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NOTES

American Committee
For
International Wild Lile Protection

ON

THE DISTRIBUTION AND STATUS OF


SOME PERUVIAN MAMMALS
1968

OFFlCERS
HAROLD J. COOLIDGE
Chairman
2101 Constitutioti
Avenue
Washington.
D. C. 20418
VICTOH H. CAHALANE
Vice-Chairman
LEE S. CHANDALL
Secretary und Treasurer
GHACE H. DA VALL
Asst Secretary- Treasurer

MEMBERS
HAIWLD E. ANTHONY
Ecological Societ y 01 America
HUSSELL
M. ARUNDEL
Societ y tor the Preseruation 01 Species
EHNEST
BHOOKS. JR.
VICTOH H. CAHALANE
STANLEY
A. CAIN
CHAHLES H. CALLISON
Nat ional Audubon Society
,lAMES L. CLARK
Camp Eire Club 01 Amenea
o WILLlAM G. CONWAY
Amencan
Assoclatton
01
Zoologtcal Parhs and Aquariums
HAHOLD J. COOLIDGE
Boone and Crochett Club
LEE S. CHANDALL
o 1'1I1LIP K. CROWE
JEAN DELACOUR
lnternational
Council [or
Birti Preseruation
THOMAS DOLAN IV
Wtlderness Club 01 Philadelphia
Pluladelphia
Conseruationists,
Inc.
JOHN T. EMLEN,
JR.
Uniuersit y 01 Wlsconsin
llENHY
CL1\ y FRlCK
mA N. GAllHIELSON
Wtldlile Management
Lnstitute
JAMES C. GHEENWAY.
JR.
oC. H.GUTERMUTH
Nortli American Wtldlile Foundation
o E. HA YMOND HALL
Museum 01 Natural History
Uruuersity ol Kansas

WILLTAM P. HAHIUS. JR.


111u.'.um 01 Zoology
Uruoersit y o] Michigan
CAHL L. HUBBS
Zoological Societ y o] San Diego
o WAHHEN KINNEY
UENHY LOOMIS
EDWAHD J. MAGEE
Pittsburgli Zoologicat Society
FHANK E. MASLAND. JR.
Academy ol Natural Sciences
of Pluladelphia
G. W. MERCK
HOlllmT
C. MILLER
Calilornia Academy
o] Sciences
o M. GHAHAM NETTING
Carnegie Museum
o JAMES A. OLlVER
American Mu!;eum 01 Natural History
o FAIRFIELJ)
OSnORN
New Yorh Zoological Socrery
JOSEPH W. PENFOLD
l zaak Wallon League ol Ameriea
HOGEH TOHY PETERSON
Wilson Ornuholoeical Socrerv
GEORGE A. PETIUDES
Tile witaut Societv
WILLlAM H. PHEtpS.
JH.
Pan American Seclion
International
Council [or
ird Preseruat ion
o IUCHAHD H. POUGH
American Or nithologists'
Union
AUSTIN L. RAND
Chicago Natural Histor y Museum
S. DILLON RIPLEY
Peabotly Mllseum o] Natural History
Vale University
o LAURANCE S. ROCKEFELLER
ARCHIBALD
B. ROOSEVELT
GEORGE C. nUHLE
WILLIAM G. SHELDON
American Societv oi Mammalogists
ANTHONY W AYNE SMITH
National
Parks Association
LLOYD W. SWIFT
World Wildlile Fund
o LEE M. TALBOT
ALEXANDER
WETMORE
Smithsonian
Lnett uton

by

I. R. GRIMWOOD

R09"d 01 Directors

Vicuna

SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 21

1969
PUBLICATION OF THIS REPORT IS JOINTLY SUPPORTED BY THE
AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR INTERNA TIONAL WILD LIFE PRQTECTION
AND THE NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY

AMERICAN COMMITTEE

FOR INTERNA TIONAL WILD LIFE


AND
NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY
BRONX.

NEW

YORK,

10460

PROTECTION

PREVIOUS
THE

IUCN

SPECIAL

INTERNATIONAL
FOR

THE

PUBLlCATIONS
COMMISSION

AMERICAN

INTERNATIONAL

PREPARED
ON NATIONAL

COMMITTEE

WILD LlFE

BY
PARKS

FOR

PROTECTION

FOREWORD

* * * * *
1963. No. 15. Burma Wildlife Survey, 1959-1960. Oliver Milton and Richard
D. Estes.
No. 16. Fie/d Notes on Wildlife Conservation in Malaya (1961-1962).
Oliver Milton.
1964. No. 17. Advisory Report on a National Park System for Thai land,
1959-1960.
George C. Ruhle.
1965. No. 18. Advisory Report on Wildlife and National Parks in Nigeria,
1962. George A. Petrides.
1966. No. 19. Advisory Report on National Parks and Reserves for Taiwan,
1965. George C. Ruh le.
1968. No. 20. Advisory Report on National Parks and Reserves
for the
Republic of Korea, 1966. George C. Ruhle.

THE AMERICAN COMMITTEE for International


Wild Life Protection has long been
interested in encouraging conservation
activities
in the developing countries.
Our
most recent

published

reports

Africa, so we are particularly


of Some Peruvian Mammals"

have dealt

with parks and wildlife

in Asia and in

pleased to add "Notes on the Distribution and Status


to this series as our fnst on Latin America.

Peru has rich natural resources of fauna and flora on both the western and the
eostern slopes of the Andes as well as in the coastal and Amazon regions, with
the greater

part of the terrain at an altitude

of over 3,000 meters.

This great coun-

try al so has extensive areas that are still unexplored scientificolly,


The existing
knowledge of Peruvion wildlife is based lorqely on limited collections
scattered
in museums in many parts of the world, and on published reports and government
records. These notes by 1. R. Grimwood, who ser ved as Technical Adviser on Wild
Life for the British Ministry of Overseas Development,
on an assignment
to the
Peruvian Servicio Forestal y de Caza, will furnish a useful reference revealing the
wide gaps in our present

know ledge.

At the same time this report will, it is hoped,

encourage ecological
research as well as the establishment
of appropriate game
laws, parks, and reserves
to help safeguard the endangered
and fast-vanishing
fauna and flora of Peru.
Readers of this report will also be interested
in the proceedings
of the Latin
American Conference on the Conservation
of Renewable Natural Resources,organized by the International
Union for Conservation
of Nature and Natural Resources
and sponsored by UNESCO and F AO, which was held in San Carlos de Bariloche,
Argentina, March 27-April 2, 1968. These proceedings are available
from IUCN
headquarters
at 1110 Morges, Switzerland.
We wish to express our gratitude to Mr. Grimwood for compiling his report on
Peru and for permitting it to be published by the American Committee.
We also
wish to thank the New York Zoological
publication.

Society

for generously

sharing

the cost of

Harold J. Coolidge, Chairman


American Committee for International
Wild Life Protection
June

1969

The Pampas Galeras National Vicuna Reserve, high in the Andes 01 centroL Peru. Oomestic
livestock tended by local Indians as well as wild vicuna use the range lorage concurrently.
Book Oesign and VariTyping by Henderson Services,

Washington, O.e.

iii

CONTENTS

FOREWORD

o N T E N T S,

continued

iii

PINNIPEDIA
Otari idae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Phocidae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

59
59
60

MARSUPIALIA
Didelphidae
Caenolestidae

7
7
10

SIRENIA
Trichechidae

61
61

PRIMA TES
" . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Cebidae
. . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . ..
Callithricidae

11
12
20

EDENTATA
Myrmecophagidae
Bradypodidae .
. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Dasypodidae
"

24
24
25
26

LAGOMORPHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Lepori dae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

28
28

RODENTIA (Sub-order
Erethizontidae . . ..
Cavi idae . . .. . . .. .
Hydrochoeridae
Dinomyidae . . . . . . .
Dasyproctidae
Chinchillidae

30
30
30
31
33
34
36

INTRODLX:TION

Hystricomorpha)
. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

CETACEA
Susuidae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Delphinidae
Physeteridae
Balaenopteridae. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Balaenidae . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . ..

37
37
38
39
40
40

CARNIVORA
'"
Canidae. . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Ursidae
Procyon idae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Mustelidae
Felidae
"

41
41
43
45
48
53

iv

PERISSODACTYLA
Tapiridae

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

63
63

ARTIODACTYLA
T ayassuidae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Camelidae
Cervidae . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

65
65
66
72

REFERENCES

84

MAPS
Relief Map of Peru
Rivers and Localities, Amazon Region
Dinomys branickii
,
Tremarctos ornatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Tapirus pinchaque and Tapirus terrestris
Vicugna vicugna
Lama guanicoe
Odocoileus virginianus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Mazama americana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Mazama chunyi and Pudu mephistophi/es
Hippocame/us antisensis
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

AII photographs by Jaime D. Yoakum

vi
6

32
44
62

68

70
73

75
78
83

11

~ 01

80

18

I )

J.:..;., fM)

:;..;

76

74

72

70

e OLOMBIIA

BRAIZIL

101

121

) ~,'

~.r<

AP
O'

PERU

SCALE
MILES

o
:
o

50

'

160

100

ISO

260

200

3bo

KILOMETERS
161

~:.-;-..'.~:1
I
~_.::- .. ~

J ~
D'~I
181

BE

1
Qo ,.

~:J.!-

1,g;>ol '~

g,OOO "sOOI ''

I SJ,,

4, soo .,

80

78

76

7'

72

'.1'<,,':6

lo

I NTRODUCT

I ON

THE INFORMATION contained in these notes was compiled during the period June
1965 to May 1967, when 1 was acting as adviser on wildlife conservation to the
Peruvian Servicio Forestal y de Caza, under the United Kingdom-Peru Technical
Assistance Programme, and 1 am grateful to the Governments of both countries for
permission to publish ths pcper.
These notes are concerned only with the local distribution and current status
of the larger mammals, excluding a11 members of the order Chiroptera and covering
only the super families Chinchilloidea, Cavioidea, and Erethizontoidea of the order
Rodentia. The notes are a summary of a register containing a11 traceable records
of the occurrence of each species within Peruvian limits, compiled from references
in the literature, the reports of government and other officials, museum collections,
hunters' trophies, etc., supplemented by personal observations in the field. At best,
the available information gives only the barest outline of the current distribution
and status of the animal concerned, and in many cases nothing is known of a species other than that a lew museum specimens have been collected in a certain
loca lit Y. There are large areas 01 the country which 1 was unable to visit and from
which no other Iorm 01 records is known. Foremost amongst those is the northern
part 01 the Amazon region, between the Maranon and Amazon rivers and the Ecuadorian and Colombian borders, which remains a blank in my knowledge in regard
to almost a11 species. It is hoped thot , by highlighting the inadequacy 01 present
knowledge, ths paper may encourage others to fill in the gaps.
In Peru, the conservation 01 terrestrial mammals is the responsibility 01 the Servicio forestal y de Caza, while marine mammals (including fresh-water orms such
as the two species 01 dolphins lound in the Amazon tributaries) are in the care 01
the Servicio Pesqueria. When the Servicio Forestal y de Caza came into being in
1963, there were no national parks or reserves to lorm sanctuaries or wildlife and
no regulations controlling hunting, other than a prohibition 01 the killing 01 vicunas,
fur secls, and sea lions, and a regulation prohibiting the killing 01 certain Amazon
basin forms, including both species 01 peccary and brocket deer, during the period
December 1 to March 31. The last mentioned regulation was introduced to prevent
the mass slaughter 01 animals when isolated on islands of high ground during the
annual f100d season, but it proved to be vrtuo lly unenforceable. In May 1967 the
Pampas Galeras National Reserve was created to orm a sanctuary for vicuna, and
the Government is also negotiating the purchase 01 Hda. Cala Cala as a second
reserve for the species, with a view to separating the hybrid from the pure-bred
stock. In March 1968 the 22,000 sq. km. Manu National Park was set aside to preserve representative populations of the fauna and flora of the Amazon region in
their natural state. The Servicio Forestal y de Caza is now selecting areas for the
creation of national parks in the other two major divisions 01 the country-the
coastal region and the Andes-and is considering a number of subsidiary reserves

or 'sanctuaries to protect certain species which will not be represented in any of


the three national parks. Regulations or the control of hunting in the rest of the
country are also under preparation. Remarks under the heading o "Status" in the
lollowing notes have relevance to those plans, and where possible 1 have indicated
f a species is represented in an existing or proposed park or reserve and whether
control of the hunting of it elsewhere appears to be necessary.
In describing the distribution of individual genera and species, 1 have used the
terms "coastal region", "Andean region", and "Amazon region" in referring to
the three major ecological divisions of the country.
The coastal region, for the purposes of this paper, comprises the "coastal
plain" and the "western slopes of the Andes". The coastal plain, for almost its
en tire length, is a sandy desert varying in width from a few kilometers to nearly
100 km. in the Deportment of Piura and Lamboyeque, which nowhere rises more
than a few hundred meters above sea level. The annual precipitation, which takes
the form of winter mists or light drizzle known as "garua", is usua11y under 3 cms.
The cold Antarctic Humbcldt current responsible for those conditions swings westward away from the coast at cpproxmote ly 6.00' S., however: so that from that point
northward, rainfall gradua11y increases until it reaches a maximum of approximately
100 cms. in parts of the Deportrnent of Tumbes. Vegetation in a11 but the northern
part of the coastal plain is confmed to the deltas of the few rivers which run westward from the Andes, where a variety of crops, including sugar, cotton, and fruit,
are grown under irrigation; and to a ver y few areas where topographical features
cause an unusua11y high condensation of mist and fog. These areas, which are
known as "lomas", have a very specialized flora which is usuclly dormant and invisible for the greater part of the year but covers the desert with a complete carpet
of green-sometimes almost obscured by f1owers-for a few weeks during the winter
season, between August and November. At 6.00' S. the desert begins to support
patches of light bush and scrub and the vegetation gets progressively richer to the
north, with trees becoming frequent in drainage lines in the Talara Province of
Piuro , until it reaches the stage of true tropical deciduous forest in the Zarumi11a
Province of the" Department of Tumbes. In the north of that Department there are
also dense mangrove swamps along the shore and on islands in the mouth of the
Rio Tumbes.
The "western slopes of the Andes" rise abruptly from the coastal plcn, usually
as bore rock or gravel slopes which climb steeply, and with scarcely a break, to
heights of 3,000 or 4,000 meters in many parts. Trees and bushes grow in the few
valleys containing permanent water, but such natural vegetation has in a11 cases
been much reduced to make way for human settlement. Sparse grass and other low
growths appear above 2,700 m., but otherwise there is little vegetation on western
slopes in the southern two-thirds 01 the country (except or occasional patches of
cactus, tillandsia, or other xerophytic plants). At about 8.00' S., however, isolated
areas 01 woodland occur at various altitudes, and those become more and more
Irequent the lurther north one goes. Behrendt fo11ows Koepcke in separating such
woods into (a) "tropical woodland green at the time 01 rain", which occurs at clt2

tudes of 600 to 1,000 m. and once covered quite extensive areas in the Departments
of La Libertad and Lambayeque belore most o it was destroyed by settlement;
(b) "sub-tropical deciduous woodland" occurring in widely scattered patches from
altitudes of 1,000 to 2,400 m., which he likens to the "ceja de selva" zone on the
ecstern slopes o the Andes; and (e) "temperate evergreen woods" which are ound
at altitudes 01 lrom 2,400 to 3,300 m. in a lew places north of 7.00' S.
Since 1have included the western and eastern slopes of the Andes in the coastal
and Amazon regions respectively, or the purposes o this paper, the Andean region
remains as the mass of high ground between the two. The greater part of that mass
lies at over 3,000 m. and is rather like a couched, but smcll, humped camel in formo
The broad mass of the camel's hindquarters lies in the south, with the ridges of
land over 4,500 m. representing its hip bones; its hump and withers are represented
by the single ridge of mountains, reaching heights of over 5,500 m., which runs
through the Departments of Lima and Ancash. The high ground then falls away
and narrows to the dip of the camel's neck at 6.00' S., where the Andes can be
crossed by a pass o no more than 2,144 m. in height; from this point the narrow
neck gradua11y rises again to a head which would he somewhere on the ColombcnEcuadorian border.
1 have used the terms "puna", "sierras", and "cordilleras" in referring to the
different ecological zones of the Andean region. By "puna", 1 mean the extensive
areas of genera11y level, sour , short grassland which are ound at altitudes of from
3,800 to 4,300 m. between the main eastern cnd western mountain ranges, rom
Lake Titicaca in the south to a little north of Lake Junin (11.00' S.). The puna
zone is not a continuous stretch of country, but consists of a number of plateaus
divided from each other by intervening mountains, and which are much cut up by
deep gorges. The puna zone is extensively used for grazing llamas, alpacas,
sheep, cattle, and horses; but the only agriculture practised is the planting of sma11
patches of potatoes. Precipitation is not great and usually takes the orm of short
but heavy rain or hail storms. Snow is rare. A similar, but drier , type o country
occurs at somewhat lower altitudes between 9.00' S. and 7.00' S., where it is known
as "jalna".
1 have used the term "cordilleras" for the ranges of mountains which rise above
the general level of the Andean platea u to heights of 5,500 m. or more (.e., prncipally the hips and hump o the camel) and which are usually capped with glaciers
or permanent snow. At over 5,000 m. the slopes of the cordilleras are devoid of
vegetation, but the lower valleys often contain dense thickets or smcll woods o
Polylepis spp.
The word "sierras" has been used as a general term for the system of deep
valleys and intervening ridges which occur throughout the Andean region and which
carry almost half the total papulation of the entire country. In most parts of the
sierras the result of human pressure on the land is all too obvious, with the impoverished soils of the valley bottoms giving poor crops and the upper slopes bare
from overgrazing, and with erosion qullies appearing everywhere. Very httle natural vegetation now remains in the sierra zone, and what there is of it usually con3

sists of no more than a few bushes or shrubs growing on cliffs or slopes so steep
ihot even goats are unable to reoch them.
1 have included under the term "Amazon region" 011 that part of Peru lying to
the east of the eastern rim of the Andes-Le.,
that part of the country which is
directly affected by the Atlantic climate.
Rainfall is high, and the Amazon region
is uniformly orest-clcd
from tree line at between 3,000 and 3,400 m., down to the
banks o the Amazon, at just over 100 m. In the south, particulorly
in the Deportments ol Puno and Cuzco, the transition
rom 3,000 to 500 m. is abrupt and takes
the forrn o a single escarpment;
but in the north the process is more gentle, and
in the Departments

o San Martin and Amazonas

broken ground at an elevation

o between

there

are considerable

oreas

2,000 and 1,000 m. beore the lower level

is reached.
Below 500 m. slopes ore everywhere less pronounced, and there is
often J orrnless pattern o low h lls and ridges beore the true va11ey bottoms ore
reached.

Neor ly a11 the rivers

o the Amazon region

low north and east

to where

the Brazilian and Ecuadorian


borders, as we11 as the low-lying land subject to
annual inundation which is found in the lower basins of the major rivers.
In giving the known distribution
of genera and species,
1 have in almost al!
cases quoted records by Provinces
rather than exact localities,
Ior the sake al
brevity and because greater accuracy seems unnecessory
in a poper o this nature.
In the case o the Department of Loreto, however, where Provinces are enormous,
1 have reerred to the river valley in which specimens were taken or observations
made.
This gives suficient accuracy,
since ew records exist from place s more
than a lew kilometers
rorn the banks of rivers, which Iorrn the only means o troversing the country.
1 ha ve relerred to both "specimens"
and "reliable
reports"
in recording the
occurrence o individual species,
and ha ve accepted both as evidence o the presence o an animal in a given orea.
Under "specimens"
1 have included known
museum specimens;
other specimens
co11ected by me; relerences
to specimens
in

the Rio Moranon and the Rio Ucayali unite to Iorrn the Amazon river, but the southernmost part o the region lies in the basins o the Rio Purus and the Rio Madre

the literature;

de Dios, which drain southword

Museum specimens include those in the Museo de Historia Natural" Javier Prado"
o Lima, and in a number o university co11ections in vorious Peruvian towns, as

and eastword

belore describing

an are to join the

Amazon halfway down its course to the Atlantic Ocean. Most o the rivers are contained within their banks throughout their upper courses, but in their lower reaches
they overflow and inunda te vast oreas

o land each rainy season,

a lact which al-

or others;

skins,

heads,

or other trophies

and, in one or two cases,

hunters'

seen in the houses


photographs

01

well as those in some other museums; but principally those in the British Museum
(Natural History), the Feld Museum al Natural History (Chccqo), and the American

ects the distribution


o many mammals. As that low-Iyinq ground is slow to drain,
extensive systems o permanent tree-shoded
lagoons, creeks, and oxbows ore csso-

Museum o Natural

History

record my gratitude

or their kindness

ciated

When 1 ha ve stated that an animal is "reliably


reported"
loca lit y , it means in nearly a11 cases that 1 have personally

with the lower reaches

non, Tigre,

o the Rios Madre de Dios, Ucayali,

Napo, and Ycvor, but there is no open swampland.

represent a series of inadequately


known or understood
somewhat arbitrarily divided into three zones: the "ceja
selva

zone",

Mora-

The Amazon lorests

to describe

de selva"

(Iterolly

the upper limits

"the

o the orest.

eyebrow

is often an upper belt o temperate

o all o which 1 wish to


to occur in a certain
visited that loca lit y

of the orest")

this poper; and, in the case of the valley of the upper Rio Moranon and the north
o the Department o San Mortin, 1 have availed myself of the knowledge o Sr. Jose

In most cases

woodland,

to the staffs

and help.

and have satisfied


myself o its presence
by questioning
local residents
and
hunters,
often being able to confirrn their statements
by seeing tracks or other
signs.
1 have, however, included reports rorn the relerences
quoted at the end o

is widely

they cover steep

and broken slopes and consist of deciduous


semi-tropical
woodland, which may
extend right to the top o the escorpment.
Where the escorpment is high, however,
there

(New York) -

ecosystems,
which 1 ha ve
de selva zone", the "high

and the "low selva zone".

The name "ceja


used

Huallaga,

o local hunters

newly kil!ed animals.

which in turn gives

place

to

bush and scrub, and eventua11y to grassland,


belore the top is reached.
As 1 have
used the term, such temperate woodland, as we11 as bush and scrub zones, are in-

Linoreso

the Servicio

in the lorests

Forestal

y de Caza,

who spent more than 20 yeors working

of that region and whose assistance

sonal sight record s o living animals


Except where otherwise stated,
used by Cabrera.

1 qrcteully

acknowledge.

are usually quoted as such.


1 have throughout lol1owed

Per-

the nomenclature
-I.R.G.

cluded in the ceja de selva zone. Its lower limit is more dificult to define, but for
the purposes o this paper it can be taken to he at about 2,500 m.
The "high

selva

zone"

covers

a11 that part o the region lying below the ceja

de selva zone and above 500 m., and it is comprised principa11y of semi-tropical
lorests of one type or another.
1 have chosen 500 m. as the dividing line between
the high and low selva zones on geographical
rather than ecological
morks the oot o the main Andean escorpment;
but it does coincide
of distribution of a number of species.
The "low selva

500 m., including

Editor's Note: The "minute"


represents

"degree"

e).

sign (') used in this report after

For example,

6.00' S. represents

latitude

figures

6 S.

grounds, as it
with the limit

zone" comprises 011 that part of the Amazon region lying below
the better drained ground along the oot of the Andes and along

rr

T~~

r lO
I
I

2'

-4

-'6

"

10

110

12

141

14

RIVERS
11'

18C

CMld

AMAZON REGION
I

I
78

[
76

DIDELPHIDAE

Genus Ca/uromys J. A Allen - Woolly Opossurns


Local Names.- None known.
Distribution.- Opossums, other than members of the genus Didelpbis, are rarely
observed in the wild. Knowledge of their distribution is therefare largely based
on the results of museum collecting, which has been carried out in only a few
ports of Peru. Specimens of Caluromys are, however, known from a large nurnber of localities in the Amazon region, from 4.00' S. to 13.50' S., .ct altitudes of
from 150 to at least 500 m. It is therefore probable that the single Peruvian
species of this genus occurs in suitable areas throughout the low selva and
probably in the lower levels of the high selva as well.
Taxonomy.- The species is Caluromys lanatus (Illiger) throughout, and Cabrera
attributes Peruvian specimens to the roce C. l. ornatus (Tschudi).
Status.- The species appears to be fairly common as well as widespread. A small
number of live specimens are exported from Iquitos ecch year, but woolly opossums are not known to be hunted either far food or far their fur, and they can be
but little affected by destruction of habitat consequent on settlement. There is
therefore no reason to consider them in any way endangered. The species is
represented in the Manu National Park.
Genus Ca/uromysiops Sanborn - Black-shouldered Opossums
Local Names.- None known.
Distribution.- Caluromysiops irrupta Sanborn, the single species of this genus,
was discovered in 1950 and so far as is known only from a few specirnens , al!
taken below 700 m. in Quispicanchis and Paucartambo Provinces of the Oeportment of Cuzco and the Manu Province of the Oepartment of Madre de Dios.
Status.- The area from which it is known is little inhabited, so this species is not
endangered by mano Sr. C. Kalinowski, its discoverer, infarmed me that he had
recently collected a specimen on the Rio Alto Madre de Dios, so the species
may well be present in the Manu National Park.
Genus Glironia Thomas - Bushy-tailed Opossums
1 have been able to discover nothing of the status of either of the two species of
this genus, both of which were described from Peru: G. criniger Anthony from
the confluence of the Rios Curaray and Napa, in the Oeportment of Lareto; and
G. uenusta Thomas from Pozuzo, in the Deportrnent of Huanuco.

LOCAlITI ES

80

MARSUPIAlIA

T"

L. '\do
72

--

~18

Genus Monodelphis Burnett - Short Bare-tailed Opossums


Monodelphis adusta (Thomas) is the only member of this genus recarded by Cabrero
as occurring in Peru, where he gives the range of "Peru east of the Andes" far
the roce M. a. peruuiana (Osqood). 1 have nothing to recard on either the distribution or the status of this species, other than that Soukup refers to specimens
7

from the Ocobamba valley, La Convencion Province, Department of Cuzco, and


from Pucallpa in the Department of Loreto, in addition to Moyobamba, in the
Department of San Martin, from where the Peruvian roce was first described.
Genus Marmosa Gray -

Mouse Opossums

Mouse opossums are widespread


in the low selva, high selva, and ceja de selva
zones throughout the Amazon region, and individuals can often be seen or heard
at night. Cabrera recognizes no less than 12 species as occurring in that region,
however (three ot them represented
by more than one roce), and their separation
is almost impossible in the field. Adequate knowledge of the status and distrbution of individual species can therefore be gained only by very extensive collecting.
Because of their small size and nocturnal and mainly arboreal habits,
mouse opossums are not directly
tude species may be endangered
taking

threatened by man, but some of the high al tiby the widespreod clearing of bush .which is

place in parts of the ceja de selva

and in wooded valleys

of the Andes,

and likewise by the domestic cats of settlers in those parts.


Besdes the 12
species of the Amazon region, a thirteenth species, Marmosa robinsoni Bangs,
occurs

to the west of the Andes in the extreme


Genus Philander Tiedemann

Distribution.-

Specimens

number of localities

been taken

and Huallaga

Opossums
near Iquitos

valleys,

and from a

and on the Rio Curanja

at approximately
71.30' W., 10.20' S., in the Department of Loreto.
Specimens
are also known from Moyobambo Province of the Department of San Martin, the
Oxapampa Province of the Depcrtrnent of Pesco, and the Quispicanchis
Province
of the Depcrtrnent of Cuzco, at altitudes up to 1,500 m. It is therefore proboble
that this opossum

occurs

in the low selva

zone and in the lower part of the high

selva zone throughout the Amazon region.


Taxonomy.Pbilander opossum (Linn.) is the only species

of the genus.

Accordfor which

Yurimaguas (Dept. of Loreto) is the type locality; specimens from higher levels
belong to the race P. o. canus (Osqood). which was described from Moyobombo.
Status.-

coastal region they occur in the cultivated valleys and other vegetated areas of
the western slopes of the Andes, while in the Andes themselves they are to be
found in almost

the Rio Curanja

cies

of the genus,

Opossums

(E. Geoffroy),

are known from a number of localities

in the Ucayali

valley

Carabaya (Puno), at altitudes of up to at least 1,200 m. Like Pbilander opossum and Caluromys lanatus, the species is therefore l.kely to be found in the
low selva zone and the lower part of the high selva zone, throughout the Amazon region.

of

numbers in the ceja

border.

marsupiali s Linn.

and Didelphis

azarae

Temminck

the Deportrnent of La Libertad.


D. azarae , on the other hand, has been recorded
from the north to the south of the country.
It is not known if D. marsupialis
reaches

the same altitudes

as D. azarae in areas

where

their ranges

overlap.

D. marsupialis occurs in its nominate form, while D. azarae is represented


by
the race pemigra J. A. Allen, of which Minas delInca
(Deportrnent of Cuzco) is
the type loca lit y .
Both species

of this genus ha ve a bod reputation

are in no need of protection,


even in quite heavily

settled

for poultry killing.

They

howevet, and are well able to look after themselves,


areas.

D. azarae is present

in the Manu National

Park.

Name.-

Distribution.-

the only spe-

and from the Ro Curanja at approximately


71.30' W., 10.20' S., in the Deportrnent
of Loreto, and from higher ground in the Provinces of Chachapoyas
(Amazonas),
Moyobombo (San Martin), Tingo Maria (Hucnuco), La Convencion (Cuzco), and

near to the Braziian

Both Didelphis

Genus Chironectes IlIiger -

Brown Four-eyed

of Metachirus nudicaudatus

zone; and 1 have found the corpse

are found in Peru, but the two species are dificult to distinguish
in the field.
D. marsupialis appears to be restricted
to the northern part of the country, and
the southernmost
museum-dentfied
specimens of which 1 am aware came from

Local
Genus Metachirus Burmeister

of the sierra

de selva and high selva zones of the Amazon region, but they also occur in the
low selva, where specimens ha ve been taken on the lower Rio Ucayali and on

Similar to that of Caluromys lanatus.

Distribution.-Specimens

every valley

one run over by a car at 4,000 m. They reach their greatest

Status.-

is P. o. andersoni (Osgood),

ing to Cabrera, the form at lower altitudes

Genus Didelphis Linn - Common Opossums


Local Names.Muca, Intuto, Overo, Raposa, Carachupo, Comedreja.
Distribution.Opossums of this genus are perhaps the most ubiquitous and common of all Peruvian mammais, being found in all three regions of the coost, the
Andes, and the Amozon basin, from the north to the south of the country.
In the

Taxonomy.-

north of the country.

Grey Four-eyed

of Pbilander have

in the Ucayali

Taxonomy_-According
to Cabrera, M. n: boZivianus J. A. Allen is the roce in the
south of the country; it is replaced by M. n. tscbudii J. A. Allen (described from
Guayabambo in the Department of Amazonas) in the centre and north.
Status.Similar to that of Caluromys lanatus.

Yapoks or Water Opossums

Raton de Agua.
The single

species

of this genus probably

occurs

in the low selva

zone and the lower parts of the high selva zone, throughout the Amazon region,
as it is known by specimens or reliable reports from Pucallpa, on the Rio Ucoyali, and from the Rio Curanja near the Brazilian border, in the Depcrtment of
Loreto; and from higher ground in the Provinces
of Moyobambo (San Martin),
Tingo Maria and Pachitea
(Hucnuco), Tarma (Junn). Quispicanchis
(Cuzco),
Manu (Madre de Dios), and Caraba ya (Puno).
Its preferred habitat appears to
be the banks of small streams and quebradas, where the water is usually clearer
and less deep than in the larger rivers.
Its upper altitudinal
limit is not known,
but 1 know of one animal being killed at 900 m.
9

Taxonomy.The species is Cbironectes minimus (Zimmermann), of which the roce


panamensis Goldman probably occurs throughout.
Status.- Although previously considered worthless,
the skins of this opossum are
now beginning to command a price, and in 1966 Iquitos and Pucallpo merchants
were poying from Soles/lOO to S/2oo each for them (S/75 = O). Intensive commercial hunting could as readily reduce this species as it has the giant otter
(Pteronura brasiliensisi.
Protective
mea sures are therefore necessary.
Cbironectes minimus occurs in the Manu National Park.

to discover

nothing

of the status

of any of the species

of the

genus Caenolestes Thomas which are recorded as occurring in the north of Peru;
but as they are confmed to the heavily settled Andean region, they may be
threatened

WITHIN Peruvian limits, primates are found only in the Amazon region, with the
exception of the genero Alouatta and Cebus, both of which also occur to the west
of the Andes in the forested ports of the Zarumilla Province of the Department of
Tumbes.
Besides being intensively
hunted
alike-for
the flesh of most species
a form of exploitation
not suffered by
of lorq numbers for medical research

CAENOLEST/DAE
have beenable

PRIMATES

by extensive

destruction

The same remorks apply to Lestores

of habitat.
inca Thomas,

were exported

alive between

of Cuz-

1961 and 1965; 17,687 of them in 1961,27,095

in 1962,

35,635 in 1963, 34,345 in 1964, and 24,382 in 1966. A breakdown of the 1964 total
into genera is given below. The price shown against each genus -is the price paid
in Soles for live specimens reaching Iquitos (1966 values).

which is so far known only from

between 2,500 and 4,000 m. in the ceja de selva zone of the Department
co, near to Macchu Pchu and Torontoy.

for foad by indigenous Indians and settlers


is highly esteemed-primates
are subject to
other animals: that is, the capture and export
purposes and for the pet trade. Over 139,000

GENUS

NUMBER
EXPORTED

Aotus
Call icebus
Cacaia
Pithecia
A/ouotta
Cebus
It is thought

LOCAL
PRICE

356
54
89
81
3
2,574

Saimi,;
Ate/es
Logothrix
Cebuella
Leontocebus

5/100
S/150
S/150
S/100
SI 50
S/200

that, even in the case

NUMBER
EXPORTED

GENUS

LOCAL
PRICE

SI ao
S/200
S/300
S/100
SI 50

27,353
630
2,081
972
1,958

of the most robust

four or five in-

species,

dividuals
must die in the course of capture or during the long canoe journey to
Iquitos, or while being held there, for every one that survives to be exported; and
the low prices poid for Alouatta and Leontocebus
reflect the high mortality of
animals of those genera during even the few days that dealers have to hold them
between weekly export flights.
It is dfficult to cssess- the effect of this form of exploitation,
but it is thought
that, even allowing for casualties,
the number of individuals
taken for export can
be only a fraction
combined

effect

forms of primates
which constitute
ing yearly,

of the number ki11ed for foad, in the case


of a11 forms of hunting
within a radius
the highways

with professional

try, and with hunting


of the visits

of many kilometers

of the region.
hunters

dealers.

seems to depend on how much of their natural


waterborne hunters.

Peruvian

10

Indian family with pet vi cuna.

or of the rivers
is increas-

further into virgin coun-

commercialized

The survival
territory

The

to elimina te a11

of destruction

pushing

becoming

almost

of settlement

The radius

and trappers

by remote Indian tribes

of skin and live animal

of most species.

has been, however,

as a result

of many species

will remain inaccessible

now
to

Control of the hunting of a11 primates is therefore necessary,


as is control of
the capture and export of live specimens.
The latter measures should be framed to
eliminate the cruelty from which captive animals now suffer as well as to conserve
the species in the wild.
11

Notes on individual genera are given below.


CEBIDAE

Genus Aotus IIliger - Dourocoulis or Night Monkeys


Local Names.- Musmuqui, Mono Nocturno, Pi-to (Campa).
Distribution.- Specimens 01 the single species of this genus are known from Iqui-

tos, the Rio Yavari Mirim, several localities on the Rio Ucayali, and the Rio
Curanja, in the Department of Loreto; and from the Provinces 01 Chachapoyas
(Amazonas), Tingo Maria and Pachitea (Huonuco), Tarma (Junin), Huanta (Ayacucho), Quispicanchis (Cuzco), and Sandia (Puno). In addition it is reliably
reported to occur in many places in the Department 01 San Martin and in both
the Manu and Tambopata Prcvinces 01 the Department 01 Madre de Dios. Those
record s cover an altitudinal range 01 rom 150 to 1,000 rn., and according to
Walker et al., it has been recorded up to 2,100 m. The species therelore probably occurs throughout the low selva zone and the lower levels of the high selva
zone.
T axonomy.- The species is Aotus trivirgatus (Humboldt). Cabrera recognizes the
race A. t. vociferans (Spix) as occurring in the north, but Osman Hill (1960) regards that form as inseparable from A. t. triuirgatus. Both authorities recognize
the race A. t. nigriceps Do11man(type locality Chanchamayo, Dept. o Junin) as
the high altitude Iorrn occurring along the eastern slopes 01 the Andes.
Status.- The nocturnal habits 01 this species probably afford it adequate protection from hunting, and it is rarely taken unless found in a hollow tree when cut
down. Although found only in family parties, it is widespread and reasonably
abundant. It is adaptable to a variety of habitats, and escaped specimens are
even breeding in the vicinity of Lima. Aotus triuirgatus is present in the Manu
National Park.
Genus Callicebus Thomas -

Widow Monkeys or Titis

Tocon, Tacare (Campa).


Distribution and Taxonomy.- This genus has been recorded from almost every port
01 the low selva zone of the Amazon region, but it scarcely enters the high
selva zone , as no record is known rom above 850 m. altitude. Peruvian specimens have been attributed to a variety of species in the post, and to an even
greater number of roces. Hershkovitz (1963), in his masterly review of the
genus, has greatly clorfied the picture. He recognizes only two species as
occurring within Peruvian limits: Callicebus torquatus (Hoffmannsegg), which
is found only on the left bank of the Amazon river between the Rio Tigre and
the Rio Putumayo (Irom where it extends into Colombia as lar as the Rio Caquetc): and Callicebus moloch (Hoffrncnnseqq), which occurs throughout the low
selva except on the left bank of the Amazon river between the Rio Napo and the
Rio Putumayo. The two species are therefore only sympotric in the small area
between the Rio Tigre and the Rio Napo.

Hershkovitz considers Callicebus torquatus to occur in its nominate form,


and cites specimens from the Rio Nanay, the Rio Yahuas (the Yaguas tributary
of the Putumayo?), and the Rio Putumayo. He recognizes only three races of
Callicebus moloch as occurring within Peruvian limits:
C. m cupreus Spix, with a ronge 01 from the Rio Yavari westward to the mouth
o the Rio Ucayali, of which he cites specimens from the Rio Maniti, San
Fernando on the Rio Yavari, and the Rio Yavari-Mirim.
C. m discolor 1. Geoffroy (type locality Sarayacu, Rio Ucayali), occupying
the rest of the northem part of the low selva zone, to as lar south as
approximately 10.00' S., of which he cites specimens from the Rio Nanay,
the Rio Pastaza, and the Rio Maranon; Santa Cruz on the Ro Hua11aga;
Saroyacu, Cashiboya, Cerro Azul, Yarinacocha, and Cumaro on the Rio
Ucayali (a11 in the Deportment of Loreto); and from Moyobamba (820 m.)
and Yuracyacu (787 m.) in the Deportment of San Martin; Tingo Maria
(610 m.) and Pachitea (circa 150 m.) in the Deportment of Huanuco; and
Puerto Victoria on the Rio Pachitea in the Deportment of Poseo.
C. m brurmeus Wagner, occurring in the Department of Madre de Dios and in
those ports of the Departments of Puno and Cuzco which lie in the Amazon region, at altitudes up to 650 m., of which he cites specimens from
Marcapota (Dept. of Cuzco) and Condamo (Ro Tambopota, Dept. of Puno),
Dr. A. L. Gardner also collected specimens of C. moloch on the Rio Curonja
in 1966, which should be of interest in determining the meeting point oi the last
mentioned two races.
Status.- 1 know nothing of the status of C. torquatus. C. moloch is nowhere as
common as Saimiri sciureus or Cebus apella, and s Iound in much smaller parties, usually of less than ten individucls.
It also occupies a smaller range
beca use o its restriction to lower altitudes. Within that range, however, it is
widespread and still to be found in most areas away from the vicinity of settlemento The species therefore cannot be considered as endangered. C. moloch
is present in the Manu National Park.

Local Names.-

12

Genus Cacajao Lesson - Uakaris


Colorado, Mono Ingles, Puca Huapo.
Distribution.- The only species o this genus to occur in Peru is confmed to the
northeast comer of the Amazon reqion, where it is found to the north of the
Amazon river in the basins of the Ro Napa and the Rio Putumayo, and to the
south o it in the basins o the Rio Ucaya li and the Ro Yavar i, extending to
about 7.00' S. on the former river , It is noteworthy that, although the Ro Ucoyali is sometimes said to constitute a barrier to the westward exponsion o the
speces , Cerro Azul, which is the type loca lit y of one of its reces, lies on the
west bank of that river. Specimens are known rcm the Ro Nepe, the Rio Yavari,
Maynas on the Rio Maranon, ond rom Cerro Azul (near Contamana) on the Ro
Ucayali. Although lve animals are quite frequently brought to dealers in Iqutos, 1 have been unable to discover where they are caught.
Local Names.-Huapo

13

Taxonomy. - The species is Cacajao rubicundus 1. Geoffray and Oeville, which


occurs in the nominate form in the Napa basin. The race C. r. ucayali Thomas
was created for specimens from Cerro Azul, which is the southernmost loca lit y
from which the species is known.
Status.- I have no personal knowledge of Cacajao rubicundus in the field, but it
is said to be now everywhere rare and declining in numbers. The cause of its
decline is undoubtedly hunting, for it is easy to kill and its f1esh is highly
esteemed. The number of animals captured for export may also have s iqnficantly affected the status of this species, which has a very poor record of survival in captivity. Both the capture of it and the killing of it should be totally
prohibited. Cacajao rubicundus does not occur in the Manu National Par k, nor
does it appear to be known in the Rio Samiria port of the proposed Rio Samiria
and Rio Pacaya Reserve. It is possible, however, that it will be found in the
Ro Pacaya end of that reserve.
Genus Pithecia Desmarest - Saki Monkeys
Local Names.- Huapo Negro, Yana Hucpo, Jero (Campa).
Distribution.- The only Peruvian species o this genus is confmed to the low
selva zone, and 1 have no record of its occurrence at over 600 m. lt is known
by specimens from the Rios Yavari, Maniti, Maranon, Ucayali, and Curanja, in
the Department of Loreto; and from the Provinces of Pachitea (Huanuco) and
Manu (Madre de Dios). It is also reliably reported from a number of localities
in both the north and the south of the Department of San Martin. It is therefore
probably to be found in suitable localities throughout the low selva zone.
Taxonomy.- The species is Pithecia monacbus (Geoffroy), which is represented
by the nominate race throughout.
Status.- This species is generally less common than Callicebus moloch, and it
is usua11y to be found only in small family parties. It has been exterminated
everywhere near to settlement and to those rivers carrying heavy troffic, but it
still occurs in fair numbers elsewhere.
Pithecia monacbus is present in the
Manu National Park.
Genus Alouatta Lacepede - Howler Monkeys
Local Names.- Coto, Coto Mono, Shianonte (Cornpc), Numii (Chcyhuito), Omecoy
(Achual).
Distribution and Taxonomy.- It is probable that two species of this genus occur
in Peru.
The reddish-colored Alouatta seniculus (Linn.) is known by specimens or
reliable reports from the Rios Nepe, Maranon, Huallaga, Ucayali, and Curanja,
in the Department of Loreto; and from the Provinces of San Martin and Mariscal
Caceres (San Martin); Tingo Maria and Pachitea (Huanuco); Oxapampa (Pesco):
Jauja (Junin); La Convencion, Paucartambo, and Quispicanchis (Cuzco); Sandia
(Puno); and Manu (Madre de Dios). These records cover a range of from 200 m.
to 1,200 m. It is therefore probable that this species occurs throughout the low
14

selva zone and in the lower part of the high selva zone, from the north to the
south of the country. It is represented by the nominate race throughout.
Some form of Alouatta is also locally reported to occur to the west of the
Andes in the Zarumilla Province of the Department of Tumbes. I have not seen
the animal myself, nor do I know of any specimen having been collected. It is
universally said to be block in color, however, so could possibly be Alouatta
palliata (Gray), of which the roce A. p. aequatorialis Festa is known to occur
on the coast of Ecuador some way to the north.
Status.- Alouatta seniculus is hunted for Iood, but ts f1esh is not highly esteemed.
It has disappeared from the vicinity of 011settlement and from the banks of the
major rivers, where its habit of coming down to drink in the middle of the day
makes it particularly vulnerable. In other areas the species still seems to be
fairly common and can be found in parties of up to 25 indi vducls, although I
have nowhere found it as abundant as it is in the northern end of its range in
Colombia. However, the ease with which the presence of this species can be
detected by its loud calls at morning and evening (and by its strong smell, on
occasions) may give a false impression of its abundance relative to other monkeys. The fact that the species is not restricted to the low country means rhct
some parts of its range remain undisturbed by water borne hunters. Alouatta
seniculus is present in the Manu National Park.
I know httle of the status of the coastal representative of this qenus , but
the area it occupies is comporctively smcll and is much visited by hunters.

The two species

Genus Cebus Erxleben - Capuchin Monkeys


of this genus that occur in Peru are treated separately below.

Cebus apella (linn.) - Brown or Tufted Capuchin Monkey


Local Names.- Machin Negro, Mono Negro, Yana Machin, Shito (Campa).
Distribution.- This species is confined to the Amazon region, where it is known by
specimens or reliable reports from almost a11 parts of the Department of Loreto;
and from the Provinces of Moyobamba, San Martin, and Mariscal Caceres (San
Martin.); Chachapoyas (Amazonas); Tingo Maria and Pachitea (Hucnuco): Oxopompo (Pesco): Tarma (Junin); La Convencin, Paucartambo, and Quispicanchis
(Cuzco); Sandia (Puno); and Manu and Tornbopoto (Madre de Dios). A specimen
from 40 miles east of Chachapoyas was taken at just over 1,500 rn., and the
species is loca11y reported to occur at over 1,400 m. in the Oxcpcrnpo Province
and in several localities in the Paucartambo and Quispicanchis Provinces. It
therefore seems probable that Cebus apella occurs throughout the low selva
zone and up to about 1,500 m. in the high selva zone, from the north to the south
of the country.
Taxonomy.- Osman Hi11 recognizes four roces of C. apella as occurring in Peru:
c. a macrocepbalus Spix in the main Amazon valley, extending as far west as
Chachapoyas; C. a [atuellus (Linn.), possibly occurring on the eastern slopes
of the Andes in the extreme north; C. a maronensis von Pusch (type locality
15

on the Rio Samiria), to the south of C. a. macrocepbalus ; and C. a.


(type loca lit y Marcapata,
Oept. of Cuzco). in the extreme
south , in the Oepartments
of Cuzco, Puno, and Madre de Dios.
In Cabrera's
view, however, C. a. [atuellus , C. a. maronensi s , and C. a. peruanus are inseparable from C. a. macrocephalus, which he therefore regards as the form throughout.
Status.- Besides being one of the most widespread
of Peruvian monkeys, Cebus
apella is also one of the commonest, being almost equal to Saimiri sciureus in
general abundance.
Like that species,
if has not who11y disappeared from a11
areas of settlement,
and it is frequently accused of raiding crops and gardens.
It, too, is found in large parties of up to 30 individuals.
Together with Saimiri
sciureus, this species forms the basis of the export trade in live monkeys for
medical research purposes; and of the 2,574 animals of that genus that were
exported in 1964, 2,518 were recorded as being C. apella. (Those figures are
Hamburgo,

peruanus Thomas

unlikely

to be accurate

for trade
export

purposes.

havebeen

because
At least

both species

of Cebus are often lumped together

90% of a11 Cebus seen

of this species,

however.)

in holding

Only young animals

Cebus a/bifrons
Local Names.-

(Humboldt) -

Machin Blanco,

in most parts of its

White-fronted Capuchin Monkey

Yurac Machin, Cochire.

pies the same over-a11 range as C. apella. Its local distribution


is patchy, however, and it is apparently absent from many areas where the latter species is
common. In general. it is reported not to occur at quite such high altitudes as
C. apella, but a specimen is known fram 1,500 m. on the Rio Cosireni, La Convencion Province, Oepartment of Cuzco.
In the coastal region, some form of "machin"
is locally reported to be present thraughout the forested parts of the Zarumi11a Pravince of the Oepartment
As far as 1 am aware,

no specimen

Genus Saimiri Voigt Local Names.Distribution.selva


rather

T axonomy._ Cabrera fo11ows Hershkovitz


(1949) in limiting the number of races
occurring in the Peruvian Amazon region lo three. Of those, he gives C. a. unicites

specirnens

of the Rio Ucayali and the Rio Huallaga;


of that form Irorn Chicosa, Cumaria, Masisea,

Cerro Azul, and Contamana (a11 on the Rio Ucayali) and fram Puerto Victoria
(on the Rio Pachitea) and Tingo Maria. C. a. cuscinus Thomas (type locality
Callanga, Rio Pirupini, Oept. of Cuzco) is given the range of the valleys of the
Rio Urubamba and the Rio Alto Madre de Dios, to which form Hershkovitz refers
a specimen from Uvin, at 1,500 m. on the Rio Urubamba.
16

Squirrel Monkeys

(Campo).

Monkeys of this genus have been recorded

less

than those attained

from a11 parts of the low

from the north to the south

by Cebus apella.

bands are said to move up to nearly

T axonomy.- Cabrera

of the country.

recognizes

only one species,

usua11y

In some localities,

however,

2,000 m. when certain

fruits are

Saimiri

sciureus (Lrm.).

as

occurring in the whole of South America, of which he regards the form in northern Peru to be S. c. macrodon Elliott, with S. c. nigriceps Thomas (type loca lit y
Cosnipata,

Oept. of Cuzco)

bamba in the south.

replacing

Osman Hilllimits

it in the basins

of the Ucayali

and Uru-

the range of S. sciureus to the area north

of the Amazon and Rio Maranon, and recognizes

a separate

speces,

S. usted l.

Geoffroy, as occurring to the south.


He sta les , however, that that species is
of only doubtful validity; and Cabrera regards it as a synonym of S. c. nigriceps.
Status.- This is undoubtedly the most common species of monkey in Peru.
It is
gregarious and somewhat nomadic in habits, and is still to be found in bands of
up to 30 or 40 individuals
in most parts of its range.
It has survived in many
of the less densely populated areas of settlement,
where t occasionally
does
damage
25,000

to crops,
immature

being
animals

particular ly destructive
are exported

in cacao

annua11y for medical

plantations.
research

Over
purposes,

and many more thousands must die in the course of capture and transportation.
The species cannot, however, be regarded as immediately endangered.
Saimiri
sciureus is present in the Manu National Park.

color Spix a range covering the basins


and Hershkovitz

Hueso, Sillere

zone of the Amazon region,

individual
ripening.

of it has ever been critica11y

examined, but as C. apella is nowhere known to occur to the west of the Andes,
the Tumbes monkey is most likely to be C. albifrons.

Fraile,

They also occur in the lower parts of the high selva zone, up to heights

are exported,

Distribution.- This species is found in the Amazon region, and almost certainly
occurs in the coostal region as well. In the Amazon region, C. albifrons occu-

of Tumbes.

mon than the latter species, however; and the very much sma11er numbers of it
that are exported may be a true reflection of the relative abundance of the two
species-at
least in the areas where capture operations are carried out.

pens awaiting

any adult specimens that are caught presumably being killed, Oespite the drain
on numbers represented
by both capture operations
and hunting for food, the
species is in no danger of extinction and is sti11 abundant
range. Cebus apella is present in the Manu National Park.

C. a. yuracus Hershkovitz
is said to occur between the Rio Maranon and the
Rio Napa, Hershkovitz mentioning specimens from a number of localities
on the
latter river. If C. albifrons does occur in the coostal region, it is most likely to
be in the form C. a. aequatorialis J. A. Allen, which is known from the cocst of
Ecuador a good deal further north.
Status.- It is dfficult to assess the status of C. albilrons , as it cannot always be
distinguished
from C. apella in the field. It is generally reported to be less com-

Genus Ate/es Geoffroy The

two species

of this genus

Ate/es be/zebuth Geoffroy Local Name.- Maquisapa.

that occur

Spider Monkeys
in Peru are treated

separately

below.

Long-haired or White-bellied Spider Monkey

Distribution.- This species is confined to the northern part of the Amazon region,
where it occurs in both the low selva zone and the high selva zone, up to clt17

tudes of at least 1,000 m. It is known by specimens from the Ro Napa and the
Rio Tigre, the Amazon at Iquitos, the Rio Maranon and the Rio Samiria, and
Irom Sarayacu on the lower Ro Ucayali, as well as from several localities
in
the Moyobamba and Lamas Provinces
of the Deportrnent of San Martin.
Its
southern limit is dfficult to determine, but t reaches to at least 7.00' S. in the
va11ey of the Rio Ucayali, and is rather dubiously reported to occur even further
upstream.
T axonomy.- Ate/es bel zebuib s known only in the nominate

form within Peruvian

limits.
Status.-

Members of the genus Ate/es, together

prized
severely

of a11 monkeys

for human food.

from huntinq

throughout

present

in the proposed

As a result,

its range.

of it, and s said to be on the decline

with Lagotbrix, are the most highly


this species

It has disappeared

everywhere

else.

Hio Samiria and Hio Pacaya

has suffered

from many ports

Ate/es bel zebuib is

levels of the high selva zone in almost a11 parts of the Amazon region.
Department
of Loreto it is known by specimens
from the Ros Napo,
Maranon,

and Samiria,

paniscus (Linn.) -

Black Spider ~nkey

Local Names.- Maquisapa, Tuero (Campa).


Distribution.- This species is found throughout the low selva zone and the lower
levels of the high selva zone, in the southern part of the Amazon region.
It s
known by specimens

or reliable

reports

from Chicosa

(l0.50'

S.) and Cerro Azul

(7.20'

S.) on the Rio Ucayali, and from the Rio Curanja (a11 in the Department of
Loreto), and from the Provinces of Mariscal Caceres (San Martin); Tingo Maria

and Pachitea
Calca,

(Huanuco);

Paucartambo,

Oxapampa

(Paseo);

and Quispicanchis

Jauja

(Cuzco);

(Ayacucho);
Carobaya

La Convencion,

and Sandia

(Puno):

and Manu and Tambopata (Madre de Dios). The species occurs at greater height
than any other monkey except Lagotbrix and is regularly reported at altitudes of
from 1,700 to 1,800 m.
1 have been unable to determine where and to what extent A. paniscus overlaps with A. be/zebuth, but that there s an overlap (or was one at least in ormer times) is indicated

by Osman Hi11's reference

to a specimen

of A. paniscus

collected
near the confluence of the Ro Yavari with the Amazon, in 1848; to
Bartlett fmdnq that species "In forests bordering the Ro Ucayali and in the
lower districts bordering the Peruvian Amczon" in
listing A. paniscus from Peruate on the Rio Maranon.

1871; and

are said to cccur in close

in the neighborhood

proximity

to one another

Nowadays

to Cabrera (1917)
the two species
of Con-

tamana, on the Bo Ucayali, but 1 have not been able to check that information.
T axonomy.- Ate/es paniscus s represented
by the black-faced
race A. p. chamek
(Humboldt) throughout.
Status.-

Ths

species

S10ce considerable

has probably

fared better

s ible to waterborne hunters.


Nevertheless,
t habs come into contact with civilization,
num er of its former haunts.

Ate/es panis'

CUS

18

over-a11 than the preceding

ports of its range are remote

lS present

from settlement

one,

and inccces-

it has suffered severely wherever


and it has disappeared
from a great

10 the Manu Notioncl

Park.

and from Cumeria

and Cerro

In the
Nanay,

Azul on the Rio Ucayali;

and it is almost certainly this species of Lagotbrix that was encountered


Dr. A. L. Gardner on the Rio Curanja.
Elsewhere it is known by specimens
reliable

reports

from the Provinces

(Huanuco); Oxapampa

Paucartambo,
Ate/es

below.

Lagothrix cana (Geoffroy) - Smokey Woolly Monkey


Local Names.- Choro, Uche-to (Campa), Zuruu (Chcyhuitc), Chuaa (Achucl).
Distribution.- This species is found in both the low selva zone and the lower

Pachitea

Reserve.

Genus Lagothrix Geoffroy - Woolly Monkeys


of this genus that occur in Peru are treated separately

The three species

of Moyobamba (San Martin); Tingo Maria and

(Pesco);

and Quispicanchis

by
or

Tarma (Junn): Jauja

(Cuzco);

Sandia (Puno):

(Avocucho):

Calca,

and Manu and Tambo-

pata (Madre de Dios). It occurs at higher altitudes


than any other monkey, and
s reporte d to be found at 1,800 m. in many localities.
T axonomy.- Cabrero
(type locality

considers

as the lower Ro Ucayali

and the Rio Yavari.

L. c. oliuacea (Spix) replaces


the Ucayali
form further

the form in the north to be L. c. poeppigii Schinz

Maynas, on the Rio Maranon), with a range extending


According

L. c. poeppigii in the middle

basin and in the basin of the Urubamba,


south.

Osman Hill considers

as far south

to the same authority,


and upper parts

and is presumobly

that the nominate

race

of

also the

may extend

into Peru along the north bank of the Amazon as far west as the Rio Napo.
Status.-

Woo11y monkeys

are much persecuted,

as their f1esh is highly esteemed,

and they command the highest price of a11 in the live monkey trode. They are
not dfficult
to hunt; and because they are found only in sma11 family parties,
local populations are eosily exterminated.
This speces has disappeared
from
the neighborhood
it is probably

of a11 settlement

on the decline

and from the banks of the larger rivers,

everywhere

except

and

in the remoter and higher parts

of its ronge which are inaccessible


to waterborne hunters.
Lagotbrix cana is present in the Manu National Park.
Lagothrix hendeei Thomas - Hendee's Woolly Monkey
Ths strikingly colored species was described
from specimens co11ected at Puca
Tambo, 80 kms. east of Chachapoyas,
by R. W. Hendee in 1926. It is so far
known only from a sma11 areo on the border of the Departments
and San Martin in that region,

where it occurs

at altitudes

of Amazonas

of from

1,700

m. to

3,000 m.
1 know nothing of its status

in the wild.

Lagothrix /agothricha (Humboldt) - Humboldt's Woolly Monkey


This species
is recorded as occurring on the north bank of the Amazon between
the Colombian bo-der and the Rio Napo. 1 have been unoble to discover anything of its local distribution
or present-day status.
19

Cal/imico Ribeiro - Goeldi's

Genus

Monkey

Local Names.None known.


Distribution
and Taxonomy.-Callimico
goeldii (Thomas) is the only species in
this genus. This little-known and apparently rore monkey, which resembles the
marmosets in many respects,
has been recorded from only a few isolated localities, principally in western Brazil.
The only record of its occurrence in Peru
that 1 am aware of is the two specimens
collected
by R. W. Hendee at Cerra
Azul (near Contamana, on the Rio Ucayali) in 1928. Osman Hi ll, however, in
his distribution
map of the species, shows it as also occurring along the "Serra
Contamana"
on the Peruvian-Brazilian
border rorn about 7.00' S. to 9.00' S.,
although he quotes no records from that oreo. He also states that a live specimen exhibited in the New York Zoological
Pork was believed to have been
al ic;inally acquired in Iquitos.
Status.1 hcve been unable to discover anything of the status or the occurrence
of this species,
but it may be that other live specimens
occasionally
reach
dealers

in lquitos

and ore exported

as "pichicos

"-the

portmanteau

Genus Leontocebus Wagner - T amarins or Long-tusked Mormosets


Local Names.Pchco, Titi.
Distribution
and Taxonorny.The members of this genus are confmed to the low
selva zone of the Amazon region, in almost every part of which one or more
species is to be found. With the exception of Leontocebus imperator with its
long white mustaches (and presumably the pied L. bicolori, they are difficult or
impossible to distinguish
in the field, Of the 23 species recognized by Cabrera,
the following 12 have been recorded from Peru.

to Cabrera,

this

011, but

Peru at

occurrence

(160

Osman Hill

The type locality


Pigmy Marmosets
species

of this genus

is the Amazon

of the Rio Napa, and specimens are known from Iquitos and Chimbote (250 kms.
downstream from the junction of the Rio Napo with the Amazon).
1 have been
unable to determine either its western or its southern limit, but a specimen is
known from Santa Cruz, on the Rio Huallaga at 75.50' W., 5.20' S. A specimen
is also known from the upper basin of the Rio Pastaza,
some 150 kms. ocross
the border into Ecuador.
(Spx) is the species,

of which only the nominate

rece is found in Peru.


Status ..-

Judged solely

Iquitos
range.

1964

by the number of animals

morket, this species

kept as pets,

or available

does not seem to be at 011 rare within

Altogether 972 "leoncitos"


were recorded
(the only yeor for whch figures are available),

on the

its limited

as having been exported in


and although that total may

have mcluded some Leontocebus-for


the terms "leoncito"
and "pichico"
are
to a certain exte t .
n mterchangeable-they
would be compensated for by Cebuella
exporte d amongst th
lt
e
1,958 "pichicos"
which were also dispatched.
The casua y ra t e amongst
.
.
th
anlmals
of
this
species
in
captivity
is
said
to
be
much
lower
th an m e genus L

eontocebus .

20

limits

only on the

graellsi (Espada)

-'Rio

is Tarapoto,

(1957)

of this rather doubtful

j,"_J, r,

f\J".1

for its

Napo T amarin

on the Rio Ncpo, near the junction

limits its distribution

lagonotus (Espada)

as the authority

to the left bank of that river.

-' ), Iv"

//.

Golden-mantled

species

of

of the Napo, in both Ecuador

."-

T amarin

is Destacamento,

near the conflu-

ence of the Rio Napo with the Amazon.


Cabrera considers
this form to ha ve
clase offintes to L. illigeri but to be recognizable
as a separate species,
to

valley from approximately 64.00' W. westward into southern Ecuador and northern Peru. It is well known along the Peruvian Amazon and the lower reaches

pygmaea

from Iqutos).

It s known only from the basin

Leantocebus

Genus Cebuella Gray -

Peruvian

(1851)

1. Geoffray

f.
Leontocebus

and Peru.

Leoncito.
The known range of the single

Pied T amarin

kms. downstream

The type loca lit y of ths species

CALLlTHRICIDAE

(Spix) -

is found within

in his text he cites

at Pebas

the Rio Curaray.

Taxonomy.-Cebuella

species

north bank of the Amazon, from the Colombian border west to the Rio Napa.
Osman Hll's (1957) distribution
map of the species shows it as not reaching

word used

to cover 011 marmosets.

Local Name.Distribution.-

bic%r

Leantocebus
According

whch he gives the range of "the north of Peru and Ecuador".


Osman Hill considers it to be no more than a race of L. illigeri and gives the distribution
of
that roce as "the Rio Napa".
As he includes Matschie's
race, however , its range must be extended to include "the
ent of the Rio Maranon" (presumably
L. bluntschlii was described.
Leontocebus
Cabrera

gives

extreme

of Colombia,

Red-mantled

as northeast

in the basins

zon) and the Ro Maranon.

As he regards

fram C. illigeri, however,

he must consider

lower Ucayali,

for Rio Somir ic), from where

illigeri (Pucheran)

the range of this species

southeast

a misprint

Peru,

(i.e.,

Thomas's

east

Ecuador,

range unknown",

and the

(i.e.,

Ama-

L. mounseyi as inseparable

the Rio Pacaya

from where L. mounseyi was described)


Amazon)-exact

S"

T amarin

of the upper Solimoes

Osman Hill gives the range of L. illigeri as "the


Solimoes

L. bluntschlii in that
Rio Samirio, an afflu-

(en affluent

of the

to lie within that area.


Colombian

bank of the Rio

but then goes on to cite local-

ities to the south of the Amazon from which it has been recorded, includinq the
Rio Pacaya type locality. of L. mounseyi , which he also regards as inseparable
fram L. illigeri. In his distribution
map he shows the species as occupying an
enormous range, ncludnq the whole of the basins of the Rios Ucayali and Huallaga to almost 11.00' S., as well as those of the Rios Napo, Tigre, Pastaza,
and Maranon in the north.
21

Leontocebus pi/eatus (1. Geoffroy and Deville) - Red-capped Tamarin


The main range of this species lies in western Brazil, from the Amazon south to
the Rio Purus. Its northwestern limit extends into the extreme northeast comer
of Peru, however, in the neighborhood of Pebas, which is its type locality.
Leontocebus fuscicoll is (Spix) The range of this species
within Peruvian

Brown-headed T amarin
to that of L. pileatus; and it, too, is known

is very similar

limits only frorn the neighborhood

Leontocebus labiatus (Geoffroy) This species


tiguous

Red-bellied

is found over a large area of western

to the Peruvian

of Pebas

and the Rio Yavari.

White-lipped

Brazil,

Tamarin

including

that part con-

Puno), and San Ignacio

border from the Amazon in the north to the Rio Purus at

about 11.00' S. Both Cabrera and Osman Hi11 state that it extends into eastern
Peru, but neither gives any indication of to what extent it does so or in what
localities.

Leontocebus weddel/i (Devi lle) - Weddell's Tamarin


Although this form closely resembles L. nigricollis, most authorities
regard it as a
separa te species.
It ranges thraugh western Brazil, in the basin of the upper
Ros Purus and Acre, northern Bolivia, and the southern part of the Peruvian
Amazon region.
It has been recorded from greater altitudes
than most other
species,
a specimen having been taken at 1.370 m. on the Rio San Miguel, in
the Calca Province of the Oepartment of Cuzco.
Other specimens are known
Irorn Chicosa (on the Rio Ucayali, at 10.20' S.). the Rio Cosireni (La Convencion Province,
Oept. of Cuzco), Marcapata (Quispicanchis
Province, Dept. of

Osman Hi11's distribution

whole length of the eastern


as the river itself.

Ucayali

map, however,
basin,

shows it as occupying

but at no point extending

the

as far west

(Sandia Province,

Leontocebus imperator (Goeldi) Cabrera

gives the range of this distinctive

of the upper Rio Purus


west,

however,

specimens

and its tributaries.

into the southern

Leontocebus mystax (Spix) is apparently

further to the north and west.


vian

limits

from the Brazilian

Cabrera

to that of L. labiatus, but it extends

states

that it s to be found within Peru-

border westward

part of the Peruvian

are known from the Rio Curanja,

to at least

the Rios Napo and

Deville's

Because

of their high mortality

It was described

from Sarayacu,

at

6.40' S. on the Rio Ucayali; and specimens


of it are known from Yurucyacu
(Moyobamba Province, Oept. of San Martin) and Irorn Aguas Calientes
(near the

Cabrera

of the Rios Pachitea

and Uccycl).

further

Amazon reqion,

in the Oepartment

of the Oepartment

where

of Loreto,

and

of Madre de Dios.

rate in captivity,

many thouscnds

more must die

in the process of capture or during transportation


to Iquitos.
It is not known if
this practice threatens any of the less common species, but most of the animals
1 have seen awaiting export appeared to be L. nigricollis or L. illigeri . Tornecountry at least,

Tamarin

This species is apparently confmed to Peru, where Cabrera gives it the range of
the basins of the Ros Ucayali and Hua11aga. It is very similar to L. nigricollis,
with whch it s sympatric in some areas, and of which Osman Hi11 and Hersh-

junction

Brazil, in the basins

Status.- Large numbers of tamarins are captured in the northern part of the Department of Loreto for export alive, nearly 2,000 being dispatched
in 1964.

rins are rarely molested

Leontocebus devillei (1. Geoffroy) -

regard it to be a mere color phase.

as western

It is now known to extend

Moustached T amorin

similar

Ucayali; while Osman Hi11's distribution


map shows the species as occupying
the lower basins of the Ros Napo and Tigre in the north, and everywhere east
of the Hua11aga-Ucayali watershed, to about 9.00' S., in the south.

kovitz

Emperor T amarin

species

from the Rio Manu, in the Manu Province


The range of this species

Oept. of Puno).

by man in other ways; and, in the southern

they are frequently

to be seen on the banks of rivers

cl~~~.
L. imperator

part of the
in parties

.
is known to occur in the Manu National

Park, and two other spe-

which one is presumably L. weddelli-are


also reported to occur.
L. lagonotus and L. illigeri have both been recorded from the proposed

cies-of

Samiria and Rio Pacaya

Reserve,

Rio

and L. devillei and L. nigricollis are probably

to be found there as well.

as well as Irom the type locality.

Leontocebus nigricollis (Spix) - Black-and-Red T amarin


gives the range of ths species as "western
Brazil, along the Rio Soli-

moes, and eastern Peru, in the bcsn of the Ro Ucayali".


Osman Hi11 confines
its range to Peru, and in his distribution
map further restricts it to the area between the left bank of the Rio Ucayali and the Ucayali-Hua11aga watershed, and
to a contiguous strip along the north bank of the Rios Maranon and Amazon from
the Ro Tigre to the Rio Putumayo.
Osman Hi11 refers to specimens rom Pebas
and Iquitos; and the catalogue of the Feld Museum of Natural History, Chicago,
lists others from Pachitea,
Yarinacocha,
Ganzo Azul, and Pucallpa, a11 on the
Rio Ucayali, and from the Rio Hua11aga.
22

A glimpse

01 the Andes rising above the Pampas

Galeras

high in central

Peru.

23

EDENTATA
MYRMECOPHAGIDAE

Genus Myrmecophaga linn - Giant Anteaters


Local Names.- Oso Hormiguero, Oso Bandera, Husniri, Huaniri, Jia (Campa), Shikuu (Chayhuita).
Distribution.- The giant anteater is confmed to the Amazon region, where it is
known by specimens or reliable reports from the basins of the Rios Ucayali,
Maranon, and Curanja, in the Oepartment of Loreto; from the north and the south
of the Oepartment of San Martin; and from the Provinces of Tingo Maria and
Pachitea (l-lucnuco). Tarma and Jauja (Junin), Paucartambo (Cuzco), Sandia
(Puna), and Manu (Madre de Dios). It probably occurs throughout the low selva
zone in those areas not subject to extensive annual flooding. It may extend into
the lower part of the high selva zone, as it is said to occur at 900 m. near San
Ramon.
Taxonomy.- Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linn. is the only species of the genus.
Cabrera includes Peru in the range of the nominate race.
Status.- The species appears always to have been uncomrnon, and has now disappeared from many areas where it was formerly known. If, as seems likely, it
is confmed to areas which do not flood, the spread of human settlement-which
is subject to the same limitations-constitutes
a serious threat to the species.
A number of live specimens are exported each year (e.g., 21 in 1964), and the
species is eaten in some areas.
Control of hunting is necessary.
Myrmecophaga tridactyla is reported to occur in the Manu National Park.
Genus Tamandua Gray - Tamanduas, Collared Anteaters
Local Names.- Shihui, Oso Colmenero, Hormiguero, Fajao, Kaire (Compc), Surrunttii (Chayhuita).
Distribution._ Tamanduas are found in the Amazon region, and also in the coastal
region from the Ecuadorian border to at least 7.00' S. In the latter region they
often feed on the shore in the Oepartment of Tumbes, and are locally reported
to occur as high as 2,500m. in the Ayabaca Province of the Oepartment of Piura.
In the Amazon region their known distribution is similar to that of Myrmecophaga tridactyla, except that they regu1arly occur in the high selva zone, being
frequently recorded at altitudes up to 1,300 m. Skins of individuals killed at
1,800 m. in the Marcapata valley have been seen by me.
Taxonomy.- Tamandua tetradactyla Linn, is the common species, with the race
quicbua Thomas, originally described from Yurac Yacu (San Martin), to the east
of the Andes, and T. t. punensis J. A. Aen to the west. Tamandua longicaudata Wagner may also OCcur north of the Ro Maranon, according to the range
given to that species by C b
a rera.
24

Status.- Tamanduas are everywhere more common than giant anteaters, and their
arboreal habits may help to save them from casual persecution, thus enabling
them to persist in lightly settled areas. Considerable numbers are killed, however; and some control of hunting is desirable.
Tamandua tetradactyla is present in the Manu National Pcrk.
Genus Cyc/opes Gray - Pigmy or Silky Anteaters
Local Names.- Serafm, Intepelejo, Pintu-morncn.
Distribution.- The pigmy anteater is apparently confined to the Amazon region,
where ts recorded distribution is similar to that of Tamandua tetradactyla.
The skin of an animal killed at 1,800 m. was seen by me in La Convencion
Pravince of the Oepartment of Cuzco. The species occurs to the west of the
Andes in Ecuador, fram where it could possibly extend as far south as the
Oepartment of Tumbes. However, it appears to be unknown to the inhabitants
of that region.
Taxonomy.- Cyclopes didactylus (Linn.) is the only species of the genus. According to Cabrera, the Peruvian farm is C. d. ida Thomas.
Status.- Its small size and its arboreal and nocturnal habits probably give odequate protection to this species in a11 but closely--;ettled
areas. Considerable
numbers are, however , taken far the live animal trade, most of which die before
reaching the dealers in Pucallpa ar lquitos, or while awaiting export from those
centers, through lack of care in accustoming them to an artificial diet. Many
stuffed specimens are also sold as souvenirs.
Control of hunting, or preferably
the total protection of the species, is therefore necessary. Cyclopes didactylus
is reparted to occur in the Manu National Park.

BRADYPODIDAE

Genus Bradypus linn. - Three-toed Sloths


Local Names.- Perezoso (de tres dedos), Zso (Campa, but possibly used far Choloepus as well).
Distribution.- Lack of adequate data covering the loca lit y of collection of most
museum specimens, combined with confusion of this genus with Choloepus in
local nomenclatures,
even where the two genera are distinguished,
makes it
difficult to determine the range of three-toed sloths in Peru. They undoubtedly
occur in the basins of the Rios Maranon, Ucayali, and Purus in the Oepartment
of Loreto, however; and they have also been recarded from the Oepartment of
San Martin and from the Provinces of Tingo Maria (Hucnuco), Tarma (Junin),
and Manu (Madre de Dios). Although local distribution must be governed by the
presence of Cecropia trees, the leaves of which are believed to constitute the
sble diet of these sloths, they probably occur in suitable areas throughout the
low selva zone of the Amazon region. The upper limit of their altitudinal range
is not known, but 1 have no records of their occurrence at over 500m. The sloth
which is reported to occur to the west of the Andes, in the Zarumi11a Province
25

of the Department of Tumbes, is almost certainly of this genus, as a specimen


which was caught and held captive for some time was described as having three
large claws on the front foot.
Taxonomy.- Bradypus infuscatus Wagler is the Peruvian species, which is probably represented
by the nominate form everywhere east of the Andes. The form
in the coastal region may be B. i. epbippiger Philippi.

Status.-

This

sloth's

on Cecropia trees

dependence

confines

it largely

to the

banks of rivers, where human settlement


is also concentrated.
It is persecuted
by man whenever encountered,
and once detected it can neither deferid its'el!
nor escape.
It is exported alive in some numbers (20 sloths 01 011 species were
exported

in 1964), and many individuals

capture.

Large numbers 01 stuffed

must die Ior each

specimens

protection 01 the species is advocated.


in what is now the Manu National Park.

ts occurrence
open country,
forest.

in the high selva zone. In Peru this animal is not restricted


to
as it is often said to be, but is to be found in areas of unbroken

Taxonomy.-Priodontes
giganteus (Geoffroy) is the only species of the genus.
Status.- Despite its wide distributon, this species is of solitary hobts, and oppears always to ha ve been uncommon. Its f1esh is genero11y relished (nlthouqh
it is not eaten in the Pachitea area because it is said to cause urinary pcins),
and it has now disappeared
from the vicinity 01 011 settlement.
E1sewhere the
species is subject to increasing hunting pressure.
Total protection is therefore
necessary.

The species

is represented

in the Manu National

Park.

one that survives

are also sold as souvenirs.

Total

Bradypus injuscatus has been co11ected

Genus Dasypus Linn. - Armadillos


Local Names.- Carachupa, Armadillo, It-ze (Campo), Tenenshauu (Chayhuita).
Distribution.- This genus is represented
by two species
in the Amazon region,
Dasypus kappleri Krauss and Dasypus nouemcinctus Linn., the latter of which

Genus Choloepus IlIiger - Two-toed Sloths


Local Names.- Pelejo, Perezoso (de dos dedos), Tihuii (Chayhuita).
Distribution.- Records 01 the occurrence 01 two-toed sloths cover as wide an area
as those 01 Bradypus , and it is likely that they too are to be ound throughout

pus pilosus (Fttzinqer). is recorded from the Andean region.


Because D. kappleri is rorely distinguished
from D. nouemcinctus, it is dffi-

the low selva zone 01 the Amazon region.


There is evidence that their range
may extend to higher altitudes than that 01 the three-toed sloth, and the British

species in the Amazon region. It is certain, however, that one or both species
are present in suitable areas of the low selva zone , from at least the Maranon

Museum has a specimen

taken at 1,000 m. near Chanchamayo

in 1905.

is also found in the northern

cult to leam anything

status

of the two species is similar. Total protection is therelore recommended.


Choloepus hoffmanni has been taken in the oreo of the Manu National Park.

DASYPODIDAE

Genus Prioclontes F. Cuvier - Giant Armadillos


Local Names.- Yungunturu, Tctu, Carachupa Maman, Jashive (Campo), Ipej (Chcyhutc).

lower
coastal

levels,

where it is

apparently
widely but spcrse ly distributed.
It is reliably reported from the
basins of the Rios Maranon, Ucayali, and Purus in the Department of Loreto,
and from the Provinces
of Huallaga (San Martin) , Tingo Maria (Huonuco), Pcucartambo (Cuzco), and Manu (Madre de Dios). It probably occurs in most areas
of the low selva zone which are not subject to Iloodinq, but 1 have no record s of

with perhaps

region

of the separate

Dasy-

A third species,

distribution

of the two

of Madre de Dios in the south, and that they

1 have

only D. nouemcinctus

been the carapaces

tus in the Tumbes and Zarumi11a Provinces


"carochupa"
Department

at hiqher

of what appeared

altitudes.
to be

of the Department

In the

D. nouemcinc-

of Tumbes,

are we11 known in the Ayabaca and Huancabamba Provinces


of Puro at altitudes below 1,800 m. 1 have no field records

sort of D. pilosus, but the British Museum has a specimen co11ected


bamba (45 miles NE. of Cerro, Department of Junn) in 1927.

and

of the
of any
at Aco-

Taxonomy.- The form of D. novemcinctus

occurring to the east of the Andes is


roce, while the form in the coastal region is probably D. 11.. aequa-

torialis Lonnberq. Cabrero attributes D. kappleri of the Peruvian Amazon region


to the roce pastasae (Thomas).
Status.- "Carachupa"
are highly prized as foad wherever they occur, and a survey by Pierret and Dourojeanni in 1966 showed that, des pite their sma11 sze,
they provide

to the Amazon region,

region.

are to be found in the lower and middle levels of the hiqh selva within the same
limits. Rather sparse museum records indica te that both species are present at

the nominate

is confined

from local reports

basin in the north to the Department

Taxonomy.- According to Cabrero, Cboloepus hoffmanni Peters s the only species


that occurs in Peru, of whch the roce pallescens Lonnberg was described from
Calavera, near Moyobamba. Reports of the occurrence of Cboloepus didactylus
(Linn.), such as that by Sanbom of a specimen from the Province of Sandio
(Puna), are probably the result of misdentfcction,
or of the view that C. boffmanni is no more than a roce of C. didactylus,
Status.- The more catholic diet of C. hoffmanni may bring it into less clase cssociation with settlement
than Bradypus iniuscatus; but as far as is known, the

Distribution._ The giant armadillo

part of the coastal

more than a twentieth

by weight

of 011 meat eaten

by settlers

in

the lower Ucayali va11ey. Numbers have been greatly reduced in most areas of
settlement;
and because in the low selva both man and orrnodillos are concentroted on land above f1000 Ievel, the effect on over-a11 papulations
must be
significant.
Control of hunting is therefore desirable.
Either D. nouemcinctus
or D, kappleri is present in the Manu National Pork, and possibly both species
are to be found there.

26
27

Other Genera of Dasypodidae


Forms of armadillos other than Priodonte s or Dasypus are locally said to occur in
various parts of the Amazon region, but 1 have no field evidence of the existence
of such. The British Museum, however, contains a specimen of Cabassous recorded as having been collected by D. Schunke near Chanchamayo at a height
of l,200m. in 1906, while the Museo Javier Prado in Lima contains another
specimen of the same genus which is without data but is believed to be of Peruvian origino The Museo Javier Prado also has two specirnens of Cbaetopbractus
nationi (Thomcs), without details, which are believed to have come from the
south of the country. ~

LAGOMORPHA
LEPORIDAE

Genus Sylvilagus Gray - Tapitis, South American Rabbits


Local Names.- Conejo, Liebre.
Distribution.-Sylvilagus
brasiliensis (Linn.) is the only species of this genus to
occur in Peru. It is adaptable to a wide range of habitats, and although its
distribution has not yet been fully mapped, it is known from all three regions
of the country.
In the coastal region it is confined to the north, where it occurs in subtrapical
forest at 150 to 500m. in the Zarumilla Province of the Oepartment of Tumbes,
and amidst thickets of dwarf Polylepis and Hypericum above tree line at 2,000
to 3,000 m. in the Ayabaca and Huancabamba Provinces of the Oepartment of
Piura.
In the Andecn region it is known fram many parts of the Department of Cajamarca at elevations of 1,500 to 3,OOOm., and from parts of the Department of
La Libertad. 1 know of no confirrned records of it occurring further south in the
Andean region, but it has been reported as being seen in the Parinacocha Province of the Department of Ayacucho and near Lake Titicaca (Puno).

28

In the Amazon region the species is common in the high selva zone of many
parts of the Departments of Amazonas and San Martin at elevations up to at
least 2,500m., and in the Tingo Maria Province of the Department of Huanuco
at heights of 600 to 700 m. It appears to be unknown in the adjoining Province
of Pachitea to the south, however, or in the neighboring Pravinces of Oxapampa
(Paseo) and Tarma (Junin),
1 am unaware of the position in the intervening
region, but the species is once again common in the Manu Province of the Department of Madre de Dios and in the Paucartambo and Quispicanchis Provinces
of the Department of Cuzco, where it is found at elevations of from 240m. on
the banks 01 the Rio Madre de Dios, up to at least 950m. in the Paucartambo
valley and 2,300 m. in the Marcapata valley. It is also recorded from the Carabaya and Sandia Provinces of the Department of Puno.
Although knowledge of its local distribution is very incomplete, this speces"
appears to be absent from the greater part of the low selva, except as indicated
above.
Taxonomy.- According to the arrangement made by Hershkovitz in 1950 (Proc. U .S.
Nat. Mus. Vol. 100), tapitis from the Cajamarca-La Libertad region be long to
the race Sylvilagus brasiliensis cap salis Thomas; those from the Amazonas-San
Martin- Tingo Maria region to S. b. peruanus Hershkovitz; and those frorn the
Cuzco-Puno-Madre de Dios region to S. b. inca Thomas. Although they are not
mentioned by him, tapitis from the coastal region might belong to the form S. b.
chillae Anthony, which is the coastal race in Ecuador, or possibly to S. b. defzlippi (Comalia) or S. b. peruanus Hershkovitz if the species has a continuous
distribution across the Andes at that point.
Status.- In parts of the Departments of Cajamarca and San Martin, tapitis are
hunted by burninq out large patches 01 grassland-a
wasteful method of killing
which should be controlled. Elsewhere, in its forest and woodland habitat, the
species appears safe from undue predation by man, particular ly as nowhere are
traps or snares known to be used. Tapitis tend to haunt fallow patches of cultivation, and it may be that agricultural settlement provides an improved habitat
for them. S. b. inca is present in the Manu National Park.

Photographing

small

vicuna

herd on reserve.

29

where it is known in its nominate formo


Status.- Unknown.
RODENTIA
SUB-ORDER

HYSTRICOMORPHA

ERETHIZONTlDAE

Genus Coendou Lacepede - Prehensile-tailed Porcupines


Local Names.- Puerco Espin, Erizo, Casha-cushillo, Tantore (Campa), Sisii (Chcyhuitc).

Distribution.- Prehensile-tailed porcupines are found in both the Amazon and the
coastal regions. In the Amazon region they are known by specimens or reliable
reports from the basins of the Rios Maranon, Ucayali, and Caranja in the Depcrtment of Loreto, and from the Provinces of Chachapoyas (Amazonas); Moyobamba
and Hua11aga (San Martin); Tingo Maria and Pachitea (Hucnuco): Tarma and
Jauja (Junin); Huanta (Ayocucho): Calca, Paucartambo, and Quispicanchis
(Cuzco); and Manu and Tambopata (Madre de Dios). Records cover an altitudinal range of from 150 to 2,500m. The genus therefore probably occurs in both
the low and high selva zones from the north to the south of the country.
Porcupines are apparently unknown to inhabitants of the coastal region. A
specimen was, however, obtained at Hda. Taulis, at circa 1,700m. in the Deportment of Cajamarca, by Dr. and Dra. Koepcke of the Museo de Historia Natural
"Javier Prado". It is therefore probable that they will be found on the western
slopes of the Andes from the Ecuadorian border to at least 7.50' S.
Taxonomy.- The taxonomy of this genus is somewhat confusing, but a11 Peruvian
specimens appear to be long to the species Coendou bicolor (Tschud), the typcal form of which was first described from near Chancha mayo in the Department
of Junin. The Hda. Taulis specimen has been dentified as being probably of
the roce C. b. quicbua Thomas. Peruvicn specimens show great variation in
length and coloring of bristles.
Status.- Porcupines are eaten in some parts of the country, and a certain number
are exported alive or sold locclly as crudely stuffed specimens. The secretive
habits of these animals afford adequate protection from hunting, however, and
destruction of habitat can have affected only an insqnficont part of their ronge.
There is therefore no reason to regard them as endangered. Prehensile-tailed
porcupines are known to occur in the Manu National Park.
CAVI/DAE

Genus Galea Meyen - Cavies


Local Name._ Sacha-cui.
Distribution._ I have no field records of animals of this genus, but a11 museum
specimens appear to have been taken in the vicinity of Lake Titicaca or from
other ports of the high country of the Department of Puno.
Taxonomy._ Cabrera record s only Galea musteloides Meyen as occurring in Peru,

Genus Cavia Palias - Guinea Pigs or Cavies


Local Name.- Sacha-cui.
Distribution.- Cavia tschudi Fitzinger, the only Peruvian representative of this
genus, has been recorded from 'a11 three regions of the country, although it is
essentia11y an Andean species. It is known by museum specimens from a wide
range of localities from the Department of Cajamarca in the north, through the
Departments of Pesco, Junin, Arequipa, and Cuzco to Puno in the south, usua11y
at altitudes of from 2,000 to 3,BOOm. In the Department of Ica, however, t must
descend to well under 500 m., since the nominate race was described from near
the town of that name. Specimens are also known from the Department of Amazonas; but until more co11ecting has been done, it cannot be determined how far
-if at a11-it descends below the ceja de selva zone, because although "sachacuis" are known and hunted for food in many parts of the Amazon region, the
name is used for a number of other rodents as well. It appears to be this species that is common at 1,OOOm.in the San Ramon area, however.
Cavia tschudi occurs in a wide range of habitats from sparse and dry grassland to swamps such as those surrounding Lake Junn, and I have watched individuals swimming across water channels 10 yards wide to feed on the other
bank. The exact northern limit of the species is unknown.
Taxonomy.- According to Cabrero the form in the north is C. t. atabualpae Osgood
(type loca lit y Cajamarca); with C. t. umbrata Thomas (type loca lit y Incopircc,
Dept. of Junin) further south; C. t. tschudi occupying the region of the Departments of Ice, Arequipa, and Cuzco; and C. t.osgoodi Sanborn (type loca lit y
Limbani, Dept. of Puno) in the extreme south, in the neighborhood of Lcke
Titicaca.
Status.- The species is abundant in most areas where it occurs, but the practice
of hunting it by ring fires may be damaging to local populations.

HYDROCHOERIDAE

Genus Hydrochoerus Brisson - Capybaras


Local Names.- Ronsoco, Eveto (Ccmpc), Tucuzuu (Chayhuita).
_)istribution.- The capybaro is confined to the low selva zone of the Amazon region, in which it has been recorded from the north to the south of the country.
It is everywhere confined to the vicinity of rivers or lakes where there is aquatic
vegetation or grossy stretches of bank. It is therefore absent from most of the
sma11er, tree-shaded rivers.
Taxonomy.- Hydrochoerus bydrocbaeris (Linn.) is the species throughout, of which
only the nominate roce occurs in Peru.
Status.- Because it is restricted to the major rivers, which form the highways
of the Amazon region, this species has suffered severely at the hcnd of mano

30
31

;:: ~

80

I)

~ OI

=s:=====t=::' -=--~

78

76

74

72

11

70

lO

Capybaras are hunted both for food and for their hides by local residents and by
bands of commercial hunters, and they have now disappeared
from many waterways where they were formerly common.
Elsewhere
they have become almost
entirely nocturnal in habit. Some idea of the numbers killed can be gained from
the fact that in recent years Iquitos merchants have exported more than 10,000
of their skins annually, although the local price is no more than S/20 each for
them. The skins are valueless as furs and are used for making leather.
A number of capybaras are exported alive (e.q., 59 in 1964). The species must be
considered
endangered throughout its range, and control of hunting is urgently
required.
Large and undisturbed
populations
of capybara exist in the Manu
National

Park, where they are still partly diurnal

in habito

DINOMYIDAE

Genus Dinomys
Local Names.-

Peters

Pacaranas

or Branick

Pcuru Maman, Pacarana,

Machetero,

Rats

Ipii-pancas

(Chayhuita).

Distribution.The single species of this genus is confmed to the Amazon region,


where it is known by specimens or reliable reports from the Provinces of Lamas
and Mariscal Caceres (San Martin). Tinqo Maria and Pachitea
(Hucnuco). Oxapampa (Paseo). Tarma (Junn), Huanta (Ayccucho). Paucartambo and Quspiccnchis

(Cuzco),

Sandia

(Puno), and Manu (Madre de Dios),

from 240 to 2,000m.

10

\I

~\

}---n

d\ e

,7

~j

.1f \\

Records

va lle y . The pacarana


Curanja

\'"

L I M A

1'~.\/"

1~

<.:;:

sometimes

t: '"~

T axonomy.-

'"

at altitudes

of Loreto

varying

are scorce, but

Dr. Gardner of the Louisiana State University collected a specimen on the Rio
Curanja at approximately 71.30/ W., 10.20/ S. in 1966; and the species is said to
occur in the vicinity of Pucallpa, on the Ro Ucayali, and in the upper Maranon
is therefore

upper, or better drained,

121

from the Department

an animal of the high selva

parts of the low selva

shows that it is not confmed


said of it.
The species

type loca lit y is Colonia

zone.

to the eastern

is Dinomys branickii

zone and of the

Its occurrence
slopes

Peters

on the Rio

of the Andes,

throughout,

as is

of which

Amable Maria, Montana de Vitoc, Department

the

of Junin.

Status.The pacarana appears nowhere to be common or to achieve the same


abundance as do members of the genera Cuniculus or Dasyprocta in their re-

~I
""

. 4: VVT (

,,/

SCALE

APURIMAC fl
"

I \ \ I 1'\
'\ )
\
'"

'"

14

ing in numbers wherever


hunting and the clearance

MILES

50

I
o

100

100
KllOMETERS

16

200

200
'
300


18

150

"i',',

spective ronqes-s-olthouqb.
not being confmed to the vicinity of water, as they
are, its presence is more difficult to detect. Its f1esh is prized, and it is declin-

r,)

"lJ

I Kno,"," 1-0,.1 "';es.

80

78

76

74

72

:;>

"'<

~~

1,6

1,8

it comes into contact


of its natural habitat.

with man, as a result of both


Protective measures are there-

fore necessory.
In the San Ramon orea of the Department of Junin, pacaranas
are said to
damage maize crops by biting through the stems of plants as cleanly as though
a knife had been used, a habit from which they ha ve gained the name of "macheteros ". Although captive
afraid to tackle pacaranas
up. The species

is present

specimens
appear gentle, many dogs are said to be
in the wild because of the savage defense they put
in the Manu National

Park.

70

33

DASYPROCTlDAE

Genus Cuniculus Brisson - Pocas


Local Names.- Majaz, Pcuru, Liebre, Samayu, Samani (Campa), Ipi i (Chayhuita),
Majaznum (Achual).
Distribution.- The single species of this genus is confined to the Amazon region,
where it is known throughout the low selva zone from the north to the south of
the country. It also occurs in the lower levels of the high selva zone, but 1 have
been unable to determine up to what elevation.
Specimens, however, are known
from 1,500 m. on the Rio Tambopata (Puna) and 1,300 m. at Chancha mayo (J unn),
and pacas are loca11y reported to occur up to nearly 3,000m. in the Marcapata
va11ey (Cuzco). The species is confined to the neighborhoad of water, butunlike Hydrochoerus-it
prefers smcll, Icst-runninq, tree-shcded streams to
more open river banks and is therefore more widely distributed.
Taxonomy.- Cuniculus paca (Linn.) is the species, which is represented by the
nominate roce throughout.
Status.- Pocas form an important item in the det of most inhabitants of the Amazon region, and surveys by Pierret and Dourojeonn have shown that they provide
15% and 16% respectively of 011 meat eaten in the Ucayali va11ey and the Pochtea region of the Depcrtment of Loreto. Pocas are usua11y shot on the bank from
boats at night, traps or snares not being used. The species has been ex terminated in many areas and greatly reduced in numbers almost everywhere else.
Control of hunting is therefore necessary.
Because wild sources can never
keep up with the demands of the expanding human populcton, domestication of
the species should also be attempted.
Cuniculus paca is present in the Manu
National Park.
Genus Stictomys Thornas - Mountain Pocas
The only record of the occurrence o this genus in Peru of which 1am aware is Sanborn's identification of a piece of skin purchased at Sandio (Puna) as belonging
to Stictomys taczanowskii (Stolzmann) (Publ. Mus. N.H. Javier Prado serial A,
No. 12, 1953) and his reference to sku11s found in burial caves at Macchu Pchu.
The range of this, the only species of the genus, is usuclly given as the hiqhlands of Colombia and Ecuador, so that if it does occur in Peru it could be expected to be in the north. No such animal s , however, known to the hunters of
the Ayabaca or Huancabamba Provinces of the Depcrtmsnt of Purc, which provide the right type of habitat; nor have 1 obtained evidence of it occurring cnywhere else.
Genus Oasyprocta IlIiger - goutis
Local Names.- Anuje, Chapana, Cutpe, Sihuaro, Shau (Campa), Itee (Chcyhutc),
Cuchana (Achual).
Distribution._ This genus is confined to the Amazon region, where it is found in
011 parts of the low selva zone and many parts of the high selva zone, in which
it appears to extend to greater altitudes than Cuniculus, being regularly reported
34

up to 2,000 m. or more. Agoutis live closely associated with water, but they are
to be found on the banks of 011 types of streams, down to the merest runnel, and
are therefore more widespread and common than pacas.
The three Peruvian species of the genus cannot be safely distinguished
in
the field. Of known museum specimens, those of Dasyprocta [uliginosa Wagler
011 come from the Deportrnent of Loreto north of 9.00' S. and from the Depcrtrnents
of Amazonas, San Martin,and Huanuco, while those of Dasyprocta punctata Groy
011 come from further south. There may therefore be little if any overlap in the
ronges of the two species.
Dasyprocta kalinowski Thomas was described from
Hda. Idrno, at 1,400 m. in the Santa Anna valley of the Sandio Province of Puno,
and is so far known only from a few other localities of the same altitude in that
Province and in the Quispicanchis Province of Cuzco.
Taxonomy.- The roce mesatia Cabrero of D. [uliginosa was described from Tarapata, on the Ro Napa, and D. punctata uariegata Tschudi from near Chanchamayo (Junin).
Status.- Despite being among the most widely ea ten of marnmals (Pierret and
Dourojeormr's surveys show that agoutis provide 6% of 011 the meat eaten in
those areas of the Amazon region scmpled), the agoutis have managed to survive better than has the paca. Although everywhere less common than former ly,
they still exist in many quite heavily settled areas; and it may be that they
actually benefit from the type of agriculture proctised in the Amazon basin,
where weed-grown clearings and regenerating forest may increase their natural
foad supply. Despite their tenacity of existence, they cannot hope to survive
the demands of expanding human populations indefinitely. Domesticction should
therefore be attempted. The genus is represented in the Manu National Park by
D. punctata, and it is possible that D. kalinowski will be found at higher levels
as well.
Genus Myoprocta Thomas - couchi s
Local Names.- Punchana, Anuje Menor, Tacsha Anushi, Orishinto (Cornpc), Itee-
(Chayhuita ).
Distribution.- Animals of this genus are so frequently confused with Dasyprocta
spp. that reports of their presence are of doubtful value where not supported by
specimens. Specimens of Myoprocta are, however, known from the Rios Maranon,
Ucayali, and Curanja in the Deportment of Loreto, and from the Provinces of
Tingo Maria (Huonuco), Quispicanchis (Cuzco), and Manu (Madre de Dios), tending to confirm the general view that this genus occurs alongside Dasyprocta in
most parts of the low selva zone of the Amazon region. 1 have not been able
to determine how far it penetrotes into the high selva zone, however. Acouchis
are reported to be less dependent on water than other members of the family
oasyproctidae
but never to be found far from it.
Taxonomy.- According to Cabrera, Myoprocta pratti Pocock, which was first described from the Pongo de Rentema on the Rio Maranon, occurs in its nominate
form from at least Iquitos in the north to the south of the country; Myoprocta
35

acouchy (Erxleben),

of the roce parva Lonnberg, can be expected to be found in


the northwest of the region, near the Ecuadorian border.
Status.Acouchis are generolly less common than agoutis, although they form an
important item of human food in some localities.
Domestication
would be worth
trying. Myoprocta pratti is known to occur in the Manu National Park.

There is unfortunately

Genus Chinchilla Bennett - Chinchillas


little doubt that this genus is now extinct

CHINCH/LLlDAE

Genus

Lagidium

Meyen -

in Peru.

Mountain Viscachas

Local Name.- Viscacha.


Distribution.Viscachas are typica11y animals 01 the puna and cordillera zones 01
the Andean region, where they are most commonly lound at altitudes 01 between
3,OCO and 5,000m.
the mountains
support

Occasionally,

in areas

however,

they occur on the western

where there would appear

them, and they hcve even been recorded

sea at Loma Lachay

(90 kms. north

01

to be inadequate

from within 5 kilometers

Lima) at an altitude

01

01

slopes

vegetation

less

01

to
the

CETACEA

than 600 m.

(Dra. M. Koepcke, pers. comm.) Viscachas


are known Irorn most suitable areas
the Depcrtrnents
01 Tacna, Puno, Cuzco, Arequipa, Apurimac, Ayacucho,

SUSUlDAE

01

Huancavalica,

01

Junn, and Paseo,

Lima, Huanuco,

and Irorn the higher

and Ancash as well.

has not been accurotely

determined,

The northern

but it appears

parts
limit

01 the
01 their

distribution

to be in the neighborhood

01

9.00' S.
T axonomy.- Although Lagidium peruanum Meyen occurs throughout the loregoing
region, the species is virtually confmed to Peruvian limits, within which Cabrera
recognizes
our races: L. p. inca (Thorncs) in the north (type loca lit y Incapirca,
Dept. of Junn): L. p. subroseum (Thomas) in the central region (type loca lit y
Galera, west of La Oroya, Dept. 01 Lima); the nominate race in the Tacna-Lake
Titicaca-Arequipa
area (type loca lit y Pisacoma, Dept. 01 Puno): and L. p. satu-

raturn (Thomas) to the northeast 01 the nominate race (type locality Limbani,
Dept. of Puno).
A second species,
Lagidium uiscacia (Molino), has been recorded in the Department
Status.-

Viscachas

or 20 kilometers

01 Tacna.

are remarkably
often separating

sparsely

distributed

colonies

throughout

in uniformly

suitable

their range,
country

10

which

provides a11 their requirements 01 Iood, water, and boulder piles in which to live.
The reason for this is obscure.
Viscachas
are killed Ior food in many areas,
but hunting alone does not seem to be responsible
or their scarcity,
since colonies survve quite close

to human habitation

even in areas

Genus

Inia d'Orbigny

Amazon Dolphins

Departments

where they are most

hunted.
Unnatura11y high populations
of the Andean lox (Dusicyon culpaeusi,
resulting from the introduction of domes tic livestock, may be a major contributory cause, however.
Whatever the reason or their relatively
low nurnbers,
present
populations
cannot withstand
uncontro11ed exploitation.
Control 01
hunting is therefore necessary.
Lagidium peruanum is present in the Pampos
Galeras National Reserve for Vicuna and may also occur in the highest part of
the Manu National Park.

Local Names.Buleo Colorado, Apupu.


Distribution.Dolphins 01 the single species 01 this genus are lound in a11 the
major river systems 01 the Department of Loreto.
During the season 01 low
water they are confmed to the main channels,
but during the floods they make
their way up into the innumerable

tributaries,

backwaters,

and lagoons

01

that

part 01 the low selva.


1 am unaware 01 how lar upstream the species occurs in
the Rio Putumayo or the Rio Napo, but its upper limits in other major tributaries
of the Amazon are said to be as under:
Rio Tigre _ about the confluence 01 the Hio Corrientes

(74.50' W., 3.45' S.)

Ro Maranon _ about the confluence 01 the Ro Cenepa (78.10' W., 4.45' S.)
Ro Huallaga - a little above the tov.n 01 Yurimaguas (76.00' W., 6.00' S.)
Rio Ucayali - a little obove the town 01 Atalaya
(73.50'W.,
10.50'S.)
Dolphins do not occur at all in the Rio Madre de Dios system in Peru, presumably because
01 the presence of some insurmountable obstacle in the lower
reaches of the river. This species is said to reach the Rio Curanja, a tributary
of the Rio Purus, in the time 01 floods. however (Dr.A.L.Gardner,
pers. comm.),
occur in the Ro Purus itself.
geoffrensis (Blainville) is the only species

and must therefore

T axonomy.-lnia

Status.These dolphins are remarkably plentiful


they occur. They are not hunted by indigenous
superstitions
connected
or the same reason.

01 the genus.
in most of the water s in which
Indians beca use 01 a number 01

with them, and are little molested by settlers,


possibly
Nevertheless,
occl control 01 hunting is desirable.

Although lnia geoffrensis is absent from the Manu National Park, the species
would be afforded permanent sanctuary
in the proposed Rio Samiria and Ro
Pacaya

Reserve.
37

36

DELPHINIDAE

Genus Sotalia Gray - River Dolphins


Local Names.- Bueo Plomo, Bueo Gris, Cushushka (Campa).
Distribution.- The occurrence 01 this genus in Peruvian waters is similar to that
01 lnia except that, according to Hershkovitz, it has not been recorded from
obove the Pongo de Guarracaya (78.10' W., 4.40' S.) in the Rio Maranon, and
that it is not known if it occurs in the Rios Curanja or Purus.
Taxonomy.-Sotalia
fluviatilis (Gervais) is the species, the type locality of which
is the Rio Amazon near Pebas.
Status.- The same as that of lnia geoffrensis.
OTHER

GENERA

OF

DELPHINIDAE

Little is known about the status of marine members of the family Delphinidae in
Peruvian waters. Hershkovitz (1966) records the nominate race of the Common
Dolphin Delpbinus delphis Lnn., as occurring along the Pocfic coost of South
America from 4.00' S. to 45.00' S., where (as far as I am aware) it is unmolested
in Peruvian waters.
The Bottle-nosed Dolphin, Tursiops" truncaius (Montagu), can frequently be
seen swimming in the sud within a few yards of the shore, and appears to be
common from Mancora (3.45' S.) south to the Chilean border. It is sometimes
caught by smcll boot fisherrnen, and discarded sku11s are usuclly to be found at
such fishnq centers as Supe (10.50' S.), San Andres (13.50' S.), Las Lagunillas
(13.55' S.), Puerto de Lomas (15.30' S.), and Chala (15.55' S.). Captures are
thought to be mainly accidental, however. The race is T. t. aduncus Ehrenberg,
according to Hershkovitz.
The False Killer Whale, Pseudorca crassidens (Owen), is a deep sea form,
and records of its occurrence off the Peruvian coost are, as far as I know, limited to a skull found at Paita (5.05' S.) in 1866.
The Killer Whale, Orcimus orca (Linn.), is often seen by crews of whale
catchers operating out of Paita; and Captain Schulstok, the commanding oficer
of one of those ships, told me that he had seen killer whales attack adult blue
and fin whales in those waters. Killer whales were as frequently encountered
off Paracas (13.55' S.) when whaling operations were based on that port.
Pilot Whales or Blcckfish, Globicepbala melaena (Trci ll). were present in
large numbers from 20 to 50 miles from the shore on the one occasion on which
I accomxmied a whale catcher out of Paita, over 300 being seen in schools of
5 to 25 in a single afternoon. The sea son was early August, but Captain Schulstok informed me that blockfish are present at a11 times of the year. They have
not been hunted up to now, but the whaling compony is considering experimental
exploitation.
.
The Harbor Porpoise, Pbocoena spitmipi;AI'Surmeister, locclly known as
Chancho Marino, is frequently caught by sma11 boot fisherrnen along the whole
Peruvian coast, and sku11s are to be found on a11 beaches where fish are landed.
38

Chancho Marino are considered edible and are on sale every day at San Andres
and other fish markets. The price they fetch, however (S/400 to S/700 for a
whole porpoise), is so low compared to that obtained or fish that it is doubtlul
if they are "fished" or deliberately.

PHYSETERIDAE

Genus Physeter Unn. - Sperm Whales or Cachelots


The Sperm Whale, Physeter catodon Lnn., locally known as Cachalote, is ound
in considerable numbers off the coost of Peru, where it has long been subjected
to commercial exploitation.
Pelagic whalers from many countries hunted those
waters up to 1954, and during the last four seasons of their operations (1947,
1948, 1951, and 1954) a total of 13,426 sperm whales are known to ha ve be en
taken.
Shore-bcsed whaling started under Peruvian auspices
in 1951, since
when whale catchers have operated at various times from Paita (5.05' S.), Chcncay (11.30' S.). and Para~as (13.50' S.). Since 1963 Paita has been the only
station to remain in operation.
In 1963 G. Saeterdal, l. Mejia, and P. Ramires published an analysis of
catches up to 1961, from which they concluded thct a11 hunting affected the
same population, which was already being overexploited by 1961. and they
warned of the ill effects of any increase in hunting pressure.
In this species,
males grow to nearly twice the size of females, which rarely exceed 10 to 11
meters in length, and are therefore taken in preference lo lema les whenever
possible.
The fiqures quoted by Saeterdal et al. showed that there had been a
steady decline in the average length of whales caught Irom year to year, until
in 1961 no less than 2,283 (69.9%) of the 3,267 taken from Pisco and Paita were
less than 11 meters in length, and that 1,634 (50.0%) of them were lemales. (No
analysis was made of the 171 taken from elsewhere.)
As Peru is not a member state, she is under no obligation to observe the
International Whaling Commission's prohibition of the killing of sperm whales
o under 35 feet (l0.7 meters) in length (in the case of pelagic operalions, 38
Ieet, or 11.6 meters), which was introduced as a conservalion measure in order
to protect females. It appears that Peru must adopt similar measures, however,
if her whaling industry is to continue.
The following are the total Peruvian catches of sperm whales for the years
1951 to 1965, those up to 1961 being taken from Saeterdal et al.; those for 1962
to 1965 were obtained from El Instituto del Mar del Peru:
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955

15
37
1,260
1,505
1,869

1956
1957
1958
1959
1960

2,019
3,381
2,554
3,406
3,423

Returns of catches by rnonths give no indication


abundance of sperm whales, but large concentrations

1961
3,438
1962
3,301
1963
3,269
1964
1,973
1965.....
938

of seasonal changes in the


of several hundred whales
39

covering as much as 15 sq. km. of sea have been reported on a few occasions
off Paita, sightings having been made in the months of January, March, and
October. An albino sperm whale was taken at Paita in 1964.
Genus Kogia Gray -

Pigmy Sperm Whale

Kogia breuiceps (Blcnville), the only species of this genus, has been recorded off
the southern coast of Peru (Hershkovitz, 1966).
BALAENOPTERIDAE

The Sei Whale Balaenoptera borealis Lesson, the Fin Whale B. pbysalus (Linn.)
(loca11y known as Ballena Alete), the Blue Whale B. musculus (Linn.) (locally
known as Ballena Azul), and the Hump-back Whale Megaptera nouaeangliae
(Borowski) (locally known as Ballena Jorobada) are 011 well known off the coast
of Peru; and in the post 011 but the first named were intensively exploited by
pelagic whalers of 011 nations. Whales of these species were not much hunted
from shore-based stations in the ear ly years following their establishment,
because separate insta11ations are necessary to keep their oil separate from that
of sperm whales, in order to meet market requirements.
A number were killed,
however, in various attempts to popularize whale meat on local markets; this
carne to an end in 1956, by which time altogether 101 fin whales, 37 blue whales,
and 37 hump-bcck whales had been taken. In 1964 the company operating at
Paita, perhaps influenced by an increasing shortage of sperm whales, installed
the necessary additional oil storage equipment and began to hunt those species
again, killing 3 fin whales, 3 blue whales, and 37 hump-back whales in that year.
In 1965 the kill rose to 150 fin whales, 80 blue whales, and ll8 hump-back
whales. In 1966, however, the company declared its intention of killnq no more
blue or hump-back whales for a period of at least two years, in view of worldwide anxiety for the survival of those two species and the total protection accorded them in the South Pccfic by member countries of the International Whaling Commission. Thanks to that generous gesture and to the fact that no other
whaling company is at present operating, blue and hump-back whales now enjoy
de {acto total protection in Peruvian waters. Regulations endorsing that postion are, however , greatly to be desired.
As far as can be determined, no more than 3 or 4 sei whales have ever been
killed by Peruvian shore-based whalers, possibly beca use they are not common,
but more probably because suficient numbers of the larger and more sought after
fin whale have always been available.
BALAEN/DAE

From the range usually given to that species, it appears that the Southern Right
Whale, Eubalaena glacialis australis (Desmoulins), may occasionally
reach
southern Peruvian waters, but 1 have been unable to trace any defmite record
of its occurrence.
40

A panoramic view 01 the altiplano


in the Andes, home 01 the vicuna,

grasslands
at Pompas Galeras
alpaca, and llama.
An alpaca

National Vicuna Reserve,


herd can be seen grazing.

Top row, left to right:


1. Observing vicunas in the field.
2. A closer view 01 another small herd.
Center

row, left:
right:

Domesticated
vicunas anJ alpacas in a corral on a rancho
Vi cunas taking off lor the hl!s alter release from a corre].

Bottom row, left to right:


1. Not Dr. Doolittle's
lamed Pushmipullyu, but two pet vi cunas raised on bottled
milk by Senora Paredes at Calacala Ranch, near Puno.
2. Young lemale vicuna.
During the reign 01 the Incas only the nobility were pero
mitted to possess
gorments 01 vicuna wool, which was woven into textiles
as
fine as silk. Today, vi cuna wool i s stl ll the world's most highly prized wool.
3. Baby vi cuna meets baby Peruvian to the great interest 01 011 concerned.
4. Two Quecha Indian assistants
help researcher William Franklin 01 Utah State
University
collect data on a vi cuna to learn as much as possible about the onimal's biology and management needs, so important to the Peruvian economy.

CARNIVORA

CANIDAE

Above:

A herd 01 llamas on the Pampas

Below:

Local

Indians

Galeras

olten use domesticated

National
llamas

Vicuna

as beosts

Reserve.

01 burden.

Genus Dusicyo';'Hamilton Smith - South American Foxes


Local Name.- Zorro.
Distribution.- Three species of this genus are known to occur in Peru.
Dusicyon culpaeus (Molina) has been recorded from a11 parts of the Andean
region, where it is ubiquitous and common up to altitudes of at least 4,500 m.
It also inhabits the upper parts of the western slopes of the Andes, and must at
times descend quite low, as a specimen is known from Chosica, at circa 1,000 rn.,
just inland from Lima. On the eastern side of the mountains the species is
known fram some of the drier parts of the ceja de selva zone, but appears never
to descend into the true forest.
The much sma11er Dusicyon secburae (Thomas) inhabits the coastal plain
and the lower levels of the western slopes of the Andes, from the Ecuadorian
border to at least 12.00' S. Its southern limit remains uncertain because, though
some form of srncll fox is common in a11 the coastal plain from there to the Chilean border, the Museo" Javier Prado" has two specimens of a different fox,
taken fram near Camana (16.20' S.), which have been identified as Dusicyon
griseus (Gray); and the ranges of the two species cannot be determined until
more co11ecting has been carried out.
/'
~ (l1,,..u..., .
A fourth and rather dubious species, Dusicyon inca (Thomas), has been
described from a single specimen obtained at 4,000 m. in the Department of
Arequipa.
Taxonomy.- According to Cabrera, Dusicyon culpaeus is represented by the race
andinus (Thomas) thraughout. Dusicyon secburae is known only in its nominate
formo
Status.-Dusicyon
culpaeus is everywhere regarded as a dangerous stock k ller,
particularly with respect to sheep; but although it is killed whenever possible,
it is abundant throughout its range and is in no need of protection. Its scats
often contain large amounts of vicuna wool, but whether it is a predator of those
animals or a mere eater of carrion is not known.
The coastal foxes are also very plentiful, and their tracks are to be seen in
a11 parts of the desert, where they never fail to visit a camp at night. In some
areas they obtain much o their food by scavenging on the shore. Their numbers
increased greatly in the south as a result of the 1965 lailure of the Humboldt
current, when the coast was strewn with the corpses of some 15,000,000 guano
birds that died from starvation. These loxes are oten cliff dwellers, and many
sea cliffs are a netwark 01 their paths. Dusicyon culpaeus is present in the
Pampas Galeras National Reserve lar Vicuna.
41

Genus Ate/ocynus Cabrera - Small-eared Dogs


Local Names.None known other than Perro de Monte, which is not restricted to
this species and is used for most of the Mustelidae as well.
Distribution.The Peruvian range of the single species of this genus is usually
given as that part of the Amazon region lying to the east of the Ros Napo and
Ucayali.
1 do not know of any records from the north of the country, but 1 have
seen specimens
from the Rio Inuya (a tributary which joins the Rio Urubamba
near its confluence with the Rio Apurimac) and from the Ro Curanja at approximately 71.50' W., 10.20' S. I have also be en reliably informed of its presence in

protection
is necessary.
It may be present
stories of local Indians are to be believed.

Names.-

Oso de Anteojos,

of the Andes from the Ecuadorian

value but are occasiona11y

the low saddle

stores

I ha ve seen half a dozen.

In no case

was their

in

place of origin

Taxonomy.-Atelocynus
Status.-

microtis (Sclater) is the only member of the genus.

Although the foregoing

of its described

range,

only is it insufficiently
aware of its existence

records

the species

are fa ir ly widespread
must be regarded

for the southern

as everywhere

rare.

part
Not

known to have a common name, but few hunters are even


or able to recognize a skin or a photograph of the animal

when shown one. Total protection is therefore recommended.


The species is
probably represented
in the Manu National Park, since it is in that part of the
Province

connects

slopes

that its presence

was reported.

existed

British

cc-

cording to both register and label, was co11ected at Port Leguia, on the Rio
Pachitea,
in 1923 by O. Thomas and L. Rutter.
Peru is well outside the range
normally

attributed

to that species , and I know of no other record

of its occur-

Genus speoth8s Lunc Not known.

Eastern or northeastern

range of this genus.

Peru

Bush Dogs

is usually

The only local records

included

of its existence

in the described
there that I have

been able to obtain are of a pair of animals shot by a museum co11ector within
20 kms. of Pucallpa; and of two parties, of 10 and 2 animals respectively,
which
were seen by an officer of the Servicio Forestal y de Caza on the Hio Cachiyacu
in western Loreto (74.40' W., 5.50' S.) in the 1950's. Indians on the Ro Curanja
and in the Manu Province of Madre de Dios are also said to be aware of the presence of an animal of its description.
Taxonomy.-SpeothQs uenaticus (Lund) is the only species in the genus, and Peru
is included in the range of the nominate race.
Status.Most inhabitants
of the Amazon region are unaware of the existence
of
this species, which must be regarded as being everywhere very rare. Total
42

between
possible

them from the southern

to the upper Rio Maranon.

is tolerant

of great differences

connection

may

limit of the species

Blanca,

The species

speaking,
the western

5.00' S. and 6.00' S., which


that a second

Cordillera

in altitude,

on

of the northern

climate,

and vegeta-

tion. In the Amazon region it is typica11y an animal of the ceja de selva zone
and of the upper parts of the high selva zone, being found on the PaucartamboPilcopata
escarpment,
for example, at a11 levels from rnst-shrouded
thickets
above tree line at 3,500 m. down to tropical forest at 1,500 m.; and there
record of a bear being killed at 800m. near Quincemil.
region,

bears

such as the Apurimac

are found in the va11eys

and its tributaries,

which

is a

of eastward-flowing

could be regarded

as

extensions
of the ceja de selva into that region; but they also occur in a few
truly Andean areas, such as the va11eys of the Cordillera Blanca.
In the coastal region, the species is apparently absent from the Department
of Tumbes, but it is known from a number of localities
in the Department of
varying in nature from hot, dry, deciduous

to Polylepis thickets
Local names.Distribution.-

It seems

between

Maman,

border to 9.00' S., and a belt of country

of the mountains,

the va11ey of the Ro Santa and the valleys

Piuro,

rence in the country.

bear is, broadly

through

rivers,
which,

Maquisapa

the coast,

In the Andean
Genus Cerdocyon Hamilton Smith - Crab-eating
Foxes
Museum contains a specimen of Cerdocyon thous (Lnn.)

if the

Bears

Ocucu,

of the Andes from north to south of the country,

the two populations.

have formerly

known, however.

$pectacled
Isnache,

Maine (Ccmpc), Tucanii (Chayhuita).


Distribution.The Peruvian range of the spectacled

across

in Pucallpa,

Frontino,

slopes

whose

The

Tremarctos Gervais

Genus
Local

the neighborhood of Pucollpo, on the Rio Ucayali, and in the Manu Province of
the Department of Madre de Dios. The skins of this animal have no commercial
by fur dealers

Pcrk,

URSIDAE

the eastern

bought as curiosities

in the Manu National

and grassland

at 3,000m.

woodland

ct 400 m. near Olmos

in the Provinces

of Ayabaca

and

Huancabamba.
Further south, the habitat of the species becomes progressively
more desiccated
until, at the southern limits of its range, it lives in bare, rocky
country devod of almost a11 vegetation except cacti and a few other xerophytes.
The spectacled
the foregoing

range,

bear is far from enjoying


and where bears

a continuous

distribution

throughout

do occur it is usua11y only in sma11 num-

bers. There s , however, satisfactory


evidence that they still exist
the following localities
(the list is not exhcustve):
Dept. of Puno: Some localities
in the Sandia Province.

in at leas t

Dept. of Cuzco: The Marcapata va11ey; most of Paucartambo


Province; the
upper valley of the Rio Urubamba, in the vicinity of Macchu Pichu.
Dept. of Apurimac: In the valleys of many of the tributaries of the Rios Apurimac and Pampas to the north of the Abancay-Andhuaylas
road.
Dept. of Ayacucho: At a few places on the escarpment of the Rio Apurimac
and in the valley of the Rio Mantaro.
43

11

80

10

\ I

1
'~

1141

76

I ~

12

::q::::;::::-:/',I

78

1)

~ 01

_?
T?~
..

t;c:: 1

VVVf
)4)
vr:

72

\e

1'"

lO

70

/'
l

II \ \l I"

AeuRIMAC
!,.."

SCALE
MILES

o:
o

50

100

160

260

ISO

200

3bo

K1LOMETERS

16

18\

I
80

..

11

\'MAr\~~1

74

"l J

78

76

74

72

"<)J

\18
70

Dept. of Junin: In the San Ramon area; on the Vilcanota mountains east of the
Rio Apurimac.
Dept. of Paseo: North of Oxapampa.
Dept. of Huanuco: Near the upper waters of the Rio Pozuzo.
Dept. of Amazonas: A number of localities in the valley of the Rio Maranon
south of 6.00' S.; the valley of the Rio Utcubcmbo from Shipasbamba to Leimibcrnbc: east of Chachapoyas.
Dept. of San Martin: In Gran Pajaten area.
Dept. of Cajamarca: Severallocalities
in the Jaen Province.
Dept. of Piurc: In the hills east of the Olmos-Piura road from 400 m. to 3,200 m.
Dept. of Lambayeque: On a number of haciendas in the Province of Chiclayo.
Dept. of La Liberdad: On a number of haciendas in the Trujillo Province, to the
Rio Santa in the south.
Dept. of Ancash: In a few valleys on both the eastern qnd western sides of the
Cordillera Blanca.
Taxonomy.- Tremarctos ornatus (F. Cuvier ) is the only species of this genus, and
no geographical races are recognized.
Status.- The spectacled bear now exists only in small and widely separated
pockets in most parts of its range to the west of the Andes; and beca use it is
the most sought after of all trophies by sportsmen hunters, few of those isolated
populctions are likely to survive for much longer. Attempts have been made to
preserve bears on some haciendas, but in most cases landowners are only toa
glad to see them destroyed because of their alleged cattle-killing proclivities.
The status of the species is better to the east of the Andes, but even there
bears have been exterminated, or almost exterminated, in all areas where they
have come into contact with mano The species must therefore be regarded as
rare and endangered throughout its range, and strict control of hunting is necessary. The total Peruvian population is unlikely to be less than 800 or more than
2,000 individuals. The upper part of the Manu National Park is well known for
the number of bears it contains. The species would also be present, although
only in small numbers, in the proposed Cordillera Blanca National Park.
PROCYONIDAE

Genus Procyon Storr - Raccoons


Local Names.- Cabesa de Mate, Oso Manglare.
Distribution.- This genus occurs in the northern part of the coastal region and
almost certainly in some parts of the Amazon region as well.
In the coastal region, raccoons are abundant in the mangrove swamps of the
northern coast of the Department of Tumbes, and are also found inland in the
valley of the Rio Tumbes, but they have not been recorded fram further sauth.
Little seems to be knawn o the species in the Amazon region, where it has
not even gat a camman name. The only specimen from that region that 1 know of
is a large and remarkably rufous skin in the possession of the Servicio Forestal

45

y de Caza at Pucallpa,
about the arigin of which nothing is known other than
that it was brought in Ior sale to one of the fur dealers of that town. However,
Dr. Gardner infarmed me that he frequently saw raccoon tracks in the area of
the Rio Curanja (a tributary of the Rio Purus) when he was collecting
there in
1966; and Sr. C. Kalinowski says that their tracks are 0150 common along the
banks of the Rio Manu and its tributaries
at the time of low water, when the
animals concentra te to hunt frogs.

Taxonomy.- The species

is Procyon cancreuorus (Cuver), of which


the west of the Andes is probably P. c. aequatorialis J. A. Allen.

Status.-

The species

is abundant

and is in no way endangered

region in which it is found; and it appears

of the coostal

from man in the Amazon region,


and distribution

there

in the small oreo

to be under no threat

not enough is known of its occurrencs

although

to be certain.

the form to

Control

of hunting

advisable.
From the evidence of tracks it appears
may be present in the Manu National Park.

would,

however,

be

that Procyon cancreuorus

Genus Potos E. Geoffroy and Cuvier - Kinkajous


Local Names.- Chosna, Cuchumbi , Tuta Mono, Qui-ta (Campa), Cuhuasha (Chcyhuitc).
Distribution.- The single species of this genus is widely distributed in the Amazon region.
It is known by specimens
or reliable reports from Iquitos, from
several localities
on the Rio Ucayali, and from the Rio Curanja, in the Depcrtment of Loreto; from several localities
in the Department of San Martin; and
from the Provinces
of Pachitea
(Hucnuco), Tormo (Junn), La Convencion and
Calca (Cuzco), and Manu (Madre de Dios). 1 have been unable to determine its
upper altitudinal
lrnit, but 1 have seen the skin of an animal killed at 900 m.
near San Ramon (Tarma Provnce), and it is reported from the same elevation
in the Deportrnent
selva

of Cuzco.

zone and at least

The species

the lower parts

therefore

probably

of the high selva

1 have been unable to confirrn Cabrera's

Amazon region.

occurs

suggestion

al so occur to the west of the Andes near the Ecuadorian border.


is Potos flavus (Schreber), which is probably

Taxonomy.- The species


Genus Nasua Storr - Coatis
Local Names.- Achuni, Mishcsho, Sihuaro, Capesh (Ccmpo), Shushuu (Chayhuita).
Distribution.- The single South American species of. this genus probably occurs
in 011 parts of the Amazon region, although 1 am unaware of the position in the
extreme

northeast.

It has been recorded


and Ucayali,

more than 100 ayear


from many localities

in the Depcrtment

of Loreto;

of the Ros Maranon

in the basins

from most parts of the Deportment of

San Martin; and from those parts of the Departments


of Amazonas, Hucnuco,
Poseo, Junn, Ayacucho, Cuzco, and Puno that lie within the Amazon region.
It is found at a11 levels

in both the low and the high selva

zones,

1 have been unable to confirm Cabrera' s suggestion


occur to the west of the Andes near the Ecuadorian
animal known as "cuchucu"
Tumbes may prove to be it.

in the Zarumilla

is Nasua nasua (Linn.).

that the species may also


border, but an unidentfisd

Province

of the Department

cornmercial

to be particularly

exploitation.

rare, but it is becoming

Exports

of live animals

(143 in 1964), and large numbers of stuffed

souvenirs.

in the

Kinkojou fur, too, has suddenly

run at

specimens

acquired

are

some value,

and 2'16 skins were exported in 1966. Should the demand for skins increase,
the species could easi1y become endangered.
Control of hunting is therefore
necessary.
Potos flavus is present in the Manu National Park.

of

Genus Bassaricyon J. A. Allen - Olingos


Local Name.- Chosna Pericote.
Distribution.- The distribution of the olingo appears to be ver y similar to that of
Potos fiauus, with which animal it is sometimes found in close association
and
from which
therefore

variation

it is not always

be treated
Specimens

as Yuracyacu,

distinguished.

with reserve
are,

however,

unless

Reports
supported

of its occurrence
by the evidence

known from such widely

in the north of the Department

separated

should
of speci-

localities

of San Martin; Aguas Calientes,

in color and length of coct, Cabrera considers


that the form throughout the low
selva, and probably most of the high selva, is N. n. dorsalis Gray, but that N. n.

on the lower Rio Pachitea,


and Pozuzo-both
the Ro Cosireni in La Convencion Province

rnontana Tschudi

Rio Curanja and localities


near Pucallpa and Contamana, on the Rio Ucayali,
in the Department of Loreto; while a live specimen se en at Iqutos was said to
have come from the Ro Napo in the north of that Department.
Those specimens

the coostal

occurs in the ceja de selva zone.


If the species occurs
region it would be represented
by the race N. n. manium Thomas.

in

Status.-

The coati appears to be reasonably common as well as widespread.


Its
f1esh is widely eaten, and various parts of its body are believed to have ophro-

disiacal powers; but the species cannot be considered to be in any great danger
from mano Control of hunting, however , is desirable.
A number of coatis are
exported alive each year--e.g., 369 in 1964. The species is present in the Manu
National Pork.
46

sold as tourist

mens.
Despte considerable

does not appear

represented

and also in

parts of the ceja de selva zone. The race Nasua nasua moniana was described
from a specimen taken at 2,500m., and 1 myself have seen coatis at a slightly
higher altitude on Mt. Carpish, in the Depcrtrnent of Huanuco.

Taxonomy.- The species

The kinkajou

subject to increasing

the

that it may

If it occurs

by the nominate form in all parts of the Amazon region.


coostal region, it would be as P. f. modestus Thomcs.

Status.-

in the low

zone, throughout

cover an altitudinal

range of from 150 to 900m.

in the Department of Huanuco;


of the Department of Cuzco; the

The species

therefore

probably

occurs in both the low selva zone and at least the lower levels of the high
selva zone in most parts of the Amazon region.
Taxonomy.- The species is Bassaricyon alleni Thomas throughout, which some
authorities regard as no more than a roce of B. gabbi J. A. A11en.

47

Status.-

This species is less commonly captured or killed than Potos flavus, and
its skin is of no commercial value. Little is known of its status, but control of
hunting is desirable.
Bassaricyon
alleni may be present in the Manu National
Park.

to occur in Peru,

MUSTELlDAE

Genus Mustela linn - Weasels ,f1/'-yJ,IIGS!Io r~J.q..r~)


Local Names.- Tolompeo, Comedreja, Raposa.
d,,,c""'/( t'1~~).
Distribution.- Mustela [renata Lichtenstein,
the only South American representative of this genus,

is typically

found in the ceja de selva

an animal

of the Andean region,

zone of the Amazon region and almost

but it is also
down to sea

level in at least some areas of the western slopes of the Andes.


Specimens are known from the Chachapoyas
Province of the Department

of

Amazonas; Cutervo Province of the Department of Cajamarca; the Rio Chinchao


in the Huanuco Province 'ol the Department o Huanuco; Lake Junin (circa 4,000
m.) and the Rio Tarma in the Department of Junin; from Pachacamac
(circo 200
m.) and Chosica (circa 1,000m.) near the coast in the Department of Lima; from
Ollantaytambo
in the Urubamba Province o the Department of Cuzco; and from
Limbani in the Sandia Province of the Department of Puno. The species is also
well known in the valleys o the Cordillera Blanca in the Huay las Province of
the Department o Ancash. Although record s Irom the north are missing, it probably occurs lrom the north to the south o the country.
.

Taxonomy. - Cabrero recognizes


o which M. f. agilis Tschudi

Iour roces o Mustela [renata as occurr ing in Peru,


is Iound in the Cordillera Occidental;
M. f. hellori

Hall at heights o up to 2,000 m. on the eastern slopes o the Andes in the center of the country; M. f. aureouentris
Gray ronges Irorn the Ecuadorian
border
south

to the Department

boliviensis

of Cuzco at heights

Hall is Iound in the extreme

and 3,000 m. altitude.


Little is known about the status

Status.-

suppose

o from 900 to 3,600 m.; and M. [.

southeast

o the country

between

2,000

o this animal, but there is no reason to

that it is under any threat rorn mano Mustela [renata may be present

the highest

port of the Manu National

in

Park.

Genus Grammogale Cabrera -

Striped Weasels

Local Names.- None known.


Distribution.- 1 hove been able to learn nothing of the local distribution

or status
o the single species o this genus, which is known from two disparate populotions, the one in the northwest of the Peruvian Amczon region and eastern
Ecuador, and the other from the Para region of eas tern Brazil.
Taxonomy.-Grammogale
africana (Desmarest) is the species.
The Peruvian population belongs to the roce G. a. stol zmarmi (Toczcnowsk),
01 which Yurimaguas,
in the Department of Loreto, is the type locality.

48

Genus Galictis Bell - Grisons


Local Names.- Grison, Huron, Perro de Monte.
Distribution.- Both Galictis vittata (Schreber) and Galictis
but 1 have been able to discover

little

cuja (Molina) are known


about the local dstr-

bution or status of either species,


as most museum specimens
the loca lit y in which they were obtained and the name "perro de
for most of the small carnivores other than cats, as well as for
genus.
It appears, however, that one or other species is ound

lack details of
monte" is used
animals of this
in both the low

and high selva zones of at least the southern hall of the Amazon region. G. uittata is probably the species in most areas, but G. cuja, which is generally said
to live at higher a ltitudes , has been recorded rom the neighborhood of Lake
Titicaca,

which lies at 3,800m.,

Dr. A. L. Gardner obtained

Taxonomy.Thomas,
Peruvian

Cabrera

attributes

and from other parts o the Department

o Puno.

of G. uittata on the Rio Curanja

in 1966.

a specimen
Peruvian

specimens

o G. uittata to the race andina

which was described from Pozuzo, in the Department


form of G. cuja is G. C. luteola (Thomas).

of Huanuco.

The

Status.-

Grisons appear to be everywhere uncommon, or at least very little known.


A small number are exported o lve rom Iquitos under the name of grison (e.q., 5
in 1964), and others

are probably

included

in the numerous

"perros

de monte"

which are also dispatched.


Their skins have no commercial value, but fur
dealers' in both Pucallpa and Iqutos keep a few as curiosities.
Control of
hunting is desirable.
in the Manu National
ern boundary.

One or other species of grison is almost certain to occur


Park, as there is a sight record from just outside its south-

Genus Eira Hamilton Smith - Tayras


Local Names.- Manco, Tejon, Ucati, Ushco, Omeyra, Wamingo, Huatzu (Campa).
Distribution.- The single species of this genus occurs in both the Amazon region
and in the northern
by specimens
and Curanja,

part of the coastal

region.

In the Amazon region it is known

or reliable reports from the basins of the Rios Maranon, Ucayali,


in the Department o Loreto; and rorn the Provinces o Luya and

Chachapoyas
(Amazonas); Moyobamba and Mariscal Caceres (San Ma.rtin); Maranon, Huanuco, Tingo Maria, and Pachitea (Huanuco); Oxapampa (Pesco): Tarma
(Junin): Calca, Paucartambo,
and Quispicanchis
(Cuzco); Sandia (Puno): and
Manu and Tambopata (Madre de Dios).
Records cover a range of rorn 150 to
nearly 3,000 m., and it seems probable that the species occurs throughout the
low and hiqh selva zones and in many ports o the ceja de selva zone as well.
In the coastal region, the species is well known in most parts o the Deportment of Tumbes, at elevations
of from 100 to 300m., and it is reported to occur
at altitudes o up to 3,000 m. in the Ayabaca and Huancabamba Provinces of the
Department 01 Piuro. It may also occur Iur ther south.
Taxonomy.-Eira
barbara (Linn.) is the species,
of which, according to Cabrera,
E.b. peruana (Nehring) is the race in most parts of the country, with E. b. madeirensis (Lonnberg) occurring in the northeast.

49

Stotus.The tayra is a widespread and fairly common animal throughout its range,
and it has adapted well to co-existence with mano It has abad reputation as a
poultry killer and is said to have an addiction for ripe pawpaws and bananas.
1 have al so se en tayras taking maize cobs from standing crops. Although these
habits lead to numerous individuals
being killed, the species appears to be in
no way endangered.
Control of hunting is nevertheless
desirable.
The species
is represented
in the Manu National Park.
Genus Conepatus Gray Local

Names.-

Distribution.-

Zorrino,

Hog-nosed

Skunks

Anas.

Members of this genus are found throughout

of the Andes and in the coastal

the coastal

and Andean

plain; and, particularly

in the north, they

Amazon region is marginal country for them; and they are not found at al! in
the lower subtropical and tropical forest zones.
Because they are indistinguishable
vian species can only be assessed
occurs

in the south

in the field, the ranges


from museum specimens.

of the country

nominate

According
race

to Cabrera,

is a high altitude

two races

of the two Peru-

Conepatus rex

and Conepatus semistriatus (Bod-

daert) in the north, but it is not known if, and to what extent,
overlap.
T axonomy.-

the two species

of C. rex are found in Peru.

form, of which specimens

The

are known fram a

number of localities
in the Departments of Cuzco and Arequipa.
Examples in
the Museo" Javier Prado" from Lake Junin and the upper Canta valley (approx.
11.00' S.) also appear to be of that formo C. r. inca Thomas was described from
Callao,

and Cabrera

accords

it a range covering

the coastal

region

Coast

occurrence

to rocky stretches

Otter
waters,

where

1 ha ve no record of its
it is diurnal in hcbits, it is reported as

of the south

north of 12.00' S. Although

being only occasionally


at l7.50'S.,
l7.30'S.,

below.

coast.

seen by the guardians of guano bird colonies stationed


17.20'S.,
16.35'S.,
16.15'S.,
15.30'S.,
15.20'S.,
and

12.10' S. It has not been known to visit the Chincha Islcnds, which lie 15 kms.
off the coost at 12.45' S. The highly valued fresh water prawn Cripbiops cae-

mentarius is included in the diet of this otter, and according


it not only enters
ascends

rvers

estuaries

in search

of those

crustaceans

to the upper limit of their distribution,

to Hernandez (960)
but it sometimes

which he gives elsewhere

as 650 m. above sea level.


Taxonomy.Only the nominate form of Lutra [elina is recognized.
Status.Coast otters are frequently killed beca use of the damage they are alleged
to do to prawn stocks.
They are also subject to much casual
fisherrnen and by owners of firearms, who fmd them convenient
Whether as a result

of human action

or not, the species

persecution
by
living targets.

s now everywhere

rare.

Total protection is therefore necessary.


The species has been recorded in all
three areas under consideration
as a site for a coastal national pcrk, but it s
not known

this otter is sufficiently

of these areas

throughout

local in habits

to be contained

in any one

the year.

of central

Peru and the neighboring slopes of the Andes. The Museo "Javier Prado" has
specimens
from Matucana and Huarochiri,
both in the Department of Lima; but
t is not known f it is this race or the preceding one that is plentiful on the
coast in the Departments of Moquegua and Tacna.
Cabrera also recognizes
two races of Conepatus semistriatus as occurring
in Peru: C. s. taxinus Thomas (type loca lit y Chachapoyas)
in the basin of the
Rio Maranon and its tributaries;
and C. s. zorrino Thomas (type loca lit y Eten,
Dept. of Lambayeque) in the desert region of the northwest.
The latter is presumably the form which is abundant in coastal dunes in the Department of Tumbes, but it is not known which form it is that occurs at altitudes
up to 3,000 m.
in the Ayabaca and Huancabamba
Provinces
of the Department of Piurc and
further south. A specimen possessing
a remarkably thick under-Iur , which was
collected by Dra. Koepcke at 2,600m. on the Hda. Tculis , in the Department of
Cajamarca,
has been dentified as belonging to the race C. s. quitensis (Hurnboldt, however.
50

Lutra fe/ina (Molino) -

separately

Chingungo, Huallaque, Gato Marino.


This marine species is nowhere common in Peruvian

it is confmed

are frequently to be found on the seashore


itself.
In the Andean region, they
occur at all altitudes
up to at least 4,100m.
The ceja de selva zone of the

Thomas

Genus Lutro Brunnich - Otters


of this genus that occur in Peru are treated

The two species

Local Names.Distribution.-

regions and in the ceja de selva zone of the Amazon region. In the coastal region they occur wherever there is vegetation
of any sort, both on the western
slopes

Stotus.Hoq-nosed skunks are abundant throuqhout their range.


They are under
no threat rom man and need no protective measures.
Conepatus rex is almost
certainly present in the upper parts of the Manu National Park.

Lutra incarum Thomas Local Names.-

Nutria, Pisuo,

Mallu-puma,

mazon Otter
Tacshan Lobo, Me (Campa).

Distribution.This species
is widely distributed
however, it is generally confined to fast-flowing

in the Amazon reqion, where,


and clear streams, being rarely

found in the muddy lower reaches of the main tributaries


of the Amazon or in
the lagoons associated
with them. It is widespread
in the hiqh selva as well
as in all but the lowest parts of the low selva, and it ascends into the ceja de
selva zone, where 1 have received reports of its presence at 3,000m. in La
Convencion
Province of the Deportrnent of
one killed at 1,800m. in the same area.
It
hills, and a specimen is known rom as far
another species of otter, is rather dubiously
westward into the Zarumillo Province of the
has referred

to specimens

from Eten,

Cuzco, and hcve seen the skin of


is not confined to the Andean Iooteast as the Ro Curanja.
This , or
reported to occur in rivers flowing
Department of Tumbes, and Thomas

in the Department

of Lambayeque

(vide

Sanborn 1951).
51

T axonomy.Cabrera recognizes only the nominate orrn of Liara incarum, of which


Marcapata is the type loca lit y, and to which he ascribes the range of southeast
Peru. It is not known if specimens of otters from the narth of the Amazon region
have been critically examined, but it seems possible that Lutra armectans Major
may occur there.
Status.The vclue of its pelt makes this otter one of the principal quarries of the
professional
fur and skin hunter. As a result, the species has been exterminated
in most waters within easy reach of settlement.
In 1966 the price paid for skins
by dealers in Pucallpa and Iquitos was S/450 ((.6) each.
Registered
exports
from Iquitos

increas ing number of hunters


1946
2,107
1947
1,248
1948
751
1949
1,403
1950
1,437
1951
1,635
1952.....
854

or the period 1946 to 1966 were as under:

1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952

596
440
202
532
1,018
2,283
1,306

1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

1,632
3,239
3,735
4,479
3,666
4,476
4,042

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966

6,142
11,349
6,129
7,580
10,802
8,652
8,274

The species,

indication that it is within the sustainable


yield.
Rather, it reflects the rapid
expansion of settlement within the Amazon region, with mare and more hunters
taking part in a prctcble business and pushing further into virgin country each
year to do their hunting.

The true picture

is almost certainly

one of progressive

extermination
radiating from each center of settlement,
and such a process can
have only one end. On the basis of 5 kms. of river being required to sustain a
pair of otters,

the present

off-take

from over 20,000

and particularly

control

hunting-is
therefore
National Park.

is the equivalent

kms. of waterways

of the trade in skins,

urgently

required.

of eliminating

a year.

Control

which provides

the adult

of hunting-

the incentive

Lutra incarum is present

for

in the Manu

and Rio Pacaya

Genus Pteronura Gray - Giant Otters


Lobo de Ro, Parare (Compo), Inii (Chayhuita).

Distribution.The single species of this genus is confined to the low selva zone
of the Amazon region, within which it is principally found in the "block water"
regions of clear bu t peat-stained
lakes, lagoons, and interconnecting
waterways of the lower basins of the main Amazon tributories.
The species has now

present

in the fe Id:
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
above,

918
1,213
2,169
1,766
1,066
1,278
1,114

1960 ..... 1,002


1961.....
293
1962 .....
850
1963.....
435
1964 .....
672
1965.....
223
1966 .....
210

is well represented

in the Manu National

in very small numbers in the proposed

Rio Samiria

Reserve.

FELlDAE

The seven species

Genus Felis linn. - Cats


of this genus which occur in Peru are treated

Felis eoloeolo Molina -

Pampas

separately

below.

Cat

Local Names.-Gato
Montes, Osjollo, Chinchay.
Distribution.This species is typically an animal of the Andean valleys, but it
also occurs in the ceja de selva zone of the Amazon region and on the western.
slopes

of the Andes in the coastal

region as well.

Local enquiries

have shown

it to be present in almost every Oepartment of the Andean region, from Piura in


the north to Puno in the south, and it probably has a continuous distribution
throughout

Local Names.-

as indicated

Park and is probably

It is improbable that any animal can sustain exploitation


on such a scale
indefmitely.
The fact that the annual take of skins shows no decline is not an

population

Status.The skin of the giant otter is equalled in value only by that of the jaguar,
S/1,700 (f.23) being poid far either by local dealers in 1966. In consequence,
the animal has been so relentlessly
hunted that it is undoubtedly approaching
extinction.
Total protection, and the prohibition of 011 trade in its skins, are
therefore necessary.
The fo11owing totals of yearly exports of giant otter skins
reflect the dwindling numbers of this species and show how its skins have nearly
disappeared
from the market des pite the incentive of soaring prices and an ever-

that range.

common in the Calca,

In the ceja de selva


Paucartambo,

ment o Cuzco and in the Chachapoyas


In the coastal

region,

it descends

zone,

t appears

and Quispicanchis
Province

to be particularly

Provinces

of the Oepartment

of the Oepartof Amazonas.

quite low and is known in the Zarumillo

Pro-

vince of the Oepartment of Tumbes at elevations


of 100 to 200 m. The Museo
"Javier Prado" also has specimens from Loma Lachay (11.20' S.), taken within
5 kms. of the sea at not more than 300m. elevation, and from 50 kms. southeast

disappeared
from nearly al! of its former haunts, and probably only small and
isolated relict populations
now exist in the Ucayali, Huallaga, Moranon, Tigre,
Napa, Putumayo, and Yavori river systems.
It has been similarly reduced in

of Lima.
Taxonomy.According to Cabrera, the form in the south is F. c. garlepP Matschie,
and a specimen from Loma Lachay has been dentified as also belonging to that

much of the Rio Madre de Dios system, but stil! occurs in sorne numbers in the
basin of the Rio Manu (now a national pcrk).
Taxonomy.Pteronura brasiliensis
(Gmelin) is the only species of the genus, of
which only the nominate form is found in Peru.

roce. F. c. tbomasi Lonnberg occurs in the north.


Status.The skin of this species is valueless
as a ur, and it is therefore not
subject to commercial hunting.
Its natural food supply may ha ve been affected
by the increase of human population in some parts of ts range, but it has every-

52

53

where demonstrated its ability to survive in adequate numbers. Although the


species is not to be regarded as in any way endangered at present, control of
hunting is desirable. Felis colocolo is present in the upper part of the Manu
National Park.
Felis jacobita Cornalia - Andean Cat
Local Names.- Gato Montes, Chinchay.
Distribution.- Cabrera includes the high mountainous region of southern Peru in
the range of this species, but 1 have be en able to learn nothing of its local distribution or status from enquiries there, because of possible confusion with the
preceding species. 1 have therefore no positive records of its occurrence other
than a personal sight record of a single individual stalking viscachas at 4,300 m.
on Hda. Cala Cala, near Azangaro (Dept. of Puno), and o a captive specimen
believed to have been caught in the Canchis Province, Oepartment of Cuzco.
Taxonomy.- Felis [acobita is known only in the nominate formo
Status.- There appears no reason to suppose that this species is any more adversely affected by man than is Felis colocolo. It is apparently much more
rare, however, and has a very limited range. Control of hunting, or possibly
total protection, is therefore desirable.
Felis pardalis Linn. - Ocelot
Local Names.Tigrillo, Ocelote, Gato
Onza, Pumillo, Hualperro, GaUerino,
Mathuntori (Ccmpo), Canunii (Chayhuita).
Distribution.- This species occurs in both
the Amazan region and the northern part
of the coastal region. In the Amazon
region, it occurs throughout the low
selva zone from the borders of Ecuador
and Colombia to the Bolivian border in
Ocelot portrait
the south. It does not appear to extend
far into the high selva zone, however , at least in the southern half of the country, because only near Oxapampa there has it been locaUy reported as occurring
at over 700 m. In the coastal region, the species is known from aU the forested
parts of the Oepartment of Tumbes, and it is said to be particularly plentiful in
the mangrove swamps of the northern coast. It is also known from the lower
slapes of the mountains in the Ayabaca and Huancabamba Provinces of the
Oepartment of Piuro, and may occur further south as well.
Taxonomy.- Cabrera includes the whole of the Peruvian Amazon region within the
range of the race F. p. aequatorialis Mearns. The form in the coastal region is
probably F. p. pusaea Thomas.
Status.- The ocelot is relentlessly hunted for its valuable pelt, for which S/700
((9) each was paid by Iquitos and Puccllpo merchants in 1966. Or. Alfred Gardner informed mE;that during his three months' stay on the Rio Curanja no less
than 40 to 50 of those animals were trapped by the inhabitants of a single Indian
54

village and that traders visited the area buying skins each month. Over 138,000
ocelot skins have been exported from Iquitos during the last 20 years, annual
totals being as under:
1946
1947
1948.....
1949
1950
1951
1952

1,816
1,214
734
2,318
2,111
2,933
2,373

1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966

3,637
8,288
4,323
5,287
7,068
6,191
8,761

12,797
6,752
12,961
10,202
11,244
12,198
14,894

The ocelot is undoubtedly one of the most successful forms of mammalian


life in the Amazon region, and is often more plentiful than the availability of
prey species would appear to make possible. It is , however, impossible for the
species to withstand indefmitely a drain of that nature on its population. The
species has not been entirely eradicated from all areas of settlement, but, as
in the case of Lutra incarum, the high off-take can have been maintained only
by the decimation of the population in new areas every year. Control of huntnq,
and particularly of the trade in skins, is therefore necessary. The species is
represented in the Manu National Park.
Felis wiedii Schinz - Margay Cat
Local Name.- Huamburusho.
Distribution and Status.- Attempts are often made to seU traders skins of this cat
as those of ocelot, by cutting off the last few inches of the tcil. Experienced
buyers, however, can detect the slight difference in the texture of the fur des pite
the almost identical color and markings of the two species.
Up to 1961, the
pelts of Felis unedii had no commercial value, but exports since then have been
growing rapidly, as can be seen from the foUowing yearly totals. Even so, the
price paid for a margay skin in 1966 was no more than SISO (O), i.e., little more
than a tenth of that paid for an ocelot skin.
1961
1962

42
663

1963
1964

773
962

1965
1966

3,106
4,061

1 have been able to learn nothing of the distribution of this species from the
skins 1 have seen in the hands of dealers, because their place of origin is usuaUy unknown. Fully documented museum specimens are al so rare. Sanborn,
however, records specimens from San Juan in the Sandia Province of the Oepartment of Puno. The status of the species is equaUy obscure, although it is
everywhere regarded as being uncommon. Control of hunting, and of the trade
in skins, is necessary lest the species become endangered. Felis wiedii is
likely to be present in the Manu National Pork, in view of its recorded occurrence in Sandia Province.
Taxonomy. - Cabrera includes the Andean region from the north of Colombia to
Peru in the range of the race F. w. pirrensis Goldman, to which form Sanborn
also ascribes his specimens from San Juan. F. w. amazonica Cabrera is probably the form in the low selva.
55

Fe/is figrina Schreber -

Tiger Cot

I know of no defmite record of the occurrence of this species in Peru, but it can
be expected to occur in the Amazon region, where it could be confused with
F. wiedii, rom which its skin is almost indistinguishable.
Felis concolor Unn. - Puma
Local Names.- Leon, Puma, Gato Montes, Lluichi-puma, Chanare (Campa), Youninii (Chayhuita).
Distribution.- This species occurs in a11 three regions of the country. In the
coastal region it is found thraughout the Department of Tumbes, and from there
southwards along the western slopes of the Andes to the Chilean border. It
descends to the coastal plain in places, and I have se en puma trocks on the
seashore at Morosama, in the Department of Tccno. In the Andean region, local
enquiries have shown it to be present in almost every part of every Department,
from Puro in the north to Puno in the south, at elevations up to 4,500m. In the
Amazon region it occurs thraughout the ceja de selva zone and in many parts of
the high selva zone. It also occurs in some areas of the low selva, individuals
having been shot at 600m. on the upper Rio Pachitea, at 600 m. near Quincemil,
and at 240 m. on the Rio Manu, in all of which place s it occurs alongside Leo
anca.
Taxonomy.-F. c. incarum Nelson and Goldman (type locality Pisocucho, Dept. of
Cuzco) is probably the form throughout the high country, with F. c. borbensis
Nelson and Goldman in at least the northern part of the Amazon region.
Status.- This species shows a remarkable ability to adapt itself to habitats as
different as the arid, rocky, western slopes of the Andes; the bleak and freezing
regions of the puna and cordilleras; and the tropical forests of the low selva.
It is everywhere notorious as a stock killer, but it is dfficult to hunt and tenacious of existence. Although numbers are usuclly smcll, it has not been eradicated fram any part of its range. Its skin has no commercial value. Despite its
apparently satisfactory status, control of hunting is desirable. Felis concolor
is present at almost a11 levels of the Manu National Park.
Felis yagoauroundi Geoffroy - Jaguarundi
Local Names.- Anushi-puma, Yaguarundi, Leoncillo, Pantera Negra, Itee-ninii
(Chayhuita).
Distribution.- Records of this species are toa few for its distribution to be deduced. Specimens are, however, known from Yurimaguas (Rio Huallaga, Dept.
of Loreto); Pozuzo (ct 800 m. in the Pachitea Province, Dept. of Huanuco); Hda.
Sunchubamba (ot 2,200m., Dept. of La Libertad); from the Rio Manu (at circa
300m., Dept. of Madre de Dios): and fram Chailluma (at l,600m.in the Sandia
Province, Dept. of Puno), It is also reliably reported to occur near Aucayacu,
on the Rio Huallaga in the Maranon Province of the Department of Huanuco. It
therefore occurs in parts of both the low selva and the high selva zones, and
possibly in the ceja de selva zone as well. Jaguarundi skins (which have no

56

commercial value) are sometimes to be seen in the hands of Pucallpa and Iquitos dealers, but it is impossible to determine their place of origino
Taxonomy.- F. y. melantho Thomas (type locality Pozuzo) is prabably the roce
thraughout. Of the seven skins that I have seen, all have been of the black
phase; but Sr. C. Kalinowski informed me that he once shot a brawnish-groy
individual in the Department of Madre de Dios.
Status.- The species is prabably not as rare as the paucity of authentic records
makes it appear to be, since it is known by name in a wide number of localities.
T.
is, however, nowhere common; and control of hunting is necessary.
Felis
. 46oauroundi is present in the Manu National Park.

Genus Leo (Linn.) - Jaguars


Local Names.- Tigre, Otorongo, Yaguar, Banco-puma, Manitzi (Campa), Ninii
(Chayhuita).
Distribution.- The jaguar is the only South American representative of this genus.
It occurs throughout the low selva zone of the Amazon region, and appears to
extend a little further into the high selva zone than does Felis pardalis, though
1,000m. is about its upper limito The species is also known to the west of the
Andes in the Zarumi11a Province of the Department of Tumbes, where it is said
to have marked seasonal movements to and from the higher country across the
Ecuadorian border. It is genera11y reported absent fram the dry woodlands further south, but it has been recorded fram Hda. Taulis in the Department of Cajamarca, at approximately 6.30' S.
Taxonomy.- The species is Leo onca (Lnn.), of whch Cabrera considers the
form in the Maranon and Ucayali basins to be L. o. peruvianus (Blainville),
(type loca lit y Moyobamba, Dept. of San Martin).
Status.- The jaguar has for long been persecuted for its valuable skin, for which
local merchants were paying S/1,700 ([23) each in 1966. As a result, it has
disappeared from the neighborhood of a11 settlement and is now rare in many
parts of its former range. Altogether, 12,704 jaguar skins were exported from
Iquitos in the 20 years prior to 1966, annual totals being as under:
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952

353
297
185
328
338
524
219

1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

712
594
353
664
495
669
657

1960
1961
1962
1963.....
1964
1965
1966

1,207
703
850
879
673
1,113
891

Little is known of the population dynamics of this species, but it seems


most unlikely that that rate of off-take can be sustained. Control of hunting,
and of the trade in skins, is therefore necessary. The species is represented
in the Manu National Park.

57

PINNIPEDIA
OTARI/DAE

VI

.."e

o
-;
o

J:;
u

J:;

I
VI

o
-.J

.,
o

V)

58

Genus Otario Peron - South American Sea Lions


Local Names.- Lobo Marino, Lobo de Un Pelo, Lobo Chusco.
Distribution and Status.- The single species o this genus, Otaria flavescens
(Shaw), is a cold-water animal which breeds on the Peruvian coast from the
Chilean border north to Isla Lobos de Tierra, at 6.30' S. It is not inlrequently
seen urther- north, as lar as 3.90' S., but has not been known to breed there.
The species was lormerly very numerous, but was reduced to near vanishing
point by indiscriminate hunting in the early decades of this century. (Dr. Alvaro
A. Piazza cites an example o a single dealer being able to buy 36,650 skins
o this species and o Arctocepbalus australis on a short stretch of coast in a
period of Iour months in 1941-42.) Hunting was prohibited in 1959, and since
then the species has slowly recovered, until in 1966 the Servicio Pesqueria
estimated the Peruvian population to be about 20,000.
This sea lion lormerly bred in a variety of sites, including open beaches,
but it is now confined to a number o precipitous rocky islands and headlands
where rouqh seas cause so many casualties amongst young animals that its rate
o recovery has probably been slowed. O its 15 or 16 principal breeding sites,
011but 4 are in the southern half o the country. Old records indicate that the
coast from l3.45' S. to 15.30' S. was always a lavored region, and it still holds
the greatest number o animals during the breeding season, which is rom the
end of November to the beginning o April. The only breeding sites now used
there, however, are the cliffs o the Paracas peninsula and islands such as the
Chinchas and Ballestas groups, 1. de Sangayan, Las Viejas, and a lew isolated
rocks in the neighborhood of San Juan and Pta. de Lomas. The beaches which
were orrnerly used on the mainland are now deserted and dentifnble only by
patches ot hclf-Iossilzed excreta and scattered bones.
Other breeding sites still in use are Isla Lobo de Tierra (6.30' S.); Isla de
Macabi (7.45' S.); Isla Guanape (8.30' S.); Isla San Lorenzo (12.05' S.); Pta. Vilcayu (16.05' S.); Isla Oscuyo (16.30' S.); Isla El Saltadero and Cueva de Ladran
(16.35' S.); Pts. Islay (17.00' S.); Pta. Corio (17.20' S.); Pta. Coles (17.45' S);
and Morosama (18.00' S.).
A considerable number 01 sea lions are still killed illegally, mainly by small
boat fisherrnen, who suller some damage to their nets. Hunting should not be
resumed until the population has urther recovered, when these animals can be
exploited on a sustained yield basis.
All three areas under consideration as the site Ior a coastal national park
contain breeding sites of this species.
Taxonomy.-Otaria flavescens (Shaw) is the only species of this genus, and it is
known only in the nominate formo

59

Genus Arctocephalus E. Geoffroy and F. Cuvier - Southern Fur Seals


Local Names.- Lobo Marino, Lobo de Dos Pelos, Lobo Fino.
Distribution.- The Peruvian representative of this genus is also a cold-water species, and it is limited to the southern part of the coast, where it has a northern
breeding limit of approximately 13.45' S. It probably occurs north of there at
some seasons of the year, but it is dfficult to distinguish from the preceding
species in the water.
Taxonomy.- The Peruvian form is Arctocepbalus a. australis,
Status.- This seal appears never to have been as plentiful as Otaria flavescens,
and because it was more heavily hunted for its much more valuable pelt, it carne
even nearer to being exterminated. It, too, has been protected since 1959, and
the Servicio Pesqueria's estimate of the total Peruvian population in 1966 was
4,000 to 5,000.
The only breeding site known to be used during the 1965 and 1966 seasons
was that at the foot of the cliffs of the Paracas peninsula, where approximately
2,000 animals were counted on severcl occasions. In previous years, however,
it has been known to breed in small numbers at Pta. Corio (17.20' S.) and Pta.
Coles (17.45' S.) and, more doubtfully, at one or two places further south.
This species is in greater need of further protection before hunting is resumed than is Otaria flavescens.

Sea Lions -

Chincha

SIRENIA
TR/CHECHIDAE

Genus Trichechus linn. - Manatees


Local Names.- Vaca Marina, Manati.
Distribution.- The single Peruvian representative of this genus is confmed to the
system of "black water" lakes, lagoons, and waterways associated with the
lower reaches of the main tributaries of the Amazon. Its upper limits in the
Ucayali and Huallaga basins hove not been established, but it is probable that
nowhere in the country does it occur south of 7.00' S. In the Maranon basin it
is scd not to occur above the junction of the Rio Pastaza. It is absent from
the en tire Madre de Dios and Purus river systems within Peruvian limits.
Taxonomy.- The species is Tricbecbus inunguis (Natterer), which is known only
in the nominate formo
Status.- Ruthless hunting for its meat has brought the manatee nearer to extinction than perhaps any other mammal of the Amazon region. It has disappeared
from almost a11 of its former haunts, and is now so rare that only by the prohibition of a11hunting can the species be saved. An example of the way that manatees hdve been persecuted in the past is the two traders, encountered by an
oficer of the Servicio Forestal in 1958, who were bringing back fram an expedition to the Rio Putamayo 10,000 kilos of dried meat, which represents 220
average-sized adult animals.
The species is not represented in the Manu National Park, but it still occurs
in modest numbers in the proposed Rio Samiria and Rio Paca ya Reserve.

Islands

PHOCIDAE

Genus Mirounga Gray - Elephant Seals


A single specimen of the Southern Elephant Seal, Mirounga leonina (Linn.), is recorded as having been killed on the beach at San Andres (13.50' S.) in Decernber
1939. Other vagrant individuals of that speces may therefore occasionally
reach the Peruvian coast.

60

Point Paracas

on the Pacific

Ocean,

one al the lew remaining

breeding

sites

01 the sea l ion.

61

PERISSODACTYLA
TAPIRIDAE

The two species

Genus Tapirus Brunnich - Tapirs


of this genus that occur in Peru are treated separately below.

Tapirus terrestris (linn.) - South American Tapir


Sacho Vaca, Tapir, Denta, Anta, Kamare (Campa), Pahuaraa (Choyhutc), Pamau (Achual).
Distribution.This species is confmed to the Amazon region. It is found throuqhout the low selva zone from the north to the south of the country, and is one of
the few terrestrial mammals whose distribution is not affected, at least seasonally, by the vast areas of that zone which are subject to annual inundation. It
also occurs in the lower levels of the high selva zone, and is locally reported
to be present in forests as high as 1,700 m. in the Oxapampa Province of the
Department of Pesco.
Taxonomy.Cabrero considers the form in the north to be T. t. aenigmaticus Groy,
with the nominate roce prabably occurring elsewhere.
Status.The tapir is everywhere hunted for its meat, although this is not greatly
esteemed. It has managed to survive in fair numbers in most parts of its range,
however, partly perhaps beccuse its hide has no commercial value and it is
therefore not sought after by professional hunters, and partly because it is able
to utilize low land remote from man and is not forced to concentra te on river
banks and other high ground during the flood season. Control of hunting s.however, desirable. The species is present in the Manu National Park.
Local Names.-

--

~
10

,~~
.

12

114

Tapirus pinchaque (Roul in) -

/'"

12

-------+------+----~r+-___f':::::...*+=:.::..::+=_+_l!f!.1B!l'M4;....,ll_If___\_-4+__-_l_+\__'._-~
SCALE
MILES
O

SO

'

O
100
KILOMETERS

80

100
le

150

200

e,

200
l'

300

78

76

74

72

70

Mountain or Woolly Tapir

Local Names.Gran Bestia, Bestia Negra, Ante.


Distribution.This species appears to be restricted

to the Aycbcc and Huonccbamba Provinces of the Department of Piura and the Jaen Pravince o the Department of Cajamarca, where it occurs on high ground from the Ecuadorian
border to about 6.00' S. It is absent rom the Deportrnent of Tumbes.
The mountain tapir is locally reported to be cornmon in the mountains between the towns of Ayabaca and Huancabamba and to the east of the latter town,
where it inhabits thick, bushy country in the zone of wind-dwarfed Polylepis
trees and Hypericum. It is probcbly also to be found along the mountainous
ridges running south from Huancabamba, for several small groups are known to
exist where those ridges are cut by the Olmos-Jaen road some 60 kms. to the
south, including one party of 5 to 7 animals living at only 2,OOOm., 35 kms.
east of Olmos. The species is also known from several localities near TaOOconos and Chontali in the Jaen Pravince.
Although the presence of this species within Peruvian limits is unconfirrned
by museum specimens, the skins o animals shot in the Huancabamba Province
63

-..,

have been examined by Ora. Koepcke, of the Museo "Jover Prado", and by
M. Paul V. Pierret.
Taxonomy.- Tapirus pincbaque is known only in the nominate formo
Status.- The mountain tapir does not appear to be much persecuted by hunters, but
the species is said to be intolerant of disturbance and to be disappearing from
areas where it was formerly common. It s rare throughout the remainder of its
range in Ecuador and Colombia, and is included in the LU.C.N. List of Endangered Species. The Peruvian population cannot number more than 100 to 200
individuals.
Total protection and the creation of some form of sanctuary are
therefore recommended.
Left: Tapir

Belaw: Peccary
(Whiteco Ilared)

~~~.--~T----~~~t~.~----------

ARTIODACTYLA
TA YASSUIDAE

The two species

Genus Tayassu G. Fischer - Peccaries


of this genus that occur in Peru are treated separately below.

Tayassu taiacu (Linn.) - Collared Peccary


Local Names.-Sajino,
Ituchi, Quetayrequi (Ccmpo), Kirornco (Chcyhutc), Yanquipik (Achual).
Distribution.- This species occurs in the Amazon region and the northern part of
the coastal region. In the Amazon region it is found throughout the low selva
zone from the north to the south of the country, in some areas of which it is
subject to considerable seasonal movements occcsioned by the annual inundation of vast tracts of land. It also occurs in the lower levels of the high selva
zone, where its normal upper limit appears to be 800 to 900m. It has, however,
been reported at over 1,5OOm. in the Oxapampa Province of the Department of
Pesco. In the coastal region it is known throughout the Zarumillo Province of
the Depcrtment of Tumbes, at elevations of from 500 to 1,500m., and in the Ayabaca ond Huancabamba Provinces of the Oepartment of Piurc, where it occurs
in dry, deciduous woodland, very different from its habitat in the Amazon region.
It may also occur further south.
Taxonomy.- The nominate race is probably the form in most of the Amazon region,
with the race T. t. bangsi (Goldman) occurring in the extreme north.
Status.- The co11ared peccary is an important source of food for almost a11 residents of the Amazon region, providing 16.6% and 12.6% respectively of a11 meat
eaten in the Ucayali and Pachitea va11eys, according to the surveys of Pierret
and Oourojeanni.
It is al so intensively hunted for its hide by commercial
hunters (whose wasteful methods often entail throwing away the meot). des pite
the fact that each hide is worth no more than S/25 to S/30 (7 to 8 shillings).
Over 2,000,000 hdes of this species were exported from Iquitos during the
period 1946-1966, 690,000 of them in the last 5 years. The actual export of
hides by years was as under:
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952

70,876
65,884
45,455
69,355
82,548
60,830
40,812

1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

60,844
85,731
114,644
106,744
101,352
74,359
108,608

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966

125,245
109,500
128,763
120,735
129,920
129,600
181,201

If these figures represent but 600{,of a11animals ki11ed, this is the equivalent
of an annual off-take of one peccary or each 1.6 sq. km. (.64 sq. mile) of the
whole Amazon region.
64

65

Although the species is still quite common in most parts of its range, it is
dffcult to beleve that it can withstand a drain of that nature indefmitely, Control of hunting and of the trade in skins is therefore necessary if this valuable
species is to be conserved. Tayassu tajacu is represented in the Manu National
Park.
I'e(a~"
Tayassu a/birostris'(llIiger) - White-lipped Peccary
Local Names.- Huangana, Socho-cuch, Shintore (Campa), Namaa (Choyhuto),
Paki (Achual).
Distribution.- This species occurs alongside T. tajacu throughout most of the
latter's range in the Amazon region, although in some localities only one or
the other may be presento A great deal of work awaits doing to separa te the
ecological requirements of the two species. Tayassu albirostris is not known
from the west of the Andes.
Taxonomy.- The nominate race occurs throughout.
Status.- T. albirostris is over-ull less numerous than T. tajacu although it occurs
in larger bands, which often number up to 100 individuals, compcred with 10 or
20 in the case of the latter species. It is also more nomadic in habits. It is
subject to the same hunting pressures, despite its hide being of even less value
and fetching no morethan S/8 to SIlO (2 shillings to 2/6) each. Over 848,000
hides were exported between 1946 and 1966, and the average off-take for the
last 5 years was the equivalent of one animal per 4.5 sq. kms. (1.8 sq. miles)
of the whole Amazon region, on the same basis of calculation as was used in
the case of T. tajacu. Control of hunting and of the trade in skins is necessary.
Annual exports of hides were as under:
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952

46,274
30,056
23,253
29,532
30,281
21,825
16,413

1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

24,669
37,876
50,783
52,432
51,954
51,925
60,500

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966

50,119
31,000
55,456
58,975
48,840
35,400
40,801

The species is represented in the Manu National Park.

CAMELlDAE

Genus Vicugna Gray - Vicunas


Local Name.- Vicuna.
Distribution.- The single species of this genus is confmed to the puna country
of the Andean region, where it appears never to have occurred north of 9.30' S.
Between 9.30' S. and 13.30' S" the vicuna is now almost extinct, the only known
survvors being some 9 or 10 widely separated groups totaling less than 150
individuals in 011. These groups appear doomed, and it is improbable that any
of them can persist for more than a few more years.

66

South of l3.30' S. the position is a little better, but only in one loca lit y is
the species at 011 plentifu1-in the Pampas Galeras region of the Lucanas Province of the Department of Ayacucho, where a careful count in 1965 showed
there to be some 1,200 to 1,3CJOanimals in an area of 600 sq. kms. Elsewhere
the vicuna exists in widely separated populations of a few groups each, but
only one of those populations is known to exceed 100 individuals in all. Some
500 to 600 animals are al so kept in a state of semi-domesticity on Hda. Cala
Cala, in the Azangaro Province of the Department of Puno, about a third of
which are hybrids resulting from crossing with llama or alpaca. The known
posit ion, by Departments, is as under:
Ancash.- Six or seven sma11 groups, totaling perhaps 35 animals in a11,
exist in the Yungay and Bolognesi Provinces. Elsewhere the species is extinct.
Junin.- A sma11 group is rumored st ill to exist to the west of Lake Junin;
elsewhere the species is apparently extinct.
Lima.- Only three groups, of less than 20 each, are known; they are located
near Matucana and Canta.
Huancava/ica.-A group of less than 20 is reported to exist near the Castrovirrenya lakes, and two other sma11 herds are known in the extreme south, near
Cordova and Huac-huas.
Ayacucho.- Besides the large population of the Pampas Galeras region,
vicunas are known from the Negromayo lake area, where there may be as many
as 150 to 200 animals, although the greates t number ever seen in a single visit
was 55. They also probably occur further north, near Andamarca. The species
was formerly common in the Parinacocha Province; but poachers have been particularly active in that region, and no animals were seen between Puquio and
Coracora or between Coracora and Lake Parinacocha when those areas were
investigated, nor could reports of their present existence be obtained.
Apurimac.- This Department still holds fair numbers of vicunas. They are
absent from most, if not a11, of Andahuilas and Abancay Provinces; but several
sma11 groups are reported to occur in the Antabamba Province, to the east of
the Rio Pachachaca near Circo, Bambrabamba, and Antabamba. A fairly comprehensive survey of the western port of the Department, between Andahuilas
and the Puquio-Chalhuanca road, resulted in a total of 84 animals being seen,
of which 55 were concentrated in 6 groups on Pampa Chuquibamba. Two sepcrate herds, one of 7, the other of 18, have also been seen on several occasions
near where the Puquio-Chalhuanca road drops down into the Pachachaca va11ey.
Cuzco.- Vicunas have apparently not been known for many years in the
highlands of the Quispiccnchis , Paucartambo, Calca, and Urubamba Provinces.,
if indeed they ever existed there; andthey hcve now disappeared from the Ocongate area, where they ore reported to have occurred until recently. Small groups
are, however, fairly frequently seen in the La Raya oreo of the Vi1conota valley,
and the species probably occurs in other parts of Canchis and Canas Provinces
and in the Chumbivi1can and Espinar Provinces to the south, about which little
is known.

67

"11

80

~ 01

78

76

~I

1"

1)

Fil

74

72

70

11

Arequipa.- The status of the species is obscure , Local hunters claim that
vicunas still exist in several loculites in the north of the Department, but in
most areas in the south and in all the country traversed by the Arequipa-Juliaca
road they have been exterminated.
Puno._ Small numbers of vicunas are said still to exist in the south of the
Caraba ya and Sandia Provinces (including at Aricoma, where Koord carried out
his study 01 the speces), but reparts are conflicting, and 1 have no first-hcnd
knowledge 01 the region. They have disappeared completely from the Azangaro
Province except lar those in semi-domesticity on Hda. Cala Cala. A lew sccttered groups are known to exist on haciendas in the south 01 Chucuito Province,
but they total less than 150 individuals. Another 70 vicunas are known in the
extreme southwest 01 Lampa Province, and there may be others Iurther to the
north and in the Province 01 Melgar.
Moquegua.- A lew groups 01 vicunas are also snid to occur in the north of
this Department.
The location 01 all known or reliably reported groups 01 vicunas is shown on
the accompanying map. These groups totalless than 2,500 animals. A comprehensive survey cannot be considered to have been carried out, and there are
many other place s where vicunas could exist in modest nurrtbers. It is most unlikely, however, that another population of the magnitude 01 the Pampas Galeras
one remains undetected. It therelore seems possible thct the total Peruvian
population 01 the species may be as low as 5,000, and that 10,000 would be a

\I

121

10

\ \) l---;rt\ L I M AO!"
'"

4:.

liberal estimate 01 it.


T axonomy.- Vicugna uicugna (Molina) is the only species 01 the genus, 01 which

1 /J",,,~. '1\

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1 11

Cabrera recognizes only the nominate lorm. It is noteworthy that vcuncs will
mate with both llamas and alpacas under captive conditions and wi11 produce
Iertile offspring although the llama and alpaca are placed in a separa te genus.
Status.- The prohibition of the killinq 01 this species and 01 the export 01 its wool,
which has been in lorce Ior many years, has preved ineffectual; and the vicuna
now cces extinction throughout most 01 its range. The incentive lar illegal
hunting is the value 01 its wool, 01 which an adult animal will produce 1/3 to
1/2 lb., worth up to U.S. $25 per lb. Much 01 the killing is done by commercial
poachers rom the cities, equipped with motor vehicles and precision weapons;
but many young animals are picked up by herdsmen, whose dogs also exact a
tollo Most 01 the wool is said to be smuggled into Bolivia (where it can be sold
lega11y) or exported hidden in bales 01 alpaca or sheep's wool. The decline in
the status 01 the vicuna is so ser ious that concerted action to stop dealings in
its wool in a11 South American countries, and the banning 01 imports into mcnulacturing countries, appear necessary to save the species from extinction.
Through the generosity 01 the Comunidad de Lucanas, who own the lond,
6,500 hectares (17,250 acres) of the Pampas Galeras have been set aside as
the Pampas Galeras National Reserve or Vicunas. The reserve usually holds
from 400 to 600 animals, and the guards stationed there afford protection to as
many more in neighboring areas.
69

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~

60

76

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76

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74

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70

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Genus

11

Lama Cuvier -

Guanacos,

Llamas,

and Alpacas

Local Name.- Guanaco.


Distribution.The guanaco is the only species of this genus now occurring in the
wild. It is less exacting in its ecological
requirements than the vicuna, and is
found in the Andean and coastal regions of the southern half of the country at
elevations
of from sea level up to 4,OOOm. Its northern limit appears always to
have been about 8.00' S. The species is on the verge of extinction in most parts

of its range, and recent records of its occurrence

are rare.
Formerly, guanacos were plentilul in many parts of the coastal
were to be ound mainly on the upper slopes of the mountains,

region. They
where sparse

grazing is obtainable at a11 times of the year, but they appeared on the lomas
o the coastal plain during their period of winter flush. The only evidence that
1 ha ve been able to obtain o their survival in that region, however, is reported
recent

of parties

sightings

o less

than a dozen each at 3,OOOm., just south of

Matucana (12.00'S.);
at over 3,OOOm., inland tom Palpa 04.20'S.),
where three
groups are said to exist; at 3,500 m., just north of the Pampas Galeras Reserve
(14.30' S.); and at 3,700m., near Parinacocha
05.20' S.). Guanacos no longer
appear at Loma Lachay 01.25' S.) or in the Ancon area (12.00' S.), where they
were hunted in the 1950's; and the once numerous
valley 02.15' S.) is now almost certainly extinct,
denied

access

to vegetation

population of the lower Lurin


any possible survivors being

on the shore by extensive

settlement.

able, however , that a lew individuals occasionally


venture
and Taymara lomas 05.50' S.), since a small population

'01

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200

150
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,

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300

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74

at the northern

end

coverage.

Valley,

Guanacos

on the heights

in the Department

are, however,

(3,500 to 4,500m.)
of Apurimac,

owing at least

locally
on either

and also

reported

to

side o the

urther east

near

Pachacona,
Huacircas,
and Antabamba.
They have also been reliably reported
Irorn the Chivay region 01 the Department 01 Arequipa, and must occur in some
other parts 01 that Department as weli.
1 have been unable to obtain any records 01 their recent occurrence
in the Departments
01 Puno, Cuzco, Junin,

KILOMETERS
16

exists

seen quite regu-

rom other parts o the Andean region are very sparse,

in part to nduficient
occur in some numbers

MILES
50

are still

animals on his land, despite regular cu11ing lar labor rations.


In that year they
were much reduced by disease,
however, and only 400 to 500 are believed to
remain.
Records

and groups of ten to a dozen animals

of its range in the Andean region, where guanacos have been protected by the
owner o Hda. Calipuy, near Santiago de Chuco, at 8.00' S., in the Department
of La Libertad.
The owner estimates
that by 1965 he had approximately
1,000

SCALE

o
I
o

inland,

larly on the lomas near Morosama (18.00' S.).


The one remaining big population o this species

It is prob-

down to the Atiquipa


is believed to exist

I
72

",(V"MF
70

Huanuco, or Ancash.
Taxonomy.The species is Lama guanicoe (Mu11er), 01 which Cabrera considers
the race L. g. cacsilensis Lonnberg (type locality Cacsile,
Dept. 01 Puno) to
occur throughout.
71

Status.- The records 1 have been able to obtain of the present distribution of this
species are far less complete than in the case of the vicuna, because of the
wider range of country in which it can occur. There can be no doubt, however,
that the guanaco is now a very rare animal and that it is in imminent danger of
extinction in the few areas where it still exists. Numerically it is in an even
worse plight than the vicuno , and it seems improbable that the total Peruvian
population can exceed 5,000. Its decline can be attributed solely to hunting.
Total protection is therefore necessary.
Since this species is not represented
in any existing or projected national park or reserve, the establishment of a
special guanaco sanctuary, possibly on the Hda. Calipuy, is clso desirable.

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CERVIDAE

Genus Odocoileus Raflnesque - White-tailed Deer


Local Names.- Venado, Lluichu.
Distribution.- The white-tailed deer, the only Peruvian representative of this
genus, shows a remarkable adaptability to different types of habitat, and is
found in a11 three regions of the country.
In the coastal region, it occurs on both the coastal plain and the western
slopes of the Andes, wherever there is adequate vegetative cover, from the north
to the south of the country and from sea level up to 4,000 m. It is widespread
at a11 elevations in the Deportment of Tumbes and in the eastern part of the
Deportment of Puro, in both of which it is in places sympatric with Mazama
americana;
but further south it becomes progressively more restricted to the
slopes of the mountains by the increasing aridity of the coastal plain. It ormerly occurred down to the 'sea in oreas of loma, however, such as those at
Casma (9.30' S.), Lachay (11.20' S.), Atiquipa (15.50' S.), Pta. Corio (17.20' S.),
and Morosama (18.00' S.), and is still occasionally seen on the latter two.
In the Andean region, the white-tailed deer is to be found in the va11eys of
the sierras and of the cordilleras up to elevations of 4,500 m. where, as in the
coastal region, the major factor governing its distribution is the presence of
adequate covef in the form of woods or thickets. There, too, it is known from
the north to the south of the country.
In the Amazon region, it occurs throughout the ceja de selva zone, and in
place s it is found remarkably for down into the unbroken forests of the high
selva zone, where the rainfa11 may be 200 cms. and the mean annual temperature
22 to 2JOC. Thus it is known at a11 levels down to 1,150 m. in the Morcapata,
Pilcopotn, and Lores va11eys in the Deportment of Cuzco (in the last-named of
which 1 have seen the skin of an animal shot at l,130m.), and it is reported
from similar low altitudes in the Tingo Moria Province of the Department of
Huanuco. 1 also found a dead animal at only 600 m. in the exceptionally dry
and open country to the west of Bagua, in the Department of Amazonas. In such
situations the white-tailed deer is sympatric with Mazama americana, and 1 have
been shown the skins of both species shot in the same patch of forest.

72

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Taxonomy.- The species is Odocoileus uirginianus (Zimmermann). Hershkovitz


(Mammalia 22 [4] Paris) attributes high altitude specimens to the race O. v. goudotti (Gay and Gervais) and cites examples from localities in the Oepartment of
Piuro in the north to the Oepartment of Puna in the south. Cabrera, however,
restricts the range of that race to Colombia and Venezuela, and regards the form
to be O. u. peruuianus (Gray) throughout the country. Behrendt (1960) discusses
the differences which occur in weight, size, color, and antler formation at different altitudes, but considers that they are insuficient to justify the separation
into different races.
Status.- The white-tailed deer is remorselessly hunted wherever it occurs. Males
and females are killed indiscriminately, and hunting is continued through all
seasons of the year. As a result, it has become a shy and almost entirely nocturnal animal which is nowhere common except on the few haciendas on which
it is preserved. Nevertheless, it shows remarkable tenacity as a species and
has been entirely eradicated from surprisingly few parts of its range. Control
of hunting is necessary. The species is present in the Manu National Park.

~loP

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Genus Mazama Rafinesque - Brocket Deer


The three species of this genus that occur in Peru are treated separately below.
Mazama americaoo (Erxleben) - Red Brocket Deer
Local Names.- Venado Colorado, Puca Lluichu, Chonto (Oept. of Tumbes), Waiquo
(Oept. of Cuzco), Maniro (Ccmpc), Yuu (Chayhuita), Kuyapic (Achual).
Distribution.- This species occurs in the Amazon region and in the northern part
of the coastal region. In the Amazon region it is found throughout the low selva
zone from the north to the south of the country, and it occurs in the high selva
zone up to an altitude, according to Behrendt, of l,500m., and rather higher in
the extreme north. Local reports conhrrn that statement as far as the Paucartambo and Quispicanchis Provinces of the Oepartment of Cuzco and the Tingo
Maria Province of the Oepartment of Huanuco are concerned. In all of those
areas the species overlaps with Odocoileus uirginianus in the lower part of the
latter's range.
In the coastal region the species is found in those parts of the Zarumilla
Province of the Oepartment of Tumbes where the rainfall exceeds 100 cms., at
altitudes of 100 to 500 m. It also occurs in the Ayabaca and Huancabamba Provinces of the Oepartment of Purc. where it occupies marginal habitat in wooded
quebradas and valleys, at 1,200 to 2,OOOm. In the Huancabamba area there is
some confusion with an unidentfied small, reddish deer, known as "cabrito",
which is reported to occur alongside Tapirus pincbaque in thicket growth above
2,200 m., and which could possibly be Mazama rufina or Pudu mephistophiles.
The southern limit of M americana in the coastal region appears to be approximately 6.00' S.
Since M. americana is known from the upper valley of the Rio Tabaconas in
the Jaen Province of the Department of Cajamarca, the coastal and Amazon

74

-/

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10

12

12

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SCALE
MILES

SO

16,

""",;'

100
KILOMETERS

100
200

ISO

200
300

78

76

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II

18

80

74

72

70

16
'

populations of the species must nearly meet in that region. It appears, however,
thct there is no bridge between the two within Peruvian limits.
Taxonomy.-Cabrera
recognizes two roces of this species in the Amazon region:
M.a. zamora J. A. Allen in the north and M. a. whitelyi (Gay) (type locality Cosnipata, Dept. of Puno) in the south. The Iorrn in the coastal region appears to
be different rom M. a. zamora but has not yet been determined.
Status.- The red brocket deer is still lairly abundant in many parts 01 its range,
although it has disappeored frorn the vicinity 01 almost al! settlement. It is,
however, subject to intensive commercial hunting or its hide as wel! as Ior
ood, and is particularly vulnerable during the flooclsea son, when the population
01 lorge areas may be concentrated on sma11 islands 01 dry ground. Control 01
hunting and 01 the trade in skins is therefore necessary.
The average price paid or hides when delivered to merchants in Iqutos or
Pucallpa is no more than S/21 (5 shillings 6 pence) each. Nevertheless, 35,000
to 40,000 are now exported annua11y. Records are kept by weight only; but, assuming an average weight 01 31 lbs. per hide, the numbers exported yearly during
the period 1946-1966 would be as under:
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952

22,099
20,082
15,820
20,029
34,188
22,669
19,767

1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

18,711
32,866
41,429
37,558
39,940
24,747
43,554

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966

25,492
34,204
30,139
7,070
42,164
35,550
54,852

Note: A very small percentage 01 these may have been hides 01 M.gouazoubira.
Mazama americana is present in the Manu National Pork.
Mazama gouazoubira (G. Fischer) - Brown Brocket Deer
Local Names.- Venado Cenizo, Venado Plomo, Uchpo Lluichu, Nerenore (Campa).
Distribution.- This species is confmed to the Amazon region. It is reported to
occur in most parts 01 the low selva zone Irom at least the basin 01 the Rio
Maranon in the north to the Department 01 Madre de Dios in the south. It is not
known to occur in the high selva zone.
The ecological lactors separating M.gouazoubira rom M americana are rnproperly understood. In some localities only the one species is present, and
in others only the other. Frequently, however, they are ound side by side.
Taxonomy.- M.g. tschudii (Wagner) is the orm throughout the greater part of the
region, with M.g. murelia J. A. A11en perhaps replacing it in the north.
Status.- M.gouazoubira is numerically everywhere less common than M. americana.
It is subject to the same hunting pressures as the latter species, although its
flesh is less esteemed and in a few areas there are prejudices against eating it.
The very much smaller number of those killed is therefore probably a true reflection of its relative scorcity. Control of hunting and of the trade in skins is
necessory.
M. gouazoubira is present in several parts of the Manu National Pork.
76

Mazama chunyi Hershkovitz - Dwarf Brocket Deer or Chunyi Brocket


Local Names.- Tanka or Tanka Torucc, Waiquo (La Convencion, Calca, and Pcucartambo Provnces). Semi or Sani Toruca (Quispicanchis Province), Chuni or
Chuni Toruca (Sandio Provnce).
Distribution.- Within Peruvian limits this species is so lar known only Irorn the
Sandio Province 01 the Deportment 01 Puno and the Quispicanchis, Paucartambo,
Calca, and La Convencion Provinces 01 the Department 01 Cuzco, where it is
confmed to the ceja de selva zone and the upper limits 01 the hiqh selva zone.
Few museum specimens are known, but in his original description 01 the
species Hershkovitz (1959) cites examples Irom the va11eys 01 the Rio Tambopata (at San Juan, l,500m.) cnd the Rio Huori Huari (neor Pucorimayo, 2,500
to 3,OOOm.), in the Sandio Province 01 the Oepartment of Puno, and frorn the
Morcapata va11ey (nt Tio, 2,OOOm.) and the upper Urubamba va11ey (at Santa
Ana, l,060m.), in the Quispicanchis and La Convencion Provinces 01 the Deportment 01 Cuzco. Ceballos record s another two specirnens rom the Marcapata
valley, taken at 2,OOOm.and 2,500m. respectively; and during a visit there in
1966, 1 obtained a urther Iour specimens (the complete skin and skul! 01 a mole,
two complete lemale skins, and the skin 01 a Iull-terrn Ioetus, now in the Museo
"Javier Prado" and the British Museum), al! rom altitudes 01 between l,BOO
and 2,900m.
1 liave been able to obtain no additional inlormation regording the distr bution 01 Mazama chunyi in the Department 01 Puno, other than the statement
quoted by Hershkovitz that t is known to occur neor the town 01 Sandio itself,
at 2,2BOm. and perhaps higher.
In the Deportment 01 Cuzco Mazama chunyi is wel! known to 011 the nhobtants 01 the upper Marcapata val!ey, where it is reported to be common rom
about 3,200m. (tree line there is at 3,500 to 3,600m.) down to l,BOOm., and
occasionally to be encountered a little lower. The species is also known in
the valley lollowed by the Paucartambo-Pilcopata
rocd, urther to the west,
where it is said to be common on the eastern side 01 the watershed rom 2,900
down to l,BOOrn., but not to occur lower. In this region it is also reported from
the western side 01 the watershed, where it occupies isolated patches 01 much
drier Iorest at about 2,900m., 11 to 12 kms. north 01 Paucortambo.
Further west still, in the valley 01 the Rio Lares, which is followed by the
Calca-Quillabamba rocd, the species is known on the eastern side of the watershed below Amparaes !rom 3,100 down to 2,400 m., but does not appear to occur
below that.
In 011 the above situations, Mazama cbunyi is sympatric with Odocoileus
uirginianus , but in each case it appears to be seporated from M. americana
(whch is nowhere reported above l,500m.) by an altitudinal interval 01 several
hundred feet.
In the Urubamba valley, from which Hershkovitz records a specimen, Mazama
chunyi is not known to inhabitants of the Ollan taytambo oreo (circo 2,900 m.),
but it is said to occur some 30 kms. further downstream neor Panticolla.
77

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60

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101

76

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114

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SCALE
MILES
O

50

,',

O
100
KILOMETERS

161

100

"

I
200

150
"

200
"
300

'k J

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161

11

60

76

76

74

72

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70

In size as well as in habits, Mazama cbunyi is remarkab1y like Pudu mephistopbiles, as that species is known in the Oepartments o Huanuco and Junin.
80th are very small nocturna1 deer, found on1y sing1y or in pairs, which emerge
to feed in clearings or fie1ds at dusk. Both ore much given to whistling, and
both are said often to be dazed if disturbed by doy, so that they can sometimes
be caught by hand. Both also occupy the same type of habi tat, avoiding the
cold and damp o the highest woods and of the thickets above tree line, and
being found on the eastern slopes only from about 3,200m. downwords, in regions where Alnus [orulensis is often the dominant tree. Both species are also
known from a rather different, drier habitat, in isolated patches of forest or
woodland in the high valleys immediately to the west of the main eastern watershed.
Taxonomy.-Mazama cbunyi is known only in the nominate formo
Status.- Oestruction of habitat appears to present a greater threat to this species,
in the areas in which 1 know it, than does hunting, as firearms are few, no form
of trap or snare is used, and only a few animals are caught by hand or killed by
dogs. Extensive areas of land are being cleored for agricultural purposes, however, and the process is beginning to make serious inroads into the species'
somewhat restricted habitat, porticulcrly in valleys to the west of the main
watershed. Control of hunting is necessary. Mazama chunyi is present in the
upper part of the Manu National Park.
Biological Note.- Two females of this speces , killed in the Morcapata valley in
the months of June and July, were each reported to be carrying near full-term
foetuses.
Genus Pudu Grey - Pudus
Local Names.- Sacha Cabra (Dept. of Hucnuco), Antagllo (Torma Province, Dept.
of Junin).
Distribution.- The occurrence of this genus within Peruvian limits does not appear
to have been previously recorded. There is , however, a mis identified mounted
specimen of Pudu mepbistopbiles (De Winton) in the museum of the Colegio
"Leoncio Prado", at Huanuco, which was shot some years ago at Pamacucho,
4 kms. from that town; and in 1965 1 obtained the skin and skull of a mole of
that species which had been killed near Carpish surnmit on the Huanuco- Tingo
Maria road. Subsequently, 1 have seen the animal alive in that region and have
been shown skins or photographs of other animals killed there and in a number
o localities in the upper Huallaga valley above the town of Huanuco.
The distribution of this species appeors to be very limited. At Carpish it
is quite common in the forests on both sides of the divide, from the summit at
approximate1y 3,000m. down to about 2,300m. on the eastern side and down to
where forest gives way to cultvcton at about 2,000 m. on the western sde , It
s a1so known from similar country near Chcqllc, 30 kms. further south.
In the upper Huallaga basin the species occurs in a much dr er habitat, and
has been shot at Yanacocha, on the Rio Quere, 25 kms. northwest of Huanuco;

79

at Pamacucho; and in a number of small patches of woodland between Huanuco


and Ambo which lie at 2,700 to 3,300m., are no more than a few square kilometers in size, and are separated from each other by many miles of arid hillside.
It is also reported to occur in an isolated patch of lorest at 3,300 rn., 40 kms.
rom Huanuco on the Quivilla road.
1 believe Pudu mephistophiles also to occur in parts o the Oepartment of
Junn, although 1 have seen no specimen from that region. Local hunters, however, have unhesitatingly dentified my Carpish specimen as the same animal
as one known locally as "Antagllo" which is reported to be very plentiful at
elevations of Irorn 2,000 to 3,000m. on the Iorested heights above San Ramon
and also in the valley of the Rio Hausanhausi, to the north. The antagllo is
only doubtlully known in the Oxapampa area, but is reliably reported from the
upper Rio Paucartambo at approximately 76.00'W., 10.50'S.
The Peruvian population of Pudu mephistophiles appears to be entirely isolated from the nearest known population in Ecuador, since no small deer of any
kind is known in any area north of Huanuco where 1 have made enquiries, except
Ior the "cabrito" reported Irom near the Ecuadorian border in the Oepartment 01
Piura (already relerred to under the notes on Mazama americana).
1 have not been able to determine the position to the south ol San Ramon,
or to discover if either Pudu mephistophiles or Mazama chunyi occurs in the
Oepartments 01 Huancavalica and Ayacucho. No small deer 01 any sort appears
to be known in the ceja de selva zone 01 the Oepartment 01 Apurimcc, however.
The similarity in habits and habitat between Pudu mephistophiles and Mazama chunyi has already been relerred to in the notes on the latter species.
Taxonomy.The Peruvian orm 01 Pudu mephistophiles awaits critical examination by an expert, as my specimen from Carpish was lost in transit to the Field
Museum 01 Natural History, Chicago. The apparent isolction 01 the population,
however, together with the considerable extension it represents to the known
range 01 the species , makes the development of distinct racial characters an
interesting possibili ty.
Status.- It is improbable that this species will survive Ior much longer in the isolated lorest patches in which it occurs in the upper Huallaga basin, where it is
relentlessly hunted with dogs and guns. It has, however, outlasted the whitetailed deer in many 01 them beca use it does not break cover, as does that species , but circles amongst the dense thickets and cliffs, where it is said to be
as nimble on rack as a klipspringer. The species is also hunted in the Ccrpish,
Chaglla, and San Ramon areas, but in these regions destruction 01 habitat Ior
settlement is likely to present a greater threat. Control 01 hunting is , however,
necessary.
Pudu mephistophiles does not occur in any existing or projected national
park or reserve. The creation of a special sanctuary, lar which the high ground
above the San Ramon garge is suggested, is therefore desirable.
Biological Note, - Nearly full-term foetuses have been taken from pudu killed in
April and November.
80

A view 01 scenic

Loke lIonganuco,
Cordillera

at the loot 01 towering Mt. Huascarn,

high in the Andean

Blanca (see also back cover).

81

Genus Hippocame/us

Leuckart -

Guemals

Local Names.- Taruca, Ciervo.


Distribution.- The Peruvian representative

of this genus is confmed to the Andean


region, where it is found in mountainous country of over 4,300 m. altitude. As
with Odocoileus virginianus, its distribution appears largely to be governed by
the presence of cover, which at the heights it inhabits usually takes the form of
thickets of Polylepis spp. It is therefore not found in the puna zone. 1 have no
record of it occurring north of 7.00' S., although it may do so.
The species is known by specimens or reliable reports from many ports of
the Oepartment of Puno, particular ly the Provinces of Azangaro, Carabaya,
Melgar, and Lampo; and it almost certainly occurs in the southwest of that
Department as well. In the Oepartment of Cuzco it is recorded from high ground
in the south of the Provinces of Quispicanchis, Paucartambo, and Colco, and
from many areas in the Canchis, Cenes, and Urubamba Provinces. It must also
occur in the southern Provinces of Chumivilcas and Espinar. It is said to be
found in suitable localities in the north and east of the Oepartment of Arequipa,
and is locally reported to be plentiful in some part of every province of the
Oepartment of Apurimac. It is well known in the Parinacochas and Lucanas
Provinces of the Oepartment of Ayacucho and in much of the Oepartment of
Huancavalica. It also occurs in several localities in the western parts of the
Oepartments of Junin and Paseo and in the eastern port of the Oepartment of
Lima. From there it extends north along the Cordillera Blanca in the Depcrtment of Ancash (where it does not appear to be at all comrnon) to the Huamachuco Province of the Oepartment of La Libertad, where it is reported from high
ground to both the east and the west of the Rio Maranon.
Taxonomy.- The species is Hippocamelus antisensis (D'Orbqny), which is known
only in the nominate formo
Status.-Although
the species is widespread, its total population is small and can
in no way be compared to that of o. virginianus or M.americana. Its specialized
habitat means that it lives in isolated communities and runs the risks inherent
in such a situation. Hunting has eliminated it from almost all the lower parts of
its former range, and it is much persecuted wherever it still exists. Guemals are
reported to be rather foolish anirnals and easily slaughtered once the leader of
a group has been killed. The species shows none of the tenacity of o. uirginianus and appears to be in delicate balance everywhere. Control of hunting is
very necessary. The highest ridge of the ManuNational Park was a well known
haunt of this species, and small numbers are thought still to exist there.
Genus Blastocerus

Gray -

I)

I,,::::::::r::- '3-?> """'L

80

78

76

74

72

70

"

10

'21-

r--

,\,\"..

~ I

L'

M A

,'1

"'F1

1'\

'" I

le

p,

,.<:41'\,

!J

1)

'"

P,',1

(I

1\! l I

UH1M

AI-'

,~\

\:

\ '(

\ \ \

114

SCALE
MILES

50

I
o

'Sr---

',,'

100
KILOMETERS

100

ISO
I

200

ti

200

'

300

,'

"'t

H VPPQCA!J.U.JLS_.ANtISLNSI5.._

Marsh Deer or Pampas Deer

A1though 1 have heard many rumors of 1arge deer with branching ant1ers being seen
in the Oepartment of Madre de Dios, and of Indians being found in possession
of such ant1ers, 1 have been ab1e to obtain no satisfactory evidence of the occurrence of Blastocerus dichotomus (Illiger) within Peruvian limits, nor does its
required habitat appear to exist.

82

~"r:F
o;:

'"

---

I K Lo""l~t .~,

80

7B

74

72

'\..("

Ir'
70

1'8

11

REFERENCES
BEHRENDT, G.
1960.
Estudio sobre la creaci6n de formes del Odocoileus peruanus Gray.
Pesca y Caza. Ministerio de Agricultura, Lima. No. 10, 149-166.
(n.d.)
Contribuciones o la ecoloqic y biologa de los ciervos sudamericanos,
expuestas en el ejemplo del Peru, Archives of the Direccin de
Pesquera y Caza, Lima. 36 pp. (typewritten).
CABRERA, A.
1957.
Catlogo de los mamferos de Amrica del Sur. Vol. 1. Rev. Mus. Argent. Cienc. Nat. Zool. 4:1-307.
1961.
Catlogo de los mamferos de Amrica del Sur. Vol. 2. Rev. Mus. Argent. Cienc. Nat. Zool. 4:308-732.
CABRERA, A. and YPES, J.
1940.
Mamferos Sud-Americanos.
Vals. 1 and 2. Buenos Aires.
CEBALLOS, I.
1959.
Notas sobre los micromamferos del Peru. Revista Universitaria (rqono de la Universidad del Cuzco). No. 117:265-269.
DOUROJEANNI, M. J.
1965.
Algunos peces, reptiles, aves y mamferos del Distrito J. Crespo Castillo (Prov. Leoncido Prado, Depto. Huanuco) reconocidos en base
a sus denominaciones
vernaculares.
Instituto de Investigaciones
Forestales,
Limo. 22 pp. (mimeographed).
GARDNER, A.L.
1967.
Personal communications
on mammals collected by him on the Rio
Curanja (71.30' W., 10.10' S.), 1966.
HERNANDES, J. E.
1960.
Contribuci6n al conocimiento de camarn de rio. Pesca y Caza. Ministerio de Agricultura, Lima. No. 10:84-106.
HERSHKOVITZ, P.
1949.
Mammols al northern Colombia.
Preliminary Report No.4.
Monkeys
(Primotes), with taxonomic revisions al some forms. Proc. U.S. Nat.
Mus. Wash. Vol. 98:323-427.
1954.
Mammals al northern Colombia.
Preliminary Report No. 7. Topirs
(Genus Topirus), with a systematic review of American species.
Proc, U.S. Nat. Mus. Wash. Vol. 103:465-496.
1959.
A new species al South American brocket, genus Mazama (Cervidae).
Proc. Bol. Soco Wash. Vol. 72:45-54.
1963.
A systematic and zoogeographic account of the monkeys of the genus
Callicebus
(Cebidae) of the Amazonas and Orinoco river basins.
Mammalia, Poris. Vol. 17:1-79.
1966.
Catalog of living whales. U.S. Nat. Mus. Wash. Bu!. 246.
84

KOFORD, C. B.
1957.
The vicuno and the puna. Ecological Society of America. Ecological
Monographs. No. 27:153-219.
1961.
The vicuna. Oryx. Jour. Fauna. Preso Soc., London. Vol. VI, No. 1:
43-52.
MORRIS, D.
1965.
The mammals - A guide to living species.
Hodder & Stoughton, London. 193 pp.
OSMAN HILL, W. C.
1957.
Primates, Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy. University Press, Edinburgh. Vol. lII, Pithecoidea: Platyrrhini-Hapalidae.
374 pp.
1960.
Primates, Comporative Anatomy and Taxonomy. University Press, Edinburgh. Vol. IV, Cebidae, Part A. 523 pp.
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iu, Part B. 537 pp.
PIAZZA, A. A.
1959.
Los lobos marinos en el Peru. Pesca y Caza. Ministerio de Agricultura, Lima. No. 9:1-29.
PIERRET, P. V.
1964.
Informes sobre la vida silvestre en el altiplano y la selva del Peru.
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Forestales,
Lima. 9 pp. (mimeographed).
1965.
Vida silvestre en el Peru.
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Forestales,
Lima. 13 pp. (mimeographed).
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La fauna del norte del Peru, situacin actual y porvenir. Instituto de
Investigaciones
Forestales, Lima. 13 pp. (mimeographed).
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1966. Observaciones
sobre la fauna y su manejo en el bosque nacional de
Iparia.
Instituto de Investigaciones
Forestales,
Lima.
39 pp.
(mimeogra phed).
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Importancia de la caza para alimentaci6n humana en el curso inferior
del rio Ucayali, Peru. Revista Forestal del Peru. Vol. 1, No. 2:
10-21.
SAETERDAL, G., MEJIA, J., and RAMIREZ, P.
1963.
La caza de cachalotes
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Callao. Vol. 1., No.3. 84 pp.
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1951.
Mammals from Marcapata, Southeastern Peru.
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Javier Prado, Lima. Ser. A., No. 6. 26 pp.
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Hist. Nat. Javier Prado, Lima. Ser. A., No. 12. 8 pp.
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1960-61. Materiales para el catlogo de los mamferos peruanos. Botc. Colegio
Salesiano, Lima. Vol. 3, Nos. 21, 22, 24, 26, 27, 28. 150 pp.
1965.
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85

WALKER, E. P., WARNICK, F., LANGE, K.1., UIBLE, H.E., HAMLET, S. E.,
DAVIS, M.A.,and WRIGHT, P. F.
1964. Mammals of the world. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md.
Vols.1 and 2.

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