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4/25/2016

AirbusFlightControlLaws

AIRBUSFLIGHTCONTROLLAWS
ClickHereforprinterfriendlyversion.
HighAOAProtection

LoadFactorLimitation

PitchAttitudeProtection

HighSpeedProtection

FlightAugmentation(Yaw)

BankAngleProtection

LowSpeedStability

LoadFactorLimitation

NORMALLAW

ALTERNATELAW
HighSpeedStability

YawDampingOnly

LoadFactorLimitation

ABNORMALALTERNATELAWw/oSpeedStability

YawDampingOnly

DIRECTLAW

FLIGHTCONTROLLAWSSUMMARY

NORMALLAW
Normaloperatingconfigurationofthesystem.Failureofanysinglecomputerdoesnotaffect
normallaw.
Covers3axiscontrol,flightenvelopeprotection,andloadalleviation.Has3modesaccording
tophaseofflight.
Activewhenaircraftisontheground.
Directproportionalrelationshipbetweenthesidestickdeflectionanddeflectionofthe
Ground
Mode

flightcontrols.
Isactiveuntilshortlyafterliftoff.
Aftertouchdown,groundmodeisreactivatedandresetsthestabilizertrimtozero.

Becomesactiveshortlyaftertakeoffandremainsactiveuntilshortlybefore
touchdown.
Sidestickdeflectionandloadfactorimposedontheaircraftaredirectlyproportional,
regardlessofairspeed.
Withsidestickneutralandwingslevel,systemmaintainsa1gloadinpitch.
Norequirementtochangepitchtrimforchangesinairspeed,configuration,orbank
upto33degrees.
Flight
Mode

Atfullaft/fwdsidestickdeflectionsystemmaintainsmaximumloadfactorforflap
position.

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Sidestickrollinputcommandsarollraterequest.
Rollrateisindependentofairspeed.
Agivensidestickdeflectionalwaysresultsinthesamerollrateresponse.
TurncoordinationandyawdampingarecomputedbytheELACsandtransmittedto
theFACs.
Norudderpedalfeedbackfortheyawdampingandturncoordinationfunctions.

Transitiontoflaremodeoccursat50'RAduringlanding.
Flare
Mode

Systemmemorizespitchattitudeat50'andbeginstoprogressivelyreducepitch,
forcingpilottoflaretheaircraft
Intheeventofagoaround,transitiontoflightmodeoccursagainat50'RA.
LoadfactorLimitation
Preventspilotfromoverstressingtheaircrafteveniffullsidestickdeflectionsare
applied.
AttitudeProtection
Pitchlimitedto30degup,15degdown,and67degofbank.
Theselimitsareindicatedbygreen=signsonthePFD.
Bankanglesinexcessof33degrequireconstantsidestickinput.
Ifinputisreleasedtheaircraftreturnstoandmaintains33degofbank.
HighAngleofAttackProtection(alpha):

Protections

Whenalphaexceedsalphaprot,elevatorcontrolswitchestoalphaprotectionmode
inwhichangleofattackisproportionaltosidestickdeflection.
Alphamaxwillnotbeexceededevenifthepilotappliesfullaftdeflection
HighSpeedProtection:
PreventsexceedingVMO orMMO byintroducingapitchuploadfactordemand.
ThepilotcanNOToverridethepitchupcommand.
LowEnergyWarning:
AvailableinCONF2,3,orFULLbetween100'and2,000'RAwhenTOGAnot
selected.
Producesaural"SPEEDSPEEDSPEED"whenchangeinflightpathaloneis
insufficienttoregainapositiveflightpath(Thrustmustbeincreased).
ALTERNATELAW

IfMultipleFailuresofRedundantSystemsoccur,theflightcontrolsreverttoAlternateLaw.
TheECAMdisplaysthemessage:ALTNLAW:PROTLOST
Ground
Mode

ThegroundmodeisidenticaltoNormalLaw.
Inpitchalternatelawtheflightmodeisaloadfactordemandlawsimilartothe
NormalLawflightmode,withreducedprotections.
Pitchalternatelawdegradestopitchdirectlawwhenthelandinggearisextendedto
providefeelforflareandlanding,sincethereisnoflaremodewhenpitchnormal

Flight
Mode

lawislost.
Automaticpitchtrimandyawdamping(withlimitedauthority)isavailable.

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AirbusFlightControlLaws

Turncoordinationislost.
Whenpitchlawdegradesfromnormallaw,rolldegradestoDirectLawrollrate
dependsonairspeed.

Allprotectionsexceptforloadfactormaneuveringprotectionarelost.
TheloadfactorlimitationissimilartotothatunderNormalLaw.
AmberXX'sreplacethegreen=attitudelimitsonthePFD.
Alowspeedstabilityfunctionreplacesthenormalangleofattackprotection
Systemintroducesaprogressivenosedowncommandwhichattemptsto
preventthespeedfromdecayingfurther.
ThiscommandCANbeoverriddenbysidestickinput.
TheairplaneCANbestalledinAlternateLaw.
Anaudiostallwarningconsistingof"crickets"anda"STALL"auralmessage
isactivated.
Protections

TheAlphaFloorfunctionisinoperative.
ThePFDairspeedscaleismodified:
VLS remainsdisplayed
VALPHAPROTandVALPHAMAXareremoved
Theyarereplacedbyaredandblackbarberpole,thetopindicatingthestall
warningspeedVSW
AnoseupcommandisintroducedanytimetheairplaneexceedsVMO /MMO tokeep
thespeedfromincreasingfurther,whichCANbeoverriddenbythesidestick.
Bankangleprotectionislost.
CertainfailurescausethesystemtoreverttoAlternateLawwithoutspeedstability.
YawdampingislostifthefaultisatripleADRfailure.
ABNORMALALTERNATELAW

AbnormalAlternateLawisactivatediftheairplaneentersanunusualattitude,allowing
recoveryfromtheunusualattitude.
PitchlawbecomesAlternate(withoutautotrimorprotectionotherthanLoadFactor
protection).
RolllawbecomesDirectlawwithmechanicalyawcontrol.
Afterrecoveryfromtheunusualattitude,thefollowinglawsareactiveforthe
remainderoftheflight:

Pitch:Alternatelawwithoutprotectionsandwithautotrim.
Roll:Directlaw
Yaw:Alternatelaw
ThereisnoreversiontoDirectlawwhenthelandinggearisextended.

DIRECTLAW
Directlawisthelowestlevelofcomputerflightcontrolandoccurswithcertainmultiple
failures.
Pilotcontrolinputsaretransmittedunmodifiedtothecontrolsurfaces,providinga
directrelationshipbetweensidestickandcontrolsurface.
ControlsensitivitydependsonairspeedandNOautotrimmingisavailable.
AnambermessageUSEMANPITCHTRIMappearsonthePFD.
IftheflightcontrolsdegradetoAlternateLaw,DirectLawautomaticallybecomes

activewhenthelandinggearisextendedifnoautopilotsareengaged.Ifan
autopilotisengaged,theairplanewillremaininAlternateLawuntiltheautopilotis
disconnected.

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TherearenoprotectionsprovidedinDirectLaw,howeveroverspeedandstallaural
warningsareprovided.
ThePFDairspeedscaleremainsthesameasinAlternateLaw.
MECHANICALBACKUP
Incaseofacompletelossofelectricalflightcontrolsignals,theaircraftcanbetemporarily
controlledbymechanicalmode.
Pitchcontrolisachievedthroughthehorizontalstabilizerbyusingthemanualtrim
wheel.

Lateralcontrolisaccomplishedusingtherudderpedals.
Bothcontrolsrequirehydraulicpower.
AredMANPITCHTRIMONLYwarningappearsonthePFD.

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