire rope slings must be strictly adhered to.
Wire Rope Life. Many operating conditions affect wire rope life. They are bending, stresses, loading conditions,
speed of load application (jerking). abrasion, corrosion, sling design, materials handled, environmental conditions,
and history of previous usage.
In addition to the above operating conditions, the weight, size, and shape of the loads to be handled also affect the
service life of a wire rope sling. Flexibility also is a factor. Generally, more flexible ropes are selected when smaller
radius bending is required. Less flexible ropes should be used when the rope must move through or over abrasive
materials.
Wire Rope Sling Inspection. Wire rope slings must be visually inspected before each day's use. The operator should
check the twists or lay of the sling. If ten randomly distributed wires in one lay are broken, or five wires in one
strand of a rope lay are damaged, the sling must not be used. It is not sufficient, however, to check only the
condition of the wire rope. End fittings and other components should also be inspected for any damage that could
make the sling unsafe.
To ensure safe slin: usage between scheduled inspections, all workers should participate in a safety awareness
program. Each operator should keep a close watch on those slings he or she is using. If any accident involving the
movement of materials occurs, the operator should immediately shut down the equipment and report the accident
to a supervisor. The cause of the accident should be determined and corrected before resuming operations.
Field Lubrication. Although every rope sling is lubricated when manufactured, it also must be lubricated "in the
field" to increase the sling's useful service life. There is no set rule on how much or how often this should be done.
It depends on the conditions under which the sling is used. The heavier the loads, the greater the number of bends,
or the more adverse the conditions under which the sling operates, the more frequently lubrication is required.
Storage. Wire rope slings should be stored in a well-ventilated, dry building or shed. To avoid corrosion and rust,
never store wire rope slings on the ground or allow them to be continuously exposed to the elements. And, if it is
necessary to store wire rope slings outside, make sure that they are set off the ground and protected.
Note: Using the sling several times a week, even with light loads, is a good practice. Records show that frequently
or continuously used slings give useful service far longer than idle ones.
Discarding Slings. Wire rope slings can provide a margin of safety by showing early signs of failure. The following
factors indicate when a wire sling needs to be discarded:
Severe corrosion,
Localized wear (shiny worn spots) on the outside,

A one-third reduction in outer wire diameter,

Damage or displacement of end-fittings-hooks, rings, links, or collars-by overload or misapplication,

Distortion, kinking, bird caging, or other evidence of damage to the wire rope structure, or

Excessive broken wires.

Fiber Rope and Synthetic Web


Fiber rope and synthetic web slings are used primarily for temporary work, such as construction and painting jobs,
and in marine operations. They also are the best choice for use on expensive loads, highly finished parts, fragile
parts, and delicate equipment.
Fiber Rope Slings. Fiber rope deteriorates on contact with acids and caustics. Fiber ropes slings, therefore, must not
be used around these substances unless the manufacturer recommends them for that use.
When inspecting a fiber rope sling, look first at its surface. Look for cuts, gouges, or worn surface areas; dry, brittle,
scorched, or discolored fibers; or melting or charring of any part of the sling. If any of these conditions are found,
the supervisor must be notified and a determination made regarding the safety of the sling. If the sling is found to
be unsafe, it must be discarded.
Next, check the sling's interior. It should be as clean as when the rope was new. A buildup of powderlike sawdust on
the inside of the fiber rope indicates excessive internal wear and that the sling is unsafe.
Finally, scratch the fibers with a fingernail. If the fibers separate easily, the fiber sling has suffered some kind of
chemical damage and must be discarded.
Synthetic Rope and Web Slings. The most commonly used synthetic web slings are made of nylon, polypropylene,
and polyester. They have the following properties in common:
Strength--can handle a load of up to 300,000 pounds (1 36,363 kilograms).
Convenience-can conform to any shape.

Safety-will adjust to the load contour and hold it with a tight, non-slip grip.

Load protection-will not mar, deface, or scratch highly polished or delicate surfaces.

Long life-are unaffected by mildew, rot, or bacteria; resist some chemical action; and have excellent
abrasion resistance.

Economy-have a low initial cost plus a long service life.

Shock absorbency--can absorb heavy shocks without damage.

Temperature resistance-are unaffected by temperatures up to 180" Fahrenheit (82.2" centigrade).

Because each synthetic material has unique properties, it should be used according to the manufacturer's
instructions, especially when dealing with chemically active environments.
Possible Defects. Synthetic web slings must be removed from service if any of the following defects exist:
Acid or caustic burns,
Melting or charring of any part of the surface,

Snags, punctures, tears, or cuts,

Broken or wom stitches,

Wear or elongation exceeding the amount recommended by the manufacturer, or

Distortion of fittings.

Safe Lifting Practices


Now that the sling has been selected (based upon the characteristics of the load and the environmental conditions
surrounding the lift) and inspected prior to use, the next step is learning how to use it safely. There are four primary
factors to consider when safely lifting a load. They are (1) the size, weight, and center of gravity of the load; (2) the
number of legs and the angle the sling makes with the horizontal line; (3) the rated capacity of the sling; and (4)
the history of the care and usage of the sling.
Size, Weight, and Center of Gravity of the Load
The center of gravity of an object is that point at which the entire weight may be considered as concentrated. To
make a level lift, the crane hook must be directly above this point. While slight variations are usually permissible, if
the crane hook is too far to one side of the center of gravity, dangerous tilting will result causing unequal stresses
in the different sling legs. This imbalance must be compensated for at once.
Number of Legs and Angle with the Horizontal
As the angle formed by the sling leg and the horizontal line decreases, the rated capacity of the sling also

decreases. In other words, the smaller the angle between the sling leg and the horizontal, the greater the stress on
the sling leg and the smaller (lighter) the load the sling can safely support. Larger (heavier) loads can be safely
moved if the weight of the load is distributed among more sling legs.
Rated Capacity of the Sling
The rated capacity of a sling varies depending upon the type of sling, the size of the sling, and the type of hitch.
Operators must know the capacity of the sling. Charts or tables that contain this information generally are available
from sling manufacturers. The values given are for new slings. Older slings must be used with additional caution.
Under no circumstances shall a sling's rated capacity be exceeded.
History of Care and Usage
The mishandling and misuse of slings are the leading cause of sling-related accidents. The majority of injuries and
accidents, however, can be avoided by becoming familiar with the essentials of proper sling care and use.
Proper care and use are essential for maximum service and safety. Slings must be protected with cover saddles,
burlap padding, or wood blocking as well as from unsafe lifting procedures such as overloading to prevent sharp
bends and cutting edges.
Before making a lift, check to be certain that the sling is properly secured around the load and that the weight and
balance of the load have been accurately determined. If the load is on the ground, do not allow the load to drag
along the ground. This could damage the sling. If the load is already resting on the sling, ensure that there is no
sling damage prior to making the lift.
Next, position the hook directly over the load and seat the sling squarely within the hook bowl. This gives the
operator maximum lifting efficiency without bending the hook or overstressing the sling.
Wire rope slings also are subject to damage resulting from contact with sharp edges of the loads being lifted. These
edges can be blocked or padded to minimize damage to the sling.
After the sling is properly attached to the load, there are a number of good lifting techniques that are common to all
slings. First, make sure that the load is not lagged, clamped, or bolted to the floor. Second, guard against shock
loading by taking up the slack in the sling slowly. Apply power cautiously to prevent jerking at the beginning of the
lift, and slowly accelerate or decelerate. Third, check the tension on the sling. Raise the load a few inches, stop, and
check for proper balance and that all items are clear of the path of travel. Never allow anyone to ride on the hood
or load. Fourth, keep all personnel clear while the load is being raised, moved, or lowered. Crane or hoist operators
should watch the load at all times when it is in motion. Finally, obey the following"nevers." Never allow more than
one person to control a lift or give signals to a crane or hoist operator except to warn of a hazardous situation.
Never raise the load more than necessary. Never leave the load suspended in the air. And never work under a
suspended load or allow anyone else to.
Once the lift has been completed, clean the sling, check it for damage, and store it in a clean, dry airy place. It is
best to hang it on a rack or wall.
Remember, damaged slings cannot lift as much weight as new or older well-cared for slings. Proper and safe use
and storage of slings will increase their service life.
Maintenance of Slings
Chains
Chain slings must be cleaned prior to each inspection, as dirt or oil may hide damage. The operator must be certain
to inspect the total length of the sling, periodically looking for stretching, binding, wear, or nicks and gouges. If a
sling has stretched so that it is now more than three percent longer than when it was new, it is unsafe and must be
discarded.
Binding is the term used to describe the condition that exists when a sling has become deformed to the extent that
its individual links cannot move within each other freely. It indicates that the sling is unsafe. Generally, wear occurs
on the load-bearing inside ends of the links. Pushing links together so that the inside surface becomes clearly
visible is the best way to check for this type of wear. Wear may also occur, however, on the outside of links when
the chain is dragged along abrasive surfaces or pulled out from under heavy loads. Either type of wear weakens
slings and makes accidents more likely.
Heavy nicks and/or gouges must be filed smoothly, measured with calipers, and then compared with the
manufacturer's minimum allowable safe dimensions. When in doubt, or in borderline situations, do not use the
sling. In addition, never attempt to repair the welded components on a sling. If the sling needs repair of this nature,
the supervisor must be notified.
Wire Rope
Wire rope slings, like chain slings, must be cleaned prior to each inspection because they are subject to damage
hidden by dirt or oil. In addition, they must be lubricated according to manufacturer's instructions. Lubrication

prevents or reduces corrosion and wear due to friction and abrasion. Before applying any lubricant, however, the
sling user should make certain that the sling is dry. Applying lubricant to a wet or damp sling traps moisture against
the metal and hastens corrosion.
Corrosion deteriorates wire rope. It may be indicated by pitting, but it is sometimes hard to detect. If a wire rope
sling shows any sign of significant deterioration, that sling must be removed until can be examined by a person
who is qualified to determine the extent of the damage.
By following the above guidelines to proper sling use and maintenance, and by the avoidance of kinking, it is
possible to greatly extend the useful service life of a wire rope sling.
Fiber and Synthetic Ropes
Fiber ropes and synthetic webs are generally discarded rather than serviced or repaired. Operators must always
follow the manufacturer's recommendations.
Summary
There are good practices to follow to protect yourself while using slings to move materials. First, accept the
responsibility for your own actions. Become a competent and careful employee. Your own life or that of your fellow
workers or others may depend on it. Second, learn as much as you can about the materials with which you will be
working. Slings come in many different types, one of which is right for your purpose. Third, analyze the load to be
moved-in terms of size, weight, shape, temperature, and sensitivity then choose the sling which best meets those
needs. Fourth, always inspect all the equipment before and after a move. Always be sure to give equipment
whatever "in service" maintenance it may need. Fifth, use safe lifting practices. Use the proper lifting technique for
the type of sling and the type of load.

Wire Rope - Strength


Wire rope 6-strand x 19 wire (6 x 19) - weight - minimum breaking strength and safe load
Minimum breaking strength and safe load of Bright wire, uncoated, fiber core (FC) wire rope, improved plow steel
(IPS) are indicated below.
Rope Diameter
(in)
1/4
5/16
3/8
7/16
1/2
9/16
5/8
3/4
7/8
1
1 1/8
1 1/4
1 3/8
1 1/2
1 5/8
1 3/4
1 7/8
2

(mm)
6.4
8
9.5
11.5
13
14.5
16
19
22
26
29
32
35
38
42
45
48
52

Minimum Breaking
Strength
(lbf)
(kN)
5480
24,4
8520
37,9
12200
54,3
16540
73,6
21400
95,2
27000
120
33400
149
47600
212
64400
286
83600
372
105200
468
129200
575
155400
691
184000
818
214000
852
248000
1100
282000
1250
320000
1420

Safe Load
(lbf)
1100
1700
2440
3310
4280
5400
6680
9520
12900
16700
21000
25800
31100
36800
42800
49600
56400
64000

Weight

(kN)

(lbm/ft)
0.11
0.16
0.24
0.32
0.42
0.53
0.66
0.95
1.29
1.68
2.13
2.63
3.18
3.78
4.44
5.15
5.91
6.72

4.89
7.56
10.9
14.7
19.0
24.0
29.7
42.3
57.4
74.3
93.4
115
138
164
190
221
251
285

Example - Maximum Safe Mass for a 3/8" Wire Rope


The relationship between mass and force (weight) can be expressed as m = F / g
where F = force, weight (N)

m = mass (kg)

(1)

g = acceleration of gravity (9.81 m/s2)

(kg/m)
0.16
0.24
0.36
0.48
0.63
0.79
0.98
1.41
1.92
2.50
3.17
3.91
4.73
5.63
6.61
7.66
8.80
10.0

Maximum safe mass for a 3/8" wire rope where safe load is 10.9 kN can be calculated as
m = (10.9 103 N) / (9.81 m/s2)

= 1111 kg

Wire Rope Slings:


Wire rope is often used in slings because of its strength, durability, abrasion resistance and ability to conform to the
shape of the loads on which it is used. In addition, wire rope slings are able to lift hot materials.
Wire rope used in slings can be made of ropes with either Independent Wire Rope Core (IWRC) or a fiber-core. It
should be noted that a sling manufactured with a fiber-core is usually more flexible but is less resistant to
environmental damage. Conversely, a core that is made of a wire rope strand tends to have greater strength and is
more resistant to heat damage.
Wire rope may be manufactured using different rope lays. The lay of a wire rope describes the direction the wires
and strands are twisted during the construction of the rope. Most wire rope is right lay, regular lay. This type of rope
has the widest range of applications. Wire rope slings may be made of other wire rope lays at the recommendation
of the sling manufacturer or a qualified person.
Wire rope slings are made from various grades of wire rope, but the most common grades in use are Extra
Improved Plow Steel (EIPS) and Extra Extra Improved Plow Steel (EEIPS). These wire ropes are manufactured and
tested in accordance with ASTM guidelines. If other grades of wire rope are used, use them in accordance with the
manufacturer's recommendations and guidance.
When selecting a wire rope sling to give the best service, consider four characteristics: strength, ability to bend
without distortion, ability to withstand abrasive wear, and ability to withstand abuse.
Identification:
New slings are marked by the manufacture to show:
The rated load for the types of hitches, and the angle upon which they are based,
The diameter or size, and

The name or trademark of the manufacturer.

Rated loads:
Rated loads (capacities) for single-leg vertical, choker, basket hitches, and two-, three-, and four-leg bridle slings for
specific grades of wire rope slings are as shown in Tables 7 through 15.
For angles not shown, use the next lower angle or a qualified person to calculate the rated load. Rated loads are
based on:
Material strength,
Design factor,

Type of hitch,

Angle of loading,

Diameter of curvature over which the sling is used (D/d) (see Fig. 4), and

Fabrication efficiency.

Do not use horizontal angles less than 30 degrees except as recommended by the sling manufacturer or a qualified
person.
Rated loads for a sling in a choker hitch are the values shown in Table 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, or 15, provided that the
angle of the choke is 120 degrees or more (Fig. 2). Use the values in Fig. 2 or those from the sling manufacturer or
a qualified person for angles of choke less than 120 degrees.
For other materials and for configurations not shown, use the rated loads provided by the sling manufacturer or a
qualified person.
Configurations:
Ensure that slings made of rope with 6x19 and 6x37 classifications and cable slings have a minimum clear
length of rope 10 times the component rope diameter between splices, sleeves, or end fittings unless
approved by a qualified person,
Ensure that braided slings have a minimum clear length of rope 40 times the component rope diameter
between the loops or end fittings unless approved by a qualified person,

Ensure that grommets and endless slings have a minimum circumferential length of 96 times the body
diameter of the grommet or endless sling unless approved by a qualified person, and

You may use other configurations if specific data is supplied by the manufacturer or a qualified person.

End attachments:
Perform welding of handles or other accessories to end attachments, except covers to thimbles, before assembly of
the sling. Ensure that welded end attachments are proof tested by the manufacturer or a qualified person. Retain
the certificates of proof test and make them available for examination. 2 Use components such as sleeves and
sockets in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendation.
Wire rope clips and hooks:
Do not use knots to fabricate your own slings,
Do not use wire rope clips to fabricate wire rope slings, except where the application precludes the use of
prefabricated slings and where the sling is designed for the specific application by a qualified person,

Install wire rope clips according to the recommendations of the manufacturer or a qualified person,

Do not use slings made with wire rope clips in a choker hitch,

Use only wire rope clips made from drop-forged steel of the single-saddle (U-bolt) or double-saddle type
clip,

Do not use malleable cast iron clips to fabricate slings,

Refer to the clip manufacturer for spacing, number of clips, and torque values,

Attach U-bolts to wire rope clips with the U-bolt over the dead end of the rope and the live rope resting in
the clip saddle,

Tighten clips evenly to the recommended torque before and after the initial load is applied,

Regularly inspect clips to ensure that the recommended torque remains, and

Inspect clips periodically for wear, abuse, or damage.

Inspections:
Designate a qualified person1 to inspect slings and all fastenings and attachments each day before use for damage
or defects.
The qualified person also performs additional periodic inspections where service conditions warrant, as determined
on the basis of:
Frequency of sling use,
Severity of service conditions,

Nature of the lifts being made, and

Experience gained during the service life of slings used in similar circumstances.

Make periodic inspections of wire rope slings at intervals no greater than 12 months. A good guide to follow
includes:
Yearly for normal service use,
Monthly to quarterly for severe service use, and

As recommended by a qualified person for special and infrequent service use.

Although OSHA's sling standard does not require you to make and maintain records of inspections, the ASME
standard contains provisions on inspection records.[3]
Make a thorough inspection of slings and attachments. Items to look for include:
Broken wires,[4]
Severe localized abrasion or scraping,

Kinking, crushing, bird caging, or any other damage to the rope structure,

Evidence of heat damage,

Crushed, deformed, or worn end attachments,

Severe corrosion of the rope, end attachments or fittings,

Missing or illegible sling identifications, and

Other conditions that cause doubt as to continual safe use of the sling.

Where any such defect or deterioration is present, remove the sling or attachment from service immediately.
Repairing/Reconditioning:
Do not use worn or damaged slings or attachments. Discard or repair them.
Use damaged slings only after they are repaired, reconditioned, and proof tested by the sling manufacturer or a
qualified person using the following criteria:
Do not repair wire rope used in the sling,
Restrict all repairs to end attachments and fittings, and

Mark repaired slings to identify who made the repairs.

Modifications or alterations to end attachments or fittings are considered a repair.


Operating practices:
Ensure that wire rope slings have suitable characteristics for the type of load, hitch, and environment in which they
will be used and that they are not used with loads in excess of the rated load capacities described in the
appropriate tables. When D/d ratios (Fig. 4) are smaller than those listed in the tables, consult the sling
manufacturer. Follow other safe operating practices, including:
Sling Selection
For multiple-leg slings used with nonsymmetrical loads, ensure that an analysis by a qualified person is
performed to prevent overloading of any leg,
Ensure that multiple-leg slings are selected according to Tables 7 through 15 when used at the specific
angles given in the tables. Ensure that operations at other angles are limited to the rated load of the next
lower angle given in the tables or calculated by a qualified person,

When using a multiple-leg sling, ensure that the rating shown for the single-leg sling is not exceeded in any
leg of the multiple-leg sling,

When D/d ratios (see Fig. 6) smaller than those cited in the tables are necessary, ensure that the rated load
of the sling is decreased. Consult the sling manufacturer for specific data or refer to the WRTB (Wire Rope
Technical Board) Wire Rope Sling Users Manual, and

Do not use a fitting unless it is of the proper shape and size to ensure that it seats properly in the hook or
lifting device.

Cautions to Personnel
Ensure that all portions of the human body are kept away from the areas between the sling and the load
and between the sling and the crane or hoist hook,
Ensure that personnel never stand in line with or next to the legs of a sling that is under tension,

Ensure that personnel do not stand or pass under a suspended load,

Ensure that personnel do not ride the sling or the load, unless the load is specifically designed and tested
for carrying personnel, and

Do not inspect a sling by passing bare hands over the wire rope body. Broken wires, if present, may
puncture the hands.

Effects of Environment
Store slings in an area where they will not be subjected to mechanical damage, corrosive action, moisture,
extreme temperatures, or to kinking,
When slings are exposed to extreme temperatures, follow the guidance provided by the sling manufacturer
or a qualified person,

Do not subject fiber-core wire rope slings to degreasing or to a solvent because of possible damage to the
core, and

Follow the manufacturer's lubrication requirements.

Rigging Practices
Ensure that slings are hitched in a manner providing control of the load,
Ensure that sharp edges in contact with slings are padded with material of sufficient strength to protect the
sling,

Ensure that slings are shortened or adjusted only by methods approved by the sling manufacturer or a
qualified person,

Ensure that, during lifting with or without a load, personnel are alert for possible snagging,

Ensure that, in a basket hitch, the load is balanced to prevent slippage,

When using a basket hitch, ensure that the legs of the sling contain or support the load from the sides,
above the center of gravity, so that the load remains under control,

Ensure that, in a choker hitch, the choke point is only on the sling body, never on a fitting,

Ensure that, in a choker hitch, an angle of choke less than 120 degrees is not used without reducing the
rated load,

Ensure that slings are not constricted, bunched, or pinched by the load, hook, or any fitting,

Ensure that the load applied to the hook is centered in the base (bowl) of the hook to prevent point loading
on the hook, unless the hook is designed for point loading,

Ensure that an object in the eye of a sling is not wider than one half the length of the eye,

Ensure that the sling is allowed to rotate when hand-tucked slings are used in a single leg vertical lift
application. Minimize sling rotation,

Do not shorten or lengthen a sling by knotting or twisting,

Do not rest loads on the sling,

Do not pull a sling from under a load when the load is resting on the sling,

Do not drag slings on the floor or over abrasive surfaces,

Do not use slings made with wire rope clips as a choker hitch, and

Do not allow shock loading.

Proof testing:
Before initial use, ensure that all new swaged-socket, poured-socket, turnback-eye, mechanical joint grommets, and
endless wire rope slings are proof tested by the sling manufacturer or a qualified person.
Other new wire rope slings need not be proof tested, although the employer may require proof testing in purchasing
specifications.
Ensure that all welded end attachments are tested by the manufacturer or equivalent entity at twice their rated
capacity before initial use.
Environmental Effects:
Permanently remove from service fiber-core wire rope slings of any grade if they are exposed to temperatures in
excess of 180 degrees F (82 degrees C).
Follow the recommendations of the sling manufacturer when you use metallic-core wire rope slings of any grade at
temperatures above 400 degrees F (204 degrees C) or below minus 40 degrees F (minus 40 degrees C).

Chemically active environments can affect the strength of wire rope slings. Consult the manufacturer before using a
sling in such environments.
Synthetic Web Slings:
Synthetic web slings offer a number of advantages for rigging purposes. The most commonly used synthetic web
slings are made of nylon- or polyester-type yarns (Fig. 7). They have the following properties in common:
Strength,
Convenience,

Load protection, and

Economy.

Each synthetic material has its own unique properties.


Certain synthetic materials perform better than others in specific applications and environments. Consult the sling
manufacturer or a qualified person for a specific application or before using in and around chemical environments.
Synthetic webbing materials other than nylon and polyester are also used and the manufacturer should be
consulted for specific data for proper use.
Identification:
New slings are marked by the manufacture to show:
The rated load for each type of hitch, and
The type of synthetic web material.
In addition, slings may be marked to show:
The manufacturer's code or stock number, and
The name or trademark of the manufacturer.
Rated loads:
Rated loads (capacities) for single-leg vertical, choker, basket hitches, and two-leg bridle slings are as shown in
Tables 21 through 25.
For angles not shown, use the next lower angle or a qualified person to calculate the rated load. Rated loads are
based on:
Material strength,
Design factor,

Type of hitch,

Angle of loading (see Fig. 3),

Diameter of curvature over which the sling is used, and

Fabrication efficiency.

Do not use horizontal angles less than 30 degrees except as recommended by the sling manufacturer or a qualified
person.
The rated load for a sling in a choker hitch is the value in Tables 21 through 25, provided that the angle of the choke
is 120 degrees or more (see Fig. 2). For angles of choke less than 120 degrees, use the reduced rated load values
provided by the sling manufacturer or a qualified person. For other synthetic webbing materials and for
configurations not shown, use the rated loads provided by the sling manufacturer or a qualified person.
Fittings:
Ensure that mechanical fittings used as part of a synthetic web sling meet the following:
Materials are compatible with the mechanical and environmental requirements of the sling,
Fittings have a rated load at least the same as the synthetic webbing sling,

Fittings have sufficient strength to sustain twice the rated load of the sling without visible permanent
deformation, and

Surfaces are clean, and sharp edges are removed.

Inspections:
Designate a qualified person[1] to inspect slings each day before use for damage or defects.
This qualified person also performs additional periodic inspections where service conditions warrant, as determined
on the basis of:
Frequency of sling use,
Severity of service conditions,

Nature of lifts being made, and

Experience gained during the service life of slings used in similar circumstances.

Make periodic inspections of synthetic web slings at intervals no greater than 12 months. A good guide to follow
includes:
Yearly for normal service use,
Monthly to quarterly for severe service use, and

As recommended by a qualified person for special and infrequent service use.

Although OSHA's sling standard does not require you to make and maintain records of inspections, the ASME
standard contains provisions on inspection records. [3]
Make a thorough inspection of slings and attachments. Items to look for include:
Missing or illegible sling identification,
Acid or caustic burns,

Melting or charring of any part of the sling,

Holes, tears, cuts, or snags,

Broken or worn stitching in load bearing splices,

Excessive abrasive wear,

Knots in any part of the sling,

Discoloration and brittle or stiff areas on any part of the sling,

Pitted, corroded, cracked, bent, twisted, gouged, or broken fittings, and

Other conditions that cause doubt as to continued use of a sling.

Where any such damage or deterioration is present, remove the sling or attachment from service immediately.
Repairing/Reconditioning:
Do not use worn or damaged slings or attachments. Discard or repair them. Use damaged slings only after they are
repaired, reconditioned, and proof tested by the sling manufacturer or a qualified person using the following
criteria:
Ensure that the manufacturer or a qualified person performs repairs,
Ensure that repairs of hooks and fittings meet ASME B30.10 and B30.26,

Do not repair cracked, broken, melted, or damaged webbing material,

Do not repair load-bearing splices,

Do not make any temporary repairs of synthetic webbings or fittings, and

Mark repaired slings to identify who made the repairs.

Retain the certificates of proof test and make them available for examination. [2]
Operating practices:
Do not use synthetic web slings with loads in excess of the rated load capacities described in the appropriate
tables. Ensure that synthetic web slings have suitable characteristics for the type of load, hitch, and environment

in which they will be used and that they are not used with loads in excess of the rated load capacities described in
the appropriate tables. Consult the sling manufacturer or a qualified person for synthetic web slings not included in
the tables. Follow other safe operating practices, including:
Sling Selection
For multiple-leg slings used with nonsymmetrical loads, ensure that an analysis by a qualified person is
performed to prevent overloading of any leg,
Ensure that multiple-leg slings are selected according to Tables 21 through 25 when used at the specific
angles given in the table. Ensure that operations at other angles are limited to rated loads of the next lower
angle given in the table or calculated by a qualified person, and

Ensure that the fitting is the proper shape and size to ensure that it is seated properly in the hook or lifting
device.

Cautions to Personnel
Ensure that all portions of the human body are kept away from the areas between the sling and the load
and between the sling and the crane or hoist hook,
Ensure that personnel never stand in line with or next to the legs of a sling that is under tension,

Ensure that personnel do not stand or pass under a suspended load,

Ensure that personnel do not ride the sling or the load, unless the load is specifically designed and tested
for carrying personnel, and

Do not use synthetic webbing slings as bridles on suspended personnel platforms.

Effects of Environment
Store slings in an area where they will not be subjected to mechanical, chemical, or ultraviolet damage, or
to extreme temperatures,
When slings are exposed to extreme temperatures, follow the guidance provided by the sling manufacturer
or qualified person.

Consult the sling manufacturer for recommended inspection procedures when nylon or polyester webbing
slings are extensively exposed to sunlight or ultraviolet light.

Rigging Practices
Ensure that slings are hitched in a manner providing control of the load,
Ensure that sharp edges in contact with slings are padded with material of sufficient strength to protect the
sling,

Ensure that slings are shortened or adjusted only by methods approved by the sling manufacturer or a
qualified person,

Ensure that, during lifting with or without a load, personnel are alert for possible snagging,

Ensure that, in a basket hitch, the load is balanced to prevent slippage,

When using a basket hitch, ensure that the legs of the sling contain or support the load from the sides,
above the center of gravity, so that the load remains under control,

Do not drag slings on the floor or over abrasive surfaces,

Ensure that, in a choker hitch, the choke point is only on the sling body, never on a splice or fitting,

Ensure that, in a choker hitch, an angle of choke less than 120 degrees is not used without reducing the
rated load,

Ensure that slings are not constricted, bunched, or pinched by the load, hook, or any fitting,

Ensure that the load applied to the hook is centered in the base (bowl) of the hook to prevent point loading
on the hook, unless the hook is designed for point loading,

Ensure that an object in the eye of a sling is not wider than one-third the length of the eye,

Do not shorten or lengthen a sling by knotting or twisting,

Do not rest loads on the sling,

Do not pull a sling from under a load when the load is resting on the sling,

Do not allow shock loading, and

Avoid twisting and kinking.

Proof testing:
Before initial use, ensure that all synthetic webbing slings incorporating previously used or welded fittings and all
repaired slings are proof tested by the manufacturer or a qualified person.
Other new synthetic webbing slings and fittings need not to be proof tested, although the employer may require
proof testing in purchasing specifications.
Environmental effects:
Temperature: Do not allow nylon and polyester slings to be used in contact with objects or at temperatures in
excess of 194 degrees F (90 degrees C), or below minus 40 degrees F (minus 40 degrees C).
Sunlight & Ultraviolet: Long-term exposure to sunlight or ultraviolet radiation can affect the strength of synthetic
webbing slings. Consult the sling manufacturer for proper retirement criteria for synthetic webbing slings subjected
to long-term storage or use in sunlight.
Chemical: The strength of synthetic webbing slings can be degraded by chemically active environments. This
includes exposure to chemicals in the form of solids, liquids, vapors or fumes. Consult the sling manufacturer before
using slings in chemically active environments.
Hitches and Safe Working Load (SWL) Limits
In rigging various types of hitches are used to hold loads. Safe working load limit of a sling depends on type of
hitch, sling angle and D/d ratio. Information on types of hitches and effect of type of hitch, sling angle and D/d ratio
on safe working load is given in this article.
Types of Hitches

Every lift uses 1 of 3 Basic Hitches shown above Vertical, Choker and Basket. Detail about various sling
configurations using them is as under.
Single Vertical Hitch

In single vertical hitch a sling is used to connect a lifting hook or other device to a load. In this configuration the
total weight of the load is carried by a single leg, the sling horizontal angle is 90 (angle between horizontal line
and sling), and the weight of the load can equal the maximum working load limit of the sling. This hitch provides
absolutely no control over the load because it permits rotation. A tagline should be attached to prevent rotation
which may damage the sling.
Bridle Hitch

Two or more sling hitches can be used together to form a bridle hitch. This configuration provides good load
stability when the load is distributed equally among the legs (symmetrical objects), the hook is directly over the
loads center of gravity and the load is raised level. In case of non-symmetrical objects (off-center loads), a sling leg
may be fitted with a turnbuckle to adjust the length to level it. Instead of a turnbuckle, come-along of adequate
capacity may be also used. Proper use of a bridle hitch requires that sling angles are carefully measured to ensure
that individual legs are not overloaded. Because the load may not be distributed evenly, when more than two slings
(3 or 4 leg slings) are used, load may be carried by only two legs while other legs are only balancing it. Unequal
length sling legs may be one reason for this. In view of this, it is recommended to assume that the load is carried by
two legs only and the sling may be rated as two leg sling. If a qualified rigger or rigging specialist ensures that the
load is evenly distributed, the full use of all the legs is allowed.
Note:
All wire rope sling capacity tables (e.g. in ASTM B30.9 and Wire Rope Users Manual) consider all legs sharing equal
loads.
Single Basket Hitch

The single basket hitch is used to support a load by attaching one end of the sling to the hook, then passing the
other end under the load and attaching it to the hook. One shall ensure that the load does not slide along the sling
during lifting.
Double Basket Hitch

The double basket hitch consists of two basket hitches passed under the load. They must be placed under the load
so that it is balanced. The lags of the hitches must be kept far enough apart to provide balance but not so far apart
that low angles are created and the legs pull in towards the centre. The angle between the load and the sling
should be approximately 60 or greater to avoid slippage. On smooth surfaces, both sides of the hitch should be
snubbed against a change of contour to prevent the sling from slipping as load is applied. Otherwise use a double
wrap basket hitch.
Double Wrap Basket Hitch

The double wrap basket hitch is a basket hitch wrapped completely around the load and compressing it rather than
merely supporting it, as done by the ordinary basket hitch. The double wrap basket hitch can be used in pairs like
the double basket hitch. This arrangement is used for handling loose material, pipes, rods, or a smooth cylindrical
load because the sling is in full 360 contact with the load and tends to draw it together.
Single Choker Hitch

The single choker hitch forms a noose in the rope. It does not provide full 360 contact with the load. It should not
be used to lift loads difficult to balance or loosely bundled. The hitch reduces lifting capacity of a sling as this
method of rigging affects the ability of the wire rope components to adjust during the lift, places angular loading on
the body of the sling and creates a small diameter bend in the sling at the choke point.
Doubled Choker
The single choker hitch can be doubled up to provide twice the capacity or to turn a load as shown below (Doubling
a single choker hitch is not the same as using a double choker hitch.).

Double Choker Hitch

The double choker hitch consists of two sling chokers attached to the load and spread to provide load stability.
Double Wrap Choker Hitch

Double wrap choker hitch is formed by wrapping the sling completely around the load and hooking it into the
vertical part of the sling. This hitch is in full 360 contact with the load and tends to draw it tightly together. It can
be used either single on short, easily balanced loads or in pairs on longer loads.
Endless Slings or Grommet Slings

Endless slings are used for all three types of basic hitches as shown above. They are made from wire ropes, chains
and synthetic materials. They are flexible but tend to wear faster than other slings because normally they are not
fitted with fittings and deforms when bent over hooks.
Sling Angle
The loading in any type of sling is affected by the angle of the sling leg. Any angle other than vertical (sling angle =
90) at which the sling is rigged, increases the loading (tension) on the sling. Due to this, slings working load limit
reduces. As the angle decreases the stress imposed on the leg of a sling increases. This angle, which is measured
between a horizontal line and the sling leg or body, is called sling angle or horizontal angle as shown below.

Slings working load limit (WLL) can be calculated by applying trigonometrical function (for stress calculation) as
under.
Slings working load limit = Slings vertical capacity x sine of horizontal angle.
For easy of understanding and 'day-to-day' practical calculation above equation can be written as under.
Slings Working Capacity = Factor x Slings Rated Capacity
Where Factor shall be taken based on sling angle from following table.

Sling Angle in Degrees


15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50

Factor
0.259
0.342
0.423
0.500
0.574
0.643
0.707
0.766

Sling Angle in Degrees


55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90

Factor
0.819
0.866
0.906
0.940
0.966
0.985
0.996
1.000

As sling stresses increase tremendously with angles smaller than 45, it is recommended not to use sling angle less
than 30. Low sling angles also create large horizontal compressive forces in the load which may be sufficient to
cause buckling, especially in long flexible loads. If two or more slings are used, the minimum horizontal angle shall
be used for calculating working capacity.
As measuring of sling angle can be difficult on a construction site, use the following methods to estimate safe
working loads for common sling configurations.
Each rule is based on the safe working load of a sling in vertical hitch of a given size and material and the ratio H/L,
where H is the vertical distance of the hook to the top of the load and L is the distance, measured along the sling,
from the saddle of the hook to the top of the load as shown below.

If it is not possible to measure the entire length of the sling, measure along the sling from the top of the load to a
convenient point and call it distance l. From this point measure vertically down to the load and call it distance h.
The ratio h/l will be the same as the ratio H/L as shown in above sketch. Either H/L or h/l will apply equally to the
following methods.
Note:
When sling legs are not of equal length, use smallest H/L ratio.
Capacity of Bridle Hitches (2-Leg)

WLL = WLL (of Single Vertical Hitch) x (H/L) x 2


Capacity of Bridle Hitches (more than 2 legs)
Three and four leg bridle hitches are rated equally to account for the possibility of unequal load distribution in a
four leg hitch.
WLL = WLL (of Single Vertical Hitch) x (H/L) x 3

The three leg hitches are less susceptible to unequal distribution since the load can tilt and equalize the loads in
each leg. However, lifting an irregularly shaped, rigid load with a three leg hitch may develop unequal loads in the
sling legs. To be safe, use the formula for a two leg bridle hitch under such circumstances.

Note:
The rated capacity of a multi-leg sling is based on the assumption that all legs are used. If this is not the case, derate the sling assembly accordingly and hook all unused legs to the crane hook so they will not become snagged
during the lift.
Capacity of Single Basket Hitch

For single basket hitch, sling capacity is as under based on sling configuration.
For inclined legs, WLL = WLL (of Single Vertical Hitch) x (H/L) x 2
For vertical legs, WLL = WLL (of Single Vertical Hitch) x 2
Capacity of Double Basket Hitch

For double basket hitch, sling capacity is as under based on sling configuration.
For inclined legs, WLL = WLL (of Single Vertical Hitch) x (H/L) x 4
For vertical legs, WLL = WLL (of Single Vertical Hitch) x 4
Capacity of Double Wrap Basket Hitch
Depending on configuration, safe working loads are the same as for the single basket hitch or the double basket
hitch.
Capacity of Single Choker Hitch
When the load is hanging free, and the choke was not forced down towards the load, the normal sling angle is
about 45 degree.

Based on sling angle (formed by the choker), capacity of single choker hitch is as under.
For sling angle of 45 or more, WLL = WLL (of Single Vertical Hitch) x
Sling angles of less than 45 are not recommended. If they must be used,
WLL = WLL (of Single Vertical Hitch) x (A/B)
In a choker hitch, sling shall be long enough so that the choker fitting chokes on the wire rope body and never on
the fitting (sleeve/ferrule).
Capacity of Double Choker Hitch

Based on sling angle (formed by the choker), capacity of double choker hitch is as under.
For sling angle of 45 or more, WLL = WLL (of Single Vertical Hitch) x x (H/L) x 2
Sling angles of less than 45 are not recommended. If they must be used,

WLL = WLL (of Single Vertical Hitch) x (A/B) x (H/L) x2


Capacity of Double Wrap Choker Hitch
Depending on configuration, WLLs are the same for the single choker hitch or the double choker hitch.
Capacity of Endless/Grommet Slings
Although grommet slings support a load with two legs, their WLL is usually taken as 1.5 times the WLL of a single
vertical hitch. This reduction allows for capacity lost because of sharp bends at the hook or shackle.
Center of Gravity
Center of gravity is the point around which an objects weight is evenly balanced. The entire weight may be
concentrated at this point.
It is always important to rig the load so that it is stable. For this the loads centre of gravity must be directly under
the main hook and below the lowest sling attachment point before the load is lifted.
A suspended object will always move until its centre of gravity is directly below its suspension point. To make a
level or stable lift, the crane hook block must be directly above this point before the load is lifted as shown below.

For load stability it is equally important to ensure that the support points of a load (i.e. where the slings are
attached to the load) lie above its centre of gravity. Under suspension, an objects centre of gravity will always seek
the lowest level below the point of support. This knowledge is especially important for lifting pallets, skids, or the
bas of any object since they all have a tendency to topple. This type of load will be stable if the attachments are
above the centre of gravity as shown below.

An object symmetrical in shape and uniform in composition will have its centre of gravity at its geometric centre.
With odd shaped objects, the centre of gravity can be difficult to locate. In such cases the rigger must guess where
it lies, rig accordingly and signal for a trial lift. The centre of gravity will lie somewhere along a line drawn vertically
from the hook down through the load. The rigger than adjust the slings accordingly to balance the load. If any load
tilts more than 5 after it is lifted clear of the ground it should be landed and rigged over again.

It may be noted that when the centre of gravity is closer to one attachment point than the other, the sling legs
must be unequal in length. In this case their angles and loads will also be unequal.
Loading at Pick Points for Off-Centre Centre of Gravity Objects
When the center of gravity is not equally spaced between the pick points, the sling and fittings will not carry an
equal share of the load. The sling connected to the pick point closest to the center of gravity will carry the greatest
share of the load. The load carried by each pick point can be calculated as shown below.

For above case, load carried by slings 1 and Sling 2 will be,
Sling 1 = (10 T x 2 m) / (8 m + 2 m) = 2 T
Sling 2 = (10 T x 8 m) / (8 m + 2 m) = 8 T
The above calculation is based on the fact that for balancing, torque (load x length of lever arm) generated by both
the pick points shall be equal and opposite.
D/d Ratio

The capacity of a wire rope sling can be greatly affected by being bent sharply around pins, hooks, or parts of a
load. The wire rope industry uses the term D/d ratio to express the severity of bend. D is diameter of curvature
that the rope or sling is subjected to and d is the diameter of the rope. The minimum D/d ratio is usually taken as
20 which correspond to 92 % efficiency. As wire ropes are usually at lease 8 % stronger than the catalogue
strength, the bent sling at D/d = 20 is therefore considered 100 % efficient. In case wire rope slings are used for
smaller D/d ratio, sling capacity shall be decreased based on wire rope efficiency as per following graph. This curve
is based on static loads and applies to 6-strand class 619 and 637 wire ropes.

Based on above graph, if the shackle or object has 2 times the diameter of a wire rope sling (D/d = 2) the basket
sling capacity must be reduced by 35 % as shown below.

To increase d/d ratio and sling capacity, use wide body shackle. If D/d ratio is 5 after using wide body shackle, sling
capacity shall be reduced by about 20 %.
Load hooks must have sufficient thickness to ensure proper sling D/d ratio, particularly when using slings in an
inverted basket hitch; that is the sling body is placed into the hook and the sling eyes are facing downward.
Preventing Sling Damage
Make sure loads are not bolted to the floor. In winter, make sure that the load is not frozen to the ground.
If slings are used above spreader, select their size based on weight of load to be lifted plus weight of spreader.
Use additional single leg slings to wrap around the load as shown below. If they get damaged they are less costly to
replace.

For large loads a 4-leg bridle sling can be made into a double basket sling by adding 2 single leg slings. These
single leg slings can be made of larger diameter rope to better withstand load conditions as shown below. They are
less expensive to replace than the entire 4-leg sling if they get damaged.

Use proper corner protection. A sharp steel edge may cut through wire rope sling; at least it will permanently
damage the sling. As shown below, sliced steel pipes have proven to an effective corner protector. For square and
round objects proper wooden padding will be sufficient. Before making the final lift, do a trial lift. Check that the
padding is strong enough and does not crack under the load weight.

Do not place the splice sleeves, rope thimbles, or sling hooks around corners as shown below. A sleeve failure will
result in the failure of the sling.