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Banana Peel as Alternative Bio-sorbent Material for

Removal of 2-Chlorophenol from Water


Salma I. M. Ibrahim1,2,3
Torsten C. Schmidt2; Samy M. Abd El-azeem3
1: Holding Company for Potable Water and Sanitation, Fayoum, Egypt
2: Instrumental Analytical Chemistry, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany
3: Chemistry Departement, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt

Introduction
Water is one of the vital necessities for the survival of human beings. Wastewater reclamation, recycling and reuse are vital to meet the water requirements for irrigation, industry and domestic use due to increasing population and development in many parts of the
world. Industrial wastewaters largely possess organic and inorganic materials such as dyes, phenols, aromatic compounds, and heavy metals [1].
Phenols cause bad taste and odor of drinking water and can exert negative effects on different biological processes. Phenol and its derivatives also show mutagenic effects by unbinding of the DNA helix, inhibition of DNA synthesis in human, induction of gene
mutations, chromosome aberrations and a neuploid formations (phenol, catechol) [2]. Because of this increased awareness and concern about environmental pollution, stringent national and international legislation has been set up, generating more efforts of research
work in this area, especially in finding better and more efficient techniques to treat wastewater bearing these organic pollutants [3]. Bio-sorbents are certain types of biomass used to bind and concentrate pollutants from even very diluted aqueous solution [4]. A
biosorption process offers a number of advantages compared to conventional methods currently used. These include low operational costs and minimizing the volume of chemical and/or biological waste sludge as well as a high degree of efficiency in decontamination
of very diluted effluents. Banana peel, a discarded agricultural waste, was used to produce bio-adsorbent through easy and environmental friendly processes [5 -7]. This natural bio-sorbent was evaluated for adsorptive removal of 2-chlorophenol compound from water.
The characterization results showed this bio-sorbent has very high specific surface area, potential binding sites and functional groups which support the adsorption process.

SEM characterization

Method

Morphological studies of banana peel before and after adsorption process


The banana peels, before and after adsorption were observed using scanning electron
microscopy (EDAX, FEI Quanta 400 F, Germany). Fig (2), show SEM of banana peel before
adsorption. The peel has an irregular and porous surface. The many pores on its surface
support the adsorption process.
Fig (3), shows SEM of banana peel after adsorption of 2- chlorophenol. The peel appears
to have a rough surface with crater-like pores as they are partially covered by 2chlorophenol. After adsorption, the pores became thicker and blocked with 2-chlorophenol
compound.

The schematic diagram indicate the sequence of


preparation of the banana peel as adsorbent Biomass

Sorption process Study of adsorption parameters:


The effect of some parameters viz. adsorbent dose, pH, shaking time and
extraction isotherm were studied to investigate their effect on the efficiency of
adsorption process.
An aliquot of 10 mL from 2-chlorophenol sample was put in a dark tube,
adjusted to pH 6.0, mixed with 0.2 g banana peel and finally capped with Teflon
septa .Then, the samples were shaken for 60 min at 230 rpm shaking speed. The
solid sorbent was separated by filtering the samples through 0.45 m celluloseacetate membrane and the remained amount of the analyte in the filtrate was
subjected to analysis by UV/visible spectrophotometer. Finally, the obtained
results were also confirmed by GC measurements.
The removal percentage was calculated by the following equation:

Collected banana peels were cut into


small pieces (1-2 cm)

Washing with tap water and


deionized water several times to
remove any external dirt.

Leave in air for removing the free water


and dried in oven for 24 hours at 105C.

(%) = x 100

Fig (1), prepared banana


peel powder

The dried banana peel was grounded into powder (0.5-1 mm),
several washing steps needed (about 20 times) with
shaking for 1 hour and change to pure water to remove the
colored pigment of the washing water as its absorbance
could interfere with the results. Then dried again in oven
for 24 hours at 105C. Kept in an air tied bottle prior to the
experiments, fig (1).

Where;
R (%) = percentage of removal
C = initial concentration of 2-Chlorophenol in solution (g/L).
Ce = Remaining concentration of 2-Chlorophenol in solution at equilibrium (g/L).

Fig. (3), SEM of banana peel after adsorption of 2chlorophenol


.

Fig. (2), SEM of banana peel

Results
Fig (4), Calibration Curve for 2-Chlorophenol

A calibration curve was done on UVSpectrophotometer, for 2-hlorophenol


standard solution:

Banana peel dose as adsorbent, initial concentration, pH value , and shaking time parameters were studied as shown in figures

0,95
0,9

y = 0.000x + 0.451
R = 0.998

0,85

(5, 6, 7, 8) respectively to maximize the adsorption process and increase the % of removal of 2-chlorophenol.

0,8

Absorbance

For detection the concentration of each


absorbance of 2-chlorophenol, remaind in
the filtrate after adsorption process.

Effect of different parameters on the removal % :

The results showed that maximum removal of the 2-chlorophenol compound (400g/L) was at pH 6 with recovery in the range
91.25% and equilibration was achieved after 60 min of contact time with shaking at 230 rpm.

0,75
0,7
0,65
0,6
0,55
0,5

Data summarized by Freundlish


sorption isotherm model:

Fig (6), Effect of initial conc. on the removal% of 2chlorophenol

Fig (5), Effect of sorbent dose on the removal% of 2chlorophenol

0,45
0,4
0,35
100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

650

700

750

800

850

900

950

1000

90

90

Conc., g/L

80

80

Removal %

Fig (9), Freundlich sorption isotherm


6,5
6

log C peel

50

It assumes the exponential


distribution of active sites of banana
peel. This isotherm does not predict
any saturation of the adsorbent
surface; thus, infinite surface coverage
is predicted, indicating physicosorption
on the surface.

100

100

0,3

70

70

60

60

Removal %

The Freundlich isotherm [8], is an


empirical model used to explain the
adsorption on heterogeneous surfaces
of banana peel, fig (9).

50
40

50
40

5,5

30

30

20

20

4,5

10

10

0
0,03

0,05

0,07

0,1

3,5

0,15

0,2

0,25

0,3

0,4

0,5

100

200

300

400

Sorbent dose, g

500

600

700

800

900

1000

Conc. g/L

3
2

Fourier transformation infrared


(FTIR):

3,5

4,5

log cw
First approach
y = 1,0465x + 1,5331
R = 0,9611

Second approach
y = 1,236x + 0,8598
R = 0,9587

Mean

Fig (8), Effect of shaking time on the removal% of 2chlorophenol

Fig (7), Effect of pH on the removal% of 2-chlorophenol

y = 1,1398x + 1,2172
R = 0,9718

100
100
90
90
80

80
70

60

Removal %

Removal %

70

Transmittance%

FTIR spectroscopy by using (Perkin


Elmer System 2000) spectrometer under
ambient conditions. It is believed that
the adsorption characteristics of these
materials are mainly due to the
presence of hydroxyl groups and
carboxyl functions present on pectin
substances [9].
The FTIR spectrum of the natural
banana peel sample was determined to
identify carboxyl and hydroxyl groups
present in the sample (Fig. 10).
The characterization results showed
that banana peel act as biosorbent has
very high specific surface area, potential
binding sites and functional groups.

2,5

50
40

60
50
40

30

30

20

20

10

10
0

0
2

10

11

10

20

30

40

50

60

90

120

Time, min

pH

Fig (10), show FTIR of banana peel

Conclusions and outlook

References

The present work explored a new, less expensive, economic and selective adsorbent as an alternative to expensive adsorbents
for the removal of 2-chlorophenol from water.

[1] Pankaj, Bhawna Tanwar, Shikha Goyal & Prem Kishore Patnala, A Comparative study of Sonosorption of Reactive Red 141 Dye on
TiO2 , Banana Peel, orange Peel and Hardwood Saw Dust :Journal of Applicable Chemistry, 2012, 1 (4):505-511. [2] U.A. El-Nafaty,
I.M. Muhammad and S. Abdulsalam, Biosorption and Kinetic Studies on Oil Removal from Produced Water Using Banana Peel, : Civil
and Environmental Research, Vol.3, No.7, 2013. [3] Cong Liu , Huu Hao Ngo , Wenshan Guo., Optimal conditions for preparation of
banana peels, sugarcane bagasse and watermelon rind in removing copper from water.: Bioresource Technology 119 (2012) 349354.
[4] B. Volesky, and S. Schiewer, Biosorption of metal in Encyclopedia of bioprocess Technology: fermentation, Biocatalysis, and
Bioseparation, John Wiley & Sons,1999. [5] B.H. Hameed , D.K. Mahmoud, A.L. Ahmad, Sorption equilibrium and kinetics of basic
dye from aqueous solution using banana stalk waste.: Journal of Hazardous Materials 158 (2008) 499506. . [6] Jamil R. Memon ,
Saima Q. Memon , M.I. Bhanger , G. Zuhra Memon , A. El-Turki , Geoffrey C. Allen, Characterization of banana peel by scanning
electron microscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy and its use for cadmium removal.: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 66 (2008) 260
265. [7] M. Achaka , A. Hafidi , N. Ouazzani ,S.Sayadi , L. Mandi, Low cost biosorbent banana peel for the removal of phenolic
compounds from olive mill wastewater: Kinetic and equilibrium studies.: Journal of Hazardous Materials 166 (2009) 117125. [8]
H.M.F. Freundlich, Adsorption in solution, Zeitschrift fr Physikalische Chemi 57 (1906) 384470. [9] M. Thirumavalavan, Y.L.
Lai, L.C. Lin, J.F. Lee, Cellulose-based native and surface modified fruit peels for the adsorption of heavy metal ions from
aqueous solu-tion: Langmuir adsorption isotherms, J. Chemical Engineering Data 55 (2010) 11861192.

The adsorption process was very fast, and it reached equilibration after 1 hour. The equilibrium of the solid-phase extraction
of chlorophenols decreased with increasing adsorbent concentration and it was reached at 0.2 g of banana peel/10mL, to
91.25% for removal of 400g/L of 2-chlorophenol in 10 ml solution.
The results reached by this project work can be used for determination of optimum conditions for removal of chlorophenols in
aqueous solutions by banana peel as an agricultural waste.
Although the biosorption application is facing a great challenge, there are two trends for the development of the biosorption
process for chlorophenol compounds removal:
1. One trend of research is to develop commercial biosorbents using immobilization technology.
2. The other trend of research conducted is focusing on the use of granulized biosorbents packed in columns, resembling ionexchange resins.

Contact: Salma Ibrahim Mohamed Ibrahim, Holding Company for Potable Water & Sanitation, Fayoum, Egypt, E-mail: salma_ibrahim86@yahoo.com

Funded by:

www.uni-due.de/zwu/iwatec