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Nazi German Armed Forces:


A History of Diversity in the Third Reich

By William P. Litynski




Adolf Hitler and Dr. H.H. Kung pose with Nazi German and Nationalist Chinese delegations at Adolf Hitlers guesthouse in Berchtesgaden, German in !une "#$%. &'hoto( http())www.*,lac-s)hitler)enlargements)enlg"..html/

(art ): Hit*er+s Asian ,o*diers

Chiang Wei-kuo, the adopted son of Nationalist Chinas Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, poses for an offi ial portrait. Chiang Wei-kuos !iologi al mother "as from #apan.

Chiang Wei-kuo $left%, the adopted son of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, ser&ed as a ommander of a pan'er di&ision during the ()*+ ,ns hluss.

0Ching,-uos step+rother 1ei,-uo, meanwhile, was de2eloping his militar career. He had ta-en part in the union of Austria and German &the Anschluss/ as a German sergeant,cadet. He graduated in "#$# 3ust +efore the out+rea- of war, then spent a ear at the 4.5. Arm s armored force center at 6ort Kno*. 7he Generalissimo had -ept 1ei,-uos e*istence hidden from 8a ling for thirteen ears, +ut once he ac-nowledged him, she 9uic-l came to en3o her sua2e, handsome, :nglish,spea-ing stepson, who was a second lieutenant in an arm unit deplo ed against the !apanese along the ;ellow <i2er near =ian.> ? The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the Struggle for Modern China + !a 7a lor, p. "@A,"@% 0Addressing a huge crowd in Nan-ing on Dou+le 7en Da &Bcto+er "./, "#$A, Chiang CKai,she-D declared, 07he remnant Communists are now encompassed in a few scattered regions and can +e e*terminated without much difficult . At present, communism is no longer a real menace to China.> After his speech, Chiang stood and saluted as spit,and,polish militar units marched + in goose step followed + row after row of powerful German weapons. 7han-s to German machine tools, Chinese arsenals were now capa+le of producing some weapons of 9ualit and precision. :2en so, the new German ad2iser, Ale*ander 2on 6al-enhausen, +elie2ed that China needed two more ears to reach his goal of si*t well,trained, modern di2isions. New German hea2 coastal guns, a dozen su+marines, a German cruiser, torpedo +oats, and other warships were not due to +e deli2ered +efore "#$@. 7he Euftwaffe had ta-en o2er training the Chinese air force, and if things went according to plan, Chinese pilots + "#$# would +e fl ing modern 8esserschmitts and 5tu-as, mar-ing a profound change in the +alance of power +etween China and !apan.> ? The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the Struggle for Modern China + !a 7a lor, p. "F.,"F"

Left photo- $Photo- http-..""""thread.php/s0de12f 34!e5)af)2d(+423+2*1aed64a7t0(1(+*37page02% 8ight photo- $Photo- http-..""""thread.php/s0de12f 34!e5)af)2d(+423+2*1aed64a7t0(1(+*37page05%

A group of 7ur-ic or Asian soldiers appear in a Nazi German arm uniform. &'hoto( http())

9ongolians in the Na'i German army. $Photo- http-..""""thread.php/s0de12f 34!e5)af)2d(+423+2*1aed64a7t0(1(+*37page02%

, group of German Na&y $Kriegsmarine% sailors in #apan appear "ith a group of sailors from the #apanese :mperial Na&y. $Photo- http-..""""thread.php/s0de12f 34!e5)af)2d(+423+2*1aed64a7t0(1(+*37page02%

#apanese army soldiers $left and right% atta hed to the Wehrma ht

#apanese army offi er $right% atta hed to the Wehrma ht

, group of ,sian soldiers are dressed in the Wehrma ht uniform in ()5*. $Photo- German ;ederal ,r hi&es%

, group of ,sian soldiers "earing the Wehrma ht uniform

A Korean soldier in the 1ehrmacht &'hoto( http()),soldiers,in,wwF,german,arm /

<he name of the Korean soldier in the a!o&e photo is Kyoung=ong >ang "ho "as !orn in ?hin @ui=oo, North"estern Korea on 9ar h *, ()23. Ae "as ons ripted to the K"antung army in ()*+ and aptured !y the ?o&iets in Nomonhan and aptured again !y Germans in Bkraine in the summer of ()5*, may!e in the !attle of Kharko&, and aptured finally !y ,meri ans in Btah !ea h, Normandy on #une 1, ()55. Ae "as freed from a PCW amp in Britain on 9ay, ()54 and mo&ed and settled in ,meri a in ()56. Ae li&ed near the North"estern Bni&. in :llinois until he died on ,pril 6, ())2. Ae li&ed as an ordinary B.?. iti'en "ithout telling his un!elie&a!le life story e&en to his t"o sons and one daughter. Ais story "as re&ealed !y an arti le of DWeekly Korea on Ee . 1th, 2332, "hi h !e ame a !ig topi in the Korean so iety here at the time. http-..sear h.hankooki. om."eeks."ee...5(3331(4(3.htm ?our e- http-..""""thread.php/t024445

Korean ?oldiers in WW2 German ,rmy

<here "as a !ook re&ie" re ently in the Korea <imes a!out a ouple of authors "ho had pu!lished re ently. <he re&ie" "as titled Masters Return With Bitter History and o&ered a ouple of areas of Korean Aistory. What parti ularly interested me "as a photo from World War :: that ser&ed as an inspiration for #o #ung8ae, an author, for his latest !ook, FCh God.G <he photo sho"s a Korean soldier in German uniform on a Normandy !ea h in ()55. <he photo itself had !een pre&iously featured in FE-EayG !y ?tephen ,m!rose. ,pparently an ,meri an soldier from the "ar had told ,m!rose that he had met four Koreans "earing German uniforms "hen his unit parti ipated in a tion against German troops on the !ea hes of Normandy. :t seems that the Koreans had !een ons ripted into the #apanese ,rmy !ut after !eing aptured !y the 8ussians at the Battle of Nomonhan in the 8usso-#apanese War $part ::, the ()53s one, not the ()35-34 one%. <hey "ere pressed into ser&i e in the 8ussian ,rmy. Captured !y the Germans in a !attle near 9os o", the Koreans "ere then pressed into ser&i e in the Wehrma ht. <hey "ere then aptured !y the ,meri ans "hilst they "ere engaged "orking on the ,tlanti Wall. <he ,meri ans $mer ifully% did not press them into ser&i e !ut rather held them as prisoners of "ar. :t seems that these poor souls ne&er made it !a k home to Korea as apparently the Koreans "ere eH hanged "ith the ?o&iets for ,meri an PCWs li!erated !y the 8ed ,rmy. <his : find a little suspi ious as at that time the 8ed ,rmy and the B? ,rmy "ere on the same side and no PCW eH hanges should ha&e !een ne essary. : ould a ept that they "ere returned to the ?o&iets ho"e&er as at that time there "as a largish Korean Eiaspora under ?o&iet ontrol and they therefore "ould ha&e seemed like a ?o&iet pro!lem to deal "ith. <he pi ture itself an !e &ie"ed at the WW2 9ultimedia Eata!ase 00 World War :: 9ultimedia Eata!ase, the homepage of the Eata!ase !eing here at http-.."""."orld"ar2data!ase. om.. <he !ook itself is "ritten in Korean so : annot read into it, ho"e&er, the idea !ehind the !ook "as appealing, dou!ly so as : ha&e !een doing some resear h into the Battle of Nomonhan any"ay. : "ill post an arti le a!out that later "hen : get the resear h finished.

5ource( http()),soldiers,in,wwF,german,arm

,sian prisoners-of-"ar in the Wehrma ht appear for a group photo some time after the Battle of Normandy in ()55. $Photo- http-..""""thread.php/t0(1(+*37page06%

Bnidentified <urki soldiers dressed in Wehrma ht uniforms play a game of poker.

Bnidentified <urki soldiers dressed in Wehrma ht uniforms play a game of hess.

Na'i German army offi ers inspe t a group of <urki soldiers. $Photo- German ;ederal ,r hi&es%

, Na'i German army offi er instru ts a group of <urki &olunteers in C to!er-No&em!er ()5*. $Photo- German ;ederal ,r hi&es%

Left- , group of Chinese troops from the National 8e&olutionary ,rmy $N8,% of the Kuomintang. $Photo- http-..""""thread.php/t0(1(+*37page0*% 8ight- , portrait of Chiang Wei-kuo in the uniform of the Na'i German Wehrma ht.

Chinese General Wang #ing"ei $ enter%, a pro-#apanese olla!orator "ho on e ser&ed as the Premier of the 8epu!li of China $()*2-()*4%, is seen ele!rating "ith Na'i German offi ers in ()5(. Wang al"ays fle" the 8epu!li of China $8CC% flag and laimed to !e the legitimate go&ernment of China despite the fa t he defe ted to the #apanese @mpire and !etrayed Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. Wang died in Nagoya, #apan on No&em!er (3, ()55. $Photo- Wikipedia%

Na'i German offi ers inspe t a group of ,sian soldiers.

Na'i German offi ers appear "ith t"o #apanese sumo "restlers !efore or during World War ::. http-..""""thread.php/s0de12f 34!e5)af)2d(+423+2*1aed64a7t0(1(+*37page02

Indian guerilla fighter 5u+has Chandra Bose meets with Adolf Hitler at the <eich Chanceller in Berlin, German on 8a F#, "#JF. &'hoto( Bundesarchi2)German 6ederal Archi2es/ http()) K"#JF.3pg

7he Grand 8ufti of !erusalem Ha3 Amin al,Husseini &left/, Indian nationalist leader 5u+has Chandra Bose &center/, and leader of the "#J" Ira9i coup dLMtat <ashid Ali al,Ga lani meet in Berlin, German in "#J$.

:ndias anti- olonial re!el ?u!has Chandra Bose $left% shakes hands "ith Na'i ?? Chief Aeinri h Aimmler during a meeting in Na'i Germany in ()5*. $Photo- German ;ederal ,r hi&es%

?u!has Chandra Bose deli&ers a spee h in <okyo, #apan in ()54.

:ndias anti- olonial re!el ?u!has Chandra Bose $left% sits !eside Na'i ?? Chief Aeinri h Aimmler during a meeting in Na'i Germany in ()5*. $Photo- German ;ederal ,r hi&es%

8ashid ,li al-Gaylani and Aa= ,min al-Ausseini speak at the anni&ersary of the ()5( oup in :raI in front of !la k-"hite-green !anners in Berlin, Germany. $Photo- http-.. olle tions.yad& hi&e.en-us.22+*+.html%

:ndias anti- olonial re!el ?u!has Chandra Bose $se ond from right% sits !eside Na'i ?? Chief Aeinri h Aimmler during a meeting in Na'i Germany in ()5*. $Photo- German ;ederal ,r hi&es%

:ndias politi al a ti&ist ?u!hash Chandra Bose $left% meets "ith and 9ohammad ,li #innah. #innah "as the founder of independent Pakistan and ser&ed as the first Go&ernor-General of Pakistan from ()56 until his death on ?eptem!er ((, ()5+. Bose reportedly died on ,ugust (+, ()54 in a plane rash o&er the island of <ai"an shortly after #apan surrendered.

:ndian guerilla fighter ?u!has Chandra Bose $se ond from left% meets "ith Na'i ?? hief Aeinri h Aimmler $right% in Na'i Germany in ()5*. $Photo- Bundesar hi&.German ;ederal ,r hi&es%

:ndias re!el ?u!hash Chandra Bose meets "ith an unidentified Na'i German army offi er during World War ::.

Indian guerilla fighter 5u+has Chandra Bose salutes as Indian soldiers of the 6rei Indien Korps march in a parade. 7he Nazi German flag is displa ed in the +ac-ground. &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/

A group of Indian soldiers of the 6rei Indien Korps ta-e an oath of allegiance during 1orld 1ar II.

A group of Indian soldiers of the 6rei Indien Korps ta-e an oath of allegiance during 1orld 1ar II.

?u!has Chandra Bose "as the leader of the :ndian National Congress !efore World War :: and e&en had audien es "ith ,dolf Aitler and @mperor Airohito of #apan.

Eelegates stand together at the Greater @ast ,sia Conferen e in <okyo, #apan on No&em!er 4, ()5*. Aideki <o=o is standing at enter. :ndias pro-,His re!el ?u!has Chandra Bose is standing on the far right. $?our e- #apanese !ook J?ho"a Aistory Kol.((- 8oad to CatastropheJ pu!lished !y 9aini hi Ne"spapers Company.%

A memorial for Indias Nazi colla+orator 5u+has Chandra Bose in !apan

A mem+er of the 6reies Indien Korps &6ree Indian Corps/. &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/

8em+ers of the 6reies Indien Korps appear at a conference in No2em+er "#J$ as an unidentified Nazi German +ureaucrat &third from right/ deli2ers a speech. &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/

Aa= ,min al-Ausseini greets ?u!has Chandra Bose in Berlin in ()5*.

Nazi German 6ield 8arshal :rwin <ommel inspects the 6ree India Eegion &6reies Indien Korps/ in 6rance in 6e+ruar "#JJ. &'hoto( Deutsches Bundesarchi2 &German 6ederal Archi2e// http())"$.@A#AJN%)GsearchC2iewDHdetailOsearchCfocusDH"

Indian soldiers of the 6ree India Eegion &6reies Indien Korps/ prepare to fire artiller rounds in 6e+ruar "#JJ.
&'hoto( Deutsches Bundesarchi2 &German 6ederal Archi2e// http())

5oldiers of the 6reies Indien Korps guard the Atlantic coast of 6rance in "#JJ. &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/

5oldiers of the 6reies Indien Korps recei2e instructions from a German arm general on 6e+ruar "., "#JJ. &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/

Left photo- :ndis he ;rei"illigen Legion der Waffen-??. F<he :ndis he ;rei"illigen Legion der Waffen ?? L:ndian Li!eration Legion of the Waffen ??M remained at <r.N!.Plat' Aeu!erg until the end of 9ar h ()54, then, "ith the defeat of the <hird 8ei h imminent the :ndians sought san tuary in neutral ?"it'erland and undertook a desperate mar h along the shores of the Bodensee $Lake Constan e% in an attempt to enter ?"it'erland &ia one of the alpine passes. Ao"e&er, this "as unsu essful and e&entually the Legion "as aptured !y Bnited ?tates and ;ren h for es !efore their deli&ery into the ustody of British for es.G 8ight photo- :ndian soldiers $primarily ?ikhs% are seen making o!ser&ations in a !attlefield. $Photo- http-..thementalmilitia. om.forums.indeH.php/topi 02(46).3%

&5ource( http())www.militar"A"@$.OpageHA/

&'hoto( http())

Indian soldiers in the Nazi German arm &'hoto( http())

Part 2- Aitlers 9uslim, ,ra!, 7 ,fri an ?oldiers

An African,Ara+ soldier in the 6ree Ara+ Eegion of the Nazi German arm &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/

,n ,fri an soldier of the F;ree ,ra! LegionG appears "ith mem!ers of the Na'i German Wehrma ht $,frika Korps/% in ()5*. $Photo- German ;ederal ,r hi&es%

Photos of ,fri an soldiers in the ;ree ,ra! Legion of the Na'i German army $8ight photo- http-..englishrussia. om./p0262+%

Georgians in Wehrmaht uniform stand !eside German rail ars during World War ::. $Photo- http-..""""thread.php/s0de12f 34!e5)af)2d(+423+2*1aed64a7t0(1(+*37page02%

, group portrait of an unoffi ial F,frika KorpsG $not related to ;ield 9arshal @r"in 8ommels ,frika Korps%. $Photo- http-..""""thread.php/s0de12f 34!e5)af)2d(+423+2*1aed64a7t0(1(+*37page02%

Na'i olla!orator Aa= ,min ,l-Ausseini, the former Grand 9ufti of #erusalem, hats "ith soldiers of the Bosnian Aan'ar Ei&ision on Ee em!er (), ()52. $Photo- German ;ederal ,r hi&es%

Na'i olla!orator Aa= ,min ,l-Ausseini rides in a &ehi le "ith a group of Na'i German military offi ers.

Na'i olla!orator Aa= ,min ,l-Ausseini, the former Grand 9ufti of #erusalem, salutes to soldiers of the Bosnian Aan'ar Ei&ision in No&em!er ()5*. $Photo- German ;ederal ,r hi&es%

Na'i olla!orator Aa= ,min ,l-Ausseini, the former Grand 9ufti of #erusalem, salutes to a group of Bosnian Aan'ar Ei&ision soldiers in No&em!er ()5*. $Photo- German ;ederal ,r hi&es%

Na'i olla!orator Aa= ,min ,l-Ausseini and soldiers of the pro-Na'i Bosnian Aan'ar Ei&ision pose for a group portrait in No&em!er ()5*. $Photo- German ;ederal ,r hi&es%

Na'i olla!orator Aa= ,min ,l-Ausseini $se ond from left%, the former Grand 9ufti of #erusalem, is seen dining "ith the Na'is.

Na'i olla!orator Aa= ,min ,l-Ausseini o!ser&es Na'i maneu&ers from a peris ope.

Na'i olla!orator Aa= ,min ,l-Ausseini "at hes soldiers of the Bosnian Aan'ar Ei&ision operate a mortar tu!e.

Na'i olla!orator Aa= ,min ,l-Ausseini "at hes Na'i German army offi ers train soldiers of the Bosnian Aan'ar Ei&ision in No&em!er ()5*. $Photo- German ;ederal ,r hi&es%

Na'i olla!orator Aa= ,min ,l-Ausseini is seen training a soldier of the Bosnian Aan'ar Ei&ision in No&em!er ()5*. $Photo- German ;ederal ,r hi&es%

Na'i olla!orator Aa= ,min ,l-Ausseini, the former Grand 9ufti of #erusalem, salutes to mem!ers of the Bosnian Aan'ar Ei&ision in No&em!er ()5*. $German ;ederal ,r hi&e%

Na'i olla!orator Aa= ,min ,l-Ausseini salutes to soldiers of the Bosnian Aan'ar di&ision.

Bosnian Aan'ar Ei&ision soldiers read F:slam und #udentumG $:slam and #udaism% in ()5*. $Photo- German ;ederal ,r hi&es%

,n unidentified Georgian or ,'er!ai=ani soldier appears in a Na'i German army uniform. $Photo- http-..englishrussia. om./p0262+%

A group of 8uslim Nazi 2olunteers march in formation.

A group of 8uslim Nazi 2olunteers stand at attention with fi*ed +a onets.

, group of 9uslim Na'i &olunteers sing and dan e during training.

9em!ers of the Bosnian Aan'ar Ei&ision pray to ,llah in No&em!er ()5*. $Photo- German ;ederal ,r hi&es%

9em!ers of the Bosnian Aan'ar Ei&ision pose for a group portrait during World War ::. $Photo- German ;ederal ,r hi&es%

A group of 8uslim Nazi 2olunteers recei2e instructions on the use of grenades.

Na'i olla!orator Aa= ,min ,l-Ausseini greets Na'i ?? hief Aeinri h Aimmler.

Na'i olla!orator Aa= ,min ,l-Ausseini meets "ith ,dolf Aitler in Berlin in Ee em!er ()5(.

, ompanied !y ;oreign 9inister of Na'i Germany #oa him &on 8i!!entrop $2 nd left%, ,dolf Aitler re ei&es Prime 9inister of :raI 8as hid ,li el-Gailani in Berlin, Germany for talks from #uly )-(1, ()52. $Photo- Aeinri h Aoffmann%

Part *- Aitlers #e"ish ?oldiers

7he author Br an 8ar- <igg, whose maternal grandmother was a !ew, graduated from ;ale 4ni2ersit with a Bachelor of Arts degree and ser2ed as an officer in the 4.5. 8arine Corps and as a 2olunteer in the Israeli arm .

0Puarter,!ew> Admiral Bernhard <ogge, whose maternal grandmother was a !ew

Eeft( Nazi German Euftwaffe officer 6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch appears on the front co2er of the August FA, "#J. edition of Time magazine. 6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch, whose full name is :rhard Alfred <ichard Bs-ar 8ilch, was +orn on 8arch $., "@#F in 1ilhelmsha2en, German . :rhard 8ilchs father was a !ewQ :rhard 8ilchs mothers !ewish ancestr remains a m ster . 6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch 3oined the Nazi 'art in 8arch "#$$Q 6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilchs Nazi 'art mem+ership card num+er was "F$,@@N. <ight( An Israeli postage stamp features Rionist terrorist A2raham 5tern, a Nazi colla+orator who founded the 5tern Gang. A2raham 5terns comrade ;itzha- 5hamir was a commander of the 5tern Gang during 1orld 1ar IIQ ;itzha- 5hamir was the 'rime 8inister of Israel from "#@$ to "#@J and from "#@A to "##F and the Eeader of the Ei-ud 'art from "#@$ to "##F.

HITLER TIE SEEN WITH CZECH JEWS; Organ of Austrian Heimwehr Reports es!ent on His "other#s Si$e% &OR'EARS# O& SA"E NA"E Woman Who Left C(e!hos)o*a+ia for Austria e!)are$ a Sister of Chan!e))or#s ,ran$mother%
1ireless to THE NEW YO K T!MES. !ul "$, "#$$


VIENNA, July 12 -- Frequent intimations and reports that Chancellor Hitler o !ermany "as connected "ith a Je"ish amily o the same name culminated in a three-pa#e story toni#ht in the Heim"ehr or#an, $esterreichische A%end%latt, claimin# proo that Herr Hitler "as directly descended on his mother&s side rom a Je"ish amily o that name in C'echoslo(a)ia* +ource, The New York Times

Left photo- JAalf-#e"J and later Luft"affe General Aelmut Wil!ergO Aitler de lared him ,ryan in ()*4. Wil!erg de&eloped the operational ta ti s of !lit'krieg. <he ra!!ini al la" states that a person is a #e" if his or her mother is a #e"O the fathers an estry is irrele&ant. , ording to the ra!!ini al la" and the Nurem!erg La", Luft"affe General Aelmut Wil!erg "as a #e". $9ilitary a"ards- Aohen'ollernPs KnightPs Cross "ith ?"ords, @K:, @K::.% $?our e- http-..""".!ryanrigg. om.=e"ishQsoldiersQpi s.htm% 8ight photo- FAalf-#e"G ;ield 9arshal @rhard 9il h. @rhard 9il h "as on&i ted at Nurem!erg for rimes against humanity.

Left photo- General Gotthard Aeinri i, "ho "as married to a Jhalf-#e",J meets "ith ,dolf Aitler in ()*6. 8ight photo- JAalf-#e"J and ;ield 9arshal @rhard 9il h $left% "ith General Wolfram &on 8i hthofen. Aitler de lared 9il h an ,ryan. Ae "as a"arded the 8itterkreu' for his performan e during the ampaign in Nor"ay in ()53.

Admiral Bernhard <ogge &third from right/ stands at attention as Adolf Hitler sha-es hands with an unidentified 4,+oat na2al officer of the Kriegsmarine &German Na2 / in "#JF. <ogge was a 9uarter,!ewQ his maternal grandmother was a !ew. Adolf Hitler 0Ar anized> Admiral Bernhard <ogge and declared him deutsch+lStig &German +lood/ in "#$#. In the 7hird <eich, onl Adolf Hitler could grant e*emptions &Ar anization papers/ to Germans of partial !ewish descent who ser2ed in the Nazi German armed forces. 0No fewer than twent ,one generals, se2en admirals, and one field marshal of !ewish descent ser2ed with Hitlers consent. And thousands in the lower ran-s of the 1ehrmacht remained there +ecause Hitler personall e*empted them from the laws. Hitler did so mainl +ecause the loo-ed Ar an &that is, had +lue e es and +lond hair/, had good militar records, had rendered German a uni9ue ser2ice, or had come from distinguished familiesT6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch and General Helmut 1il+erg were leading Euftwaffe personalities. 8ilch was second in command and +asicall ran the Euftwaffe with the help of 1il+erg and a few other distinguished air force generals. 1il+erg was a +rilliant tactician who de2eloped the operational concept called Blitz-rieg &lightning war/ toda . 7hese mens accomplishments help e*plain wh Hitler Ar anized them. 8ost who recei2ed Hitlers Deutsch+lStig-eitser-lUrung &declaration of German +lood/ had distinguished themsel2es in war and pro2en their worth as soldiers.> ? "i#es of Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers + Br an 8ar- <igg, p. "%" 0!ust as shoc-ing as Hitlers per2erse racial policies with respect to partial !ews in the 1ehrmacht is that most 8ischling soldiers did not -now Hitler was murdering millions of !ews, including their relati2es. Ei-e most other Germans, the -new a+out Nazi deportations, +ut what happened at the deadl destinations la +e ond their -nowledge or imagination. Bppenfeld, Gunther 5cheffler, Kopp, and others -new a+out e*ecutions in the east, +ut not the s stematic -illing of millions in gas cham+ers. 7he most con2incing proof that these men did not -now what was happening is the stor of half,!ews in the B7 forced la+or camps. Had half,!ews -nown a+out the Holocaust, one would e*pect them to ha2e done e2er thing the could to a2oid deportation. But as this +oo- shows, most reported when calledTIf !ews did not -now the endgame of the Nazis, their 8ischling relati2es remained at least as ignorant of what Hitlers plan would do to them. 7he stor of 8ischling soldiers illustrates how corrupt and demeaning the Nazi go2ernment was and how confusing its racial laws were. 7hese 8ischlinge fought for a regime that repaid their ser2ice + murdering their relati2es and persecuting them. 6urthermore, had German won the war, its leaders pro+a+l would ha2e slaughtered half,!ews en masse too ? something man came to realize in their B7 camps or after the war. Hitlers constant attention to the details of 8ischling polic support the assumption that he was at least as intimatel in2ol2ed in the policies that affected them as in those that affected the !ews.> ? "i#es of Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers + Br an 8ar- <igg, p. F%A,F%%

0:rhard 8ilch was a political animal and cared onl a+out himself and his career. He was an opportunist and rarel worried a+out those he had to step on in order to clim+ the ladder of success. As a result, he had no pro+lem +ecoming a Nazi 'art mem+er, and his actions also showed that he +elie2ed in man things the Nazis espoused. He was indeed an incredi+le organizer of the Euftwaffe, +ut also a nast person and a hard,core Nazi. :rhard Alfred <ichard Bs-ar 8ilch, +orn on $. 8arch "@#F in 1ilhelmsha2en, +ecame a powerful man of the 7hird <eich in contrast to most of the other men in this +oo-. 8ilch also +ecame a field marshal &the 4.5. e9ui2alent of a fi2e,star general/ who, according to historian !ames Corum, 0ran the Euftwaffe and was its most powerful figure for personnel and planning issues, production and e2en strateg .> His father, Anton, was a !ewish con2ert to Christianit . He ran a retail drug +usiness and during 1orld 1ar I ser2ed as a 9uartermaster general for medical supplies. 8ilchs mother, Clara &nee Vetter/, was a gentile, although some people suspected her of +eing !ewish as well.> ? "i#es of Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers + Br an 8ar- <igg, p. "%F,"%$ 0Helmut 1il+erg was an officer and a gentleman. He radiated confidence, was +uilt li-e a line+ac-er, and had clear +lue e es that stared out from his s9uare face. He was apolitical, a consummate professional, a de2oted famil man and patriot. Although he ser2ed in armed forces lo al to Hitler, he disli-ed the 6uhrer. Ei-e man documented in this stud , he fought for German +ut not for the NazisTHistorian 8atthew Cooper elo9uentl descri+es the dilemma in which 1il+erg and man others found themsel2es under Hitler( 07he generals who were faced with National 5ocialism were the prisoners of their own proud heritage. 7he tradition +estowed on them + their predecessors was one of unconditional personal o+edience to, and identification with, the autocratic Head of 5tate, coupled with a self,imposed isolation from the world of politics ? an isolation which, although ele2ated to the status of a militar 2irtue, too- the form of political nai2etM and ineptitude.> 1ith this in mind, one can somewhat understand how officers li-e 'rager, <ogge, and 1il+erg ser2ed their nation with such passion and lo alt T1il+erg was +orn on " !une "@@. in Berlin to a !ewish mother and a gentile father, who was a famous painter of landscapes and +uildings.> ? "i#es of Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers + Br an 8ar- <igg, p. "@$,"@N 0Bernhard <ogge stood si* feet three inches tall and weighed FF. pounds. He carried his +od with control and e*celled at sports. His militar +earing e*uded confidence and he was a strong leader. His demeanor commanded respect, and he was the soldier,gentleman 'ar e()ellen)e. He alwa s wore neatl starched and ironed clothes, and his whole appearance, from his precisel com+ed hair to his manicured fingernails and spit,polished shoes, showed that he paid careful attention to the details of life. He was a machine who alwa s did his dut with ".. percent of his +eing. He too- responsi+ilit for e2er thing that happened to him and around him. Bernhard 6riedrich Carl :dgar <ogge was +orn on J No2em+er "@##. His mother was a homema-er and his father a go2ernment official. His maternal grandmother was !ewish, +ut her hus+and was Ar an.> ? "i#es of Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers + Br an 8ar- <igg, p. F.N 0Also fundamental to comprehending the +izarre situation in which 8ischlinge wore the swasti-a on their uniforms, while their relati2es had to wear the 5tar of Da2id, is an understanding of their religious identit . 8ost parents of 8ischlinge did not raise them as religious !ews, and most 8ischlinge did not consider themsel2es !ewish until Hitler persecuted them. But the Nazi racial laws considered them all !ewish to one degree or another. Bn "J No2em+er "#$N, the Nazis issued a supplement to the Nurem+erg Eaws of "N 5eptem+er "#$N that created the 0racial> categories of German, !ew, 0half,!ew &!ewish 8ischling " st Degree/,> and 09uarter,!ew &!ewish 8ischling F nd Degree/,> each with its own regulations. 7hese laws distinguished Germans from persons of !ewish heritage +oth +iologicall and sociall . 6ull !ews had three or four !ewish grandparents, half,!ews had two !ewish grandparents, and 9uarter,!ews had one !ewish grandparent. If a person not of !ewish descent practiced the !ewish religion, the Nazis also counted him as a !ew. 7he Nazis resorted to religious records to define these 0racial> categories, using +irth, +aptismal, marriage, and death certificates stored in churches, temples, !ewish Communit Centers, and courthouses. 7he "#$N Nurem+erg Eaws pro2ided the +asis for further anti,!ewish legislation to preser2e the purit of the 0Ar an> race. 7he Nazis +ased their racial laws on the 2ol-isch &ethnic in a racial sense/ notion of the inherent superiorit of the 0Ar ans.> 7hese laws pro2ided ci2il rights to those +elonging to the Vol- and ha2ing German 0+lood.> 7his created a 0new moralit which, in terms of the old s stem of 2alues, seemed +oth unscrupulous and +rutal.> 7he Nazis automaticall denied !ews and 8ischlinge citizenship pri2ileges. Howe2er, under Article % of a supplementar decree of the Nurem+erg Eaws, Hitler could free indi2iduals from the la+el !ew or 8ischling + Ar anizing them with a stro-e of his pen. In fact Hitler allowed se2eral high, ran-ing officers of !ewish descent to remain in the militar + Ar anizing them.> ? "i#es of Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers + Br an 8ar- <igg, p. "F,"$ 0T C8Dost often non,German citizens could not ser2e in the 1ehrmacht, +ut had to ser2e in the 55 militar arm. B wars end, of the #J.,... men ser2ing in the 1affen,55, onl FN.,... were actuall German. Although the 55 preached racial purit , it did not let it get in the wa of its recruiting 9uotas e*cept for those with 0!ewish +lood.> 4nli-e the 1ehrmacht, which then drafted half, and 9uarter,!ews, the 1affen,55 did not allow an one in its ran-s with an !ewish ancestr . 5o no 8ischlinge, much less CKarl,HeinzD Eow , a full !ew, could re2eal their true ancestr if the wanted to remain in this organization C1affen, 55D.> ? "i#es of Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers + Br an 8ar- <igg, p. A"

7he Admirals 6ictional 6ate

G-nther L-t.ens/ B Da2id H. Eippman Decem+er F..@ A few da s ago, I caught the +est part of a two,part documentar a+out the famous duel +etween H85 Hood and K8 *ismar)k. An American research group was tr ing to locate the remains of +oth +attleships, to settle the account of how and wh the were sun-. 7he first half of the program co2ered Hood, and she was l ing in se2eral pieces at the +ottom of the Denmar- 5trait, prett much as contemporar accounts and later historians ad2ertised. In the second half, the undersea e*plorers located *ismar)k W not as hard, +ecause <o+ert Ballard had alread found her ears ago W and determined she had +een sun- + British torpedoes +efore the scuttling charges went off. As part of the documentar , Gerhardt Eut3ens, the son of German Admiral Gunther Eut3ens, was inter2iewed at some length. He was a cheer elderl German, displa ing great lo alt and admiration for his father. Nothing surprising there. But the real shock came when the documentary revealed that Gunther Lutjens was one-fourth Jewish. A Jewish grandmother, to be recise. !hey didn"t say which one it was, aternal or maternal, but if it was maternal, he would have been Jewish under Jewish law. 7hat was a thunderclap for me, for o+2ious reasons W a !ewish German admiral san- H85 HoodG ;ou +et, wow. But it actuall made some sense. I -new that Eut3ens didnt thin- much of Hitler and his strutting Nazis, and pri2atel despaired when German went to war. In the documentar , Gerhardt 9uoted his father as sa ing German had no chance in the war, +ecause of her oil shortages. In "#$@, he and other German na2al officers of !ewish ancestr fired off angr telegrams to Hitler, protesting Kristallnacht. I dont -now how Hitler responded, +ut I cant imagine it was positi2e. A mo2e li-e that from a ser2ing flag officer too- a lot of guts. But Eut3ens was not punished. Instead, he too- command of the +attle,cruisers S)harnhorst and Gneisenau, leading them on a fairl successful raiding cruise in the Atlantic in 6e+ruar and 8arch "#J". 4nder cautious handling, the two dreadnoughts san- FF Allied merchant ships for a total of ""N,A.. tons, effecti2el disrupting the British con2o c cles for a time. Eut3ens could not attac- well,defended con2o s with his ships, -nowing that a minor hit on one of his +attle,cruisers would +e enough to put them out of action, far from a friendl doc- ard. 5o when his ships ran into con2o s with +attleship escort, he withdrew. After their cruise, Eut3ens two +ig ships found precarious refuge at Brest in occupied 6rance, where the spent most of the ne*t ear in doc-wor-ers hands and under British air attac-.

Eut3ens wasnt there to see the welding and +om+ing. He was summoned +ac- to Berlin in April "#J" to ta-e command of a tas- force of two ships, the *ismar)k and the hea2 cruiser +rin, Eugen- fitting out at Gotenhafen, -nown also as Gd nia, or Gdans-. 7he grandiose German plan was to ha2e the two new ships sail from German in 8a "#J" and +rea- into the Atlantic, and the two +attle,cruisers at Brest sortie at the same time, cutting loose the full punch of the German surface fleet on the British con2o routes. Howe2er, the plan +egan to disintegrate from the start. S)harnhorst needed her +oilers o2erhauled. British +om+s too- Gneisenau out of the game. 7he +rin, Eugen hit a mine, ma-ing her a doc- ard case for three wee-s. 7he Germans were running out of reasona+l long nights to +rea- into the Atlantic &and if the chose to go through the Denmar- 5trait, nights at all/. Eut3ens wanted to wait until the ships at Brest were read . He was o2erruled + his +osses. Hitler was getting read to in2ade <ussia, and once the 1ehrmachts tan-s plunged into the 5o2iet 4nion, there would +e no fuel for large,scale na2al operations. And with the Germans attac-ing in the 8editerranean, the pressure was on to put a strain on the <o al Na2 where2er possi+le. #$in !hrough or %ie" Eut3ens too- *ismar)k and +rin, Eugen to sea on 8a "@, "#J", with great misgi2ings, and showed a distinct lac- of aggression in the cruise. 1hen *ismar)k met up with Hood on 8a F$, Eut3ens wanted to a2oid +attle and sail awa . 7he *ismar)ks captain, Karl :rnst Eindemann, was tougher material. He reputedl told his +oss, 0Im not going to stand here and let them -ic- m ship in the +ac-side. If ou dont want to fight, I willX> After *ismar)k disposed of Hood, Eut3ens learned his ship had ta-en a hit forward that damaged her oil tan-s. He would ha2e to turn aside or +ac-. Eut3ens wanted to go home to German . Eindemann con2inced Eut3ens to go forward, and head into a 6rench port, ma +e -noc-ing off a con2o en route. Eut3ens agreed and sailed on, heading for 6rance. He cut loose the +rin, Eugen for independent raiding, +ut she pro2ed a washout, due to damaged propellers.

Bismarck at sea/ 7hen, on his N"st +irthda , Eut3ens addressed the +attleships crew. After than-ing them for presumed good +irthda wishes, he told *ismar)ks sailors the whole <o al Na2 was coming for them, and it was 0win through or die.>

7he gloom speech depressed the sailors, wrec-ing morale. Eut3ens was 3ust tr ing to correct an air of o2erconfidence, +ut the speech also reflected his own depression and sense of ad2ancing age. He apparentl told his son that he did not e*pect to sur2i2e the *ismar)k cruise, let alone the war. 7wo da s later, *ismar)k was caught + British torpedo,+om+ers from H85 .rk o/al, which crippled the +attleship with a dramatic and well,placed torpedo to the rudders, which 3ammed them. 4na+le to maneu2er in a hea2 sea, she drifted helplessl north and west straight into the guns of the <o al Na2 s +attleships H85 King George 0 and H85 odne/, and those two British +attleships and their escorts sent *ismar)k to the +ottom. During the long night +etween the torpedo hit and the final +attle, Eut3ens and Eindemann sta ed on the +ridge, struggling to free their 3ammed rudder, heartsic- and sore. No+od -nows how the pair met their end W one of the first British hits smashed the flag +ridge and set it a+laze. Admiral Gunther Eut3ens died in +attle, his torn flag still fl ing from the *ismar)ks shredded mainmast. 5o did more than F,... mem+ers of the *ismar)ks crew. Bnl "". were pulled out of the freezing Atlantic Bcean. It was a cruel fate for an seaman, and the fact that Eut3ens was one,fourth !ewish made it worse. 4nder Nazi law, he was supposed to die an wa . Bnl his uniform -ept Eut3ens ali2e. During the war, the German Na2 did a fair 3o+ of protecting officers with !ewish +lood. 7hat included Bernhard <ogge, who commanded the highl successful merchant raider Atlantis, which san- FF ships +efore +eing caught and sun- + the cruiser H85 1e#onshire. Howe2er, the top German seadogs, Grand Admirals :rich <aeder and Karl Doenitz, were themsel2es fairl anti,5emitic, Doenitz more so than <aeder. Both drew 2er+al fire at Nurem+erg for their wartime statements to the fleet, in which +oth urged the new German Na2 to purge itself of the !ewish influence. Apparentl those remar-s fell on some deaf ears, +ecause Eut3ens and <ogge onl faced death at the hands of their enemies, not their countr men. 5till, I had to +elie2e that if Eut3ens had escaped death in the *ismar)k fiasco, he certainl would ha2e +een +lamed for the mess, and his !ewish ancestr would ha2e +een used against him. He could 2er well ha2e 3oined millions of 2ictims with greater !ewish pedigree W al+eit fewer medals W in the gas cham+er at Auschwitz. !he &ther Lutjens Eut3ens met the +etter of two fates( d ing in +attle as a hero instead of +eing gassed in a concentration camp as a helpless 2ictim. 7oda the German Na2 has a destro er named for Gunther Eut3ens, and one of the +etter,-nown and true e,mails floating around c +erspace is how the new Eut3ens crew manned their ships rail on 5eptem+er "", F..", and held up a sign sa ing 01e will stand + ou> to an alongside American warship. Gunther would pro+a+l ha2e appro2ed. He would ha2e +een less happ a+out the other and +etter,-nown pu+lic use of his name( the mo2ie Sink the *ismar)k. Its one of m fa2orites, for o+2ious reasons. Karel 5tepane-, a 2eteran Czech actor, pla ed the admiral. Born in "@##, 5tepane- apparentl was a rising star in the Czech film industr until Hitler showed up. His list of credits on the Internet 8o2ie Data+ase, reports that he fled to America in "#$@, got wor- as Germans and :astern :uropeans in mo2ies li-e The Heroes of Telemark and o2in Hood, retired in "#%", and passed awa on Christmas Da , "#@., in Eondon. Its interesting that the gu who pla s the Nazi admiral was himself a refugee from Nazism.

0are* ,te1ane2 as G-nther L-t.ens/

5tepane- has the cragg face for his role and ma-es Eut3ens commanding and determined, +ut sadl , the screenwriter &who +ased it on C.5. 6oresters no2el/ wrote the cinematic Eut3ens all wrong. 7he result is that 5tepane- gets it all wrong. As portra ed, Eut3ens in the mo2ie is a lo al and fanatical Nazi. 7he filmic Eut3ens tal-s a+out how he had his career ruined + the 7reat of Versailles, so he 3oined up with Hitler and rode to power on Nazi coattails. Now he see-s glor for Nazi German + destro ing the British fleet. Eindemann is portra ed as a more reasona+le and realistic officer, concerned with his ships crew and its sur2i2al. In the film, Eut3ens repeatedl orders Eindemann to +e aggressi2e when caution is clearl needed. All the wa through, Eut3ens +elie2es Hitlers promises that the Euftwaffe will come to sa2e Bismarc-, and is stunned when the 6uhrers guarantees guarantee nothing. He dies a stunned, slightl repentant Nazi. I suspect that 5tepane- pla ed this role deli+eratel , to remind forgetful audiences "N ears after V,: Da that while the German Na2 fought a hard and tough +ut clean and chi2alrous war, the were ser2ing one of the most e2il ideologies in histor . 5tepane- would ha2e seen that ideolog in action for himself, losing his countr , friends, and famil to the Gestapo and Nazi terror, and thus had a 2ested interest in reminding film audiences of that point. Hes right, +ut he did it with the wrong gu . Its actuall 2er sad to see this depiction of Eut3ens. 7he "#A. screenwriters did a decent 3o+ with the film. 7he research on the operations and ships in2ol2ed is accurate, theres a good mi* of stoc- footage and e*ploding warship models, Kenneth 8ore and Eawrence Naismith pro2ide the re9uisite <o al Na2 0lets win this +attle, chaps> determination, Dana 1 nter pro2ides 2isual relief, and :dward <. 8urrow +rings gra2itas + pla ing himself in his wartime role as CB5 radio news commentator from Eondon. But the war had +een o2er for "N ears, and the could ha2e made the effort to dig a little +it into Eut3ens and his famil . 7he German side of the stor was a little more open + then. It would ha2e made for a +etter stor W the conflicted admiral, +attling the competing concepts of national lo alt and famil lo alt . He -new what the Nazis were doing, and he -new the were wrong. He -new the war was lost from the +eginning, and his famil was, + definition, an enem of the state. ;et he still went out and did his +est to +ring Hitler 2ictor , and died on his +ridge, as defiant as his crippled +attleship. Hec-, its a +etter stor than :rwin <ommel, whose connections to the plot to -ill Hitler are spott at +est. <ommel admired Hitler until things went wrong, and his actual role in the Bom+ 'lot of !ul is still argued o2er + scholars. :ither wa , Hitler made him a scapegoat for the plot and the continuing string of militar defeats. 'hoices (ever )ade Eut3ens deser2es +etter, from +oth filmma-ers and histor . He was a conflicted and depressed man, shoehorned + up+ringing and tradition into a situation he dreaded +ut could not a2oid. As a high,ran-ing officer in the German Na2 , steeped in tradition, he could not turn against his go2ernment, or flee to safet , either +efore the war, or on the +ridge of his +attleship. He faced the conflicting demands and resigned himself to doing his dut and d ing honora+l . I can imagine him pacing the +ridges of his flagships, alternatel

struggling with plotting his ships ne*t mo2e while pondering the insanit of his situation W leading the most powerful +attleships in his nations Na2 in an effort to achie2e the destruction of his own people. He must ha2e struggled with long thoughts of fuel supplies and honor, reconnaissance information and lo alt . No wonder he was so depressed on *ismar)ks cruise. No wonder he didnt want to fight. I2e often wondered what Eut3ens thought when he stood on his flag +ridge that last morning, peering through his Reiss +inoculars, seeing the immense gra +ul-s of H85 King George 0 and H85 odne/ steaming towards him. At that moment, Eut3ens was commanding a nearl immo+ile +attleship, loc-ed on a slow and predicta+le course, short of fuel and anti,aircraft ammunition, her 2er oung crew e*hausted from si* da s of steaming at action stations and demoralized + the crippling damage she had suffered. Eut3ens had two options at that moment( fight and li-el condemn most of his crew to horri+le deaths or stri-e his flag &perhaps after a short action/ to sa2e their li2es. 7he first course would gratif Hitlers desire to see the whole world destro ed in true 1agnerian fashion and turn Bismarc-s crew and himself into mart red Nazi demi,gods, an ironic fate for the part,!ew Eut3ens.

G-nther L-t.ens3 on Hit*er4s ri5ht3 escorts the F6hrer on an ins1ection of %ismarc2/ 0ar* Ernst Lindemann is second from *eft/

Howe2er, such a gesture, while pro+a+l pleasing to Hitler and preser2ing honor, would not preser2e oung li2es. Nor was there an point to such a +attle( Bismarc- was outgunned, outnum+ered, and outmaneu2ered. Her sacrifice would gain the <eich nothing, and indeed, re2eal its incapacit and wea-ness in +attle. 8art rdom would not win a war, and onl send promising oung German sailors to 2ile and useless deaths. 'erhaps Eut3ens real dut at that moment was no longer to his 6uhrer or the Nazi s stem, +ut to the oung men in his charge, and to preser2e their li2es. He could stri-e his flag, transfer his men in orderl fashion to the British ships, scuttle his own 2essel, and +e remem+ered as a leader who stood for humanit amid worlds most terri+le war. Bn the other hand, the German High 5eas 6leets chief accomplishment to date had +een to scuttle itself in 5capa 6low in "#"#, as the result of an erroneous four,da ,old report in a British newspaper, and that de+acle still cast a shadow o2er the German Na2 . If Eut3ens did stri-e his flag, it would also +e seen as a dishonora+le mo2e, an act of high treason, and defile and humiliate the entire German Na2 s officer corps. An Admiral could not 3ust 0stri-e his flag.> And looming o2er these two choices had to ha2e +een Eut3ens thoughts a+out German , Nazism, Hitler, and the fate of :uropes !ews W and his relati2es. 1e will ne2er -now what epiphan Eut3ens had, if an , on that flag +ridge, +ecause the first shells to hit Bismarc- -illed him, +ut he ma ha2e ta-en the middle course( put up a fight long enough to sa2e honor, then surrender when the +attle was clearl lost. 8a +e.

*s +ollywood Listening, I suppose that some da there will +e a mo2ie a+out Gunther Eut3ens and the *ismar)k again. Now that !ames Cameron and his Holl wood colleagues ha2e replaced writing and acting in mo2ies with special effects, the ll do to the *ismar)k what Titani) did to . . . well, the Titani). In the new mo2ie, Kate 1inslet will pro+a+l +e the !ewish girl who escapes from a train to Auschwitz, and then slips a+oard the *ismar)k. Eut3ens, pla ed + Arnold 5chwarzenegger, will hide 1inslet on the +attleship from the Gestapo. But her life will ultimatel +e sa2ed + Eeonardo Di Caprio, who will pla the sailor actuall assigned to watch o2er her. Naturall , *ismar)k will not +e sun- + the <o al Na2 &whoe2er heard of the British doing an thing right in a modern war mo2ieG/, +ut + a crac- American team of commandos led + 8el Gi+son, 1esle 5nipes, and !ennifer Eopez &who will also sing the theme song/. Alan <ic-man or Da2id 1arner will pla a high,ran-ing British officer of the aristocratic and o2er+earing t pe, who is actuall a traitor, in league with the Germans. 7he ships hunting for *ismar)k will +e modern American 2essels, e*cept for some to-en British coc-ne s and 5cots, who will offer comic relief. In the films clima*, Di Caprio himself &and an arm of stuntmen/ will fight a massi2e +arefist +rawl with 5chwarzenegger to sa2e 1inslet, while Gi+son and 5nipes fl their 6,"N fighter 3et +etween the +attleships funnels to sin- the dreadnought, pursued + <ic-man in a 7I: fighter. Di Caprio, of course, will die 3ust as he puts 1inslet in the life raft with Gi+son and 5nipes. 6ilm critics will hail the mo2ie for its special effects wizardr , the tragic lo2e stor , and its historic accurac . 7V political pundits will complain that toda s American and British outh are nowhere near as tough as the heroes who 0san- the *ismar)k-3 and actual 2eterans who fought the +attle will complain +itterl a+out the filmic treatment in letters,to,the,editor of their local newspapers, which will +e ignored. I thin- that will +e a worse disaster than the real sea +attle.
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GSnther ESt3ens &8a FN, "@@#,8a F%, "#J"/ was a German Admiral whose militar ser2ice spanned almost three decades. ESt3ens is most well,-nown for his actions during 1orld 1ar II, primaril his command of the German ship Bismarc- and her consort, 'rinz :ugen, during the Bperation <heinS+ung sortie. Admiral Eut3ens refused to gi2e the Nazi salute and opposed the Nazi regime. Admiral Eut3ens grandmother was a !ewQ Admiral Eut3ens once wrote a letter to Adolf Hitler protesting Kristallnacht.

Heil 1a#/: . Na,i 0isit to the .lamo + Ke2in <. ;oung

*t seems everyone who comes to -an Antonio wants to be at least seen at the Alamo. Accounts of Alamo visitors, J. +. Barnard in ./01 to John )adden, have a eared in books and news a er articles, while Alamo visits have been recorded by hotogra hy since ./23. -ometimes Alamo visitors go on to become art of history themselves. !his is one of those stories. In 8a "#J", the free world followed a drama on the high seas. 7he Kriegsmarine *ismark, renowned and feared as the most powerful +attleship afloat, had +ro-en out into the Atlantic. 7he threat of this monsterLs firepower was dri2en home when, in its first com+at, it san- the HMS Hood. A com+ined effort of British capital warships and na2al planes trac-ed Bismar- down. 1ith her rudder damaged from a British torpedo, Bismar- could not maneu2er, and was still to far from occupied 6rance to see- aid from either na2al or air support. 7he British fleet closed in, and on 8a F%, the pride of the German Na2 was reduced to a +urning hul- that san- to the +ottom of the Atlantic. 1ith Bismar- went hundreds of her crew, including her captain and 6leet Commander Admiral Gunter Eut3ens. Eut3ens is often presented as the t pical German especiall in the film, Sink the *ismarkX He was, after all, ta-ing a powerful 2essel into open water to smash the con2o s +ringing supplies to the British , the life lines to the people of Great Britain, loc-ed in a struggle alone against the con9uest of Adolph Hitler. But Eut3ens was also the man who once insisted on 2isiting the Alamo so he could pa silent tri+ute to the courage of its defenders. It was some si* ears earlier, 5an Antonio was still in the Great Depression when the officers and men of Karlsruhe came to pa their respects to the men of the Alamo. 7he Bride of 6ran-enstein was pla ing at the local mo2ie house, 7e*ans were watching the trial of Bonnie and Cl de side-ic- Claude Hamilton, and Bess Carol was starting her series of articles on the centennial of the 7e*as <e2olution. 7his was +efore the Kristallnacht, +efore the in2asion of 'oland, 6rance and Dun-ir-. 7he <iechsmarine had sent two cruisers, Karlsruhe and :mden on a world cruise. 7he mission was a Ygood will tourY and more importantl , a high seas training cruise for the German Na2al Class or crew of "#$J. 5ome $"@ future German na2al officers, separated into two groups, 3oined the crews of the two cruisers, Eut3ens was then captain of Karlsruhe. 5uch cruisers were part of the regular training of German Na2al cadets. 7he Karlsruhe had +een commissioned In No2em+er "#F#. A YKY class, cruiser, she displaced at A,AN. tons with a top speed of $. -nots, a crew of @F. and main armament of # si*,inch guns. Eut3ens was a long time 2eteran of the German Na2 , starting his career in "#.%. 1hile :mden too- a route through the Indian Bcean, Karlsruhe was to 2isit 5outh America, up the 'acific Coast as far as Vancou2er and then +ac- down to 'anama, through the Canal to the Gulf of 8e*ico and then home to Kiel. Eut3ens set sail on Bcto+er FF, "#$J. 7he tour too- Karlsruhe to the Azores, 7rinidad, Brazil, 4rugua , Chile, 'eru, Colom+ia, 5an 6rancisco and Canada then +ac- down to Acapulco, Guatemala, through the 'anama Canal to Houston, then to Charleston and +ac- home. Eos Angeles was later added to the stop o2ers. 7he cruiser returned home on !une F., "#$N. 7he trip was not without some incident, especiall considering HitlerLs defiance of the Versailles 7reat and the growing suppression of human rights in German . Ea+or unions protested the arri2al of the German cruiser at 5an 6rancisco and Vancou2er. But Eut3ens, his crew and the cadets remained on their +est +eha2ior. 7he German Na2 had remained independent of the growing Nazi changes. 7he swasti-a would not +e added to the na2al ensigns until the fall of "#$N. Admiral <aeder insisted on -eeping !ewish officers in the ran-s as well as retaining the old Na2al salute. In late April "#$N, Karlsruhe was on its homeward end of the cruise when the cruiser made its stop at Houston. It remained there for o2er a wee-. Eut3ens, the crew and cadets too- ad2antage of the stop to 2isit 2arious spots in 7e*as. Eut3ens himself went to Austin, 2isited with Go2ernor !ames V. Allred and spo-e to a 3oint session of the 7e*as Eegislature. His ne*t stop was a 9uic- flight to Kell 6ield in 5an Antonio on April $.th. A luncheon was held at the 'laza Hotel where the captain and his aide, Eieutenant Commander Alfred 5chemmel was honored + the ma or, count commissioners and Kell 6ield commander, Colonel !aco+ :. 6ic-el. 6ollowing lunch, Eut3ens and 5chemmel called on the commander of 6ort 5am Houston. 7he trip to 5an Antonio was near complete when Eut3ens e*pressed his concern that he was not going to +e allowed to 2isit the Alamo. Despite a tight schedule, Eut3ens insisted on 2isiting Y our cit Ls famous shrine.Y 7he German captainLs 2isit was +rief, +ut mo2ing, as he remo2ed his cap and +owed his head in silent tri+ute to the heroes of "@$A. He was 2isi+l impressed with his Alamo e*perience. 7wo da s later, on 8a "st, a second group of officers from Karlsruhe arri2ed in 5an Antonio. 7his group was headed + Eieutenants H.1. Grosse and :. G. Bachmann, along with two warrant officers, two pett officers, four seaman and four of the cadets. 7he too 2isited the Alamo, and in a special ceremon , placed a wreath honoring the Alamo heroes. In a well pu+lished photo which ran the following da in the 5an Antonio Eight, Bachmann, 1arrant Bfficer 5chlicht and Et. Grosse can +e seen with the rest of the crew inside the Alamo, gi2ing the now infamous e*tended arm YNaziY salute. After the Alamo ceremon , the part was gi2en a 8e*ican luncheon and then ta-en on a site seeing tour of the cit and scenic loop territor &Hellotes area/. 7he group returned to Houston and the Karlsruhe the ne*t morning. Karlsruhe was to pla a part in the upcoming war or at least, the first ear of it. 6ollowing the in2asion of Norwa , the cruiser was returning from Kristiansand when the

British su+marine, 7ruant, hit her with a torpedo on April #, "#J.. Badl damaged, the cruiser had to +e finished off with torpedoes fired from a German 2essel. 7hose mem+ers of Crew $J went on to wartime careers in all +ranches of the Kriegsmarine. At least one of those on the "#$N 2isit to 7e*as also ended up with Eut3ens on the maiden and final 2o age of the Bismar-. Baron Bur-ard Von 8ullenheim,<ech+erg, who was a mem+er of Karlsruhe crew during the trip, ser2ed originall as ad3utant to Bismar-Ls captain and later as fourth gunner officer of the ill,fated +attleship. He li2ed through Bismar-Ls final fight, the highest ran-ing officer to sur2i2e. Eut3ens, who had insisted on stopping at the Alamo to pa his respects to those who had fought against o2erwhelming odds, found himself in the same position that fateful da in "#J". In one of his last addresses to the crew he said, Y1e will fight until our gun +arrels glow red hot and the last shell has left the +arrels. 6or us seamen, the 9uestion is now 2ictor or death.Y 7he reasons wh were far different, +ut ne2ertheless, the stor of the Bismar- is still the stuff legends, songs, stories, and mo2ies and fascination are made of.

4rom the O)to2er 5667 8.lamo Courier8 the 9ournal of the .lamo *attlefield .sso)iation:
http-..""" ulty. !" hi&'i.html

,dmiral GRnther LRt=ens $seen to the right of ,dolf Aitler% es orts ,dolf Aitler on his inspe tion of the Bismar k on 9ay 4, ()5(. <o AitlerPs left is ;ield 9arshal Wilhelm Keitel $=ust o&er AitlerPs right shoulder% and KapitSn 'ur ?ee $Captain% @rnst Lindemann, Bismar kPs ommanding offi er $se ond from left%. ,dmiral Gunther Lut=ens and his entire Bismar k re" perished on 9ay 26, ()5(, after engaging in a firefight "ith a British !attleship the day !efore.

6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch O 6riends

Eieutenant General :rhard 8ilch &left/, General Hermann GZring &F nd left/, Chancellor Adolf Hitler &Fnd right/, and 5A Chief of 5taff Vi-tor Eutze &right/ at the formation of Euftwaffe !G "$J LHorst 1esselL s9uadron in April "#$A. &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2e/ http())

Adolf Hitler inspects the 1estwall fortifications on western German in 8a "#$#Q also present were :rhard 8ilch, Heinrich Himmler, and 1ilhelm Keitel. &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2e/ http())""N%F

Eeft to right( 6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch, 1ilhelm Keitel, 1alther 2on Brauchitsch, Grand Admiral :rich <aeder, and 8a*imilian 2on 1eichs attend a Nazi 'art rall in Nurem+erg, German in 5eptem+er "#$@. &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/

Adolf Hitler &right/ stands at attention in front of su+ordinate officers Grand Admiral :rich <aeder, 6ield 8arshal 1ilhelm Keitel, 6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch, and 6riedrich 6romm at the funeral of Admiral Adolf 2on 7rotha in Berlin, German on Bcto+er "N, "#J.. &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2e/ http())""$@@

6oreground, left to right( 8artin Bormann, !ulius 5chau+, Adolf Hitler, Karl Brandt, and Euftwaffe 6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch &holding a +aton in his right hand/ attend the funeral ser2ice of 1erner 8Zlders at the <eich Air 8inistr in Berlin, German on No2em+er F@, "#J". &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2e/ http())""NAF

In the front row, from left to right( Hanns B+erlindo+er, 6edor 2on Boc-, Euftwaffe 6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch, Heinrich Himmler, Grand Admiral Karl Doenitz, 6ield 8arshal 1ilhelm Keitel, Hermann Goering, and Adolf Hitler attend a ser2ice during 8emorial Da in Berlin on 8arch F", "#J$. &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2e/

Adolf Hitler &left/ sha-es hands with Heinrich Himmler while 6ield 8arshal 1ilhelm Keitel, Grand Admiral Karl Doenitz, and 6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch &right/ salute to Hitler.

6ield 8arshal 1ilhelm Keitel &left/, 55 Chief Heinrich Himmler &center/, Euftwaffe 6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch &right/ meet in Berlin on 8arch "J, "#JF. &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/

0As the Nazis gained power, 8ilch often met with Goring to discuss a new air force. He granted the <eichswehr access to Eufthansas archi2es to sta a+reast of modern technolog in airplane design and performance. In "#F# he told Goring that he was read to 3oin the Nazi 'art . 7he fact that he wanted to 3oin the Nazis at this time, when onl a minorit of Germans thought Hitler could come to power, shows he trul +elie2ed in the 6ascists ideals. According to !ames Corum, 8ilch was an officer who 0fell completel under Hitlers spell.> Howe2er, Hitler felt at that time the should wait to ma-e him a mem+er. 7he part issued him mem+ership card num+er "F$,@@N +ut left it +lan- so 8ilch could claim it in the future. Bnl in 8arch "#$$ did he +ecome a mem+er retroacti2e to April "#F#. 1hen Hitler too- power in "#$$, he wanted 8ilch to help +uild an air force and told him, 0Now loo-, I ha2ent -nown ou for 2er long, +ut oure a man who -nows his 3o+, and we ha2e few in the 'art who -now as much a+out the air as ou. 7hats wh the choice has fallen on ou. ;ou must ta-e the 3o+. Its not a 9uestion of the 'art , as ou seem to thin- ? its a 9uestion of German and German needs ou.> 8ilch admitted later that this tal- with Hitler con2inced him to ta-e the 3o+ +ut his ancestr still remained a thorn in his side. Goring, Hitler, and other high, ran-ing Nazis too- care of this pro+lem. 8ilch noted in his diar as earl as " No2em+er "#$$ that Goring had discussed his ancestr with Hitler, deput head of the part <udolf Hess, and the minister of defense, General 1erner 2on Blom+erg, and that 0e2er thing was in order.> ? "i#es of Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers + Br an 8ar- <igg, p. "%N

Aeinri h Aimmler $third from left%, ;ield 9arshal @rhard 9il h $ enter front%, 8einhard Aeydri h $third from right%, and other prominent Na'is stand together for a group portrait. $Photo-!oinasla&"thread.php/t04613%

0TC5Dome people of !ewish descent participated directl as perpetrators in the Holocaust, primaril +ecause of their ran- and responsi+ilities. But li-e most high,ran-ing Nazi officials at the Nurem+erg 7rials, 8ilch lied when he swore that he did not -now a+out the Holocaust. 1hen as-ed at Nurem+erg a+out Nazi e*termination policies he denied all -nowledge of the Holocaust and said that until after the war, he had onl -nown a+out Dachau and 5achsenhausen. After hearing so man rumors a+out those camps from "#$$ to "#$N, he had as-ed permission from Himmler to 2isit Dachau. Himmler granted him permission and 8ilch 2isited the camp in "#$NTHe claimed he had no -nowledge of what the Nazis did in other camps during Hitlers rule. But he had read reports from 5igmund <ascher, the notorious doctor at Dachau who conducted +rutal e*periments. 8ilch wrote the head of Himmlers personal staff, 55 General Karl 1olff, on F. 8arch "#JF a+out the 0interesting> e*periments at Dachau. Bn $" August "#JF, 8ilch also wrote Himmler to e*press his interest in <aschers high,altitude ph siolog tests in Dachau. 7hese tests were appro2ed + the Euftwaffe and resulted in painful deaths for the human guinea pigs. Nonetheless, useful data were collected. 7ests also in2ol2ed immersing inmates in freezing water to see how long pilots shot down o2er the sea could li2e. All inmates died in these e*periments and 8ilch was -ept full informed. 5ome inmates were actuall turned o2er to the Euftwaffe testing facilities in 8unich, where it conducted these test itself. 1hen the Nazis conducted these tests, 8ilch and the Euftwaffe, not the 55 or Dachau, were directl responsi+le for them. 7hese e*periments were done with 8ilchs support and on his initiati2e. As a result, according to historian !ames Corum, 07his alone ma-es 8ilch a genuine war criminal.> As the tri+unal wrote of 8ilch, he was not upset a+out the inhumanit perpetrated + the Nazis. He was upset onl + the fact that German was losing the war. Besides appro2ing of these horri+le e*periments, 8ilch also ser2ed as cochairman with 5peer on the 'ursuit,'lans,5taff, which needed a+out a 9uarter,million sla2e wor-ers. 8ilch -new of a+out "..,... Hungarian !ews e*pected in Auschwitz whose la+or his pro3ect could use. 1ith respect to sla2e la+or 8ilch &pro+a+l in "#JF/ told General Carl,August 2on Ga+lenz that he wanted him 0to get in touch with CGeneral HermanD <einec-e concerning the 6rench 'B1s. * demand that if the eo le refuse to work they immediately be laced against the wall and shot. > 5o 8ilch was guilt of war crimes. In "#J%, the Allies sentenced 8ilch to life in prison at the 5econd Nurem+erg 7rial for deporting and mishandling foreign wor-ers and conducting criminal e*periments on human +eings. As historian Georg 8e er asserted, 8ilch can +e considered a 0German !ewish war criminal.> Howe2er, his sentence was reduced and in "#NJ he was discharged. He then ad2ised the German air industr until his death in "#%F.> ? "i#es of Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers + Br an 8ar- <igg, p. "@F,"@$

Prin e Chi hi!u $()32-()4*, enter, left%, younger !rother of @mperor Airohito of #apan, meets "ith German Luft"affe ;ield 9arshal @rhard 9il h $(+)2-()62, enter, right% during a &isit to a military airfield at Gato" in Berlin, Germany on ?eptem!er ), ()*6. $Photo !y ;PG.Aulton ,r hi&e.Getty :mages%

,meri an a&iator Charles Lind!ergh $left% hats "ith General @rhard 9il h $right% at a party in 9uni h, Germany on C to!er (2, ()*6. $Photo- http-..""".ar hi&233+.national-'

Left to right- Wilhelm ;ri k, Philipp Bouhler, ;riedri h ;romm, #oseph Goe!!els, ,dmiral @ri h 8aeder, and ;ield 9arshal @rhard 9il h appear at ;ield 9arshal 8ei henauPs funeral pro ession on #anuary 2*, ()52. $Photo- German ;ederal ,r hi&es%

Luft"affe field marshal @rhard 9il h listens to his &erdi t as he is senten ed to life imprisonment !y the ,meri ans at Nurem!erg. ,t his side is his la"yer Er. ;riedri h Bergold. #ohn 9 Cloy, the ,meri an Aigh Commissioner to Germany, ommuted 9il hs prison senten e. 9il h "as on&i ted at Nurem!erg for rimes against humanity for his in&ol&ement in murdering an estimated 1 million #e"s and millions of other prisonersO 9il hs father "as a #e". @rhard 9il h "as released from prison in #une ()45O he li&ed out the remainder of his life at Eusseldorf, "here he died in ()62. $Photo- http-..""".fpp. hQ243136.html%

Hermann GZring &left/ and 6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch wal- together in "#J.. &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/

, meeting for the 8ei h 9inistry of ,ir in Berlin on C to!er (2, ()*4. ;rom left to right- Eer Baumeister Prof. Er. :ng. L@rnstM ?age!iel, 8ei hsluftfahrtminister L,ir ;or e 9inisterM General der ;lieger Aermann GUring, der Timmerpolier ;ran' Ae ht, ?taatssekretSr @rhard 9il h, and unidentified. $Photo- German ;ederal ,r hi&es%

Na'i Germanys di tator ,dolf Aitler $(++)-()54% stands "ith Aeinri h Aimmler $()33-()54% $to his immediate left% and his staff, ontemplating the han es of an in&asion "hile looking a ross the @nglish Channel from Calais, ;ran e in ,ugust ()53 during World War ::. ,mong those present are 9artin Bormann $()33-()54% and General @rhard 9il h $(+)2-()62%. $Photo !y Aulton ,r hi&e.Getty :mages% $?our e- http-..""".gettyimages. om.detail.*2544(3.Aulton-,r hi&e%

General Lder ;liegerM @rhard 9il h $front, se ond from right% appears "ith C!erst ? hul' $front, left% and ;as ist :talys ;oreign 9inister Galea''o Ciano $front, se ond from left% in ()*1. $Photo- German ;ederal ,r hi&es%

:talian ,ir 9arshal :talo Bal!o $front, "hite uniform% and Na'i German ,ir ;or e LLuft"affeM General @rhard 9il h $front, dark uniform% "alk together after a "reath laying eremony for the dead of the ;irst World War at the enotaph on Bnter den Linden in Berlin, Germany on ,ugust (3, ()*+. $V ,ustrian ,r hi&es.CC8B:?%

AndrM 6ran[ois,'oncet &left/, the 6rench Am+assador to Nazi German , chats with General :rhard 8ilch at an airport in Berlin on Bcto+er J, "#$%. AndrM 6ran[ois,'oncet was imprisoned + the Nazis during 1orld 1ar II. &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/

6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch &center/ appears with 8inister of Armaments Al+ert 5peer &left/ in 8a "#JJ. &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/

6ield 8arshal :rhard 8ilch &center/ meets with 8inister of Armaments Al+ert 5peer &left/ and aircraft designer 1ill 8esserschmidt in 8a "#JJ. &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2e/

Eetained Na'i German "ar riminal ;ield 9arshal @rhard 9il h $far right% is seen meeting "ith other detained Na'i German "ar riminals in Nurem!erg.

Hermann Goerings August %, "#$N letter to his Nazi superiors regarding General &later 6ield 8arshal/ :rhard 8ilchs ancestr . Hermann Goering declared 8ilch an 0Ar an> + claiming that 8ilchs uncle &8ilchs mothers +rother/ was his real father. :rhard 8ilchs +iological father, Anton 8ilch, was a !ew. 7he Nurem+erg Eaws were promulgated in 5eptem+er "#$N. &5ource( http())$N.html/

:=C:<'75 B6 H!T"E $S %EW!SH SO"1!E S

?ide and front photographs of Jhalf-#e"J ,nton 9ayer, similar to those that often a

ompanied a 9is hlingPs appli ation for eHemption.

9ilitary ser&i e !ook of Jhalf-#e"J Aermann ,u!. <he <hird 8ei h ons ripted all German men $eH ept full #e"s% into military ser&i e, in luding Germans of partial #e"ish des ent. <he <hird 8ei h !anned most Germans of partial #e"ish des ent, also kno"n as 9is hlinge, from the Wehrma ht !y the end of ()53. , &ast ma=ority of the 9is hlinge "as !orn to German parents, raised as Christians, and identified themsel&es as Germans.

Germans soldiers, in luding soldiers of partial #e"ish des ent, take the oath of allegian e to Aitler. ,!"ehr $German ?e ret ?er&i e% offi er Lieutenant Colonel @rnst Blo h, "hose father "as a #e", res ued the ultra-CrthodoH #e"ish ra!!i, the Lu!a&it her 8e!!e #oseph :saa ? hneersohn in Warsa", Poland in No&em!er ()*), t"o months after ,dolf Aitlers army in&aded Poland. Lu!a&it her 8e!!e #oseph :saa ? hneersohn e&a uated to Ne" >ork City &ia Berlin, 8iga, and ?to kholm in ()53 after the B.?. ?tate Eepartment issued a &isa to ? hneersohn. ,dolf Aitler F,ryani'edG @rnst Blo h in ()*).

&5ource( Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers + Br an 8ar- <igg/

Anita Kugler is the author of S)her&it,: The %e&ish SS Offi)er. 6ritz 5cherwitz was a !ew and a Nazi 'art mem+er who ser2ed as a commander of a concentration camp near <iga, Eat2ia during 1orld 1ar II.

&5ource( Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers + Br an 8ar- <igg/

&5ource( Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers + Br an 8ar- <igg/

&5ource( Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers + Br an 8ar- <igg/

:*cerpts of Br an 8ar- <iggs +oo- Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers

JAalf-#e"J Aorst Geitner "as a"arded !oth the :ron Cross ?e ond Class and the ?il&er Wound Badge.

<his photo of Jhalf-#e"J Werner Gold!erg, "ho "as !lond and !lueeyed, "as used !y a Na'i propaganda ne"spaper for its title page. :ts aption- F<he :deal German ?oldier.G

JAalf-#e"J #ohannes Tukertort $last rank general% re ei&ed AitlerPs Eeuts h!lRtigkeitserklSrung.

JAalf-#e"J Commander Paul ,s her, ,dmiral LRt=ensPs first staff offi er on the !attleship Bismar kO ,s her re ei&ed AitlerPs Eeuts h!lRtigkeitserklSrung. $9ilitary a"ards- @K:, @K::, and War ?er&i e Cross ?e ond Class.%

JWuarter-#e"J ,dmiral Bernhard 8ogge "earing the 8itterkreu'O he re ei&ed AitlerPs Eeuts h!lRtigkeitserklSrung. $9ilitary a"ards- oak lea&es to 8itterkreu', 8itterkreu', samurai s"ord from the @mperor of #apan, @K:, and @K::.%

JAalf-#e"J Colonel Walter A. Aollaender, de orated "ith the 8itterkreu' and German-Cross in GoldO he re ei&ed AitlerPs Eeuts h!lRtigkeitserklSrung. $9ilitary a"ards- 8itterkreu', German-Cross in Gold, @K:, @K::, and Close Com!at Badge.%

5ources( http())www.+r http())*.html Hitler$s %e&ish Soldiers: The ;ntold Stor/ of Na,i a)ial "a&s and Men of %e&ish 1es)ent in the German Militar/ + Br an 8ar- <igg

<he ?tern Gang- #e"ish, Na'i, and Proud/

,&raham ?tern "as the founder of the ?tern Gang, a Tionist #e"ish terrorist organi'ation. ,&raham ?tern offered to make an allian e "ith Na'i Germany during World War ::. ,&raham ?tern "as summarily eHe uted !y a British olonial poli e offi er in <el ,&i& on ;e!ruary (2, ()52.

, German o&er letter from #anuary ((, ()5( atta hed to a des ription of an offer made !y the ?tern Gang $Lehi% for an allian e "ith Na'i Germany.

7ranscript &uncertain parts in dou+le 9uotes/(

Deutsche Botschaft Ankara Der Marineattach ("Dienst"stelle Istanbul " " "r. 1#$% &eh. Geheim Istanbul, den 11.1.41

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 'Deutsche Botschaft in der ()rkei' '*in&.+ 1"4". ,A". 1%41 ' ' Anl. .............. ' ',.!"r. "////" 10141 ' !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 2ehr &eehrter 3err Botschafter4 in der Anla&e )bersende ich Ihnen+ 1. einen Brief, den der 5hef der 2uret Gnral in 26rien 5olombani an den General Dert7 &erichtet hat. 8oser teilt mit, dass auf Grund dieses Briefes anscheinend eine 9eitere -nterredun& 79ischen 5olombani und Dert7 statt&efunden hat. 5. ist der Ansicht, dass seine :ur)ckberufun& durch die :u! sammenarbeit ;on <. =Goirt7>? (3.5. und dem Minister "////" be&)ndet ist. $. eine @erf)&un& betr. Demobilmachun&, die ;on den fran7A! sischen MilitBrbehArden in 26rien bei den (ruCCenteilen in -mlauf &eset7t 9orden ist. D. einen @orschla& der "ationalen MilitBror&anisation in EalBstina 7ur FAsun& der G)dischen <ra&e in *uroCa. Mit einer *mCfehlun& bin ich Ihr er&ebener

"-nterschrift unleserlich"

And a translation(
German *mbass6 Ankara 5onfidential Istanbul, the 11 ,anuar6 41 "a;al Attach (Hffice Istanbul !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "r. 1#$% conf. 'German *mbass6 in (urke6 ' 'Arr.+ 1"4". ,A". 1%41 ' "2i&nature unreadable" ' Attachments. .............. ' ',.!"r. "////" 10141 ' !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! (o the 8i&ht 3onourable Ambassador4 as attachment I send 6ou+ 1. a letter, 9hich the chief of &eneral securit6 in 26ria 5olombani sent to General Dert7. 8oser communicates, that because of this letter aCCarentl6 a further meetin& bet9een 5olombani and Dert7 took Clace. 5. holds the oCinion, that his call!back has been caused b6 the co!oCeration of <. =Goirt7>? (3.5. and the minister "////". $. an order related to demobilisation, 9hich has been sent b6 the <rench militar6 in 26ria to its units. D. a CroCosal of the "ational Militar6 Hr&anisation in Ealestine re&ardin& the solution of the ,e9ish Iuestion in *uroCe. Jith re&ards I am 6our lo6al and de;oted

@H erpts from the !ook Blowback: The First Full Account of Americas Recruitment of Nazis an! "ts #isastrous $ffect on %ur #omestic an! Forei&n 'olicy !y Christopher ?impson

@H erpts from the !ook Blowback: The First Full Account of Americas Recruitment of Nazis an! "ts #isastrous $ffect on %ur #omestic an! Forei&n 'olicy !y Christopher ?impson

Part 5- Aitlers British ?oldiers $British ;ree Corps%

9em!ers of the Na'i ??-sponsored British ;ree Corps, a group of British F&olunteersG $prisoners of "ar% impressed into the ser&i e of Na'i Germany, stand at attention. $Photo- http-..""""thread.php/2(466-British-;ree-Corps%

, photo of a British ;ree Corps uniform

Left- ??-?turmmann ,lfred 9in hin, British ;ree Corps 8ight- , British ;ree Corps re ruiting poster

The $ar ,tatements of ,,7,t-rmmann A*fred

inchin3 former

em8er of the %ritish Free Cor1s

#urin& my research into the British Free (or)s " ha! the &oo! fortune to contact Alfre!*s &ran!!au&hter +atie Minchin, -he has kin!ly ma!e a.ailable Alfre! Minchin*s statements from /01th 2une 3145 formerly hel! at the 'ublic Recor!s %ffice 6 'R% Ref: 175318, $ach )ara&ra)h is numbere! an! " ha.e re)ro!uce! the statements in full from )ara&ra)h 4 onwar!s, 'ara&ra)hs 3 to 9 ha.e been !elete! !ue to the nature of contents names of ne:t of kin an! contact a!!resses etc, The Minchin statements are re)ro!uce! with the knowle!&e an! kin! )ermission of +atie Minchin, War Cffi e, +th #une, ()54. 5. : "as taken prisoner of "ar on the 2+th 9ar h, ()52 off 9urmansk "hen : "as ser&ing as an ,!le ?eaman on !oard ?.?. J@9P:8@ 8,NG@8J, after "e had !een !om!ed !y German air raft. ,fter our ship "as sinking, "e took to the !oats and "ere su!seIuently aptured !y a German destroyer. 4. We "ere taken to K:8K@N@?? in Nor"ay "here "e stayed a!out month "hen "e "ere transported to 8CK,A:@9@ in ;inland. ,fter three or four days "e tra&elled !y train to Aelsinki. ;rom there "e "ere taken !y troopship to ?tettin and then !y train to Bremen. 1. : arri&ed in Bremen a!out the 4th 9ay, ()52, and "as detained in 9ilag Ci&ilian :nternment Camp. We "ere !ehind !ar!ed "ire a"ay from the main amp for a!out a month "hen the "hole of my shipXs ompany "ere taken to Wilhelmsha&en for interrogation !y a German Na&al Cffi er. We stayed there a!out a fortnight and then returned to the 9ilag. 6. ,s : "as run do"n in health : "as taken to the Camp Aospital and "as under medi al are for a!out fi&e "eeks. <hen e&erything "as normal until a!out the )th #uly, ()5*, "hen : "as asked !y a Eonkeyman in the Camp named L@W:?, "hose hristian name is, : !elie&e, ;rederi , if : "ould are to go to a Aoliday Camp, "hi h he des ri!ed as E.*. ,!out siH others "ere also asked !y L@W:? if they "anted to go. <heir names "ere 9,>L:N, B8>,N< !ut the other names : annot remem!er at the moment. +. Cn the 22nd #uly, ()5*, siH mem!ers of 9ilag, in luding L@W:? and myself "ere taken !y train under es ort to Berlin, ?talag :::E, 4(6 ? at Genshagen, "here "e stayed together for t"o months, "hen B8>,N< and t"o of the others left. ). 9,>L:N, L@W:? and myself "orked on the staff at Genshagen until No&em!er, ()5*, "hen L@W:? and : left for the British ;ree Corps. (3. ?onderfRhrer L,NG@ at Genshagen and an @nglishman named <homas CCCP@8 indu ed !oth L@W:? and : to =oin the ;ree Corps. CCCP@8 "as in i&ilian lothing and did most of the talking. Ae told me that there "ere Iuite a fe" men in the British ;ree Corps and "e "ould ha&e a mar&ellous time. CCCP@8 sho"ed us a num!er of large posters "ith printed matter and illustrations !oosting up the Legion of ?t. George, the name under "hi h the ;ree Corps "as kno"n at the time. Cooper did not tell me "hat the aims of the Legion "ere and they "ere ne&er laid do"n at any time. : thought it "as =ust a propaganda unit in order to !ring Germany and @ngland together. : de ided to =oin to find out "hat Germany "as really like. ((. Cn the 2nd or *rd No&em!er, ()5*, : left Genshagen "ith L@W:? and "e "ere taken to the offi es of ?talag :::E, "here "e "ere gi&en i&ilian lothing, !y a German soldier under orders from 9a=or A@:9P@L, "hom : understand super&ised :::E and all the people, mostly @nglish, "orking on the Berlin 8adio. : met 9a=or A@:9P@L "ho ga&e me a form to sign stating : "ould not attempt to es ape in i&ilian lothing and : "illingly signed this form. (2. ;rom ?talag :::E, L@W:? and : "ere es orted to ? honhol'er ?trasse, Panko", North Berlin, "here "e "ere introdu ed to other mem!ers of the British ;ree Corps. : remem!er meeting CCB8L,NE@8, B8:<<@N, 9 CL,8E>, W:L?CN, CCCP@8 and 9,8<:N at the time. <his address "as a pri&ate d"elling house "here "e had plenty of li!erty. We "ere to go out unes orted into Berlin, although : did not ha&e a pass. : !elie&e W:L?CN, 9 Clardy and CCB8L,NE@8 had passes as they ould speak German. : used to go out to Cafes, 8estaurants and Cinemas in Berlin. <he ost of this entertainment "as paid !y the German interpreters "ho "ould gi&e us money, su h as 23 8.9.Xs, "hen "e reIuired it. (*. ?ometime in ;e!ruary, ()55, "e left for Aildesheim, Aaus Germania in order to re ei&e our uniforms. ?e&en of us "ent altogether, namely CCCP@8, CCB8L,NE@8, 9 CL,8E>, B8:<<@N, W:L?CN, 9,8<:N and myself. , senior German Cffi er, "hose name : do not kno", ga&e us ea h an ?.?. uniform, "ithout any markings. <his "as a pale green olour, "ith a peaked ap ha&ing a s ull and ross !ones on it. ,t Aildesheim "e li&ed mu h the same life as in Berlin until AitlerXs !irthday, ,pril 23th, ()55, "e "ere supplied "ith British ;ree Corps markings, onsisting of a lapel "ith three leopards, a Bnion #a k on the right arm "ith an arm!and on the left slee&e, "ith British ;ree Corps in @nglish lettering. (5. <he neHt thing that happened "as that "e "ere mo&ed to a training Camp in Eresden on C to!er 4th, ()55, under the super&ision of an ,meri an-speaking German, under the name of Captain 8C@PK@ of the Kiking ?.?. Ei&ision. : found that this

pla e "as an ?.?. training s hool. We "ere gi&en le tures on ma hine guns, mines, !lo"ing up !ridges, pistols and general army eIuipment. But "e "ere not gi&en any propaganda talks and the fa t that "e "ere "alking around the streets all o&er Germany, dressed up as ;ree Corps men "as propaganda in itself. (4. Euring the time : "ore British ;ree Corps uniform : used to gi&e the Na'i salute, as : had no option. We "ere instru ted to do so !y Captain 8C@PK@ and also the British N.C.C.Xs. 9y rank "as the @nglish eIui&alent of Lan e-Corporal, that is ?turmmann, "hi h : held all the time. (1. ,fter the 8.,.;. and ,meri an !om!ing of Eresden on ;e!ruary (*th, ()54, all British ;ree Corps mem!ers, in luding myself, "ere put under arrest !y the Germans, for suspe ted espionage. ,fter a fe" days they "ere es orted to Berlin to defend the apital, !ut as : "as in the Eresden Barra ks Aospital "ith s a!ies at the time, : did not go to Berlin until : "as fit, "hi h "as on 9ar h 2nd, ()54. (6. : "as es orted to the train at Eresden station and tra&elled !y rail in British ;ree Corps uniform to ,nhalter Bahnhof ?tation, Berlin, "here : "as met !y German offi ials and taken to the British ;ree Corps AeadIuarters at Carmen ?yl&a ?trasse, Berlin, North ((*. <here : "as inter&ie"ed !y a German offi er "ho immediately sent me to ?.?. Aospital Li hterfelde West "here : re ei&ed further treatment for s a!ies. (+. : es aped from this Aospital on ,pril 2(st, ()54, in !orro"ed i&ilian lothing. : managed to get through on foot to the ,meri an lines at <angermRnde on the 4th 9ay, ()54. : told the ,meri an ?ergeants that : had es aped from Berlin and : "as fitted out "ith ,meri an lothing and fed &ery "ell. : told the ,meri ans that : "as an es aped prisoner-of-"ar, !ut : did not mention anything a!out the British ;ree Corps. : ha&e not mentioned it at all until today. (). : "as flo"n !a k from Aildesheim to Brussels and then e to CHford, @ngland "here : arri&ed on ()th 9ay, ()54. ?in e then : ha&e had hospital treatment for an a!s ess on my right leg. 23. Euring the time : "as a mem!er of the British ;ree Corps, that is from No&em!er, ()5*, until ,pril, ()54, : "ent on re ruiting tours, four in all, three !y myself and on e "ith Kenneth B@88>, a mer hant seaman. : "ent t"i e to 9ilag and on e to an ,ir ;or e Camp in Aydekrug in @ast Prussia. With B@88> : "ent to 9ilag. ,ltogether : o!tained four re ruits for the British ;ree Corps. <hey "ere KC>?@>, 8CWL,NE?, PL@,?,N<? and L@:C@?<@8, all mer hant seamen from 9ilag. Cn one o asion : re ruited KC>?@> and 8CWL,NE? together and on another PL@,?,N<? and L@:C@?<@8. : annot remem!er the eHa t dates, !ut it "as a!out ,pril, ()55. 2(. : "as asked to do re ruiting !y the JAigh-BpsJ in the ;ree Corps, CCB8L,NE@8 and 9 CL,8E>. : "as Iuite "illing to do this as : thought it "ould gi&e me an opportunity of looking round Germany to find out their military defen es, although : had no opportunity of passing any information to @ngland, nor did : kno" ho" : ould do so. 22. Whilst : "as a mem!er of the ;ree Corps, : hose the name 9:L<CN, and "as al"ays kno"n as su h. <his "as a German idea that all mem!ers should hange their names. 2*. Euring the "hole of the time : "as in the ;ree Corps, : re ei&ed my 8ed Cross par els regularly e&ery fortnight and also my pri&ate mail from @ngland. 25. : ha&e read this statement and it is true. $ ?igned % ,lfred K. 9in hin ?tatement taken, read o&er and signature "itnessed !y me. $ ?igned % P.,. @d"ards.

)th #une, ()54 24. : ha&e !een thinking o&er "hat : said yesterday afternoon and "ould like you to "rite that the reason "hy : =oined the British ;ree Corps "as !e ause of my state of ill-health. ;or many years : ha&e suffered from hest trou!le and !ad !lood ir ulation. ,t the moment : am still suffering from skin trou!le, although the s a!ies on my !ody has leared up. 21. ,lso : "ould like to point out that : ha&e !een to sea sin e No&em!er, ()*4 "ith the 9er hant Na&y and rose from de k-!oy to ,!le-?eaman. : started off in the Port Line to ,ustralia, then the Blue ?tar Line and after, the Bnion Castle Line. 26. : am a sailor and as su h ha&e no hate for any!ody, in luding the Germans. : found out there "as no truth in the @nglish propaganda a!out the li&ing onditions of the German people.

2+. : ha&e ne&er !een a mem!er of any politi al party and ha&e ne&er !een asso iated "ith the British Bnion of ;as ists. : ha&e no politi al &ie"s at all. 2). When : "as in the British ;ree Corps : had my photograph taken "ith Kenneth B@88>, !oth of us in ;ree Corps uniform, at 9ilag !y a German Na&al Cffi er, "ho told me it "ould !e pu!lished in ;ront Teitung, a German soldiersX paper. But : ha&e not seen it myself. *3. : no" feel thoroughly ashamed of myself. : realise no" that : "as a re!el and am sorry for e&erything that has happened. When : "ore the German uniform of the British ;ree Corps, : o asionally arried a re&ol&er and four rounds of ammunition "ith me, !ut : ha&e ne&er used it or threatened anyone "ith it. *(. <here is one thing : forgot to tell you and that is that : suggested that the BnitXs name should !e hanged from the Legion of ?t. George to the British ;ree Corps. : suggested this a!out Christmas ()5*, at Panko", Berlin, at a onferen e "hen CCB8L,NE@8, 9 CL,8E>, B8:<<@N, 9,8<:N, W:L?CN, CCCP@8 and a German interpreter "ere also present. : got the idea from the Eanish ;ree Corps, "hi h : had read a!out in the German ne"spapers. ,fter a dis ussion, CCCP@8 "ho "as in harge of us all at the time, agreed to the hange of name. We also talked a!out pay and the type of uniform "e should "ear. Pay ame under the same rate as a german soldier "hi h "as one 8.9. a day. ,fter "e got into uniform "e "ere paid at that rate a ording to rank. : "as paid ( 8.9. 23 a day e&ery ten days from the German Paymaster at Aildesheim. : also remem!er that upon =oining the ;ree Corps : "as gi&en 233 8.9.Xs in a Post Cffi e sa&ings a ount !y Captain 8C@PK@. : dre" on this a ount and spent the money on amusement, su h as pi tures and drinks. ,ll the time : "as in the ;ree Corps : ontinued to re ei&e ( 8.9. 23 a day. <he German :nterpreter usually olle ted the money from the offi e for the "hole !un h of us. *2. ,t no time did : do any !road asting and ha&e ne&er !een near any German 8adio ?tation. Nor ha&e : "ritten any arti les or pamphlets. <hat "as all left to CCB8L,NE@8 and 9 CL,8E>. **. , tually : am one of the JBig ?iHJ of the British ;ree Corps. <hat means the siH ringleaders, the other fi&e !eing CCB8L,NE@8, 9 CL,8E>, B8:<<@N, W:L?CN and 9,8<:N. CCCP@8 "as the !oss of the JBig ?iHJ. <his name stu k and "e "ere al"ays kno"n as su h. *5. When "e "ere in British ;ree Corps uniform, "e had to gi&e the Na'i salue to all German soldiers a!o&e and in luding the rank of Corporal and all German offi ers. :n our !arra ks at Panko" and Aildesheim as "ell as Eresden "e had photograph displayed on the "all of the Euke of Windsor "hom "e all admired as he also "as a re!el. We all re ognised him as the King of @ngland. When "e had parties, "e al"ays toasted the Euke of Windsor. *4. When : re ruited the four men : ha&e pre&iously mentioned for the British ;ree Corps, there "as no ompulsion. : sa" them seperately and alone in an offi e at 9ilag and told them "hat a "onderful time they "ould ha&e if they =oined, "ith plenty of forms of pleasure and freedom. <hey had already seen the ;ree Corps pamphlets and they &olunteered of their o"n free "ill. ,ll : got out of it "as a trip out a ross Germany. *1. When : first arri&ed in Germany in ()52, : ould not speak the language, !ut ha&e sin e pi ked up a fair kno"ledge of it. *6. <hat is all : think. : ha&e !een trying to gi&e you a good reason "hy : =oined the British ;ree Corps, !ut honestly the only reason : an think of "as to ha&e a grand time at the eHpen e of the Germans. : realise no" "hat : did "as "rong, although : ne&er did any fighting or e&en fired a gun. *+. 9y ;ree Corps uniform "ith all my papers "as left !ehind in the German Aospital at Li hterfelde, West Berlin. *). : !rought (4+ 8.9.Xs !a k to @ngland "ith me. <his "as the !alan e of the 233 8.9.Xs gi&en me !y the Germans "hen : =oined the ;ree Corps, together "ith other money : had sa&ed out of my ;ree Corps pay. : handed this money to the ?uperintendent of the 9er antile 9arine of War <ransport of Eo k ?treet, ,ldgate, London, @. on the 2+th 9ay, ()54, and : produ e his re eipt for the money. : asked the ?uperintendent to hange this money for me and he said he "ould at 53 8.9.Xs to the pound sterling, !ut ha&e not yet re ei&ed the @nglish money. 53. <his further statement has !een read to me and is true. $ ?igned % ,lfred K. 9in hin ;urther statement taken, read o&er and signature "itnessed !y me. $ ?igned % P.,. @d"ards.
?our e- http-..""".!ills-!unker.pri&

British Nazi colla+orator !ohn Amer &left/ is photographed after his arrest + Italian partisans at 8ilan, Ital in April "#JN. !ohn Amer , the son of British 8em+er of 'arliament Eeopold Amer , was con2icted and e*ecuted for treason on Decem+er "#, "#JN. !ohn Amer li2ed in Berlin from "#JF to "#JN and was instrumental in the esta+lishment of a pro,Nazi British arm unit called 0British 6ree Corps>. !ohn Amer s father Eeopold Amer ser2ed as 5ecretar of 5tate for India and Burma under the leadership of British 'rime 8inister 1inston Churchill from 8a "$, "#J. to !ul FA, "#JN.

British Nazi colla+orator and radio propagandist 1illiam !o ce, also -nown as 0Eord Haw,Haw>, lies in an am+ulance under armed guard +efore +eing ta-en from British Fnd Arm Head9uarters to hospital. 1illiam !o ce had +een shot in the thigh at the time of his arrest in "#JN. 1illiam !o ce was con2icted and e*ecuted for treason in !anuar "#JA.

British so iety hostess Bnity 9itford $left% and her sister Lady Eiana 9osley 9itford $right% appear "ith ?? ?tormtroopers at the Nurem!erg Na'i Party rally in ?eptem!er ()*6. Lady Eiana 9osley 9itford "ould !e imprisoned !y the British go&ernment during World War ::. Lady Eiana 9osley 9itfords hus!and Cs"ald 9osley "as a British 9em!er of Parliament $Aouse of Commons% "ho founded the British Bnion of ;as ists.

,dolf Aitler $left% appears "ith British Na'i sympathi'er Bnity 9itford.

Part 4- Aitlers Latin ?oldiers $?panish 7 :talian ;as ists%

Nazi 55 chief Heinrich Himmler &second from left/ appears alongside 5pains fascist dictator 6rancisco 6ranco in Bcto+er "#J.. &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/

?pains fas ist di tator ;ran is o ;ran o $ enter% meets "ith :talys fas ist di tator Benito 9ussolini $right%.

,dolf Aitler "at hes ?pains di tator ;ran is o ;ran o salutes to a group of Na'i German soldiers in ()53.

Na'i German di tator ,dolf Aitler $right% shakes hands "ith ?panish di tator Generalissimo ;ran is o ;ran o $se ond from left% in Aendaye, ;ran e on C to!er 2*, ()53. $Photo- <ime Life%

Na'i Germanys di tator ,dolf Aitler $left% shakes hands "ith ;as ist ?pains di tator Generalissimo ;ran is o ;ran o $right% during Aitlers only offi ial meeting "ith ;ran o in Aendaye, ;ran e on C to!er 2*, ()53 as an unidentified German offi er looks on. $Photo- <ime Life%

Benito 8ussolini appears with Adolf Hitler at a militar parade.

Part 1- Aitlers ?la&i ?oldiers

<hese men are 8ussian offi ers in the 8C,, the 8ussian Li!eration ,rmy $:n 8ussian- 8usskaya Cs&o!oditelnaya ,rmiya%. <hey "ere a part of aptured 8ussian soldiers "ho =oined the Germans and their allies in the struggle against Bolshe&ism. <he offi er se ond from the left is 8ussian General ,ndrei Klaso&. <he 8C, onsisted of t"o di&isons under the ommand of General Klaso&, and its popular name "as Klaso&s army. $Photo- German ;ederal ,r hi&es%

Bkrainian General Pa&lo ?handruk, "ho !e ame the ommander of the Bkrainian ??-di&ision Gali ia

8ussian General ,ndrei Klaso&, a former offi er in the ?o&iet 8ed ,rmy, speaks to a group of 8ussians ser&ing in the Na'i German army in ()55. $Photo- German ;ederal ,r hi&es%

8ussian General ,ndrei Klaso& $left% and t"o unidentified Na'i German offi ers meet "ith Na'i German propagandist #oseph Goe!!els in Berlin on ;e!ruary 2+, ()54. $Photo- German ;ederal ,r hi&es%

Adolf Hitler meets with Ante 'a2elic, leader of the Independent 5tate of Croatia, upon his arri2al at the Berghof in Berchtesgaden, Ba2aria, Nazi German for a state 2isit on !une #, "#J". &'hoto( 8uze3 <e2oluci3e Narodnosti !ugosla2i3e);ugosla2ian National <e2olutionar 8useum/

Ante 'a2eli\ &left/ meets with German 6oreign 8inister !oachim 2on <i++entrop in !une "#J". &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/

+itler #had Jewish and African roots", %(A tests show

Adolf Hitler is li-el to ha2e had !ewish and African roots, DNA tests ha2e shown.

Adolf Hitler ma ha2e had !ewish and African roots, DNA tests ha2e shown

B Heidi Bla-e A(FNA8 B57 FJ Aug F.".

5ali2a samples ta-en from $# relati2es of the Nazi leader show he ma ha2e had +iological lin-s to the 0su+human> races that he tried to e*terminate during the Holocaust. !ean,'aul 8ulders, a Belgian 3ournalist, and 8arc Vermeeren, a historian, trac-ed down the 6uhrers relati2es, including an Austrian farmer who was his cousin, earlier this ear. A chromosome called Haplogroup :"+"+" which showed up in their samples is rare in 1estern :urope and is most commonl found in the Ber+ers of 8orocco, Algeria and 7unisia, as well as among Ash-enazi and 5ephardic !ews. YBne can from this postulate that Hitler was related to people whom he despised,Y 8r. 8ulders wrote in the Belgian magazine, Kna)k. Haplogroup :"+"+", which accounts for appro*imatel "@ to F. per cent of Ash-enazi and @.A per cent to $. per cent of 5ephardic ;,chromosomes, appears to +e one of the ma3or founding lineages of the !ewish population. Kna)k, which pu+lished the findings, sa s the DNA was tested under stringent la+orator conditions. Y7his is a surprising result,Y said <onn Decorte, a genetic specialist at the Catholic 4ni2ersit of Eeu2en. Y7he affair is fascinating if one compares it with the conception of the world of the Nazis, in which race and +lood was central. 0HitlerLs concern o2er his descent was not un3ustified. He was apparentl not 0pure> or ]Ar an.> It is not the first time that historians ha2e suggested Hitler had !ewish ancestr . His father, Alois, is thought to ha2e +een the illegitimate offspring of a maid called 8aria 5chic-elgru+er and a "#, ear,old !ewish man called 6ran-en+erger. http()),war,F)%#A"F"")Hitler,had,!ewish,and,African,roots,DNA,tests,show.html ^ Cop right of 7elegraph 8edia Group Eimited F.""

%(A tests reveal +itler4s Jewish and African roots

7he 6uhrer Lwould not ha2e +een happ L to learn he was more Ber+er tri+esman than Ar an superman.
By Aaaret' ?er&i e ,ugust 25, 23(3

Adolf Hitler ma ha2e owed more to the Lsu+humanL races he tried to e*terminate than to his LAr anL compatriots, according to new finding pu+lished in Belgium this wee-. In research for the 6lemish,language magazine Knac-, 3ournalist !ean,'aul 8ulders traced HitlerLs li2ing relati2es in the 6uhrerLs nati2e Austria, as well as the 4nited 5tates. Y7he results of this stud are surprising,Y said <onn Decorte, a geneticist inter2iewed + Knac-. YHitler would not ha2e +een happ .Y Geneticists identif groups of chromosomes called haplogroups, Lgenetic fingerprintsL that define populations. According to 8ulders, HitlerLs dominant haplogroup, :"+"+, is relati2el rare in 1estern :urope , +ut strongest in some FN percent of Gree-s and 5icilians, who apparentl ac9uired the genes from Africa( Between N. percent and @. percent of North Africans share HitlerLs dominant group, which is especiall pre2alent among in the Ber+er tri+es of 8orocco, Algeria and 7unisia, and 5omalis. 8ore surprising still, perhaps, is that HitlerLs second most dominant haplogroup is the most common in Ash-enazi !ews. Y7he findings are fascinating if ou loo- at them in terms of the Nazi world2iew, which ascri+ed such an e*treme priorit to notions of +lood and race,Y Decorte said. Knac- said it would now petition <ussian go2ernment archi2es to release a human 3aw+one wrapped in a +lood, soa-ed cloth, retrie2ed from a Berlin +un-er where Hitler is thought to ha2e committed suicide and +elie2ed to ha2e +elonged to the 6uhrer, who dreamed of engineering a Nazi superman. Y6or modern science, there are no more races, Decorte said, 07his pure t pe of LsupermanL and the CNaziD +reeding programs to perfect Lpurit L were sheer fa+rication.Y 5ource( http()),world)dna,tests,re2eal,hitler,s,3ewish,and,african,roots,".$.##$@

Adolf +itler 5 Asian Leaders6 A -trategic 7artnershi ,

Nazi German s dictator Adolf Hitler stand on a patio with H.H. Kung &left/, Nationalist Chinas 8inister of 6inance &"#$$, "#JJ/ and Go2ernor of the Central Ban- of China &"#$$,"#JN/, during Kungs 2isit to Berchtesgaden, German in "#$%. H.H. Kung was married to 5oong Ai,ling, the sister of 8adame Chiang Kai,she- &5oong 8ei,ling/. Nazi German officers trained Generalissimo Chiang Kai,she-s arm during the "#$.sQ Generalissimo Chiang Kai,she-s adopted son Chiang 1ei,-uo ser2ed in the 1ehrmacht and participated in the Anschluss. H.H. Kung earned a Bachelor of Arts degree at B+erlin College in "#.A and a 8aster of Arts degree at ;ale 4ni2ersit in "#.%. &7ime Eife photo/

,dolf Aitler shakes hands "ith King Pra=adhipok of ?iam Lalso kno"n as King 8ama K:: of <hailandM at <emplehof ,irport in Berlin, Germany on #uly (5, ()*5. $:nternational Ne"s Photo redit% $Photo- http-..adolfhitler!estpi tures.!logspot. om.sear!el.,sY23aY23Eiplomat%

Left to right- Na'i German ;oreign 9inister #oa him &on 8i!!entrop, :mperial #apanese ,m!assador to Na'i Germany ?a!uro Kurusu, and Na'i Germanys di tator ,dolf Aitler negotiate the <ripartite Pa t in ()53. $:mage ourtesy of ,meri an 9emory at the Li!rary of Congress%

#apanese en&oy ?a!uro Kurusu $left%, ,lfieri, Buti, :talys ;oreign 9inister Galea''o Ciano, ? hmidt, ?tahmer, Weis'S ker, 9a kensen, ,dolf Aitler, 9eiZner and Woermann appear at the <ripartite Pa t onferen e in Berlin on ?eptem!er 26, ()53% Photo- http-..adolfhitler!estpi tures.!logspot. om.sear!el.,sY23aY23Eiplomat

Left to right- 9artin Bormann, #apans ;oreign 9inister >osuke 9atsuoka, ? hmidt, ,dolf Aitler, Aermann Goering, and 9eissner attend a meeting on 9ar h 2+, ()5(. Goering is seen "earing a mono le. $Photo- http-..adolfhitler!estpi tures.!logspot. om.sear!el.,sY23aY23Eiplomat%

,dolf Aitler talks to :mperial #apans ;oreign 9inister >osuke 9atsuoka at the 8ei h Chan ellery in Berlin on 9ar h 26, ()5(. <he man on the left is interpreter Er. Paul ? hmidt.

Adolf Hitler &left/ meets with General Hiroshi Bshima &right/, the !apanese Am+assador to German &"#$@,"#$#, "#J","#JN/, at the New <eich Chanceller in Berlin, German on Decem+er "$, "#J". 5tanding +ehind is Btto 8eissner, 5tate 8inister and Chief of the 'residential Chanceller of the <eich. &'hoto( http())forum.a*ishistor .com)2iewtopic.phpGfHJOtH".#A#"OstartH"N/

<he 8epresentati&es of the ,His po"ers ele!rate in <okyo, #apan in ()5*. $9aini hi Photos%

Left to right- ?a!uro Kusuru, #apanese ,m!assador to Germany, ,dolf Aitler and :talian ;oreign 9inister Count Ciano $from left to right% arri&e for the re ent signing of the 8ome-Berlin-<okyo pa t in Berlin, Germany on C to!er ((, ()53. $Bettmann.CC8B:?%

Left to right- ,dolf Aitler, #apanese ;oreign 9inister >osuke 9atsuoka, and #apanese ,m!assador Airoshi Cshima "a&e from AitlerPs !al ony in Berlin, Germany in ()5(. $Aulton-Eeuts h Colle tion.CC8B:?%

,dolf Aitler meets "ith #apanese military offi ials. $Photo- <ime Life% http-..adolfhitler!estpi tures.!logspot. om.sear!el.,sY23aY23Eiplomat

,gainst a !a kground of their respe ti&e flags, Na'i German and :mperial #apanese offi ials toast the ne" ,His Pa t in <okyo in ()5(. ,t eHtreme right is Aeinri h ?tahmer, mysterious German agent "ho for ed through the signing of the pa t. ;rom right to left are ?tahmer, @ugen Ctt, German ,m!assadorO :talian ,m!assador :ndelli, ;oreign 9inister >osuke 9atsuoka, and 9inister "ithout Portfolio Naoki Aoshino. NeHt to Aoshino in uniform is War 9inister Gen. Aideki <o=o, !ehind mi rophone is <oshio ?hiratori. $Bettmann.CC8B:?%

<hree German generals and a #apanese general $right% eHamine a glo!e during a meeting in Germany on 9ar h 2), ()5(. $Photo- V CC8B:?%

#apanese 9inister of ;oreign ,ffairs >osuke 9atsuoka &isits Berlin, Germany on ,pril (), ()5(. #apan signed the <ripartite Pa t "ith Na'i Germany and ;as ist :taly on ?eptem!er 26, ()53. $Pro&ided !y Keiyosha% http-..""".=a hi!ei.negotiation.indeH4.html

Captured #apanese image sho"s &isiting group of German su!marine re" of the Kriegsmarine LGerman Na&yM oming to pay respe ts to "ar dead at the >asukuni ?hrine in <okyo, #apan in C to!er ()5(. $Photo- <ime Life%

Captured #apanese image sho"s &isiting German su!marine offi ers and re" of the Kriegsmarine !ringing "reath to pay respe ts to "ar dead at the >asukuni ?hrine in <okyo, #apan in C to!er ()5(. $Photo- <ime Life%

4nidentified Nazi German 0tourists> meet with a group of 7i+etans in 7i+et in circa "#$@,"#$#Q three swasti-a pennants appear in the +ac-ground. &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/

, group of :mperial #apanese ,rmy offi ers and Na'i German Wehrma ht offi ers pose for a group portrait in front of the Na'i German and :mperial #apanese flags.

King 'ra3adhipo- of 5iam Calso -nown as King <ama VII of 7hailandD and Pueen <amphaiphanni of 5iam appear with Konstantin 2on Neurath in Berlin, German in !ul "#$J. King 'ra3adhipo- of 5iam a+dicated his throne the following ear. &'hoto( German 6ederal Archi2es/

,BCB< <A@ ,B<AC8: ser&ed in the B.?. ,rmy from 233( to 2335 as a soldier in the ;irst ,rmored Ei&ision in Germany $(-( C,K, Budingen%O : "as deployed to :raI $near Baghdad% from ,pril 233* to #uly 2335. : ha&e tra&eled to many ities and pla es, in luding <okyo, London, Paris, 8ome, Berlin, Kienna, 9uni h, Cologne, ;rankfurt, 9ilan, Keni e, LuHem!ourg City, Boston, Philadelphia, Ne" >ork City, Washington E.C., Baltimore, Chi ago, ?an ;ran is o, ?an Eiego, ?eattle, Een&er, Eallas, Ne" Aa&en $Conne ti ut%, >ale Bni&ersity, Aar&ard Bni&ersity, Prin eton Bni&ersity, Colum!ia Bni&ersity, Bu kingham Pala e, British Parliament, 8ei hstag, Grand Canyon, ?"iss ,lps, and the 8hine 8i&er &alley. : li&ed in Crest&ie", ;lorida for se&eral years and li&ed at >okota ,ir Base $B.?. ,ir ;or e !ase in #apan near <okyo% from ()+6 to ())* . $9y mother is from #apan, my grandfather "as drafted t"i e !y the :mperial #apanese Na&y during World War ::, and my father is an ,meri an of Bkrainian des ent.% @-mail- "pl*(5[yahoo. om

Eee Beom,seo-( Korean National 5ocialist :*traordinaireG

Eee Beom,seo- C;i 'om,so-D &"@##,"#%F/ 'rime 8inister of the <epu+lic of Korea C5outh KoreaD &August ", "#J@,April F", "#N./, Defense 8inister of the <epu+lic of Korea C5outh KoreaD &"#J@,"#N./, Korean Am+assador to the <epu+lic of China C7aiwanD, and Korean Nationalist

08!he *dea,9 Juche : ;, seems at first glance to be readily understandable. *t is defined as self-reliance and inde endence in olitics, economics, defense, and ideology. &n closer ins ection, however, the term"s meaning is less accessible<*n fact it :Juche; seems to be used much like kokutai : ; in interwar Ja an, or volkische in :(a=i; Germany, or )ao >edong !hought in 'hina6 a term defining an emotion that uts the nation first, or the leader"s wishes first, in everything. As we ha2e said, !uche shares the same character as kokutai &kuk)h$e in Korean/Q )hu means something li-e main or master, so that the li+eral translation of !uche would +e 0main> or 0master> principle. Corporatism seems to +e a fle*i+le framewor- within which Eeft and <ight can meet, something man ha2e noted a+out interwar :urope. Korea is no different. !uche resonates with kokutai and other such phrases precisel +ecause of its diffuse and all,purpose meaningQ an emotion mas9uerading as an idea, it appeals to nationalists of all persuasions. 7hus it is that Kim Il 5ungs ideolog calls up comparisons with perhaps the most e*treme right,wing figure in postwar 5outh Korea, ;i 'om 5o- CEee Beom 5eo-D, the founder and leader of the earl postwar Korean National ;outh &KN;/. In the "#$.s, ;i had studied :uropean corporatist and 6ascist outh groups, and wor-ed with the Kuomintang Blue 5hirts and 5pecial 5er2ices in China. Bn his return to Korea in "#JA he organized some %.,... ouths into a classic rightist 2ehicle of the streetsQ + "#J@ the KN; had o2er a million mem+ers and made ;i second onl to 5 ngman <hee in power. +is et slogan, 8minjok chisang, kukka chisang9 ?nation first, state first@, eA ressed his :(a=i; German learningB he was among the first Corean olitical figures eA licitly to eAalt not just the nation, but the state. +e o osed Corean reliance on foreigners ? sadae chuui or 8flunkeyism,9 as the (orth Coreans translate it@, advocated inde endence, lambasted those oliticians who were 8un-Corean,9 and urged Coreans to ado t a stand oint of juche, which in his usage meant com lete subjectivity where everything Corean was concerned. +e referred economic autarky to any eAternal international involvements that might subordinate Corean interests. +e urged a an-national Corean solidarity based on racial urity6 8the (ation is the race and the race is the nation.9 7al- of 0racial essence> and 0+lood,lines> &h/olt$ong/ runs throughout his wor-( this for him was the -e characteristic defining Korea, and the essential element in its corporate and organic unit . As for the mind and s irit, he thought only the strongest national consciousness ?minjok uisik@ could save Corea from redatory great owers. +e lived in the era of 8the masses,9 he said, and therefore leaders must 8understand and love9 the masses, always be among them and never se arate from them. &ne race, one blood, one nation, one state, and inse arable unity between leaders and led would create 8a great family9 that would endure. 7he resonance with Kim Il 5ungs idea is clear. ;i was, howe2er, a romantic and conser2ati2e corporatist. +e eAalted the state, thought leaders should be atriots above olitics, railed against the conce t of class struggle, and in his bias against ca italism and material ursuits sought not to overcome it in socialism but to return to an earlier era of community.> ? State and So)iet/ in Contem'orar/ Korea + Hagen Koo, Chapter A &7he Corporate 5tate in North Korea + Bruce Cumings/, p. FF$,FFJ

07he officiall ,supported Korean National ;outh melded Chinese influences with !apanese methods of dealing with political recalcitrants. Di 7om-sok was a fierce Corean nationalist, eAce t where the 'hinese (ationalists were concerned. Born in ./33 in Cyonggi 7rovince, he went to 'hina during $orld $ar *. +e fought the Ja anese as a guerrilla along the -inoCorean border in the early .3EF-. *n .300 he visited Germany to study military affairsB later he worked with German and *talian advisors to the (ationalists. By .30G, he was in the &ffice of the 'hief of -taff of the C)! Army, and by .30/, was a com any commander at the C)! )ilitary Academy in +angchou. +e was widely known in Corea as a follower and admirer of Generalissimo 'hiang Cai-shek. 4'hiang and his secret olice chief, the unsavory !ai Li, organi=ed a youth wing called the IBlue -hirtsI in the .30Fs, a fascist-style aramilitary force that chose the color +lue, it would appear, +ecause +rown, +lac-, and green were alread spo-en for. ;i wor-ed with this group, and wrote in "#J% that the Germans and the Italians were YpioneersY in outh mo2ements, and also cited the KuomintangLs good e*perience with ouths. He originall termed his own outh group Ythe Blue 5hirts,Y and the KN;, as an American delicatel noted, had Ydistincti2e +lue uniforms.Y American sources in 5hanghai reported that ;i had +een Ywor-ing for 7ai EiY during the war, and thought he had +een in2ol2ed with a group of oung men who Ypersecuted all Korean residents of 5hanghai and other :astern cities without discrimination.Y 7ai Ei had +een a confidant of the Bffice of 5trategic 5er2ices &B55/ chief in China, Adm. 8ilton Y8ar Y 8iles. In August "#JN ten B55 agents in 5hanghai flew ;i into 5eoul +riefl , then too- him +ac- to 5hanghai for reasons that ha2e ne2er +een clear. 1hate2er the B55 ma ha2e thought of ;i, + "#N. the CIA termed him Ya man of little imagination and mediocre intelligence,Y possessing a forceful personalit , 0great political am+itions, and an intensel nationalist 2iewpoint.> He thought and acted Yli-e a traditional Chinese war lord,Y and remained deepl under the influence of Chiang Kai,she-. 7he CIA thought his future was limited, in part +ecause he could not spea- :nglish. *t was robably Di"s nationalism that the Americans disliked the most, however, for it meant he could not be trusted. Di became known for his use of the 'hinese slogan, "minjok chisang, kukka chisang," meaning nation first, state first. +e got the slogan in 'hina, which robably got it from Germany. *n his mind nation and race were synonymous, just as they were in +itler4sB the difference was that in Corea the distinction between race and nation was minimal, minjok ?ethnic eo le@ often connoting both. His "#J% +oo- is interesting for its anachronisms, its Yuntimel Y 9ualit Q coming two ears after the Holocaust it is a +it much to hear someone prattling on et again a+out race, nation, and +lood lines. At one point he lauds the !ews for preser2ing their identit for centuries, at another he remar-s that Ythe e*clusion of the !ews was 9uite efficacious for CGermanD unit .Y *n classic cor oratist fashion, he called u on Coreans to forget class conflicts, distinctions between su erior and inferior, and to unite as one family. But the book is really a teAt on what it means to be a Corean, with 8being Corean9 the essence of citi=enshi and nationhood. +e even uses the term Juche, (chuch'e), by which he meant something like being ever subjective where things Corean are concerned, always utting Corea first. !his is the cornerstone of Corean nationalism, just what one would eA ect from an ancient, homogeneous eo le long subject to outside threat. 6or the American who has rarel had to thin- a+out how to preser2e a nation surrounded + predators, such 2iews are +lood ,minded, solipsistic, utterl recalcitrant, o+no*ious, doing 2iolence to reason at e2er turn. But these are popular ideas in Korea, and also a realm where Eeft meets <ight. If this is a t pe of fascism, perhaps no national elite would +e more recepti2e to such appeals than right,wing KoreansQ if not that, still far more recepti2e than to li+eral ideas. 6ascist doctrine in politics lauds unit , and most Koreans thought disunit had +rought on the disaster of colonialismQ in economics it posits autarch , a traditional fact and ideal in KoreaQ it li-es a strong leader, and no people seems to praise and respect a leader more than Koreans &e2en if much of the flatter ma +e false/Q it conflates ethnicit and nation, which coincide almost e*actl in Korea +ut hardl an where else. *t was common in -eoul in the .31Fs to see Mein Kampf in Corean translation dis layed in one bookstall after another, and secondary school students would often name +itler the man they res ected most amongst twentieth-century leaders. > ? The Origins of the Korean War: 0olume !!: The oaring of the Catara)t 56<=-56>? + Bruce Cumings &"##./, p. "#N,"#A

<he first B.?. ,m!assador to the 8epu!li of Korea, #ohn #. 9u io, signs o&er the go&ernment to the 8epu!li of Korea $8CK% in ?eoul, Korea on ?eptem!er (2, ()5+. <o 9u ioPs right is 9inister of ;oreign ,ffairs Chan5 Tae27san5O to his left, Prime 9inister Lee %eom7seo2. $Note- <he pronun iation of Lee Beom-seoks first name is F!um su kG.% $Photo- Rethinkin& the +orean War: A New #i)lomatic an! -trate&ic History !y William ?tue k%

0Aware of the fact that he had onl a wea- and disunited group of supporters within the National Assem+l , C'resident 5 ngmanD <hee recalled ;i 'om,so-, former prime minister and defense minister, who was ser2ing as his am+assador to the Nationalist Chinese Go2ernment in 7aiwan, and entrusted him with the tas- of organizing the new part . In order to understand the nature of the newl organized part , it is necessar to e*amine closel the personal +ac-ground of ;i 'om,so-, its chief organizer. Before "#JN, ;i 'om,so- was famous for his anti,!apanese militar acti2ities in 8anchuria. In "#F., at the age of twent ,one, he was said to ha2e led a ",N..,man force of the Northern <oute Independence Arm to a decisi2e 2ictor o2er a regular !apanese +rigade of some ".,... men. 4pon formation of the Ei+eration Arm of the Korean 'ro2isional Go2ernment in "#J., ;i was appointed its chief of staff. In this position he had a close relationship with the militar and political leaders of the Nationalist Chinese go2ernment, including Chiang Kai,she-. ;i returned to Korea on !une FF, "#JA, and within a few months he set a+out organizing the National ;outh Corps &Min9ok Ch$ongn/ondan/ on the +asis of a 0nation,first> and 0state, first> slogan. 6or reasons not clearl understood e2en toda , his National ;outh Corps was generousl supported + the American authorities with mone and material. 6urthermore, the police could not o+struct its acti2ities +ecause of the American support it recei2ed. !he (ational Douth 'or s, often com ared to +itler"s Jugend Brigade, attracted mostl 0marginal men> such as former Communists who needed protection in a legitimate organization, rightist ouths who resented struggle among the rightist organizations themsel2es, romanticists who were attracted to the Corps ideological appeals, and others who were tired of the chaotic situation in Korean societ . 5ome F.,... oung men initiall responded to its call for mem+ership in Bcto+er "#JA. 7he National ;outh Corps was attac-ed + +oth leftist and rightist groups, +ut it e*panded rapidl in organization and mem+ership throughout the nation. At one point, ;i 'om,so- claimed that half of all Korean ouths had +een affected + Corps training. 7hough this was an e*aggerated claim, it indicates the e*tent of acti2ities of the National ;outh Corps. 4pon esta+lishment of the Korean go2ernment, ;i was appointed prime minister and, simultaneousl , minister of defense. He -ept the prime ministership until April "#N., two months +efore the out+rea- of the Korean 1ar.> ? The 4ailure of 1emo)ra)/ in South Korea- 0olume @> + 5_ng,3_ Han, p. "%,"@

Adolf Hitler greets Dr. H.H. Kung &left/, 6inance 8inister of the <epu+lic of China &Nationalist China/, at Hitlers Ba2arian Alpine guesthouse in Berchtesgaden, German in !une "#$%. Dr. H.H. Kung was Generalissimo Chiang Kai,she-s +rother,in, law. H.H. Kung earned a Bachelor of Arts degree at B+erlin College in "#.A and a 8aster of Arts degree at ;ale 4ni2ersit in "#.%. &'hoto( http())www.*,lac-s)hitler)enlargements)enlg.J.html/

Adolf Hitler greets Dr. H.H. Kung &left/, 6inance 8inister of the <epu+lic of China &Nationalist China/, at Hitlers Ba2arian Alpine guesthouse in Berchtesgaden, German in !une "#$%. &'hoto( http())www.*,lac-s)hitler)enlargements)enlg.N.html/

Adolf Hitler greets Dr. H.H. Kung &left/ at Hitlers Ba2arian Alpine guesthouse in Berchtesgaden, German in !une "#$%. &'hoto( http())www.*,lac-s)hitler)enlargements)enlg.@.html/

Adolf Hitler &center/ meets with Dr. H.H. Kung &right/ and other mem+ers of the Nationalist Chinese delegation at Adolf Hitlers guesthouse in Berchtesgaden, German in !une "#$%. &'hoto( http())www.*,lac-s)hitler)enlargements)enlg"F.html/

Adolf Hitler &right/ meets with Dr. H.H. Kung &left/ and other mem+ers of the Nationalist Chinese delegation at Adolf Hitlers guesthouse in Berchtesgaden, German in !une "#$%. &'hoto( http())www.*,lac-s)hitler)enlargements)enlg"$.html/

Adolf Hitler meets with mem+ers of the Nationalist Chinese delegation at Adolf Hitlers guesthouse in Berchtesgaden, German in !une "#$%. &'hoto( http())www.*,lac-s)hitler)enlargements)enlg"@.html/

Adolf Hitler meets with mem+ers of the Nationalist Chinese delegation at Adolf Hitlers guesthouse in Berchtesgaden, German in !une "#$%. &'hoto( http())www.*,lac-s)hitler)enlargements)enlg"#.html/

Adolf Hitler &right/ meets with Dr. H.H. Kung &left/ and other mem+ers of the Nationalist Chinese delegation at Adolf Hitlers guesthouse in Berchtesgaden, German in !une "#$%. &'hoto( http())www.*,lac-s)hitler)enlargements)enlgFJ.html/

Adolf Hitler &right/ meets with Dr. H.H. Kung &left/ and other mem+ers of the Nationalist Chinese delegation at Adolf Hitlers guesthouse in Berchtesgaden, German in !une "#$%. &'hoto( http())www.*,lac-s)hitler)enlargements)enlgFN.html/

Adolf Hitler &right/ +ows alongside a group of Nationalist Chinese guests at Adolf Hitlers guesthouse in Berchtesgaden, German in !une "#$%. &'hoto( http())www.*,lac-s)hitler)enlargements)enlgF#.html/

Adolf Hitler &right/ +ows alongside a group of Nationalist Chinese guests at Adolf Hitlers guesthouse in Berchtesgaden, German in !une "#$%. &'hoto( http())www.*,lac-s)hitler)enlargements)enlgF%.html/

An unidentified Nationalist Chinese guest &si*th from left, wearing a 8ao suit/ poses for a group portrait with a group of Nazi German 55 officers and Hitlers +od guards at Adolf Hitlers guesthouse in Berchtesgaden, German in !une "#$%. &'hoto( http())www.*,lac-s)hitler)enlargements)enlg.F.html/

Adolf Hitler greets Dr. H.H. Kung, 6inance 8inister of the <epu+lic of China &Nationalist China/, at Hitlers Ba2arian Alpine guesthouse in Berchtesgaden, German in !une "#$%. &'hoto( http())www.*,lac-s)hitler)enlargements)enlg"".html/

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