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AQA Level 1/2 Certificate in

Chemistry
Some ideas for experiments and
investigations that could be used to help
students develop skills and
understanding

02/04/2012
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(company number 3644723). Registered address: AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX

AQA Level 1/2 Certificate in Chemistry (Version 1.0)

It is the responsibility of the centre to be aware of any health and safety implications of the
investigation and ensure that a risk assessment for the practical is carried out. Teachers should
remind candidates about safe working when carrying out laboratory procedures.

The fundamental ideas in chemistry


Simple diffusion experiments such as Br 2 /air, NH 3 /HCl, KMnO 4 /water.
Modelling of atoms (using physical models or computer simulations) to illustrate chemical
reactions at an atomic level.
Precipitation reactions, such as lead nitrate with potassium iodide, to show conservation of
mass.
Working out the empirical formulae of copper oxide and magnesium oxide.
Calculating yields, for example magnesium burning to produce magnesium oxide.
Studying hydration/dehydration of copper sulphate.
Heating ammonium chloride in a test tube.

Bonding and structure


Molecular modelling.
Modelling electron transfer and electron sharing using computer simulations.
Reacting group 1 and group 7 elements, eg sodium with chlorine.
Reacting bromine, chlorine and iodine with iron wool.
Investigating the properties of ionic compounds, eg NaCl:
melting point, conductivity, solubility, use of hand lens to study crystal structure.
Investigating the properties of covalent compounds:
simple molecules, eg wax, methane, hexane
macromolecules, eg SiO 2 (sand).
Investigating the properties of graphite.

Air and water


Investigating the composition of air by passing air over heated copper using gas syringes and
measuring the percentage of oxygen. Then burning magnesium in the nitrogen to form
Mg 3 N 2 , followed by the addition of water to produce ammonia (nitrogen must have come from
the air).
Burning elements such as Na, Mg, Fe, C and S in air; adding water and testing the pH of the
solutions formed.
Distillation of sea water and checking the quality of the distillate (boiling point and evaporation
to dryness of a sample on a watch glass).
Testing for water using blue cobalt chloride and/or white copper(II) sulphate.
Carrying out experiments to show that both air and water are necessary for iron to rust.

AQA Level 1/2 Certificate in Chemistry (Version 1.0)

The periodic table


Demonstration of the combustion reactions of sodium and potassium.
Demonstration of the reactions of sodium and potassium with chlorine.
Demonstration of the reactions of lithium, sodium and potassium with water.
Demonstration of the reactions of chlorine with metals and water.
Displacing halogens from solutions of their salts by more reactive halogens.
Demonstration of the reaction of iron wool with steam.
Observation of as many salts of the transition metals as possible (bottles with formulae clearly
displayed).
Demonstrations of actions of transition metals and their salts as catalysts.

Acids, bases and salts

Preparing soluble salts:


copper sulfate by adding copper oxide to sulfuric acid
magnesium sulfate by adding magnesium oxide to sulfuric acid
copper chloride by adding copper oxide to hydrochloric acid
zinc nitrate by adding zinc oxide to nitric acid
sodium chloride by adding sodium hydroxide to hydrochloric acid
zinc sulfate by adding zinc carbonate to sulfuric acid.
Preparing insoluble salts:
lead iodide by mixing solutions of lead nitrate and potassium iodide
barium sulfate by mixing solutions of barium chloride and sodium sulphate.
Thermal decomposition of metal carbonates.
Reacting metal carbonates with acids.
Titrating strong acids/strong alkalis (HCl/NaOH) to find unknown concentrations (using
indicators to determine titration endpoints).
There are opportunities here for using pH sensors to investigate neutralisation.

Metals
Comparing the reactions of metals, eg Na, Li, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, with water/steam to show the
trend in reactivity.
Comparing the reactions of metals, eg Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, with dilute acid to show the trend in
reactivity.
Heating metal oxides with carbon to compare reactivity, eg CuO, PbO, Fe 2 O 3 , ZnO.
Displacement reactions, eg CuSO 4 (aq) + Fe, to investigate differences in metal reactivity.
Growing metal crystals by displacement reactions using metals and salts, eg copper wire in
silver nitrate solution.
Using models, eg expanded polystyrene spheres or computer animations, to show how layers
of atoms slide.
Investigating the physical properties of metals and alloys, eg melting point, conductivity,
hardness, tensile strength, flexibility.

AQA Level 1/2 Certificate in Chemistry (Version 1.0)

Rates of reaction

Investigating factors such as:


temperature, eg magnesium with acids at different temperatures
surface area, eg different sizes of marble chips
catalysts, eg the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide using manganese(IV) oxide,
cracking liquid paraffin using broken pot
concentration, eg sodium thiosulfate solution and dilute hydrochloric acid.
There are opportunities here for measurements using sensors to investigate reaction rates.

Crude oil and fuels


Demonstration of fractional distillation of crude oil using CLEAPSS mixture (take care to avoid
confusion with the continuous process in a fractionating column).
Testing oil fractions for viscosity, ease of ignition and sootiness of flame.
Comparing the energy content of different fuels: for example, by heating a fixed volume of
water.
Production of solid particles by incomplete combustion using a Bunsen burner yellow flame or
a candle flame to heat a boiling tube of cold water.
Collecting and testing the products of combustion of candle wax and methane.
Demonstration of burning sulfur or coal in oxygen and then testing the pH of the gas
produced.

Other useful substances from crude oil


Demonstration of the cracking of liquid paraffin using broken pottery as the catalyst.
Testing for unsaturation in the alkenes using bromine water.
Making a polymer from cornstarch.
Demonstration of making Perspex.
Finding the amount of water that can be absorbed by a hydrogel (eg those used as additives
to garden composts).
Distinguishing between LD and HD poly(ethene) using 50:50 ethanol:water.
Investigating the effect of heat on polymers to find which are thermosoftening and which are
thermosetting.

AQA Level 1/2 Certificate in Chemistry (Version 1.0)

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Alcohols, carboxylic acids and esters


Investigation of the reactions of ethanol.
Comparison of properties of ethanol with water.
Oxidation of ethanol using aqueous potassium dichromate.
Oxidation of a dilute solution of ethanol (eg wine or beer) by exposing to the air for several
days followed by testing for volatile acidity (smell or distillation).
Investigating the reactions of ethanoic acid.
Distinguishing between samples of ethanol, ethanoic acid and ethyl ethanoate using simple
chemical tests.
Comparison of the reactions of methanol, ethanol and propanol.
Preparation of ethyl ethanoate using ethanol and ethanoic acid with sulfuric acid as a catalyst.
Recognise the ester by smell after neutralising the acid with sodium hydrogen carbonate.
Adding drops of esters to water to smell more effectively.

Energy changes in chemical reactions

Measuring temperature changes of neutralisation and displacement reactions, eg zinc and


copper sulfate.
Dissolving ammonium nitrate, citric acid and sodium hydrogencarbonate.
Adding ammonium nitrate to barium hydroxide.
Demonstration of the thermite reaction, ie aluminium mixed with iron(III) oxide.
Investigation of hand warmers, self-warming cans, sports injury packs.
Measuring the energy produced by 1g of different liquid fuels and different foods using a
simple calorimeter.
Measuring and calculating the energy change for exothermic reactions (eg acid with
magnesium ribbon) and endothermic reactions (eg dissolving potassium nitrate) to get H for
the reaction.
Carrying out some reactions and measuring the energy produced, assuming that it is only the
3
water in the solution that is being heated and that 4.2 joules will raise the temperature of 1 cm
of water by 1 C.
There are opportunities here for measurements using temperature sensors to investigate energy
transfer.

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The production of ammonia


3

Demonstration of the effect of temperature and pressure on equilibrium using 50 cm of


NO 2 /N 2 O 4 .

Electrolysis
Electrolysis of any solutions of a soluble ionic compound, eg copper chloride, sodium chloride,
zinc bromide.
Electroplating copper foil with nickel in a nickel sulfate solution.
The movement of ions, eg by the electrolysis of a crystal of KMnO 4 on filter paper dampened
with sodium chloride solution, or the electrolysis of CuCrO 4 in a saturated urea solution using
a U-tube.

AQA Level 1/2 Certificate in Chemistry (Version 1.0)

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Analysis
Flame tests spray solution into flame, use wooden splints soaked in solutions overnight or
use nichrome wire loops.
Testing mixtures of two salts, eg flame tests on solutions containing pairs of the listed ions.
2+
Reacting Fe with sodium hydroxide solution note that the initial colour is quickly oxidised.
Reacting carbonates + acid test gas for CO 2 using a drop of limewater on a glass rod.
Distinguishing between the halide ions using silver nitrate solution.
Identifying unknown single salts using the tests in the content.
Planning a suitable order of tests to use on a solution that contains an unknown single salt.
Paper chromatography of food colours or inks.
Building into these practicals the idea of instrumentation precision, eg for the collection of
gases, the use of boiling tubes, gas jars or gas syringes.