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Contents

1.0

DESIGN OF HEAT EXCHANGER

3

1.1

INTRODUCTION

3

1.1.1 Flow Arrangement

3

1.1.2 Types of Heat Exchangers

4

1.3

Problem statement

5

1.3.1

Justification

5

1.4

Chemical engineering design

5

1.4.0 Heat Load

7

1.4.1 Calculation of area

8

1.4.2 Choice of tubes

8

1.4.3 Tube side coefficient calculations

9

1.4.4 Shell side coefficient Calculations

11

1.4.5 Overall heat transfer coefficient

13

1.4.6 Tube side pressure drop

13

1.5 Mechanical design

15

1.5.1 Design pressure

15

1.5.2 Design temperature

15

1.5.3 Shell side design

15

1.5.4 Nozzle design

16

1.5.5 Channel Cover

16

1.5.6 Head and closure

17

1.5.7 Effective length of heat exchanger

18

1.5.8 Gasket design

18

1.5.9 Bolts load estimation

19

1.5.10 Minimum bolt area

19

1.5.11 Flange design

20

1.5.12 Tube sheet thickness

20

1.5.13 Weight Analysis

21

1.5.14 Stress analysis

24

1.5.15 Longitudinal bending stress at mid span,

26

1.5.16 Longitudinal bending stress at support,

26

1

1.5.17 The resultant axial stress due to bending and pressure, σ r

26

REFERENCE

28

2

CHAPTER 1

1.0 DESIGN OF HEAT EXCHANGER

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Heat transfer to and from process fluids is one major operation in chemical process industries.

Heat exchangers are the major devices for this operation. Heat exchanger as the name implies is

used as a medium in which fluids exchange heat without any physical contact. The fluid streams

flow through the heat exchangers and are separated by a conducting wall through which heat can

pass from hot stream to the cold stream without physical contact between the two streams. Heat

transfer in each fluid involves convection and conduction (through the wall separating the two

fluids). The design of heat exchangers involve several factors including; thermal analysis,

structural stress, pressure drop, size and cost.

1.1.1 Flow Arrangement

Heat exchangers are classified according to flow arrangements and type of construction. There are

three primary flow arrangements. These are parallel flow, counter-current flow and cross flow.

In parallel-flow heat exchangers, the two fluids enter the exchanger at the same end, and travel in

the same direction (parallel) to one another to the other side.

T Hi T Hf T Cf T Ci figure 1.1 schematic diagram showing parallel
T Hi
T
Hf
T
Cf
T Ci
figure 1.1 schematic diagram showing parallel

In counter flow arrangements, the fluids enter the heat exchanger from opposite directions, flow

in opposite directions and exit in opposite directions.

T Hf T Hi T Cf T Ci figure 1.2 schematic diagram showing counter 3
T Hf
T Hi
T Cf
T Ci
figure 1.2 schematic diagram showing counter
3

In cross flow, the fluids flow at right angles to each other. This type of flow is found in cross flow heat exchangers which are normally used for cooling or heating of gases.

The most common among the flow patterns in heat exchangers are the parallel flow and counter current flow. Heat transfer is more efficient in a counter current flow than a parallel flow under comparable conditions.

The design of a parallel flow heat is advantageous when the two fluids are required to be brought to nearly the same temperature. In this design counter current flow would be considered for efficient heat transfer.

1.1.2 Types of Heat Exchangers

1. Double Pipe Heat Exchangers These are the simplest kind of heat exchangers used in industries. They are typically used for small flow rates. The term double pipe refers to a heat exchanger consisting of a pipe within a pipe usually of a straight-leg construction with no bends. In these devices both hot and cold fluids flow in concentric tubes.

Advantages They are cheap to maintain and design Disadvantage They have very low efficiencies Occupies a very large space

2. Shell and tube heat exchangers

The shell and tube is one of the most important heat transfer equipment in the process industry. It consists of a bundle of tubes enclosed in a cylindrical shell. Advantages Used for much larger flow rates than the double pipe heat exchanger. It can be used for all types of applications. The configuration and arrangement gives a large surface area in a small volume. It has a good shape for pressure operation.

4

It uses well established fabrication techniques.

Shell and tube exchangers can be constructed from a wide range of materials.

3. Fired heaters

4. Spiral heat exchangers

5. Plate-fin heat exchangers

6. Plate and frame heat exchanger: mostly used for heating and cooling.

7. Agitated vessels

8. Plate-fin exchangers

9. Air cooled: coolers and condensers

Air-cooled heat exchangers include a tube bundle, which generally has spiral-wound fins

upon the tubes, and a fan, which moves air across the tubes and is provided with a driver.

1.3 Problem statement

The main aim of this chapter is to design a heat exchanger that will cool the RBDO at a flowrate

of 769.77kg/h and 185 o C to cool RBDO at 160 o C using RBO at 80 o C to 108 o C.

1.3.1 Justification

In the production of soybeans oil from soybean seeds, the refinery process require deodorization

of the olein (efined bleached oil,RBO) at the final stage of the refinery. The RBO is heated to a

temperature of 273 o C in the deodorizing chamber for deodorization. The Refined Bleached

Deodorized Oil (refined bleached deodorized oil,RBDO) upon leaving the deodorizing chamber

to storage is at a very high and the temperature needs to be cooled to a lower temperature as well

as the heat energy contained in the RBDO needs to be made used of and not to be discarded.

Shell and tube heat exchanger is suited for higher-pressure and temperature applications .

1.4 Chemical engineering design

General heat transfer equation is given by , Q = UAΔT M

Where Q =Heat transferred per unit time (kW)

A=Heat transfer area (m 2 )

ΔT M = Mean temperature difference (˚C)

ΔT M= ΔT LM F T

5

ΔT LM = (T 1 t 2 ) (T 2 t 1 )

ln (T 1 − t . 2 )

(T

2 t 1 )

Where, T 1 Tube side inlet temperature ( o C)

T 2 Tube side outlet temperature ( o C)

t 1 Shell side inlet temperature ( o C)

t 2 Shell side outlet temperature ( o C)

M x Cp (t) x (T 1 -T 2 ) = m x Cp (s) x (t 1 -t 2 )…………………………………….

Where, Cp (t) Liquid specific heat capacity at tube side (kJ/Kg o C)

Cp (s) - Liquid specific heat capacity at shell side (kJ/Kg o C)

M

- Shell side mass flowrate (kg/s)

m

- tube side mass flowrate (kg/s)

Where F T is temperature correction factor and it’s a function of R and S

R

=

T 1 −T 2 t 2 −t 1

and S = t 2 t 1

T 1 −t 1

t 1 =80˚C
t 1 =80˚C
1 and S = t 2 − t 1 T 1 −t 1 t 1 =80˚C
1 and S = t 2 − t 1 T 1 −t 1 t 1 =80˚C

t 2 =108˚C

T 1 =185

T 2 =160˚C
T 2 =160˚C

ΔT LM = (185 − 108) − (160 − 80) ln (185 − 108)

(160 − 80)

ΔT LM = 78.5˚C

6

R =

R =

185 − 160

108 − 80

= 0.895

= 0 . 8 9 5

S =

108−80

185−80 = 0.267

From Coulson and Richardson’s chemical engineering vol 6, figure 12.19 the graph for correction

factors for heat exchangers when R= 0.895 and S=0.267, Ft=0.97

Hence a heat exchanger with one shell pass and two or more tube passes is suitable for the design.

ΔT M= 78.5x0.97

=76.1 o C

1.4.0 Heat Load

Assumptions

1. Steady state conditions

2. Constant overall heat transfer coefficient

3. Constant heat capacities of both fluids.

4. Heat losses are negligible

Heat loss by hot fluid=heat gained by cold fluid

Q = mc p

Average temperature at shell side =

185 + 160

2

= 173˚C

Heat capacity of oil at 168℃ = 2.077

kJ

kg. K

mass flowrate of oil at shell side = 769.77 kg hr

Q=769.77 X 2.077(185 160)

= 68.89kw

7

Therefore, the quantity of heat energy required to be exchanged by the process streams in the heat

exchanger is 68.89kW

1.4.1 Calculation of area

The design of a heat exchanger involves an iterative procedure, from literature a heat transfer

coefficient is assumed for the process streams and it is used in the chemical design calculations.

At the end of the calculations the overall heat transfer coefficient obtained must be higher or equal

to the heat transfer coefficient assumed from literature. If not the calculated heat transfer

coefficient is used in the calculations until it converges. In this report the coefficient of heat transfer

assumed is 551.908W/m 2 .K

Hence U=100W/m 2 K

Q=68.89kW

A =

Tm=76.9 o C

A =

Q

U∆T M

68.89 x10

3

(76.9) = 8.958m 2

100 ×

1.4.2 Choice of tubes

From Perry’s Chemical engineers handbook the following dimensions where chosen:

Outer diameter

3

of tube(D O ) = 4 in = 0.01905m

Inner diameter of tube(D I ) = 0.620in = 0.015748m

Pitch diameter(p t ) = 1.25 × D O = 0.0238125m

Length of tube (L)=2.44m

Number of tubes =

A

πD O L

Number of tubes =

8.958

π × 0.01905 × 2.44 = 57.3tubes

Area of one tube = π × 0.01905 × 2.44

Area of one tube = 0.146 m 2

57

so for 2 tube passes, tube per pass =

8

2 = 29tubes

1.4.3 Tube side coefficient calculations

2

Cross sectional area of one tube = πD I

4

Cross sectional area of one tube =

π × 0.015748 2

4

= 1.948 × 10 4 m 2

Tube per pass is 6 tubes

Flow Area = 29 × 1.948 × 10 4 = 35.649 x10 3 m 2

Mass velocity(G) = mass flow flowrate() area(A)

Mass velocity(G) =

769.77

x10 3 = 37.850 kg/m 2 . s

3600 × 3.385

Tube side linear velocity, u t =

G

ρ t

Where G is the mass velocity and ρ t is the tube side density

Density of oil at 160 0 C = 832 kg/m 3

Tube side linear velocity, u t =

37.85

832

Re = ρ × D i

× u t

μ

= 0.045 m/s

Viscosity of oil at mean temperature 160˚C; 6.1 × 10 4 Pa.s

Re =

Where Pr = Prandtl number

832 × 0.01574 × 0.045

6.1 × 10 4

Re = 9.66 × 10 2

Pr = C Pt × μ K t

Kt = thermal conductivity of RBDO (Olein)

Kt = K x w

From Richardson and Coulson, volume 6.thermal conductivity of organic liquids is given by:

k

= 3.56 × 10 5 Cp ( ρ 4 )

M

9

1

3

Where ρ is density of RBDO at tube side temperature = 832

kg

m 3

M is the molecular weight of RBDO = 920kg/kmol

Cp is the specific heat of RBDO at tube side temperature = 2.045

Hence thermal conductivity of RBDO:

1

k = 3.56 × 10 5 × 2.045 × ( 832 4 ) 3 = 0.059

920

K t = (0.059 × 0.9999)

= 0.059

W

m.K

2.045 x10 3 × 6.1 × 10 4

Pr =

0.059

Pr = 2.1 x 10 1

W

m 2 . K

Hence the Nusselt number is calculated as;

Nu = h i × D i K t

= j h × Re × Pr 0.33

L 2.44

D i

=

0.015748 = 154.94

Re = 9.66 × 10 2

kJ

kg. K

Reading from fig 12.23 from Richardson and Coulson, volume 6 for Re=9.66x10 2 and L/D i =155

J h = 1.8x10 -2 where J h is the tube side friction factor.

h i = K t × J h × Re × Pr 0.33

D

I

h i = 0.058 × 7.5 × 10 3 × 2.787 × 10 2 × (1.08 x 10 2 ) 0.33

0.015748

h i = 177.913

W

m 2 . ˚C

10

1.4.4 Shell side coefficient Calculations

Mean temperature at shell side =

108 + 80

2

Calculating RBO density at shell side,

ρ of RBO at 94˚C = 871.48

kg

m 3

Calculating specific heat capacity

Cp of RBO at 94˚C = 1.833

Cp S = 1.833

kJ

kg. K

kJ

kg. K

= 94˚C

Calculating RBO thermal conductivity at shell side,

K s =

1

k = 3.56 × 10 5 × 1.833 × ( 871.48 4 ) 3 = 0.056

920

K s = (0.056 × 0.998)

K s = 0.056

W

m. K

W

m 2 . K

Viscosity of RBO at 94˚C; T=7.67 × 10 3 Pa. s

Where P t = tube pitch ,

D O =tube outside diameter,

D S =shell inside diameter, m

l B =baffle spacing, m

μ = 7.67 × 10 3 Pa. s

A s = (P t − D o )D S l B P t

P t = 1.25D o = 1.25 × 0.01905 = 0.0238125m

11

From Richardson and Coulson. Volume 6 table 12.4 the values of n and k are obtained for two

tube passes using triangular pitch.k 1 =0.249 and n=2.207

D b = D O × ( N T )

k

1

1

n

D b = 0.01905 × (

290

0.249

)

1

2.207 = 0.5624m

For a split ring floating head exchanger from fig.12.10 in Richardson and Coulson, volume 6

bundle clearance=57mm

Shell inner diameter (D s ) = 562.4. +57=0.61949m

A s = (P t − D o )D S l B P t

shell diameter

l B =

5

= 0.01290m

= (0.0238125 − 0.01905)0.61949 × 0.01290

0.0238125

= 0.001598m 2

mass velocity of RBO = G s =

ṁ 771.32

=

A s

3600 × 0.0016

mass velocity of RBO = G s = 134.05

kg

m 2 . s

linear velocity at shell side μ s = G S

ρ

s

134.05

871.48 = 0.154m/s

=

Equivalent diameter, D e =

1.10

0.01905

(P t 2 − 0.917D o 2 )

Equivalent diameter, D e =

1.10

0.01905

(0.0238125 2 − 0.917(0.01905) 2 ) = 0.0135m

Re = G s D e

μ s

134.05 × 0.0135

=

0.154

=

1.20 × 10 1

Pr = Cp × μ

K f

1.833 × 10 3 × 7.67 × 10 3

=

0.056

= 251.1

Choosing 25% segmental baffle cut and for Re = 1.2 × 10 1 , from chart in Richardson and

Coulson volume 6, fig 12.29 J h = 1.4 × 10 1

h o = J h × Re × Pr 0.33 × K S

D

e

1.4 × 10 1 × 1.20 × 10 1 × 0.056 × 251.1 0.33

=

0.01353

12

W

= 43.07 m 2 . K

1.4.5

Overall heat transfer coefficient

1

u = (

1

u = (

od ) + ( D o × ln ( D o )

1

1

D

i

h

o

h

+

2 × K w

) + ( D o

D

I

1

43.07 +

4000 ) + ( 0.01905 × ln ( 0.01905

0.01574

)

1

2 × 54

+ (

0.015748 × 4000 )

0.01905

1

U o = 100.74

W

m 2 . K

×

1

id ) + ( D o

h

D

I

×

1

i )

h

) + (

0.01905

1

.015748 ×

0.

177.91

)

Since the overall calculated heat transfer coefficient U o is almost equal to the assumed U the design

is accepted.

1.4.6 Tube side pressure drop

ΔP t = N P × [8 × J f ×

L

D

i

+ 2.5] × ρu t 2

2

Where Np is the number of tube passes

L is the length of tube

u t is the tube side velocity

ρ is the density at tube side

ΔP t = 2 × [8 × 1.8 × 10 2 × 154.94 + 2.5] × 832 × 0.045 2

2

ΔP t = 41.8kPa

Shell side pressure drop

ΔP shell = 8 × J f × (

Where Ds is the shell diameter

De is the equivalent shell diameter

L b is the baffle length

L is the length of tube

D

e ) × (

s

D

B ) × ρu 2

L

L

2

13

ρ is density of bulk fluid at shell side

u is velocity of fluid at shell side

ΔP shell = 8 × J f × (

D

e ) × (

s

D

B ) × ρu 2

L

L

2

ΔP = 8 × 1.4 × 10 1

× 0.61949

× 871.4 × 0.00767 2

0.01353

2

ΔP = 1.314kPa

Table 1.1 Summary of Chemical Engineering design

Parameter

Value

Heat Load

68.89kW

Assumed heat transfer coefficient

100W/m 2 .K

Log mean temperature

76.1˚C

Correction factor

0.97

Heat transfer area

8.958m 2

Tube side design

Tube outer diameter

0.019m

Tube inner diameter

0.016m

Number of tubes

57

Reynolds Number

966

Prandtl number

21

Tube side Transfer coefficient

177.913W/m 2

Pressure drop

41.8kPa

Shell side design

Inner Diameter

0.619m

Baffle spacing

0.013m

Reynolds number

12

Shell side transfer coefficient

43.070W/m 2 .K

Pressure

1.314kPa

Overall heat transfer coefficient

100.74W/m 2 .K

14

1.5 Mechanical design

Material of construction

The material chosen for the design of the heat exchanger is carbon steel.

1.5.1 Design pressure

A vessel must be designed to withstand the maximum pressure to which it is likely to be

subjected to in operation. For vessel under internal pressure, the design pressure is normally

taken as the pressure at which the relief device is set. This is normally within the range of 5-10

percent above the normal working pressure to avoid serious operation during minor process

upsets. (Sinnott, 2003)

Working pressure is 200kPa

Design pressure =110% of working pressure

Design pressure=220kPa=220000Pa = 0.22N/mm 2

1.5.2 Design temperature

Design temperature is normally taken as 10% increase in the highest temperature of fluid

entering the equipment. Hence the design temperature is 110% of 185˚C.Therefore the design

temperature is 203.5˚C

1.5.3 Shell side design

Minimum shell thickness t s =

Where P is the internal pressure

P + D (2 × f × J) + C

I

f

is the permissible tensile strength of material=100.6N/mm 2

J

is welded factor; usually between 0.7-0.9

C

is the corrosion allowance.

Corrosion allowance chosen for the material is 4mm

Shell diameter=619.49mm

f is the permissible tensile stress=100.6N/mm 2 for carbon steel

Minimum shell thickness t s =

0.14485 + 619.49 (2 × 100.6 × 0.85) + 4 = 7.62mm

Hence shell thickness is 8mm according to (IS: 4503)

15

1.5.4

Nozzle design

Nozzle diameter =152.4mm

(For shells with internal diameter between 590.042mm to 736.6m use nozzle diameter of

152.8mm).

Minimum nozzle thickness, t n =

Where

P i ×D n

2×100.6×J−P i +4

D n , nozzle internal diameter

Nozzle thickness =

0.22×152.8

2×100.6×0.85−0.22 + 4 = 4.20mm

Nozzle thickness is 4.20mm≈ 4mm

1.5.5 Channel Cover

The outside diameter of the channel shall be the same as that of the shell. The thickness of the channel shall be greater of the two values: (i) shell thickness or (ii) thickness calculated on the

basis of the design pressure shown below.

The effective channel cover thickness (IS: 4503 section 15.6.1): =

×

where D C = diameter of cover usually same as outside shell diamter

c i = a factor which is 0.25 when the cover is bolted with fullfaced gaskets and 0.3

when bolted with narrow faced or ring type gaskets

P is design pressure in N/mm 2 and f is allowable stress value in N/mm 2 at design temperature

Outside diameter of shell=shell internal diameter + 2(shell thickness)

D C = 619.49+16=635.49mm

t cc =

635.49 × 0.25 × 0.22

10 × 100.6

= 0.1481mm

Use t cc = 0.1481+4mm (corrosion allowance) = 4.15mm

16

1.5.6 Head and closure

The ends of a cylindrical vessel are closed by heads of various shapes. The principal types used

are categorized as either flat end or domed end (hemispherical, ellipsoidal, torispherical).For the

purpose of this design-floating head heat exchanger both the flat end and the torispherical end is

used.

1.5.6.1 Torispherical head

Inside depth of the head (h i ) can be calculated as h i = R i − [(R i D S ) (R i + D S ) + 2ri] 0.5

2

2

Where crown radius

R i = D s (shell diameter) = 619.49mm

Knuckle radius ri = 0.06R i =0.06(619.49) =37.1694mm

h i = 619.49 − [(619.49 −

619.49

2

) (619.49 + 619.49 ) + 2 × 37.1694] 0.5

2

Thickness of torispherical head =

Where W = 4 (3 + R i ) = 4 (3 + √ 37.1694 ) = 1.7706mm

1

r

i

1

619.49

PR W 2fj − 0.2p + C

i

= 82.93mm

Thickness of head =

0.22 × 619.49 × 1.7706 (2 × 100.6 × 0.85) − (0.2 × 0.22) + 4mm

Thickness of head = 5.4mm

Use same thickness of shell for head

1.5.6.2 Flat Head

Head thickness, t= C p D e p

f

t,

head or closure thickness

C

p , design constant, dependent on the edge constraint (Sinnott, 2003)

D e , nominal plate diameter=619.49mm

Using a full face gasket, bolted cover, take Cp = 0.4

17

f is the permissible tensile strength of the material

= 0.4 × 619.49 × √ 100.6 = 11.6

0.22

Closure thickness = 11.6+4(corrosion allowance) =16mm

1.5.7 Effective length of heat exchanger E = effective heat exchanger length = Length of tubes + (2 × h i )

E = effective heat exchanger length = 2.44 + (2 × 0.08293) = 2.61m

1.5.8 Gasket design

Gaskets are used to make the metal surfaces leak-proof. Gaskets are elasto-plastic materials and

relatively softer than the flange. (IS: 4503)

Gaskets are made from elastic-plastic materials which will deform and flow under load to fill the surface irregularities between the flanges faces, yet retain sufficient elasticity to take up the changes in the flange alignment that occur under load. (Sinnott, 2003)

Material: vegetable fibre

Gasket internal diameter = shell internal diameter =619.49mm

Gasket width =30mm (assumed) from Richardson and Coulson minimum width should be 10mm.

Gasket outer diameter =619.49+30= 649.49mm

Gasket factor, m =1.75

Seating stress =7.6 N/mm 2 (Sinnott, 2003)

Basic gasket seating, bo =

30

2

=15mm

Effective gasket seating b = 2.5√b o = 2.5√15 =9.68mm

Effective gasket seating b is approximately 10mm

Mean gasket diameter, G = 649.49mm

18

1.5.9 Bolts load estimation

The bolt load due to gasket reaction under atmospheric conditions is given by:

W m1 = y × G × π × b o

W m1 = 7.36 × 649.49 × π × 9.68 = 145.37kN

Where W m1 is the bolt load required to seat the gasket

Where

From W m2 = H + H g

W m2 , minimum required bolt load under the operation condition

H, total pressure force =

π

4

× G 2 × P

H g = π × G × b × m × P

W m2 = (π × G × b × m × P) + ( π × G 2 × P)

4

W m2 = (π × 649.49 × 9.68 × 1.75 × 0.22) + ( π × 649.49 2 × 0.22)

4

W m2 = 80.493kN

Hence W m1 is the controlling load since is greater than W m2

1.5.10 Minimum bolt area

The minimum bolt cross sectional area (bolt material is carbon steel)

A m =

W m1

145370

=

f a

100.6

= 1445.029 2

M16 nominal thread diameter with bolt circle diameter (C b ) of 860mm, 32 bolts and 18mm roots

diameter (d br ) are selected.

Corresponding actual bolt circle diameter

A b =

π

4

d br 2 × number of bolts =

19

π

4

× 18 2 × 32 = 8143mm 2

A b > A M therefore the selected bolts are suitable

1.5.11 Flange design

Thickness of the flange is given by,

=

= √

×

+

[0.3 + { 1.5 × × × }] −1

h G is the radial distance from gasket to bolt circle

B is the flange internal diameter

= ( ) + (2 × ) + 12

 

π

× 649.49 2 × 0.22 = 72.888

H =

4

Where = [0.3 + { 1.5×145.370×25.5

73.563×700.49

}] 1 = 2.4903

=

2

700.49 − 649.49

=

2

= 25.5

= 649.49 × √

0.22

2.4903 × 100.6 + 4 = 23.25

Hence flange thickness is 23.25mm

1.5.12 Tube sheet thickness

Tube sheet thickness, t f =

F×G

P + C

f

2

Where F, tube sheet constant (for tube sheet having straight tubes F=1)

G

is the mean gasket width

P

is the design pressure

20

f is the permissible tensile strength

619.49 × 1

t f =

2

× 100.6

0.22

+ 4 = 18.48mm

1.5.13 Weight Analysis

Length of heat exchanger=2.44

Shell internal diameter D i =0.61949m

Shell outer diameter D o =0.63549m

Thickness of shell=0.008m

Outer diameter of tube d o =0.015748m

Number of tubes N t = 57 tubes

Density of carbon steel=ρ c =7850kg/m 3

Density of fluid in tubes=832kg/m 3

Weight of shell body, Ws

volume of shell body =

π

4

(D O 2 − D I 2 ) × L

volume of shell body =

π

4

(0.63549 2 − 0.61949 2 ) × 2.44

volume of shell body = 0.03848m 3

weight of shell body = V s × ρ c × 9.81

weight of shell body = 0.03866 × 7850 × 9.81

Weight of tubes, W t

weight of shell body = 2963.30N

V t =

π

4

(d o 2 − d i 2 ) × L × N t

21

V t =

π

4

(0.01905 2 − 0.015748 2 ) × 2.44 × 29 = 0.00686m 3

weight of tubes = V t × ρ c × 9.81 = 0.00686 × 7850 × 9.81 = 491.75N

Weight of head, W h

volume of head = 0.087D i

3

volume of head = 0.087(0.61949) 3 = 0.02068m 3

weight of head = 0.020985 × 7850 × 9.81 = 1592.80N

Weight of insulation, Wi

w i = V I × ρ I × 9.81

V i = πD i × t i × L where t i is the thickness of insulation

V i = πD i × t i × L = π × 0.61949 × 0.1 × 2.44 = 0.4749m 3

Density of insulation material=130kg/m 3

w i = 0.4749 × 130 × 9.81 = 605.60N

Weight of spacers and tie rods, W sr

Rods of length of 3m

V I =

W sr = V sr × ρ sr × g

1

4 × π × (19 × 10 3 ) 2 × 3 = 8.5059 × 10 4 m 3

Rods of length of 2.5m

V I =

1

4 × π × (19 × 10 3 ) 2 × 2.5 = 7.088 × 10 4 m 3

Total volume = V 1 + V 2 =

1.5594 × 10 3 m 3

W sr = 1.5594 × 10 3 × 7850 × 9.81 = 120.0871N

Weight of baffles, W b

22

For shell diameter between 152-635mm baffle diameters is given as:

D s − 16mm(+0.8mmtolerance) (Sinnott, 2003)

Baffle diameter = 619.49 − (1.6 + 0.8) = 617.09mm

1

Cross sectional area of one baffle = 4 × π × (0.61709) 2 = 0.2990m 2

For 25% Baffle

Baffle area remaining = 0.75 × 0.2990 = 0.2243m 2

Total number of tubes through the baffles is 29 with 2 tie and rods

1

Total area covered by tubes = 29 × 4 × ((0.015748)) 2 = 1.674 × 10 3 m 2

Effective surface area = 0.2243 − 1.674 × 10 3 = 0.2226 2

Volume of baffle = Effective surface area of baffle × Thickness of baffle

Take thickness of baffle to be 3mm

Volume of baffle = 0.2226 × 0.003 = 6.68 × 10 4

weight of baffle = 6.68 × 10 4 × 9.81 × 7850 = 51.436N

Weight of tube sheet, W ts

weight of tube sheet = V ts × ⍴ ts × g

1

cross sectional area of tube sheet (A ts ) = 4 × π × (d ts ) 2 = 0.25 × π × 0.63549m 2

= 0.4991m 2

d ts covers the whole outer diameter of the shell=0.63549m

Area of tubes = 0.09413m 2

Volume of tube sheet = (A ts − A t ) × t ts

Tube sheet thickness = 15.08x10 3 m

23

volume of tube sheet = (0.4991 − 0.09413) × 0.01508 = 6.11 × 10 3 m 3

weight of tube sheet = 6.11 × 10 3 × 7850 × 9.81 = 470.52N

Weight of fluid in the tubes, W ft

W ft = V ft × ⍴ ft × g

1

volume of mixture in the tubes = 4 × π × ((0.015748)) 2 × 2.44 = 4.753 × 10 4 m 3

Total volume of mixture in the tubes = 29 × 4.75 × 10 4 = 0.0138m 3

Taking that water fills the head fully at both ends

Inside depth of head=82.93x10 3 m

1

Volume of mixture in closure = 4 × π × 0.61949 × 0.08293 = 0.04035m 3

weight of oil in the tubes = 0.04054 × 7850 × 9.81 = 3107.24N

Weight of RBO at shell side, W fs

Volume of RBO = Volume of shell − volume of tubes − volume of baffle

Volume of RBO = 0.03848 − 0.00686 − 1.5594 × 10 3 − 6.724 × 10 4 = 0.0294 2

weight of RBO at shell side = 0.0311 × 7850 × 9.81 = 2263.14N

Dead weight, DW

DW = W s + W t + W H + W i +

W sp

+

W b + W ts + W ft + W fs

DW = 2974.43 + 491.75 + 1616.02 + 607.91 + 120.09 + 51.72 + 262.51 + 3119.04 +

2397.10 =11672.87N

1.5.14 Stress analysis

= 4

0.22 × 619.49

4 × 8

=

24

=

4.26/ 2

= 2

0.22 × 619.49

2 × 8

=

=

8.52/ 2

=

( )

=

11672.87

8)` × 8 = 0.76/ 2

(619.49 −

Longitudinal bending moments at mid-span, M L1

,

1 =

2

× (

(1 + 4 ) − ( 4 ) )

1 + 2( 2 2 )

2

3

11672.87

=

=

2

2

= 5.84

ℎ ℎ = 2

0.61949

2

=

= 0.30976

A is the distance from saddle centre line from shell end.

= 0.4 = 0.4 × 0.30976 = 0.12390

5.84 × 2.44

1 =

4

× (

1 + 2(0.30976 2 − 0.083 2 )

2.44

2

) ) = 78.12

(1 + 4 × 0.083 ) ( 4 × 0.12390

3 × 2.44

2.44

Longitudinal bending moment at supports, ML2

2 = × ×

[

Where H is the depth of head

2 = 5840 × 0.12390 ×

1 −

[

(( ) + ( 2 2 ))

1 −

2

(1 + 4 3 )

]

(( 0.12390

2.44

) + (0.30976 2 0.083 2 ))

2 × 0.12390 × 2.44

25

(1 + 4 × 0.083 3 × 2.44

)

]

2 = 563.47

1.5.15 Longitudinal bending stress at mid span,

Stress at midspan =

Stress at midspan =

4 1 2

4×78.12

×0.61949 2 ×0.008

Stress at midspan =0.032N/mm 2

1.5.16 Longitudinal bending stress at support,

Stress at support =

2

2

C, is an empirical constant, for a completely stiff shell c=1

Stress at support =

4×563.47

×0.008 =0.23N/mm 2 (Standard9, 1967)

1××0.61949 2

1.5.17 The resultant axial stress due to bending and pressure, σr

σ r, = ±

4 1 2

4

σ r = 4.26±0.023 = 4.282N/mm 2

Table 1.2 Summary of Mechanical Engineering design

Parameter

Value

Parameter

Value

Design Pressure

220kPa

Design Temperature

203.5˚C

Shell thickness

8mm

Nozzle diameter

152.4mm

Shell diameter

619.49mm

Nozzle thickness

4mm

Tube sheet thickness

18.6mm

Torispherical head

Flange thickness

23.25mm

Thickness

8mm

Stress Analysis

Inside depth

82.93mm

26

Longitudinal stress

4.26N/mm 2

Dead weight

 

11.64kN

Circumferential stress

8.52N/mm 2

Effective

length

of

heat

2.61m

exchanger

Direct stress

0.76N/mm 2

Corrosion allowance

 

4mm

27

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29