Sie sind auf Seite 1von 5

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 48 2008

Analysis and Design Selection of Lightning


Arrester for Distribution Substation

Nay Kyi Htwe

transformers and low voltage transformer. The analysis of


Abstract—Distribution substations feed power to the actual electromagnetic transient is depended on operating voltage,
consumers through distributors and service lines. The main lengths of the lines and contactor configuration. So, it can be
equipments are generators and transformers. To protected these chosen correctly the technical specifications of the apparatus
equipments and for stability purpose, over-voltages and over currents
protection are important to consider. Lightning is one of the most of Lightning Arrester base on the amounts of receiving over-
serious causes of over-voltage. If the power equipments especially at voltage.
outdoor substation are not protected, the over-voltage will cause
burning of insulation. Lightning arrester can protect the damages of II. PHYSICAL PHENOMENON OF LIGHTNING
equipments. This paper describes the arrester type, lightning terminal
and earthing plan of Dagon East substation in Myanmar. DynaVar
Lightning is a huge spark caused by the electrical discharge
station class and intermediated arrester (Vrated = 72kV and I charge taking place between the clouds, within the same cloud and
(max) = 10kA) are used in this substation. Most of substation between the clouds and the earth. The turmoil that is apparent
equipments are designed to match with the insulation coordination. If inside a thundercloud is most impressive to the viewer. It
the insulation equipments are higher, the cost is also high. So, to shape changes continually, and one notes especially the
relax this, the lightning arrester must be put in front of the protected development of the towering ‘thunderhead’. It is very easy to
equipments and protected zone. For this purposes, this paper
specially indicates the safety and saving cost of equipments for over-
imagine the fierce updrafts with the cloud and the downdrafts
voltage protection in distribution substation. near it surface which are matters of practical experience for
aviators. It is generally accepted that the updraft is responsible
Keywords—Lightning arrester, Earthing plan, DynaVar station, for charge separation within the cloud, like some gigantic
Intermediated arrester. electrostatic generator, which leads to the creation of electric
fields within and around the cloud and ultimately to the
I. INTRODUCTION electric breakdown that is called lightning.

S UBSTATION design involves more than installing


apparatus, protective devices and equipment. The
significant momentary investment and required reliable
III. WAVE SHAPE OF LIGHTNING STROKE
The lightning stroke current rises to crest value very quickly
continuous operation of the facility requires detailed attention
and then starts decaying at a low rate as illustrated in Figure.1.
to preventing surges from entering the substation facility. The
The generalized wave shape can be characterized as:
effects of disturbances with limiting in a power system, which
1. Crest or peak value and it have been observed that
if allow to persist, may damage plant and interrupt the supply
the maximum value of this current is 400 kA.
of electrical energy. Lightning is one of the most serious
2. The wave front line varies from 1 t 10 µ sec.
causes of over voltage. If the power equipment especially at
3. The time at which the stroke current reduces to 50
outdoor substation is not protected the over-voltage will cause
percent value of that crest value and it has been
burning of insulation. Thus it results into complete shutdown
estimated that the time varies from 10 to 100 µ sec.
of the power and the loss may run into cores of kyat. Electrical
equipment can be damage due to over-voltage such as
switching surge over-voltage, Lightning surge over-voltage,
transient recovery voltage and power frequency temporary
over-voltage in transmission line and receiving end of
substation. It is important to protect power equipment against
them wherever possible, consistent with sound economic.
Lightning Arrester can protect the damages of electrical
equipments. So, Lightning Arrester needed to install in the
terminal end of the transmission line, substation, high voltage

Miss NayKyiHtwe is a student of Mandalay Technological University.


(e-mail :naykyihtwe08@ gmail.com).
Figure.1 Generalized wave shape of lightning stroke

174
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 48 2008

IV. STATIC CHARGING OF THE CONDUCTOR DUE TO A The current comings into a tower have been postulated by
CHARG CLOUD lightning stroke from a cloud, and then disappear into the
Suppose that the cloud is positively charged, then the line ground. A useful concept is to think of the cloud and earth as
will be charged to a negative potential by the electrostatic forming a vast capacitor which is being discharge by the
induction. This negative charge will be present right under the stroke. The return circuit would be completed by displacement
cloud and the portions of the line away from this point will be current in the electric field. This is suggested by Figure.3.
charge positively as illustrated in Figure.2.

cloud

Stroke

Earth

Figure.3 Lightning stroke from cloud to earth discharges a


vast Capacitor
Figure.2 Static charging of the line due to a cloud
The charge on the line will not flow since it is a bound VII. LIGHTNING ARRESTER
charge. The positive charge on the far ends of the line will Lightning arresters are the most effective means of
however leak to the earth slowly through insulators metallic protecting an electrical apparatus against traveling voltage
parts etc, thus leaving only the negative charge on the line. waves caused by lightning and switching. Lightning arresters
Due to a direct discharge occurring between this cloud and are connected across and apparatus to provide a Low-
another passing by cloud the charge on the cloud is neutralized resistance path to ground, thus limiting the transient voltages
then the charge on the line is no more a bound charge and is below the Basic Impulse Level of the apparatus. There are four
free to travel in both directions in the form of traveling waves. different classes of arrester.
1. Station
V. OVERVOLTAGE DUE TO LIGHTNING STROKE 2. Intermediate
In case of direct strokes, a line having a surge impedance of 3. Distribution, and
Zs and the discharge current be Id, then the over-voltage due to 4. Secondary
a direct stroke is The functions of a lightning arrester are
Vd = I d × Zs (1) 1. To act like an open circuit during the normal
When the traveling waves flow in one direction, the operation of the system i.e., to hold off the system
equation is true. However, when they travel in both directions, voltage,
the current is halved and the over-voltage is 2. To limit the transient voltage to a safe level with
I × Zs the minimum delay and fitter, and
Vd = d (2) 3. To bring the system back to its normal operation
2
mode as soon as the transient voltage is
When the lightning stroke is on the earth wire or top of a
suppressed, i.e., to interrupt the power-follow
tower, the over-voltage is
di
current and to reseal itself.
V = I ×Z + l (3)
d d c c The normal operation or operational mode includes the
dt
system under faulted condition. Under several types of system
Where Z c is the impedance of the earth conductor and l c is
faults, such as the single line-to-ground faults, the voltage to
the inductance of the line conductor.
ground across the unfaulted phases will rise above the normal
voltage level. The arrester must not go into conduction during
VI. INTERACTION BETWEEN LIGHTNING AND THE POWER
this fault condition. It should also be able to interrupt the
SYSTEM
power-follow current and reseal itself under system fault
When lightning strikes a power line, a current is injected conditions when the power-frequency voltage across it rises.
into the power system. This is very useful concept. This
current will give rise to depend upon its wave shape and the VIII. SELECTION OF LIGHTNING ARRESTER
impedances through which it flows. If a tower is struck, the
The lightning arresters are designated by the crest
impedance of the tower will be of concern. The voltage drop
magnitude of the discharge current having 10×20 µ second
down the tower will appear across the line insulation. If this is
wave shape which the arrester can safely pass without damage.
excessive, flashover of the insulation will occur and a fault will
The lightning arresters are designated as 8, 10, 20 KA. They
be placed on the system.

175
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 48 2008

can safely discharge these current crests. As the arrester is a 3. Strip or conductor electrodes
protective device, if is a general impression that if should be
rated for most severe conditions of discharge currents says 20 X. INTERMEDIATE CLASS DYNAVAR ARRESTER
A. The discharge current from the arrester varies from a few Application is based upon the maximum continuous
hundred amperes to kilo-amperes and sometimes if is even 20 operation voltage, line to neutral, at the arrester location. For
KA. Maximum discharge voltage and discharge factor for the grounded neutral systems, this is computed as maximum
arrester is defined the maximum value of voltage which system voltage divided by √3. For historical comparison, the
appears across the arrester terminals at the time of discharging maximum continuous operating voltage is 81% of the
if rated current determines its impulse level of protection. The conventional 71% arrester installed on an affectively grounded
discharge factor if is, neutral system.
DF= discharge voltage (crest value) of the arrester (5)
Rated voltage (RMS value) of the arrester
In the early designs of arresters, this discharge factor was
quite high (about 5.6) but due to the advent of better material
and Modern research it has been reduced varying to 2.4 to 3.0.
The above ratio for arresters manufactured by different firms
varies from 1.5 to 1.7, so, the average value may be taken as
1.6 E is the rated arrester voltage KV (R.M.S) and LS is the
minimum impulse insulation level in kV (crest valve) its value
after allowing 10% as tolerance factor and 25% as margin
factor can be obtained.
Figure.4 Section view of typical unit

LS= 1.25 × 1.1× 1.6 × 2 E =3.88E (6) A. Lightning Arrester Design


0.8
In case Extra High Voltage system LP in kV, At Dagon East substation, DynaVar station class and
LP = 2.3 × power frequency withstand voltage in kV (RMS) intermediate surge arresters are used. The system voltage is 66
= 2.3 × EL (7) kV and maximum continuous operation voltage is 48 kV rms.
The duty cycle rating is 60 kV rms and maximum discharge
For 75% arrester, current is 10 kA.
LP = 2.37 EL (8) 1. Maximum 0.5µs discharge voltage = 163.5 kV
2. Maximum switching surge protective level=116.4 kV
For 80% arrester, 3. Maximum discharge voltage using an 8/20=148.8 kV
LP=2.53EL (9) Current wave-kV
The maximum discharge voltage for a10kA impulse current
IX. EARTHING SYSTEM wave produces a voltage wave cresting in 0.5µs.
The frame of every generator, stationary motor, and so far B. Structure of Lightning Arrester
as particable, portable motor, and metallic parts of all In Figure.5, PVN 48.0kV maximum continuous operation
transformer and regulating and controlling apparatus voltage arrester is shown. It has 0.56 diameter holes, clamp
connected with supply shall be earthed by the owner by type terminal, arrester name plate. Its internal diameter is 9.3
separate and distinct connection with earth. diameters. 1.7
Every conductor used on earthing shall be of stranded as 0.56
solid copper or suitable copper alloy, and shall be protected 1.75
Diameter 4
wherever liable to mechanical damage and also, where Holes
necessary, against corrosion, particular attention being given in
these respects to the earthing leads at its point of connection Clamp Type Terminals Suitable 9.3
32.
with the earth electrode. The coefficient of earthing is below for Use with CU DR AL 3
80 percent. On four wire distribution systems, with solidly Conductor 0.25 to 0.81 Dia
ground transformer neutral at every voltage level, coefficient
of earthing is generally less than 80%. On high voltage 0.56 Dia 3 Holes at
transmission systems the coefficient of earthing does not 120˚ On 10.0 Dia BC Arrester Nameplate
exceed 75%.
In resistance of Common Types of Earth-electrode, there are Figure.5 PVN 48.0 kV maximum continuous operation
three types. voltage Arrester
1. Plates
2. Pipes and rods

176
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 48 2008

C. Specification of Lightning Arrester for Incoming Side


Incoming side of Dagon East substation, the Table.1. Detailed Design Data Sheet
specifications of lightning arrester are as follow. System
Voltage
66kV for 33kV for
Incoming Side Outgoing Side
Rated Voltage (kV) 72.6 36
Discharge Voltage 188.76 93.6
on 100% Arrester (kV)
Insulation Level for 284.78 164.4
100% Arrester (kV)
Minimum Impulse 732.389 363.168
Figure.6 One Line Diagram of East Dagon 30MVA Insulation Level on
Substation 100%(kV)
Power Frequency 151.8 75.9
System nominal voltage = 66kV withstand Voltage on
Rated normal Voltage = 66 × 1.1 = 72.6kV 100% (kV)
Continuous Operating Voltage (kV) rms = 48.0kV Ground Voltage 59.28 29.63
Normal Discharge Current (8 /20µs) kA = 10kA Peak Value(kV)
1/50 Impulse Spark over Voltage = 163.5kV Require Switching 215.6 107.8
Frequency (Hz) = 50Hz Surge Withstand
Type = outdoor Voltage (kV)

D. Specifications of Lightning Arrester for Outgoing Side XIII. CONCLUSION


The followings are the specifications of lightning arrester In this paper, the basis theory of lightning, lightning
for outgoing side of Dagon East substation. shielding and design of lightning arrester are presented.
DynaVar station class and intermediate arresters are used. The
System nominal voltage = 33kV type of arrester is outdoor type. The rated voltages of arresters
Rated normal Voltage = 33 × 1.1 = 36kV are 72kV and 36kV, the maximum discharge current is 10kA
Continuous Operating Voltage (kV) rms = 24kV and MCOV are 48kVrms and 24kVrms. The lightning arrester
Normal Discharge Current (8 /20µs) (kA) = 10kA in this paper is provided for overvoltage protection in
Frequency (Hz) = 50Hz distribution substation. This paper will help and give the
Type = outdoor electrical knowledge of the protection system in distribution
substation which coach to the technicians, the professional
engineers, the students who facing the overvoltage condition
XI. LIGHTNING EARTHING and protection coordination of distribution substation.
In earthing system, lightning arresters with PVC coated
wire and cable lug are used. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Firstly, the author would like to express her indebtedness
1. 66kV Lighting Arrester(70mm2 PVC Coated Wire) and gratitude to her beloved parents, for their kindness,
= 50' support, understanding during the whole course of this work
2. 33kV Lighting Arrester(70mm2 PVC Coated Wire) and encouragement to attain ambition without any trouble. The
= 100' author is indebted to all her teachers who give her knowledge
3. 70mm2 Cable Lug = 2 No from M.T.U and Y.T.U in Myanmar.
Figure.7 shows the earthing plan of Dagon East substation.
REFERENCES
XII. DETAILED DESIGN DATA [1] Allan Greenwood 1923 “Electrical Transients in Power System”
Second Edition, John Willey & Sons, Inc
For incoming side and outgoing side, the discharge [2] Anderson 1987 “Transmission Line Reference Book”, Second
voltage, insulation level, minimum impulse insulation level Edition Substations Committee
and power frequency withstand voltage base on 100% arrester [3] ANSI/ IEEE 1989 ” IEEE Standard for Gapped Silicon-Carbide
Surge Arresters for AC Power Circuit”
are as shown in Table.1. Ground voltage peak value and
[4] Franked- Graham 1970 “New Electric Library” Vol-2
switching surge withstand voltage are also shown in Table.1. [5] IEEE Std 998- 1996 “Guide for Direct Lightning Stroke Shielding of
Substation”, IEEE Working Group D5,
[6] U Tin Swe “Power System Analysis Part 3”

177
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 48 2008

R=2Ω R=2Ω
R=2Ω 30MVA
Lightning Earth Body Lightning Earth
30MVA×
Earth
R

10´ 10´ 10´ 10´ 10´ 10´ 10´ 10´ 10´ 10´ 10´10´ 10´10´ 10´

2 Pole DS LA PT CT CB 66kV TR: CB CT PT DS


66kV LA 30 MVA 33kV LA

66kV Switch
Yard
10MVA×R
Neutral Earth
33kV TR:
10 MVA CB CT PT DS

100VA
Neutral Earth
Body Earth
Switch Gear Panel Earth Ring System
LA Earth
R = 1.8 Ω
100kVA
R=2Ω Lightning Transformer LA Earth Lightning
Arrester Arrester

DS Earth

Figure.7 Dagon East Sub-station Earthing Plan

178