Contents
1.0 DESIGN OF HEAT EXCHANGER 
3 

1.1 INTRODUCTION 
3 

1.1.1 Flow Arrangement 
3 

1.1.2 Types of Heat Exchangers 
4 

1.3 Problem statement 
5 

1.3.1 
Justification 
5 
1.4 Chemical engineering design 
5 

1.4.0 Heat Load 
7 

1.4.1 Calculation of area 
8 

1.4.2 Choice of tubes 
8 

1.4.3 Tube side coefficient calculations 
9 

1.4.4 Shell side coefficient Calculations 
11 

1.4.5 Overall heat transfer coefficient 
13 

1.4.6 Tube side pressure drop 
13 

1.5 Mechanical design 
15 

1.5.1 Design pressure 
15 

1.5.2 Design temperature 
15 

1.5.3 Shell side design 
15 

1.5.4 Nozzle design 
16 

1.5.5 Channel Cover 
16 

1.5.6 Head and closure 
17 

1.5.7 Effective length of heat exchanger 
18 

1.5.8 Gasket design 
18 

1.5.9 Bolts load estimation 
19 

1.5.10 Minimum bolt area 
19 

1.5.11 Flange design 
20 

1.5.12 Tube sheet thickness 
20 

1.5.13 Weight Analysis 
21 

1.5.14 Stress analysis 
24 

1.5.15 Longitudinal bending stress at mid span, 
26 

1.5.16 Longitudinal bending stress at support, 
26 
1
1.5.17 The resultant axial stress due to bending and pressure, σ _{r} 
26 
REFERENCE 
28 
2
CHAPTER 1
1.0 DESIGN OF HEAT EXCHANGER
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Heat transfer to and from process fluids is one major operation in chemical process industries.
Heat exchangers are the major devices for this operation. Heat exchanger as the name implies is
used as a medium in which fluids exchange heat without any physical contact. The fluid streams
flow through the heat exchangers and are separated by a conducting wall through which heat can
pass from hot stream to the cold stream without physical contact between the two streams. Heat
transfer in each fluid involves convection and conduction (through the wall separating the two
fluids). The design of heat exchangers involve several factors including; thermal analysis,
structural stress, pressure drop, size and cost.
1.1.1 Flow Arrangement
Heat exchangers are classified according to flow arrangements and type of construction. There are
three primary flow arrangements. These are parallel flow, countercurrent flow and cross flow.
In parallelflow heat exchangers, the two fluids enter the exchanger at the same end, and travel in
the same direction (parallel) to one another to the other side.
In counter flow arrangements, the fluids enter the heat exchanger from opposite directions, flow
in opposite directions and exit in opposite directions.
In cross flow, the fluids flow at right angles to each other. This type of flow is found in cross flow heat exchangers which are normally used for cooling or heating of gases.
The most common among the flow patterns in heat exchangers are the parallel flow and counter current flow. Heat transfer is more efficient in a counter current flow than a parallel flow under comparable conditions.
The design of a parallel flow heat is advantageous when the two fluids are required to be brought to nearly the same temperature. In this design counter current flow would be considered for efficient heat transfer.
1.1.2 Types of Heat Exchangers
1. Double Pipe Heat Exchangers These are the simplest kind of heat exchangers used in industries. They are typically used for small flow rates. The term double pipe refers to a heat exchanger consisting of a pipe within a pipe usually of a straightleg construction with no bends. In these devices both hot and cold fluids flow in concentric tubes.
Advantages They are cheap to maintain and design Disadvantage They have very low efficiencies Occupies a very large space
2. Shell and tube heat exchangers
The shell and tube is one of the most important heat transfer equipment in the process industry. It consists of a bundle of tubes enclosed in a cylindrical shell. Advantages Used for much larger flow rates than the double pipe heat exchanger. It can be used for all types of applications. The configuration and arrangement gives a large surface area in a small volume. It has a good shape for pressure operation.
4
It uses well established fabrication techniques.
Shell and tube exchangers can be constructed from a wide range of materials.
3. Fired heaters
4. Spiral heat exchangers
5. Platefin heat exchangers
6. Plate and frame heat exchanger: mostly used for heating and cooling.
7. Agitated vessels
8. Platefin exchangers
9. Air cooled: coolers and condensers
Aircooled heat exchangers include a tube bundle, which generally has spiralwound fins
upon the tubes, and a fan, which moves air across the tubes and is provided with a driver.
1.3 Problem statement
The main aim of this chapter is to design a heat exchanger that will cool the RBDO at a flowrate
of 769.77kg/h and 185 ^{o} C to cool RBDO at 160 ^{o} C using RBO at 80 ^{o} C to 108 ^{o} C.
1.3.1 Justification
In the production of soybeans oil from soybean seeds, the refinery process require deodorization
of the olein (efined bleached oil,RBO) at the final stage of the refinery. The RBO is heated to a
temperature of 273 ^{o} C in the deodorizing chamber for deodorization. The Refined Bleached
Deodorized Oil (refined bleached deodorized oil,RBDO) upon leaving the deodorizing chamber
to storage is at a very high and the temperature needs to be cooled to a lower temperature as well
as the heat energy contained in the RBDO needs to be made used of and not to be discarded.
Shell and tube heat exchanger is suited for higherpressure and temperature applications .
1.4 Chemical engineering design
General heat transfer equation is given by , Q = UAΔT _{M}
Where Q =Heat transferred per unit time (kW)
A=Heat transfer area (m ^{2} )
ΔT _{M} = Mean temperature difference (˚C)
ΔT M= ΔT LM F T
5
ΔT LM = (T _{1} _{−} _{t} _{2} ) _{−} (T _{2} _{−} _{t} _{1} )
_{l}_{n} (T _{1} − t _{.} _{2} )
(T
_{2} _{−} _{t} _{1} )
Where, T _{1} – Tube side inlet temperature ( ^{o} C)
T _{2} – Tube side outlet temperature ( ^{o} C)
t _{1} – Shell side inlet temperature ( ^{o} C)
t _{2} – Shell side outlet temperature ( ^{o} C)
M x Cp _{(}_{t}_{)} x (T _{1} T _{2} ) = m x Cp _{(}_{s}_{)} x (t _{1} t _{2} )…………………………………….
Where, Cp _{(}_{t}_{)} – Liquid specific heat capacity at tube side (kJ/Kg ^{o} C)
Cp _{(}_{s}_{)}  Liquid specific heat capacity at shell side (kJ/Kg ^{o} C)
M 
 Shell side mass flowrate (kg/s) 
m 
 tube side mass flowrate (kg/s) 
Where F _{T} is temperature correction factor and it’s a function of R and S
R
=
T _{1} −T _{2} t _{2} −t _{1}
and S = ^{t} ^{2} ^{−}^{t} ^{1}
T _{1} −t _{1}
t _{2} =108˚C
T _{1} =185
ΔT LM = (185 − 108) − (160 − 80) _{l}_{n} (185 − 108)
(160 − 80)
ΔT _{L}_{M} = 78.5˚C
6
R =
185 − 160
108 − 80
^{=} ^{0}^{.}^{8}^{9}^{5}
S =
108−80
185−80 ^{=} ^{0}^{.}^{2}^{6}^{7}
From Coulson and Richardson’s chemical engineering vol 6, figure 12.19 the graph for correction
factors for heat exchangers when R= 0.895 and S=0.267, Ft=0.97
Hence a heat exchanger with one shell pass and two or more tube passes is suitable for the design.
ΔT _{M}_{=} 78.5x0.97
=76.1 ^{o} C
1.4.0 Heat Load
Assumptions
1. Steady state conditions
2. Constant overall heat transfer coefficient
3. Constant heat capacities of both fluids.
4. Heat losses are negligible
Heat loss by hot fluid=heat gained by cold fluid
Q = mc _{p}
Average temperature at shell side =
185 + 160
_{2}
= 173˚C
Heat capacity of oil at 168℃ = 2.077
kJ
kg. K
mass flowrate of oil at shell side = 769.77 ^{k}^{g} hr
Q=769.77 X 2.077(185 – 160)
= 68.89kw
7
Therefore, the quantity of heat energy required to be exchanged by the process streams in the heat
exchanger is 68.89kW
1.4.1 Calculation of area
The design of a heat exchanger involves an iterative procedure, from literature a heat transfer
coefficient is assumed for the process streams and it is used in the chemical design calculations.
At the end of the calculations the overall heat transfer coefficient obtained must be higher or equal
to the heat transfer coefficient assumed from literature. If not the calculated heat transfer
coefficient is used in the calculations until it converges. In this report the coefficient of heat transfer
assumed is 551.908W/m ^{2} .K
Hence U=100W/m ^{2} K
Q=68.89kW
A =
Tm=76.9 ^{o} C
A =
^{Q}
U∆T _{M}
68.89 x10
3
_{(}_{7}_{6}_{.}_{9}_{)} = 8.958m ^{2}
100 ×
1.4.2 Choice of tubes
From Perry’s Chemical engineers handbook the following dimensions where chosen:
Outer diameter
3
of tube(D _{O} ) = _{4} in = 0.01905m
Inner diameter of tube(D _{I} ) = 0.620in = 0.015748m
Pitch diameter(p _{t} ) = 1.25 × D _{O} = 0.0238125m
Length of tube (L)=2.44m
Number of tubes =
A
πD _{O} L
Number of tubes =
8.958
π × 0.01905 × 2.44 ^{=} ^{5}^{7}^{.}^{3}^{t}^{u}^{b}^{e}^{s}
Area of one tube = π × 0.01905 × 2.44
Area of one tube = 0.146 m ^{2}
57
so for 2 tube passes, tube per pass =
8
_{2} = 29tubes
1.4.3 Tube side coefficient calculations
2
Cross sectional area of one tube = ^{π}^{D} ^{I}
4
Cross sectional area of one tube =
π × 0.015748 ^{2}
4
= 1.948 × 10 ^{−}^{4} m ^{2}
Tube per pass is 6 tubes
Flow Area = 29 × 1.948 × 10 ^{−}^{4} = 35.649 x10 ^{−}^{3} m ^{2}
Mass velocity(G) = ^{m}^{a}^{s}^{s} flow ^{f}^{l}^{o}^{w}^{r}^{a}^{t}^{e}^{(}^{ṁ}^{)} area(A)
Mass velocity(G) =
769.77
_{x}_{1}_{0} _{−}_{3} = 37.850 kg/m ^{2} . s
3600 × 3.385
Tube side linear velocity, u _{t} =
G
ρ t
Where G is the mass velocity and ρ _{t} is the tube side density
Density of oil at 160 ^{0} C = 832 kg/m ^{3}
Tube side linear velocity, u _{t} =
37.85
_{8}_{3}_{2}
Re = ρ × D _{i}
× u _{t}
μ
= 0.045 m/s
Viscosity of oil at mean temperature 160˚C; 6.1 × 10 ^{−}^{4} Pa.s
Re =
Where Pr = Prandtl number
832 × 0.01574 × 0.045
6.1 × 10 ^{−}^{4}
Re = 9.66 × 10 ^{2}
Pr = ^{C} ^{P}^{t} ^{×} ^{μ} K t
Kt = thermal conductivity of RBDO (Olein)
Kt = K x w
From Richardson and Coulson, volume 6.thermal conductivity of organic liquids is given by:
k
= 3.56 × 10 ^{−}^{5} Cp ( ^{ρ} 4 )
M
9
1
3
Where ρ is density of RBDO at tube side temperature = 832
kg
m ^{3}
M is the molecular weight of RBDO = 920kg/kmol
Cp is the specific heat of RBDO at tube side temperature = 2.045
Hence thermal conductivity of RBDO:
1
k = 3.56 × 10 ^{−}^{5} × 2.045 × ( ^{8}^{3}^{2} 4 ) ^{3} = 0.059
920
K _{t} = (0.059 × 0.9999)
= 0.059
W
m.K
2.045 x10 ^{3} × 6.1 × 10 ^{−}^{4}
Pr =
0.059
Pr = 2.1 x 10 ^{1}
W
m ^{2} . K
Hence the Nusselt number is calculated as;
Nu = ^{h} ^{i} ^{×} ^{D} ^{i} K t
= j _{h} × Re × Pr ^{0}^{.}^{3}^{3}
L 2.44
D i
=
0.015748 ^{=} ^{1}^{5}^{4}^{.}^{9}^{4}
Re = 9.66 × 10 ^{2}
kJ
kg. K
Reading from fig 12.23 from Richardson and Coulson, volume 6 for Re=9.66x10 ^{2} and L/D _{i} =155
J _{h} = 1.8x10 ^{}^{2} where J _{h} is the tube side friction factor.
h i = K _{t} × J _{h} × Re × Pr ^{0}^{.}^{3}^{3}
D
I
h i = 0.058 × 7.5 × 10 ^{−}^{3} × 2.787 × 10 ^{2} × (1.08 x 10 ^{2} ) ^{0}^{.}^{3}^{3}
0.015748
h _{i} = 177.913
W
m ^{2} . ˚C
10
1.4.4 Shell side coefficient Calculations
Mean temperature at shell side =
108 + 80
_{2}
Calculating RBO density at shell side,
ρ of RBO at 94˚C = 871.48
kg
m ^{3}
Calculating specific heat capacity
Cp of RBO at 94˚C = 1.833
Cp _{S} = 1.833
kJ
kg. K
kJ
kg. K
= 94˚C
Calculating RBO thermal conductivity at shell side,
K _{s} =
1
k = 3.56 × 10 ^{−}^{5} × 1.833 × ( ^{8}^{7}^{1}^{.}^{4}^{8} 4 ) ^{3} = 0.056
920
K _{s} = (0.056 × 0.998)
K _{s} = 0.056
W
m. K
W
m ^{2} . K
Viscosity of RBO at 94˚C; T=7.67 × 10 ^{−}^{3} Pa. s
Where P _{t} = tube pitch ,
D _{O} =tube outside diameter,
D _{S} =shell inside diameter, m
l _{B} =baffle spacing, m
μ = 7.67 × 10 ^{−}^{3} Pa. s
_{A} s _{=} (P t − D o )D S l B P t
P _{t} = 1.25D _{o} = 1.25 × 0.01905 = 0.0238125m
11
From Richardson and Coulson. Volume 6 table 12.4 the values of n and k are obtained for two
tube passes using triangular pitch.k _{1} =0.249 and n=2.207
D _{b} = D _{O} × ( ^{N} ^{T} )
k
1
1
n
D _{b} = 0.01905 × (
290
0.249
^{)}
1
^{2}^{.}^{2}^{0}^{7} = 0.5624m
For a split ring floating head exchanger from fig.12.10 in Richardson and Coulson, volume 6
bundle clearance=57mm
Shell inner diameter (D _{s} ) = 562.4. +57=0.61949m
_{A} s _{=} (P t − D o )D S l B P t
shell diameter
l _{B} =
_{5}
= 0.01290m
= (0.0238125 − 0.01905)0.61949 × 0.01290
0.0238125
= 0.001598m ^{2}
mass velocity of RBO = G _{s} =
ṁ 771.32
=
A s
3600 × 0.0016
mass velocity of RBO = G _{s} = 134.05
kg
m ^{2} . s
linear velocity at shell side μ _{s} = ^{G} ^{S}
ρ
s
134.05
_{8}_{7}_{1}_{.}_{4}_{8} = 0.154m/s
=
Equivalent diameter, D _{e} =
1.10
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{1}_{9}_{0}_{5}
(P _{t} ^{2} − 0.917D _{o} ^{2} )
Equivalent diameter, D _{e} =
1.10
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{1}_{9}_{0}_{5}
(0.0238125 ^{2} − 0.917(0.01905) ^{2} ) = 0.0135m
Re = ^{G} ^{s} ^{D} ^{e}
μ s
134.05 × 0.0135
=
0.154
=
1.20 × 10 ^{1}
Pr = Cp × μ
K f
1.833 × 10 ^{3} × 7.67 × 10 ^{−}^{3}
=
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{5}_{6}
= 251.1
Choosing 25% segmental baffle cut and for Re = 1.2 × 10 ^{1} , from chart in Richardson and
Coulson volume 6, fig 12.29 J _{h} = 1.4 × 10 ^{−}^{1}
h o = J _{h} × Re × Pr ^{0}^{.}^{3}^{3} × K _{S}
D
e
1.4 × 10 ^{−}^{1} × 1.20 × 10 ^{1} × 0.056 × 251.1 ^{0}^{.}^{3}^{3}
=
0.01353
12
W
^{=} ^{4}^{3}^{.}^{0}^{7} m ^{2} . K
1.4.5
Overall heat transfer coefficient
1
_{u} = (
1
_{u} = (
od ) + ( D _{o} × ln ( ^{D} ^{o} )
1
1
D
i
h
o
h
+
2 × K _{w}
) + ( ^{D} ^{o}
D
I
1
43.07 ^{+}
4000 ) + ( 0.01905 × ln ( ^{0}^{.}^{0}^{1}^{9}^{0}^{5}
0.01574
^{)}
1
2 × 54
+ (
0.015748 ^{×} 4000 ^{)}
0.01905
1
U _{o} = 100.74
W
m ^{2} . K
×
1
id ) + ( ^{D} ^{o}
h
D
I
×
1
i ^{)}
h
) + (
0.01905
1
.015748 ^{×}
0.
177.91
^{)}
Since the overall calculated heat transfer coefficient U _{o} is almost equal to the assumed U the design
is accepted.
1.4.6 Tube side pressure drop
ΔP _{t} = N _{P} × [8 × J _{f} ×
L
D
i
+ 2.5] × ^{ρ}^{u} ^{t} 2
2
Where Np is the number of tube passes
L is the length of tube
u _{t} is the tube side velocity
ρ is the density at tube side
ΔP _{t} = 2 × [8 × 1.8 × 10 ^{−}^{2} × 154.94 + 2.5] × ^{8}^{3}^{2} ^{×} ^{0}^{.}^{0}^{4}^{5} 2
2
ΔP _{t} = 41.8kPa
Shell side pressure drop
ΔP _{s}_{h}_{e}_{l}_{l} = 8 × J _{f} × (
Where Ds is the shell diameter
De is the equivalent shell diameter
L _{b} is the baffle length
L is the length of tube
D
e ) × (
s
D
B ) × ^{ρ}^{u} 2
L
L
2
13
ρ is density of bulk fluid at shell side
u is velocity of fluid at shell side
ΔP _{s}_{h}_{e}_{l}_{l} = 8 × J _{f} × (
D
e ) × (
s
D
B ) × ^{ρ}^{u} 2
L
L
2
ΔP = 8 × 1.4 × 10 ^{−}^{1}
× ^{0}^{.}^{6}^{1}^{9}^{4}^{9} 
× 871.4 × 0.00767 ^{2} 

0.01353 
2 
ΔP = 1.314kPa
Table 1.1 Summary of Chemical Engineering design
Parameter 
Value 
Heat Load 
68.89kW 
Assumed heat transfer coefficient 
100W/m ^{2} .K 
Log mean temperature 
76.1˚C 
Correction factor 
0.97 
Heat transfer area 
8.958m ^{2} 
Tube side design 

Tube outer diameter 
0.019m 
Tube inner diameter 
0.016m 
Number of tubes 
57 
Reynolds Number 
966 
Prandtl number 
21 
Tube side Transfer coefficient 
177.913W/m ^{2} 
Pressure drop 
41.8kPa 
Shell side design 

Inner Diameter 
0.619m 
Baffle spacing 
0.013m 
Reynolds number 
12 
Shell side transfer coefficient 
43.070W/m ^{2} .K 
Pressure 
1.314kPa 
Overall heat transfer coefficient 
100.74W/m ^{2} .K 
14
1.5 Mechanical design
Material of construction
The material chosen for the design of the heat exchanger is carbon steel.
1.5.1 Design pressure
A vessel must be designed to withstand the maximum pressure to which it is likely to be
subjected to in operation. For vessel under internal pressure, the design pressure is normally
taken as the pressure at which the relief device is set. This is normally within the range of 510
percent above the normal working pressure to avoid serious operation during minor process
upsets. (Sinnott, 2003)
Working pressure is 200kPa
Design pressure =110% of working pressure
Design pressure=220kPa=220000Pa = 0.22N/mm ^{2}
1.5.2 Design temperature
Design temperature is normally taken as 10% increase in the highest temperature of fluid
entering the equipment. Hence the design temperature is 110% of 185˚C.Therefore the design
temperature is 203.5˚C
1.5.3 Shell side design
Minimum shell thickness t _{s} =
Where P is the internal pressure
P + D (2 × f × J) ^{+} ^{C}
I
f 
is the permissible tensile strength of material=100.6N/mm ^{2} 
J 
is welded factor; usually between 0.70.9 
C 
is the corrosion allowance. 
Corrosion allowance chosen for the material is 4mm
Shell diameter=619.49mm
f is the permissible tensile stress=100.6N/mm ^{2} for carbon steel
Minimum shell thickness t _{s} =
0.14485 + 619.49 (2 × 100.6 × 0.85) ^{+} ^{4} ^{=} ^{7}^{.}^{6}^{2}^{m}^{m}
Hence shell thickness is 8mm according to (IS: 4503)
15
1.5.4
Nozzle design
Nozzle diameter =152.4mm
(For shells with internal diameter between 590.042mm to 736.6m use nozzle diameter of
152.8mm).
Minimum nozzle thickness, t _{n} =
Where
P _{i} ×D _{n}
2×100.6×J−P _{i} ^{+}^{4}
D _{n} , nozzle internal diameter
Nozzle thickness =
0.22×152.8
2×100.6×0.85−0.22 ^{+} ^{4} ^{=} ^{4}^{.}^{2}^{0}^{m}^{m}
Nozzle thickness is 4.20mm≈ 4mm
1.5.5 Channel Cover
The outside diameter of the channel shall be the same as that of the shell. The thickness of the channel shall be greater of the two values: (i) shell thickness or (ii) thickness calculated on the
basis of the design pressure shown below.
The effective channel cover thickness (IS: 4503 section 15.6.1): _{}_{} = ^{} ^{} ^{√}^{} ^{} ^{}
×
where D _{C} = diameter of cover usually same as outside shell diamter
c _{i} = a factor which is 0.25 when the cover is bolted with fullfaced gaskets and 0.3
when bolted with narrow faced or ring type gaskets
P is design pressure in N/mm ^{2} and f is allowable stress value in N/mm ^{2} at design temperature
Outside diameter of shell=shell internal diameter + 2(shell thickness)
D _{C} = 619.49+16=635.49mm
t cc =
635.49 × _{√}_{0}_{.}_{2}_{5} × 0.22
_{1}_{0} _{×} _{1}_{0}_{0}_{.}_{6}
= 0.1481mm
Use t _{c}_{c} = 0.1481+4mm (corrosion allowance) = 4.15mm
16
1.5.6 Head and closure
The ends of a cylindrical vessel are closed by heads of various shapes. The principal types used
are categorized as either flat end or domed end (hemispherical, ellipsoidal, torispherical).For the
purpose of this designfloating head heat exchanger both the flat end and the torispherical end is
used.
1.5.6.1 Torispherical head
Inside depth of the head (h _{i} ) can be calculated as h _{i} = R _{i} − [(R _{i} − ^{D} ^{S} ) (R _{i} + ^{D} ^{S} ) + 2ri] ^{0}^{.}^{5}
2
2
Where crown radius
R _{i} = D _{s} (shell diameter) = 619.49mm
Knuckle radius ri = 0.06R _{i} =0.06(619.49) =37.1694mm
h _{i} = 619.49 − [(619.49 −
619.49
2
) (619.49 + ^{6}^{1}^{9}^{.}^{4}^{9} ) + 2 × 37.1694] 0.5
2
Thickness of torispherical head =
Where W = _{4} (3 + _{√} ^{R} ^{i} ) = _{4} (3 + √ _{3}_{7}_{.}_{1}_{6}_{9}_{4} ) = 1.7706mm
1
r
i
1
619.49
PR W 2fj − 0.2p ^{+} ^{C}
i
= 82.93mm
Thickness of head =
0.22 × 619.49 × 1.7706 (2 × 100.6 × 0.85) − (0.2 × 0.22) ^{+} ^{4}^{m}^{m}
Thickness of head = 5.4mm
Use same thickness of shell for head
1.5.6.2 Flat Head
Head thickness, t= C _{p} D _{e}_{√} ^{p}
f
t, 
head or closure thickness 
C 
_{p} , design constant, dependent on the edge constraint (Sinnott, 2003) 
D _{e} , nominal plate diameter=619.49mm
Using a full face gasket, bolted cover, take Cp = 0.4
17
f is the permissible tensile strength of the material
= 0.4 × 619.49 × √ _{1}_{0}_{0}_{.}_{6} = 11.6
0.22
Closure thickness = 11.6+4(corrosion allowance) =16mm
1.5.7 Effective length of heat exchanger E = effective heat exchanger length = Length of tubes + (2 × h _{i} )
E = effective heat exchanger length = 2.44 + (2 × 0.08293) = 2.61m
1.5.8 Gasket design
Gaskets are used to make the metal surfaces leakproof. Gaskets are elastoplastic materials and
relatively softer than the flange. (IS: 4503)
Gaskets are made from elasticplastic materials which will deform and flow under load to fill the surface irregularities between the flanges faces, yet retain sufficient elasticity to take up the changes in the flange alignment that occur under load. (Sinnott, 2003)
Material: vegetable fibre
Gasket internal diameter = shell internal diameter =619.49mm
Gasket width =30mm (assumed) from Richardson and Coulson minimum width should be 10mm.
Gasket outer diameter =619.49+30= 649.49mm
Gasket factor, m =1.75
Seating stress =7.6 N/mm ^{2} (Sinnott, 2003)
Basic gasket seating, bo =
30
2
=15mm
Effective gasket seating b = 2.5√b _{o} = 2.5√15 =9.68mm
Effective gasket seating b is approximately 10mm
Mean gasket diameter, G = 649.49mm
18
1.5.9 Bolts load estimation
The bolt load due to gasket reaction under atmospheric conditions is given by:
W _{m}_{1} = y × G × π × b _{o}
W _{m}_{1} = 7.36 × 649.49 × π × 9.68 = 145.37kN
Where W _{m}_{1} is the bolt load required to seat the gasket
Where
From W _{m}_{2} = H + H _{g}
W _{m}_{2} , minimum required bolt load under the operation condition
H, total pressure force =
π
4
× G ^{2} × P
H _{g} = π × G × b × m × P
W _{m}_{2} = (π × G × b × m × P) + ( ^{π} × G ^{2} × P)
4
W _{m}_{2} = (π × 649.49 × 9.68 × 1.75 × 0.22) + ( ^{π} × 649.49 ^{2} × 0.22)
4
W _{m}_{2} = 80.493kN
Hence W _{m}_{1} is the controlling load since is greater than W _{m}_{2}
1.5.10 Minimum bolt area
The minimum bolt cross sectional area (bolt material is carbon steel)
A _{m} =
^{W} ^{m}^{1}
145370
=
f a
100.6
= 1445.029 ^{2}
M16 nominal thread diameter with bolt circle diameter (C _{b} ) of 860mm, 32 bolts and 18mm roots
diameter (d _{b}_{r} ) are selected.
Corresponding actual bolt circle diameter
A _{b} =
π
4
d _{b}_{r} ^{2} × number of bolts =
19
π
4
× 18 ^{2} × 32 = 8143mm ^{2}
A _{b} > A _{M} therefore the selected bolts are suitable
1.5.11 Flange design
Thickness of the flange is given by,
=
_{} = √
×
_{} +
[0.3 + { ^{1}^{.}^{5} ^{×} ^{} × ^{} ^{×} ^{ℎ} ^{} }] −1
h _{G} is the radial distance from gasket to bolt circle
B is the flange internal diameter
= ( ) + (2 × ) + 12
π 
× 649.49 ^{2} × 0.22 = 72.888 

H = 
4 
Where = [0.3 + { 1.5×145.370×25.5
73.563×700.49
}] ^{−}^{1} = 2.4903
ℎ _{} =
−
2
700.49 − 649.49
^{=}
_{2}
= 25.5
_{} = 649.49 × √
0.22
2.4903 × 100.6 ^{+} ^{4} ^{=} ^{2}^{3}^{.}^{2}^{5}^{}^{}
Hence flange thickness is 23.25mm
1.5.12 Tube sheet thickness
Tube sheet thickness, t _{f} =
F×G
√
^{P} + C
f
2
Where F, tube sheet constant (for tube sheet having straight tubes F=1)
G 
is the mean gasket width 
P 
is the design pressure 
20
f is the permissible tensile strength
619.49 × 1
t _{f} =
2
^{×} ^{√} _{1}_{0}_{0}_{.}_{6}
0.22
+ 4 = 18.48mm
1.5.13 Weight Analysis
Length of heat exchanger=2.44
Shell internal diameter D _{i} =0.61949m
Shell outer diameter D _{o} =0.63549m
Thickness of shell=0.008m
Outer diameter of tube d _{o} =0.015748m
Number of tubes N _{t} = 57 tubes
Density of carbon steel=ρ _{c} =7850kg/m ^{3}
Density of fluid in tubes=832kg/m ^{3}
Weight of shell body, Ws
volume of shell body =
π
4
(D _{O} ^{2} − D _{I} ^{2} ) × L
volume of shell body =
π
4
(0.63549 ^{2} − 0.61949 ^{2} ) × 2.44
volume of shell body = 0.03848m ^{3}
weight of shell body = V _{s} × ρ _{c} × 9.81
weight of shell body = 0.03866 × 7850 × 9.81
Weight of tubes, W _{t}
weight of shell body = 2963.30N
V _{t} =
π
4
(d _{o} ^{2} − d _{i} ^{2} ) × L × N _{t}
21
V _{t} =
π
4
(0.01905 ^{2} − 0.015748 ^{2} ) × 2.44 × 29 = 0.00686m ^{3}
weight of tubes = V _{t} × ρ _{c} × 9.81 = 0.00686 × 7850 × 9.81 = 491.75N
Weight of head, W _{h}
volume of head = 0.087D _{i}
3
volume of head = 0.087(0.61949) ^{3} = 0.02068m ^{3}
weight of head = 0.020985 × 7850 × 9.81 = 1592.80N
Weight of insulation, Wi
w _{i} = V _{I} × ρ _{I} × 9.81
V _{i} = πD _{i} × t _{i} × L where t _{i} is the thickness of insulation
V _{i} = πD _{i} × t _{i} × L = π × 0.61949 × 0.1 × 2.44 = 0.4749m ^{3}
Density of insulation material=130kg/m ^{3}
w _{i} = 0.4749 × 130 × 9.81 = 605.60N
Weight of spacers and tie rods, W _{s}_{r}
Rods of length of 3m
V _{I} =
W _{s}_{r} = V _{s}_{r} × ρ _{s}_{r} × g
1
_{4} × π × (19 × 10 ^{−}^{3} ) ^{2} × 3 = 8.5059 × 10 ^{−}^{4} m ^{3}
Rods of length of 2.5m
V _{I} =
1
_{4} × π × (19 × 10 ^{−}^{3} ) ^{2} × 2.5 = 7.088 × 10 ^{−}^{4} m ^{3}
Total volume = V _{1} + V _{2} =
1.5594 × 10 ^{−}^{3} m ^{3}
W _{s}_{r} = 1.5594 × 10 ^{−}^{3} × 7850 × 9.81 = 120.0871N
Weight of baffles, W _{b}
22
For shell diameter between 152635mm baffle diameters is given as:
D _{s} − 16mm(+0.8mmtolerance) (Sinnott, 2003)
Baffle diameter = 619.49 − (1.6 + 0.8) = 617.09mm
1
Cross sectional area of one baffle = _{4} × π × (0.61709) ^{2} = 0.2990m ^{2}
For 25% Baffle
Baffle area remaining = 0.75 × 0.2990 = 0.2243m ^{2}
Total number of tubes through the baffles is 29 with 2 tie and rods
1
Total area covered by tubes = 29 × _{4} × ((0.015748)) ^{2} = 1.674 × 10 ^{−}^{3} m ^{2}
Effective surface area = 0.2243 − 1.674 × 10 ^{−}^{3} = 0.2226 ^{2}
Volume of baffle = Effective surface area of baffle × Thickness of baffle
Take thickness of baffle to be 3mm
Volume of baffle = 0.2226 × 0.003 = 6.68 × 10 ^{−}^{4}
weight of baffle = 6.68 × 10 ^{−}^{4} × 9.81 × 7850 = 51.436N
Weight of tube sheet, W _{t}_{s}
weight of tube sheet = V _{t}_{s} × ⍴ _{t}_{s} × g
1
cross sectional area of tube sheet (A _{t}_{s} ) = _{4} × π × (d _{t}_{s} ) ^{2} = 0.25 × π × 0.63549m ^{2}
= 0.4991m ^{2}
d _{t}_{s} covers the whole outer diameter of the shell=0.63549m
Area of tubes = 0.09413m ^{2}
Volume of tube sheet = (A _{t}_{s} − A _{t} ) × t _{t}_{s}
Tube sheet thickness = 15.08x10 ^{−}^{3} m
23
volume of tube sheet = (0.4991 − 0.09413) × 0.01508 = 6.11 × 10 ^{−}^{3} m ^{3}
weight of tube sheet = 6.11 × 10 ^{−}^{3} × 7850 × 9.81 = 470.52N
Weight of fluid in the tubes, W _{f}_{t}
W _{f}_{t} = V _{f}_{t} × ⍴ _{f}_{t} × g
1
volume of mixture in the tubes = _{4} × π × ((0.015748)) ^{2} × 2.44 = 4.753 × 10 ^{−}^{4} m ^{3}
Total volume of mixture in the tubes = 29 × 4.75 × 10 ^{−}^{4} = 0.0138m ^{3}
Taking that water fills the head fully at both ends
Inside depth of head=82.93x10 ^{−}^{3} m
1
Volume of mixture in closure = _{4} × π × 0.61949 × 0.08293 = 0.04035m ^{3}
weight of oil in the tubes = 0.04054 × 7850 × 9.81 = 3107.24N
Weight of RBO at shell side, W _{f}_{s}
Volume of RBO = Volume of shell − volume of tubes − volume of baffle
Volume of RBO = 0.03848 − 0.00686 − 1.5594 × 10 ^{−}^{3} − 6.724 × 10 ^{−}^{4} = 0.0294 ^{2}
weight of RBO at shell side = 0.0311 × 7850 × 9.81 = 2263.14N
Dead weight, DW
DW = W _{s} + W _{t} + W _{H} + W _{i} +
W _{s}_{p}
+
W _{b} + W _{t}_{s} + W _{f}_{t} + W _{f}_{s}
DW = 2974.43 + 491.75 + 1616.02 + 607.91 + 120.09 + 51.72 + 262.51 + 3119.04 +
2397.10 =11672.87N
1.5.14 Stress analysis
= ^{}^{} 4 _{} ^{}
0.22 × 619.49
4 × 8
=
24
=
4.26/ ^{2}
= ^{}^{} 2 _{} ^{}
0.22 × 619.49
2 × 8
=
=
8.52/ ^{2}
=
^{} ^{}
( _{} − _{} ) _{}
=
11672.87
_{8}_{)}_{`} _{×} _{8} = 0.76/ ^{2}
(619.49 −
Longitudinal bending moments at midspan, M _{L}_{1}
,
1 = ^{}
2
× (
(1 + ^{4}^{} ) − ( ^{4}^{} ) )
1 + 2( ^{2} − ^{2} )
^{2}
3
11672.87
=
^{=}
2
_{2}
= 5.84
ℎ ℎ = ^{} 2 ^{}
0.61949
_{2}
^{=}
= 0.30976
A is the distance from saddle centre line from shell end.
= 0.4 = 0.4 × 0.30976 = 0.12390
5.84 × 2.44
1 =
4
× (
1 + 2(0.30976 ^{2} − 0.083 ^{2} )
2.44
^{2}
) ) = 78.12
_{(}_{1} _{+} 4 × 0.083 _{)} _{−} _{(} 4 × 0.12390
3 × 2.44
2.44
Longitudinal bending moment at supports, ML2
_{}_{2} = × ×
[
Where H is the depth of head
_{}_{2} = 5840 × 0.12390 ×
1 −
[
(( ^{} ) + ( ^{2} − ^{2} ))
1 −
2
(1 + ^{4}^{} 3 )
]
_{(}_{(} 0.12390
2.44
_{)} _{+} (0.30976 ^{2} _{−} _{0}_{.}_{0}_{8}_{3} ^{2} ))
2 × 0.12390 × 2.44
25
_{(}_{1} _{+} 4 × 0.083 3 × 2.44
)
]
_{}_{2} = 563.47
1.5.15 Longitudinal bending stress at mid span, _{}
Stress at midspan =
Stress at midspan =
4 1 _{} ^{2} _{}
4×78.12
×0.61949 ^{2} ×0.008
Stress at midspan =0.032N/mm ^{2}
1.5.16 Longitudinal bending stress at support, _{}
Stress at support =
4× _{}_{2}
_{} ^{2} _{}
C, is an empirical constant, for a completely stiff shell c=1
Stress at support =
4×563.47
_{×}_{0}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{8} =0.23N/mm ^{2} (Standard9, 1967)
1××0.61949 ^{2}
1.5.17 The resultant axial stress due to bending and pressure, σr
σ r, = ^{}^{} ^{} ±
4 1 _{} ^{2} _{}
4 _{}
σ _{r} = 4.26±0.023 = 4.282N/mm ^{2}
Table 1.2 Summary of Mechanical Engineering design
Parameter 
Value 
Parameter 
Value 
Design Pressure 
220kPa 
Design Temperature 
203.5˚C 
Shell thickness 
8mm 
Nozzle diameter 
152.4mm 
Shell diameter 
619.49mm 
Nozzle thickness 
4mm 
Tube sheet thickness 
18.6mm 
Torispherical head 

Flange thickness 
23.25mm 
Thickness 
8mm 
Stress Analysis 
Inside depth 
82.93mm 
26
Longitudinal stress 
4.26N/mm ^{2} 
Dead weight 
11.64kN 

Circumferential stress 
8.52N/mm ^{2} 
Effective 
length 
of 
heat 
2.61m 
exchanger 

Direct stress 
0.76N/mm ^{2} 
Corrosion allowance 
4mm 
27
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29
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