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PARTS OF TRANSFORMER

Double-float Buchholz relay


For sudden pressure rise and gas detection in oil-immersed transformer tanks
with conservator. Installed in the connecting pipe between tank and conservator
and responding to internal arcing faults and slow decomposition of insulating
materials. Additionally, backup function of oil alarm. The relay is actuated either
by pressure waves or gas accumulation, or by loss of oil below the relay level.
Separate contacts are installed for alarm and tripping. In case of a gas
accumulation alarm, gas samples can be drawn directly at the relay with a small
chemical testing kit. Discolouring of two liquids indicates either arcing by
products or insulation decomposition products in the oil. No change in colour
indicates an air bubble.

VECTOR GROUP
2.1 Y-, D-, and Z-connected windings
There are two principal three-phase connections of transformer windings: star (Y-connection)
and delta (D-connection). For special purposes, particularly in small power transformers,
another connection named zigzag or Z is also used. Historically, several other schemes have
been in use (such as "truncated delta", "extended delta", "T-connection", "V-connection", etc.).
While such connections are used in transformers for special applications, they no longer
appear in common power transmission systems.
2.1.1 Advantages of a Y-connected winding
This type of winding:
is more economical for a high-voltage winding;
has a neutral point available;
permits direct earthing or earthing through an impedance;
permits reduced insulation level of the neutral (graded insulation);
permits the winding taps and tapchanger to be located at the neutral end of each phase;
permits single-phase loading with neutral current (see 2.2 and 4.8).
2.1.2 Advantages of a D-connected winding

This type of winding:


is more economical for a high-current, low-voltage winding;
in combination with a star-connected winding, reduces the zero-sequence impedance in
that winding.
2.1.3 Advantages of a Z-connected winding
This type of winding:
permits neutral current loading with inherently low zero-sequence impedance. (It is used
for earthing transformers to create an artificial neutral terminal of a system);
reduces voltage unbalance in systems where the load is not equally distributed between
the phases.

Connection and phase displacement symbols for three-phase transformers


The star, delta, or zigzag connection of a set of phase windings of a three-phase
transformer
or of windings of the same voltage of single-phase transformers associated in a
three-phase
bank shall be indicated by the capital letters Y, D or Z for the high-voltage (HV)
winding and
small letters y, d or z for the intermediate and low-voltage (LV) windings. If the
neutral point of
a star-connected or zigzag-connected winding is brought out, the indication
shall be YN (yn)
or ZN (zn) respectively.
Open windings in a three-phase transformer (that are not connected
together in the
transformer but have both ends of each phase winding brought out to terminals)
are indicated
as III (HV), or iii (intermediate or low-voltage windings).
For an auto-connected pair of windings, the symbol of the lower voltage
winding is replaced
by 'auto', or 'a', for example, 'YNauto' or 'YNa' or 'YNa0', 'ZNa11'.

Example 1
A distribution transformer with high-voltage winding for 20 kV, deltaconnected. The lowvoltage winding is 400 V star-connected with neutral brought out. The LV winding
lags the HV
by 330.
Symbol: Dyn11
Example 2
A three-winding transformer: 123 kV star with neutral brought out. 36 kV
star with neutral
brought out, in phase with the HV winding but not auto-connected. 7,2 kV
delta, lagging
by 150.
Symbol: YNyn0d5