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Book 1: The Rage of Achilles


Revenge Chryses (with the aid of
Apollo) sends a plague on the
Achaean camps because
Agamemnon steals his
daughter, Chryseis, and Achilles
indirectly asks Zeus to assist the
Anger Achilles is infuriated by
Agamemnons demand for Briseis
and can only be stopped by Athena.

Armor shows wealth and skill.

Deities take an active role in the world, setting
things into motion, and have high respect for their
Chryses used his patron, Apollo, as ethos to try to
convince Agamemnon.
Apollo has worshippers on both sides of the war.
Achilles subtly disses Agamemnon.
Agamemnon likes to flex his power.
Achilles, or his home, has never been attacked by
the Trojans, but has been by the Achaeans.
Achilles seems to care for Briseis.

Achilles refuses to fight in the war
because of Agamemnons
Odysseus returns Chryseis to
Although he knows that it will anger
his wife, Zeus agrees to support the
Trojans at Thetiss request.
Hera sent Achilles to find a way to
stop the plague.
Calchas is scared of a king
(Agamemnon) and has Achilles
promise to protect him.
Agamemnon prefers Chryseis to his
own wife.

Achilles leaves many holes in his retelling to his

How did Achilles cost the lives of his own people?
How come no one claims Briseis?
Why does the Iliad start nine years after the war has
Why is Briseis reluctant to leave?
Why does Agamemnon refuse to return Chryseis
even though her father offers a perfectly sound
The Trojans will win because of Zeuss support and
Achilless departure.
Something will eventually pull Achilles back into the

Iliad Cornell Notes

Summary: Nine years after the start of the war, Agamemnon and Achilles claim two
Trojan maidens on a raid. Desperate for his daughter Chryseis, Chryses (Apollos priest)
offers a generous ransom to Agamemnon, but is rejected causing him to go to Apollo to
punish the Achaeans with a plague. After ten days, the two men decide that Chryseis must
be returned with the help of a seer, but Agamemnon demands Achilles Briseis in

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exchange. Enraged, Achilles reluctantly gives up Briseis, but in revenge, he withdraws his
forces from the war and asks his mother to use her favor from Zeus to request his support
for Agamemnons rivals, the Trojans. Zeus agrees, despite his wifes opposite stance in the
war, and Hephaestus has to calm her down.

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Book 2: The Great Gathering of



Courage Agamemnons troops
are worn out and unconfident,
quick to retreat.
Motivation Odysseus inspires
the men by both complimenting
and insulting them.

Nestor seems proud of how far the Achaeans have gone

when he is describing them.
Fighting with your family and friends boosts morale
because youre not just clashing with an enemy, youre
also protecting your comrades.
The military was important and impressive in Greek
Nestor is flattered that he was in Agamemnons dream.
Odysseus distracts and entertains the fleeing men by
beating Thersites.
The inventory of the Achaean forces represents all the
Greeks and allows Greek listeners to identify their

Odysseus uses the prophecy that
Calchas gave at the beginning of
the war to remind the men that
its almost over.
Zeus makes good on his promise
to Thetis by sending a misleading
dream to Agamemnon.
The snake represents evil and
the sparrows symbolize
Agamemnon admits that he was
in the wrong and lost his temper
with Achilles.

Why are the Trojan and Achaean forces being

A great battle will ensue.
The Trojans are more likely to win because the
Achaeans were originally unmotivated and tired.

Summary: Zeus sends a deceiving prophetic dream to Agamemnon that instructs him to
lead a full-on attack on Troy. However, when he lies and says that theyre going back home
to Greece, Agamemnons troops enthusiastically prepare their ships. Alarmed by the sight,
Hera tells who in turn tells Athena who arouses Odysseus to herd them back. Odysseus
uses compliments, insults, Calchas previous prophecy about a snake wiping out a nest of
nine sparrows, and the vow they made at the beginning of the war to renew the mens
confidence. After advising Agamemnon to group his troops with their friends and families,

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he describes the layout of the military as well as the best warriors. Hector is notified about
the Achaeans renewal through Zeus and also rallies his own troops.

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Book 3: Helen Reviews the



Selfishness Paris wants Helen,
but is too scared and weak to
stand up and fight for her.
Pride Paris only fights when
Hector insults him, saying that all
his worth adds up to just his

Hector is the more sensible and better brother.

Paris is the opposite of most of the characters so far,
cowardly instead of brave.
Helen is homesick.
Hector is like Enkidu and Paris like Gilgamesh.
Old age is trusted over reckless youth, even if hes on
your enemys side.
Iris supports Menelaus.
The only person who seems to like Paris is Aphrodite.

Paris started the war by stealing
Helen, Menelauss wife.
Even after Aphrodite assists Paris
by snapping the helmet thats
choking him, Paris still cant win
as opposed to Menelaus who
requires no divine intervention.
The two men fight in neutral
Priam blames the gods, not
Helen, for starting the war.
Helen mouths off at Aphrodite,
telling her to be with Paris if she
likes him so much.
Helen doesnt know her brothers
are dead.
Priam distracts Helen by asking
about Greek warriors even
though he already knows who
they are.

The first thing Helen says in the Iliad is that she wishes
she was killed when she arrived at Troy.

Why is Aphrodite helping Paris so much?
Why is Priam chosen to proctor the match if he could be

Paris will refuse to return Helen and come up with
absurd reason as to why their duel was invalid.

Summary: The Trojan and Achaean armies advance on each other and when Paris
challenges an Achaean to a one-on-one battle, Menelaus steps up. At first, Paris runs away
from the duel, but comes up with a new set of terms after his brother, Hector, reprimands
him. The winner of the contest will both gain Helen and be crowned victor of the war. Back
in Troy, Isis disguises herself and tells Helen to go and watch the battle. After Helen points
out the strong Achaean warriors, Priam gets the competition going but then leaves. At first

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Menelaus and Paris are even, but Menelaus gains the upper hand and Aphrodite has to
intervene twice; the second time she takes him away from the battle altogether the
moment before Menelaus delivers the killing blow. After Aphrodite calls Helen to Paris,
Helen criticizes him and then lies in bed with Paris. Meanwhile on the battlefield, everyone
is searching for Paris and Agamemnon demands Helen since Menelaus won.

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Book 4: The Truce Erupts in War


War Hera isnt satisfied with the
outcome of the war and forces
Zeus to spark the bloody fighting
The Gods and Goddesses The
deities participate in the Trojan
War also, taking either the Trojan
or Achaean side.

The gods fight amongst themselves, using humans as

their weapons.
Even though the men are tired and wish to stop fighting,
the gods egg them on for their own wants and desires.
Insults are often used to rally motivation.

Why does Zeus send Athena down to the battlefield when
he thinks that the war should end with Menelauss victory?

Athena both persuades Pandarus
to shoot Menelaus and protects
him from the arrow.
The Achaeans are more organized,
marching quietly to their
commanders orders while the
Trojans are a loud mix of different
Athena sends a shooting star as a
sign on the battlefield.
Agamemnon is very good at
rallying his troops.

Why do the gods disguise themselves when they approach


The Trojan War wont end until the gods and goddesses
decree it.

Summary: Hera pressures Zeus to send Athena to break the truce because she wants the
complete destruction of Troy even though Zeus believes that the war should end with
Menelauss victory but he gives in. As a Trojan warrior, Athena convinces Pandarus to shoot
an arrow at Menelaus, which she deflects slightly so that it only wounds him in the hip.
While Agamemnon calls a healer for his brother, the Trojans begin to attack and
Agamemnon pep talks his men, insulting the weak and encouraging the strong with tales
of their fathers. The two sides clash and bloody battle ensues. Odysseus and Ajax kill some
people and the gods help their favored side. Apollo tells the Trojans that Achilles isnt
fighting which boosts their morale.

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Book 5: Diomedes Fights the



Assistance Both humans and
gods get help from the deities. For
example, Ares and Aeneas (a
mortal) are healed by the deities.
Anger Because Athena is upset
that the Trojans seem to be
winning, she waives her earlier
agreement with Diomedes and
allows him to attack gods other
than Aphrodite.
Arrogance Pandarus dies at
Diomedess hands because hes

Aphrodite seems like the weakest deity.

Although hes the god of war, Ares is surprisingly whiny
and a pushover.
Athena isnt consistent; she changes her word depending
on the situation.
Zeus hates Ares the most because he resembles Hera.

Why doesnt anyone question Aeneas when he supposedly
comes back from the dead?
Why is Zeus so hard on his kids?
Why does Athena choose Diomedes out of all the Greek
warriors as her champion?

Diomedes is able to seriously
wound Ares with Athenas help.
The Trojans gain the upper hand of
the battle because of Ares and
Zeus tells both Aphrodite and Ares
that they deserved it when they
were wounded on the battlefield.
Apollo saves Aeneas in Aphrodites
Hector completely ignore the
pleading, bleeding Sarpedon.

One of the gods or goddesses will die at each others hand
because they are too caught up in the Trojan War.
Aphrodite will get seriously hurt one day because shes
weak yet intervenes a lot in battle.

Summary: Athena bestows on Diomedes his fathers strength and the ability to tell
mortals from gods with the condition of not attacking any deities except for Aphrodite after
he prays to her for revenge. Diomedes devastates with his new power. After slaying
Pandarus in revenge, he almosts kills Aeneas but his mother, Aphrodite, and Apollo saves
him. Diomedes takes the chance to wound Aphrodite who runs to her mother, Dione, for
help. Meanwhile, Apollo leaves a faux body of Aeneas behind as a stimulus to the Trojans.
Ares pairs up with Hector and Diomedes warns his comrades to avoid them, but
nevertheless, the Trojans take the lead. Sarpedon, leader of the Lycians, kills Tiepolemus,
son of Hercules. Odysseus? Athena lifts her previous ban and joins Diomedes in attacking
Ares, spearing him in the gut. Ares runs home complaining to Zeus who scolds him and
Apollo goes back to heal Ares. Hera and Athena also leave the battlefield.

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Book 6: Hector Returns to Troy


Love Hector visits his wife,
Andromache, and baby son first
before rejoining the battle who beg
him to stay.
Family Diomedes stops in the
middle of a battle to ask Glaucus
who he is. They find out that their
grandfathers were friends and
decide not to kill each other.

Athena doesnt answer her
enemies prayers, despite their
lavish sacrifice.
Helen is ashamed of Paris.
Hectors son, Astyanax, is scared
of his helmet.
Nestor is efficient and well-versed
in battle.
Agamemnon tells Atrides to kill
Agamemnon is okay with killing
pregnant women.
Glaucaus obliviously exchanges his
much more valuable armor for

Relationships between ancestors were extremely

important in both Achaean and Trojan society.
Although Hector almost constantly scolds Paris, he seems
to believe that Paris is a good warrior.
Helen hates herself and wishes shed never been born.
Achilles is capable of respect towards his enemies.
Although Hector knows that Troy will eventually fall, he
keeps on fighting for his wife and son.

Why does Andromache mourn Hector even though he
hasnt died yet?
Why is Hectors son scared of his helmet?
Why did Artemis kill Andromaches mother?

Hector will die in battle soon.

Summary: The Achaeans force the Trojans back since the gods arent there to help them
anymore. Agamemnon convinces Menelaus to kill Adrestrus, a Trojan hostage, instead of
holding him for ransom. Wanting to keep the advantage, Nestor tells the Achaeans to keep
fighting instead of grabbing the weapons of the fallen. At a soothsayer, Helenus advice,
Hector tells his mother to pray to Athena along with her noblewomen with a great sacrifice
for mercy on the Achaeans since Hector thinks that the Trojans will lose. Hector and Helen
reprimand and insult Paris, who finally gets ready to join the battle again. Lastly, Hector
visits his wife, Andromache, and son at the gates who beg him to stay. Hector refuses to
listen, accepting whatever fate may hand him, and kisses his son Astyanax after taking off
his terrifying helmet. The two brothers march back into battle while Andromache starts to
mourn Hector at home.

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Book 7: Ajax Duels With Hector


Courage None of the Achaeans
are man enough to step up to
Hectors challenge until Hectors
speech. After a lottery, Great Ajax
fights Hector and even manages to
draw his blood.
Friendship Out of all the methods
they could choose, Hector and
Great Ajax elected to end their
duel per Zeuss order by
exchanging gifts as friends.

Hector gives Great Ajax his sword
which is more valuable and
destructive than Great Ajaxs belt.
The Achaeans take advantage of
the day of truce to bury their dead
as well as build fortifications on
top of it.
Paris refuses to give up Helen, but
is willing to yield the treasure he
Nine Achaeans are entered into
the lottery, including Odysseus.
Apollo says Hector will win no
matter who he fights.

Hector is left without an offensive weapon while Great

Ajax has a strong shield and Hectors sword, putting him
at a disadvantage.
Proper burials are important to both Trojan and Achaean
society because they agree to stop fighting for a day to
bury their dead.
The Trojans often consider/try to make deals with the
Nestor shames the Achaeans into fighting.

Everybody in Troy wants to give Helen back except for

The deals tells Diomedes that the Trojans are feeling
Why do Athena and Apollo decide to end the fighting for
the day?
Why does Agamemnon enter the lottery to fight Hector
when he just convinced Menelaus that he isnt strong
Why did it take so long for the Achaeans to build a wall?

Poseidon will assist the Trojans because the Achaeans
didnt offer sacrifice when they built the walls.

Summary: As Hector and Paris rejoin the battle, the Trojans start to take the upper hand, but
Athena and Apollo intervene by planting the idea of a duel between Hector and any of the
Achaeans to end the fighting for the day. At first, only Menelaus steps up to the challenge but
goes back at his brothers heed and Nestor passionately urges his comrades to get some
courage. Finally, nine men volunteer and a lottery is drawn which Great Ajax wins. Tossing
spears doesnt work, so they use lances in which Ajax draws first blood before Zeus calls it off.
The pair exchange gifts. In their respective camps, Nestor and King Priam propose to ask the
other side for a day to bury their dead. Nestor also wants to build walls on top of the graves
while Antenor tries to convince Paris to give up Helen, who refuses but offers the treasure he
took from Sparta instead. The Achaeans reject the second part of the Trojans offer, but agree
on a day of truce to bury their dead. Meanwhile, Poseidon plans to destroy the Achaeans walls
after they leave.

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Book 8: The Tide of Battle Turns


Favor With Zeus on their side, the
Trojans are practically unstoppable
since Zeus stops any other deities
from interfering. When Zeus
momentarily withdraws his
support, the Achaeans almost turn
the tide.
Arrogance Athena believes that
Zeus wont stop her from helping
the Achaeans since shes his
daughter, but is proven wrong.

The Trojan fires are compared to
stars; fires symbolize the ability to
transform and generation while
stars represent guidance.
Zeus uses many lightning bolts to
scare and suppress the Achaeans.
The Achaeans are recharged when
Zeus sends an eagle with a fawn
as a symbol of his mercy.
Ajax goes to protect his halfbrother, Teucer.

Zeus goes all into the war, even preventing the other gods
and goddesses to participate even though he looked down
on them interfering before.
All of the gods and goddesses are scared of Zeus.
Zeus has a soft spot for Athena.
Iris twists Zeuss words in her message to Hera.

Why does Zeus choose now to participate in the Trojan
What does it mean when Achaeans fate is heavier than
the Trojans?

Achilles will come back to fight for the Achaeans since hes
the only one who can save them.

Summary: Zeus travels to Mount Ida to keep watch on the deities whom he forbid to
partake in the war and attacks the Achaeans with lightning after his scales reveals that
their fate is heavier. The Trojans lead the battlefield with Zeus. Hector chases Nestor, who
was stranded before Diomedes rescued him, back to their camp. Hectors plan to set
aflame their walls is foiled when Agamemnon, inspired by Hera, rallies his troops and prays
to Zeus for mercy. He grants it in the form of an eagle, and the Achaeans charge ahead
with the archer Teucer in the lead felling many Trojans before Hector stops him. Athena
and Hera try to help their beloved Achaeans but Zeus warns them using Isis as his
messenger. Frightened, they return home and are followed by Zeus. He taunts them and
says that only Achilles can turn the tide. The sun sets and the Trojans camp outside their
walls, lighting hundreds of fires to make sure that the Achaeans dont try to escape

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Book 9: The Embassy to



Anger Achilles refuses to come
back and fight for the Achaeans
despite all the treasure the
embassy offers and the stories
they tell because he is still
Penance Agamemnon
acknowledges and regrets his
earlier dire mistake of insulting

Agamemnon offers seven tripods,
seven women, and seven cities.
The number 7 symbolizes the
relationship between man and God
and the seven stages of
The Achaeans are about to give
up, and Achilles is their last hope.
Achilles wont even yield to his
theoretical father, Phoenix.
Achilles is found spending his time
leisurely with his friend, Patroclus.
Agamemnon knows that Zeus lied
to him.
Agamemnon sends Odysseus,
Phoenix, and Great Ajax to
appease Achilles.
Achilles said he loves Briseis.

Agamemnon shows remorse through riches, women, and

power instead of putting down his pride.
Even though Achilles says he wants to live a long life
without glory, his unyielding fury is caused by his honor
and respect being taken away from him shamefully.
Both emotion and reason fails to convince Achilles.
Agamemnon has completely given up in the beginning.

Odysseus left out Agamemnons demand of Achilles

subordination to him when talking to Achilles.
A turning point in Achilles character occurs when he
blatantly rejects anything he could want, his duty, and
Why doesnt Agamemnon go with the embassy to bring
Achilles back to apologize since hes the one who sparked
Achilles stubborn rage?
Whats a tripod?

The Achaeans will surrender because their last hope,
Achilles, refuses to rescue them.
Some Achaeans, like Diomedes and Nestor, will try to fight
the Trojans on their own.

Summary: The Achaeans are at a loss and Agamemnon even declares that they should
return home as losers. Diomedes and Nestor object to this, saying that Troy is destined to
fall and that they should try to get Achilless help. Agamemnon agrees, compiling a
generous list of presents and an embassy that includes Phoenix, Odysseus, and Great Ajax
to Achilles. After arriving to Achilles playing the lyre, they have dinner and the embassy
present the proposal. Achilles flat out refuses since he means to return home to Phthia and
remains steadfast after Phoenix scolds him for being this way since he practically raised
Achilles and tells the story of Meleager who was shunned by his friends after refusing to

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help them until the last minute. Achilles offers Phoenix a ride home with him, which he
refuses, and the unsuccessful embassy returns home bearing the bad news.

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Book 10: Marauding Through

the Night


Selfishness Dolon volunteers to
spy on the Trojans for Achilless
chariot, but is soon caught by the
Achaean spies. To save his own
life, Dolon betrays crucial
information to them and ends up
dead anyways.
Courage Diomedes and Odysseus
quickly volunteer to spy on the
Trojans even though its

Odysseus and Diomedes kill 12
Thracian soldiers and their king.
Nestor and the Achaeans didnt
expect Diomedes and Odysseus to
come back in one piece.
Diomedes considers Odysseus the
Achaeans best asset.
The Achaean spies play dead to
trap Dolon.
Athena sent out a heron to show
her support for the Achaeans.
Athena tells Diomedes to leave
before they get caught.

The enemies weapons and armor are of high value in

Greek society.
The Achaean mission to one of their own, Achilles, fails,
but the one against the Trojans is highly successful.
Dolon spills everything in detail about the Trojans to
Odysseus and Diomedes shamelessly.

How the Achaeans sleep so soundly, save for Agamemnon
and Menelaus, if they know theyre on the brink of defeat?

A pro-Trojan god or goddess will seek revenge on
Odysseus and Diomedes.

Summary: After a fitful night for Agamemnon and Menelaus, they wake the other
commanders up and convene. Nestor proposes to spy on the Trojan camp to which
Diomedes readily volunteers, picking Odysseus as his back up. They hear a heron sent
from Athena and pray to her. Hector is planning the same thing in the Trojan camp, and a
wealthy but fast man, Dolon, volunteers to spy on the Achaeans in exchange for Achilless
chariot. However, as Dolon goes out, he is trapped by Diomedes and Odysseus who were
playing dead on the battlefield. Frightened for his life, Dolon tells them about a Trojan
weakness, the just arrived Thracians, and the formation of the Trojan camp, but he is killed
anyways. Now informed, the Achaean pair proceed to the Thracians camp and slay 12
men and the king, Rhesus. Athena cautions them to not overdo it and they take off with
Rhesuss chariot and horses. Welcomed back warmly by Nestor and their comrades,
Diomedes and Odysseus bathe and then offer sacrifice to Athena.

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Book 11: Agamemnons Day of



Courage Despite harboring a
wound, Agamemnon keeps on
fighting the Trojans. Odysseus and
Ajax fight a large number of
Trojans on their own.

Even Pariss fighting style is cowardly.

Achilles is weakening in his stance because he is worried
about the healer Manchaons state of being.
Even Odysseus is scared at first when he is left alone on
the battlefield.
Machaon is extremely valuable to the Greeks because his
healing skill.

Patroclus is very kind; he stops to help the bleeding

Machaon despite have an urgent, revolutionary
message to deliver to Achilles.
Hector briefly loses consciousness
after being hit in the head with
Diomedess spear.
Diomedes and Machaon are
injuried by Pariss arrows.
Zeus rains blood on the Achaeans
to scare them.
Zeus pulls Hector out of
Agamemnons path.
Zeus tells Hector to halt fighting
until Agamemnon is hurt.
Diomedes helmet was a gift from
Nestor came up with the idea of
Patroclus wearing Achilles armor.

Why does Zeus send Strife to rouse the Achaeans fighting

Achilles will agree to let Patroclous to use his armor.
Patroclus is doomed to die.

Summary: Despite Zeuss shower of rain, the Achaeans push the Trojans back to their
gate because of Agamemnon. After Agamemnon is wounded by Coon, he fights for a bit
more, but soon returns to the ships. With Zeuss permission, the Trojans go on the
offensive now that Agamemnon is gone. The Achaeans try to retreat, but remain steadfast
with Odysseus and Diomedes rally and Diomedes hits Hector in the head with a spear,
which causes him to retreat momentarily. In return, Paris seriously injuries Diomedes with
an arrow. Before being carried off the field by Great Ajax, Odysseus is surrounded by
Trojans and is injured by Socus despite fighting them off valiantly. To the Achaeans
dismay, Hector returns aided by Paris who wounds the healer Machaon. While the healer is
taken back to the camp by Nestor, the Trojans overwhelm Ajax and his men and they are
forced to retreat. Achilles sends Patroclous to find out whats going on after he sees
Manchaon injuried from far away. Both Nestor and Eurypylus inform Patroclous of the
Achaeans dreadful situation and Nestor proposes the idea of Patroclous disguising himself
as Achilles to scare the Trojans.

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Book 12: The Trojans Storm the



Perseverance Hector refuses to
give up on attacking the Achaean
walls and manages to breach it
with a giant rock.

The eagle represents the Trojans
while the serpent is the
Achaeans. The Trojans doubt
themselves when the snake is
dropped into their presence.
Zeus protects his son, Sarpedon,
in battle and he rips a hole in the
wall with his hands.
The Achaean walls are meant to
fall because it was built with the
appropriate sacrifices.

Hector is only humble enough to listen to a warriors

(Polydamas) advice once.
Sarpedon is like the spark and Hector the fuel to
break down the walls.

Why does Asius keep attacking the wall with his
Why doesnt Zeus allow any of the gods and
goddesses to participate in the war?

Hector will pay one day for ignoring divine signs.
The Trojans will overtake the wall before the war

Summary: Homer tells us that the Achaean walls are destined to fall because they were
built without proper sacrifice to the deities. Because the trench in front of the walls is
blocking them, Polydamas suggests that the Trojans fight on feet instead of chariot and
Hector agrees. Just then, an eagle flies in from the left side and drops a snake into the
Trojan front, causing the Trojans to hesitate. Ignoring the sign, Hector charges ahead.
Sarpedon and his cousin Glaucus attack Menestheus, Great Ajax, and Teucer. Sarpedon,
aided by Zeus, rips a huge hole in the wall with his bare hands and Hector follows suit by
throwing an enormous rock at it, successfully collapsing the gate. Trojans gush into the
Achaean camp and the Achaeans struggle to hold their own.

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Book 13: Battling for the Ships


Burial A huge brawl breaks out
between the two sides, led by
Idomeneus and Deiphobus over
who gets Alcathouss lifeless body.
Pride Idomeneus and Meriones
squabble about who has more
Trojan spoils instead of fighting.
Hector goads Paris into battle.

An eagle flying from the right side is
good luck, signifying prosperity for
the Achaeans, while one from the
left is bad.
Zeus leaves the battle to rest on
Thrace, but Poseidon jumps in the
moment he leaves.
Hectors comrades and leaders are
all wounded or dead and has to turn
to Paris instead.
Ajax recognizes Poseidon
The Achaeans fill in the gap in the
wall with their own bodies.
Deiphobus is injured by Meriones
and carried off to safety by his
brother, Polites.
Ajax recognizes Poseidon
The Achaeans fill in the gap in the
wall with their own bodies.

The Trojans and Achaeans take all the advantage

they can from the dead.
Poseidon resents Zeus, but cant do anything about
it since Zeus is older and is more powerful.
Polydamas must be close to Hector for him to listen
to Polydamass advice yet again.
Idomeneus partners up with Poseidon.
Idomeneus and Meriones talk smack with each other
to get pumped up for the battle.
Poseidon has to go against Zeus secretly and
Aeneas doesnt think he gets enough honors.
Menelaus is clueless as to why Helen left him.

Why cant Zeus see Poseidon in mortal form?
Why does Zeus want to increase Achilles glory?

The tide of the battle with turn prosperously in the
Achaeans favor.
More gods and goddesses will join the battle since
Zeus is gone.

Summary: Satisfied with the wars progress, Zeus leaves the battle and Poseidon jumps
in almost right away to help the Achaeans. He inspires and advises them as the seer
Calchas, especially inciting confidence in Little and Great Ajax who drive Hector back.
Because Hector killed Poseidons grandson, Poseidon charges Idomeneus with power and
after borrowing Merioness spear, they go into battle. Menelaus kills many Trojans, but
Deiphobus is injuried. Elsewhere, Hector leads discouraged Trojans until Polydamas

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suggests they reassemble their scattered forces. Hector agrees, but is dismayed to find
most of his commanders wounded or dead, and gets Paris to fight instead by insulting him.
When the pair go into battle, a eagle flies in from the right side, a good sign for the

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Connection Column


Book 14: Hera Outflanks Zeus

Even though theyre in the middle of a huge war,
Aphrodite still gets excited over reconciling stray
Agamemnon seems fed up with the war while
Odysseus wants to stay and fight which pays off for
the Achaeans.

Deceit Hera tricks and uses many
people, including Aphrodite and
Zeus, in order to assist the
Leadership When Hector is injured
and leaves the battlefield, the
Trojans are without a leader and are
at the mercy of the Achaeans.

Sleep only helps Hera when she
promises a wife for him.
Hera distracts Zeus through love
from Aphrodites enchanted
breastband and sleep on Mount Ida.
Sleep is disguised as a bird which
represents freedom; they correlate
because when youre asleep, you
free from any worries and are
Nestor says that they cant retreat
because theyll be slaughtered.
Poseidons shriek puts power in all
of the Achaean soldiers.
Ajax hits Hector with a rock.

Heras efforts to stop Zeus seem unnecessary

because he had already decided to stop fighting in
the war.
Athena seems stronger.
Killing your opponents while theyre retreating is an
effective war strategy.

Why doesnt Hera help the Trojans herself when Zeus
falls asleep, but instead sends word to Poseidon?

Zeus will wake up hopping mad and start assisting
the Trojans again.

Summary: After healing Manchaon, Nestor sees the devastating Achaean losses and
disadvantages and reports them to Agamemnon. Agamemnon wants to surrender and go
home, but Odysseus yells at him for being gutless and dumb. Instead, Diomedes,
Agamemnon, and Odysseus go back to the battlefield, if only to instill encouragement into
their men and their efforts are amplified by Poseidon. Elsewhere, Hera comes up with a
plan to distract Zeus. First, she visits Aphrodite and under the notion of reconciling Ocean
and Mother Tethys, she borrows her breastband which makes a woman irresistible to men.
Although he hesitates at first, Sleep agrees to put Zeus to sleep with one of the Graces
hand in marriage. Hera then goes to Mount Ida where Zeus is overwhelmed with lust at the
sight of his wife and sleeps with her. Sleep, who was veiled as a bird, knocks Zeus
unconscious. Sleep tells Poseidon that Zeus is asleep and leads an attack on the Trojans.

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Because Hector is injured by a rock from Great Ajax, he has to leave the battle and his
warriors suffer for it, losing to the Achaeans terribly.

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Connection Column


Book 15: The Achaean Armies at



Fate Zeus only helps Hector and
the Trojans because it is destined;
the Achaeans have to seem so
desperate that Achilles will help
Bravery Despite overwhelming
odds, the Achaeans, especially
Ajax, keep fighting unless the gods
force them to run.

The key to defeating the Achaeans
is destroying their ships.
Teucer tries to shoot Hector, but
Zeus snaps his bow.
Apollo helps the Trojans by tearing
down the Achaeans wall and filling
up their trench.
Athena stops Ares from joining the
battle again.
The Achaeans were forced back to
their ships.
Hera tells all the gods that they
have to obey Zeus and stops Ares
from avenging his son.
Apollo enhances and heals Hector.
The Trojans thought Zeus crack of
lightning was a good sign for them
although it was originally meant as
an answer to Nestors prayer.

Hector knows that that at this certain time, he is

invincible and takes full advantage of that.
Even though Hera knows Troy is fated to fall, Hera is
still pissed that Zeus is helping them.
Technically, Heras oath to Zeus that she didnt will
Poseidon to wreak havoc among the Trojan ranks is
true because Iris delivered the message to him.
Zeus always believes Hera when she says shell
always obey Zeus.
Hectors quick reappearance along with Apollo
causes the Achaean to retreat because he seems
almost invincible.
After observing Teucers bow breaking, Hector draws
from it and declares to his men that Zeus is assisting
The cue for Zeus to turn the tide is when the first
Achaean ship goes up in flames.

Why is Zeus drawing out the war by supporting the
Achaeans when he knows that Troy will ultimately be

Hector wont be able to burn down any ships
because his men will flee at the sight of Patroclus in
Achilles armor.

Summary: Zeus awakens angry at Hera when he sees the Trojans losing and tells her to
fetch Iris and Apollo after assuring her that Troy will be the city that will eventually fall. Iris
tells a reluctant Poseidon to stop fighting on the battlefield while Apollo is ordered to aid
Hector and imbue him with courage. The Achaeans put up a brave front against the
renewed Trojans but ultimately run off in terror at the sight of Apollo. Soon, the Trojans
push the Achaeans back to their own ships where Hector starts to prepare to burn Ajaxs
ship. Meanwhile, Patroclus runs off to find Achilles. With Nestors encouragement, the
Greeks on the ship try to fight off Hectors forces and eventually only Ajax is left on deck.

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Connection Column
Book 16: Patroclus Fights and
Obedience Because Patroclus
didnt listen to Achilles and kept on
fighting past the Achaean ships, he
ended being killed by Hector.
Sacrifice Hera tells Zeus not to
save his son Sarpedon because it
will cause the other deities to follow
suit and also save their kids.

Hector only goes to the battlefront
to retrieve Sarpedons armor.
Sarpedons dying wish is for
Glaucus to defend his corpse.
Patroclus almost takes Troy, if not
for the gods intervention.
Although Zeus cant save Sarpedon,
he exacts revenge on Patroclus
Patroclus is not strong enough to
wield Achilles spear.
Achilles explicitly tells Patroclus to
return once the ships are safe.
Achilles takes part in the battle to
rouse his men.
There are 2500 Myrmidons.
Zeus has to save Hector by
speeding up his horses.

Zeus has some affection for Sarpedon.
Zeus has started to withdraw his support from the
battle, even putting fear into Hector.
Theres no honor in Hectors killing of Patroclus
because Apollo had already done most of the work.
Achilles has a hard heart.
The Myrmidons are prime for battle and unbroken
unlike the Achaeans that are currently fighting.
Because Apollo knocked it off Patroclus helmet,
everyone discovers hes not Achilles.
Hector believes that Achilles ordered Patroclus into

Why does Zeus ask permission from Hera to save

Hector will die in the next book.

Summary: Achilles permits the tearful Patroclus to wear his armor with the condition that
he only fights to save the Achaean ships. As Patroclus heads out to battle with Achilles
Myrmidon soldiers, the Trojans set the first ship aflame. Achilles prays for both Patroclus
and the ships to come back unharmed, but Homer reveals that Zeus only grants half of his
prayer. The Trojans start to retreat at the sight of Achilles and are slaughtered by
Patroclus as they get stuck in the trench. Despite some hesitation from Zeus, Patroclus kills
Zeuss son, Sarpedon, and Hector retrieves his armor from the fight over it. Zeus takes
revenge by first instilling fear into Hector so Patroclus follows him to the gates of Troy.
Apollo stops him from taking Troy. When Patroclus kills Hectors chariot driver, chaos erupts
over his armor and Apollo sneakily wounds Patroclus. Hector finishes the job.

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Book 17: Menelaus Finest Hour

Friendship The Achaeans and
Trojans struggle to take the fallen
comrades bodies back through any
means, like ransom.
Pity Because he feels sorry, Zeus
puts temporary power into Hector,
courage into the Achaeans
protecting Patroclus corpse, and
courage into Automedon.

Hector is materialistic and vain; taking and wearing
Achilles armor first instead of thinking ahead to use
Patroclus corpse as leverage for Sarpedons.
Zeus respects Patroclus.
Hectors boon sparks lots of enthusiasm among his
and men and more fighting.
The deities are shifting the battle back and forth.
Automedon can control the horses because they are
mourning Patroclus.
Athena mostly boots Ajax while on the other side,
Aeneas is being enhanced.

Achilles is still hopeful and doesnt
know about the death of Patroclus
despite all the fighting over his
Athena, disguised as Phoenix,
supports Menelaus while Apollo
supports Hector.
Even with enhanced Hector, the
Trojans are beaten back by Ajax and
Menelaus doubts that Achilles can
fight without armor.
Hector offers a reward for Patroclus
Patroclus body is beneath the
Trojan wall.
Zeus pitied the horses.
Idomeneus spear broke when he
tried to hit Hector.

Menelaus unknowingly flatters Athena when she is

disguised as Phoenix and he tells him that if only
Athena would help.
The humans keep getting weaker and weaker until
the gods have to step in.
No one wants to tell Achilles that his best friend has
Although Achilles skin cant be pierced, there are
only ways to harm and potentially kill him, like with
rocks or drowning.
How does Aeneas know that Apollo has addressed
Why does Antilochus cry as hes going to Achilles?

Achilles will rejoin the fight hopping mad because of
Patroclus death.

Summary: A huge fight starts over Patroclus corpse. Menelaus kills Euphorbus and calls
Great Ajax over to protect the body, but not before Hector steals Achilles armor and wears
it himself. Glaucus is angry that Hector didnt take Patroclus body so that they could
exchange it for Sarpedons so Hector promises to give half of the wars spoils to the person
that retrieves Patroclus corpse. Although Zeus gives Hector new power and Apollo inspired
Aeneas to rally the, back to the fight, the Achaeans still manage to push the Trojans back
and the Trojans are unable to take Patroclus body. Powered by Zeus, Automedon defends

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Achilles chariot from Hector. Disguised as Phoenix, Athena helps Menelaus who sends
Antilochus to notify Achilles of Patroclus death and for assistance.

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Connection Column


Book 18: The Shield of Achilles


Revenge Achilles no longer cares
about his own life as long as it
means that he can avenge
Grief Achilles grief over Patroclus
causes him to dirty himself, meet
his fate head on, and rethink his
past actions.
Achilles and Athena releases three
cries with a flame around his head
and Zeus shield on his shoulder
which scares the Trojans.
The Trojans decide to keep on
fighting the next day even though
Achilles has returned.
Thetis has Hephaestus make
Achilles a new set of armor.
Achilles new shield represents the
whole world.
Achilles dirties himself in grief.
Achilles armor is handed down
from his father from the gods.
Achilles decides to return to battle.
Hector wants to chop off Patroclus
head and hang it up in Troy.
Athena makes the Trojans stupid,
causing them to ignore Polydamas
sound advice.

Patroclus is the best of the Myrmidons.

Achilles is so overcome with grief that he is in
danger of killing himself.
Achilles regrets fighting with Agamemnon.
Achilles is immediately suspicious of Antilochus and
deduces what has happened.
Hectors death costs Achilles life.
Its only been a day since book 10.

Why does Achilles swear that he wont bury Patroclus
until hes killed Hector?
Why does Hephaestus decorate Achilles shield with
the world?

Achilles will become renewed once he gets his new
set of armor.

Summary: Antilochus delivers the bad news to Achilles and he becomes stricken with
grief. His mother, Thetis, comes to comfort him and Achilles tells her he will avenge
Patroclus even if it means that Achilles will die young. Thetis agrees to ask Hephaestus to
make Achilles new armor. Hera sends Iris to command Achilles to appear on the
battlefield, if only to scare the Trojans away from Patroclus corpse. It works with
Athenas assistance. In the Trojan camp, Polydamas tries to convince them to retreat,
but Hector thinks it cowardly and decides to attack the Achaeans again the next day.
In the Achaeans camp, they are mourning and preparing Patroclus body for burial.
Thetis goes to Hephaestus to ask him for a new set of armor for Achilles and he
complies, creating a breastplate, helmet, and shield.

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Connection Column
Book 19: The Champion Arms For
Forgiveness Achilles and
Agamemnon formally forgive each
other and Agamemnon gives
Achilles all the treasure he
promised before.

Ambrosia and nectar can cure
hunger and preserve bodies.
Odysseus has to persuade Achilles
to allow their men to eat first before
going on the battlefield.
Briseis also mourns for Patroclus.
Agamemnon vows to put his
differences aside.
Agamemnon never actually
apologizes to Achilles and even
blames Ruin for putting such rage in
Briseis saw her husband and
brothers slain the day she was

Achilles is still blinded by vengeance and rage, just
by another person.
Achilles has everything he wants except Patroclus.
Achilles doesnt want the treasure, only to fight.
Odysseus can always talk reason into Achilles.
Patroclus was kind to Briseis at the worst time of her
Hera tells Achilles through his horses that Apollo
killed Patroclus, not Hector, but this information
doesnt change his mind.

Why did Hera give Achilles horses the power to
How does Roan Beauty know about Achilles fate?

Achilles will be an unstoppable killing machine on
the battlefield.

Summary: Thetis gives the weeping Achilles his new armor and promises to prevent
Patroclus body from decaying by putting ambrosia and nectar up his nose. Achilles calls a
meeting where he apologizes for his rage at Agamemnon and receives all the treasure that
Agamemnon had promised before, including an untouched Briseis. Odysseus convinces
Achilles to allow their men to eat first before going to battle, but Achilles refuses to eat and
is secretly sustained by Zeus and Athena with ambrosia and nectar. Then, Achilles puts on
his armor and mounts his chariot while scolding his horses for letting Patroclus to die. Hera
grants the horses the ability to speak who say that Apollo caused him to die and fate
would do the same to Achilles. Achilles already knows about this and heads out into battle

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Connection Column
Book 20: Olympian Gods in Arms
Fate Zeus finally allows the other
deities to participate in the war
freely to make sure Achilles doesnt
fell Troy before its fated time.

Achilles is fighting without fear on the front lines
while Hector stays back on Apollos orders.
Achilles seems unperturbed by his foes disappearing
during battle.
No one major dies despite all of the fighting because
the deities are intervening.

Apollo has to save Hector from
Achilles partly because Athena is
helping Achilles.
Although Zeus has allowed to
participate again, most of the
deities just sit and watch the battle.
Apollo tells Aeneas to fight Achilles
by saying that he is of a lesser
goddess, Thetis, compared to his
own mom, Aphrodite.
Aeneas unsuccessfully wields a rock
against Achilles sword and armor.
Poseidon saves Aeneas from
Achilles by chucking him out of the
battlefield because he has a fate to
carry out.
Achilles kills Hectors brother.

What does Poseidon save a Trojan, Aeneas, if hes on
the Achaean side?

Hector will clash with Achilles again soon.

Summary: Because he doesnt want Achilles to destroy Troy before its time for it to fall,
Zeus allows the deities to intervene in the battle again without punishment. However, once
on the battlefield, most of the deities decide to sit and watch. Apollo is not one of them; he
persuades Aeneas to battle Achilles and is almost killed until Poseidon takes pity and saves
Aeneas. Apollo orders Hector not to fight Achilles until Achilles seeks him out. At first,
Hector obeys, but gives up when his brother is slayed by Achilles. The pair clash; Athena
protects Achilles and Apollo has to take Hector away from the scene. Achilles continues to
kill other Trojans.

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Connection Column
Book 21: Achilles Fights the River
Respect Because Achilles doesnt
respect the river Xanthus and clogs
it up as well as attacks it, the river
almost kills Achilles.
Gods and Goddesses The deities
intervene numerous times to save
Achilles from the river or to protect
the Trojans as well as physically
fight amongst themselves.

Achilles kills Lycaon and
Poseidon and Athena tells Achilles
that hes not fated to be killed by
the river and should go back to the
ships once hes killed Hector.
Hera and Hephaestus boils the river
to protect Achilles and make it
promise not to help the Trojans.
Artemis calls Apollo cowardly.
Achilles chases a god, Apollo, who
is disguised as Agenor.
Priam opened the gates of Troy to
allow his fleeing soldiers in.
Achilles pushes half of the Trojans
against the river and half to Troy.
Xanthus tries to ask Apollo for help
for the Trojans but Achilles attacks
Xanthus asks another river for help.
Poseidon assures Achilles that he
wont die and then leaves him in
the river.

Apollo likes to whisk people away to safety from
Achilles is powerful enough to hold his own against
gods, like Scamander and Apollo.
Achilles doesnt want to die an dishonorable death
by drowning.
The deities fighting is purposeless because none of
them can die.

Why is Apollo helping the Trojans?
Why would Achilles think he had a chance against a
force of nature?

Some Achaeans might slip into Troy since Priam
opened the gates.

Summary: Achilles chases half of the Trojans against the river Xanthus, or Scamander,
where he kills numerous Trojans, including Lycaon and Xanthus-supported Asteropaeus,
and clogs up the river with dead Trojans. Angered, Xanthus tells Achilles to stop killing
Trojans in the river, but he only agrees to not throw bodies in the river. Xanthus calls on
Apollo to help the Trojans, but Achilles attacks the river when he hears the plea. Xanthus
almost kills Achilles before Hera and Hephaestus forced the river to leave Achilles and the
Trojans alone by setting it on fire. Fighting breaks out among the gods; Athena fights Ares
and Aphrodite, Poseidon and Artemis attack Apollo, and Hera fights Artemis. Priam opens
the gate of Troy for the fleeing Trojans and Achilles follows, almost taking the city before

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the Trojan prince Agenor challenges him to a fight. Apollo soon carries him away to safety
and takes his place. Apollo-disguised-as-Agenor distracts Achilles by running around.

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Connection Column

Book 22: The Death of Hector

Cowardice Hector is afraid to face
his men whom he doomed with his
confidence and runs from Achilles.
Bloodlust Achilles shamelessly
pierces and drags around Hectors
body even after hes mercilessly
killed Hector.
Priam thinks that Hectors death will
mean the fall of Troy.
Zeus briefly considers saving
Hector, but decides against it.
Achilles compare himself and
Hector to humans and lions, wolves
and sheep.
Athena tricks Hector into making a
stand against Achilles.
Even though he knows his fate has
arrived, Hector still courageously
gives his best against Achilles.
Hector considers his options: go
inside and survive, but in shame or
negotiate with Achilles which most
likely wont work or meet his fate
head on.
Achilles allows his men to mutilate
Andromache almost falls of the wall
when she fainted at the sight of
Hectors last wish is for his body to
be returned home and a curse for

Hector is spineless and desperate alone in front of
The duel mightve lasted longer if Hector wasnt
using Achilles armor because Achilles knew exactly
where the armors weaknesses were.
Achilles never gets close enough to the walls of Troy
for the Trojans to throw things at him.
Achilles slays Hector basically in one fatal blow.

Why does Achilles treat Hector so badly even though
he had already avenged Patroclus?
How does Hector stay ahead of Achilles?

Achilles will pay for disrespecting Hectors corpse.

Summary: Despite Hectors and Hecubas protests, Hector remains the only Trojan
standing outside the walls because is too ashamed to face his men for leading them to
their doom against Achilles. Achilles returns angry from chasing Agenor and Hector
considers negotiating with him, but bolts when Achilles comes close. Achilles chases
Hector around Troy three times before Athena appears as Hectors brother, Deiphobus, and
convinces him to face Achilles. Hector and Achilles exchange shots before Hector discovers
that hes been tricked. Nonetheless, Hector bravely attacks Achilles but Achilles strikes him
perfectly through his throat since he knows his old armor (which Hector is wearing) inside
and out. Hectors dying wish is for Achilles to return his body home, but Achilles does the

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opposite and drags it through the mud on his chariot. Priam, Hecuba, and Andromache
sees this and weep for their son and husband.

Connection Column

Book 23: Funeral Games for

Sportsmanship Throughout
Patroclus funeral games, Achilles
tries to judge the games fairly
despite cheating or the gods

Achilles sacrifices 12 Trojan captives
for Patroclus funeral.
Patroclus wants his and Achilles
bones and ashes mixed together
when he dies.
Apollo and Aphrodite protect
Hectors corpse.
Athena helps Diomedes and
Odysseus wins some of the games.
The ghost of Patroclus visits Achilels
in his dream.
Patroclus killed someone over a
dice game.
Achilles wraps the corpses in meat.
Patroclus funeral pyre doesnt light
at first, but the gods help.

Most the games end results are determined or
swayed by the gods intervention.
Like how Agamemnon took Achilles prize away from
him, Achilles almost takes away Antilochus prize
The Achaeans are able to work out their own
problems when no gods or goddesses interfere.

How do the Achaeans have time to hold competitions
amongst themselves when theyre still fighting with
the Trojans?
Why does Achilles give Nestor a jar if he didnt
Why wont Achilles wash?
How does Achilles know that the gods intervenes in
the race?

The deities will make Achilles return Hectors body

Summary: Back at the Achaean camp, Achilles finally eats but doesnt wash up. At night,
Patroclus appears to Achilles in a dream asking him to burn his body so that his spirit could
enter the underworld. Achilles obeys, sacrificing 12 Trojans among other animals the next
day during Patroclus funeral pyre. The following day, Achilles hosts a bunch of
competitions in honor of Patroclus with prizes like horses, women, and cauldrons. In the
first race, chariot riding, Diomedes wins with Athenas help and disputes occur over second
places prizes between Antilochus (second place), Menelaus (third place), and Eumelus
(last place). Ultimately, Achilles gives Antilochus a mare and Eumelus a breastplate. Epeus

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wins boxing. Odysseus draws against Ajax in wrestling, Odysseus wins the foot race with
Athenas help. Diomedes wins spear fighting. Meriones wins archery. Agamemnon wins
spear throwing without doing anything.

Connection Column

Book 24: Achilles and Priam

Pity The gods take pity on Hector
and force Achilles to return his
body. Achilles takes pity on Priam
and allows him plenty of time to
bury his son.
It takes twelve days for Achilles to
give Hectors body back.
Hector and Achilles agree on a 12
day truce to bury Hector.
Zeus sends an eagle to reassure
Priam that no harm will come to
Hermes disguises himself as a
Myrmidon soldier and guides Hector
through the Achaean camp.
Whenever Achilles cant sleep, he
goes out and drags Hectors body
Everyone tells Priam not to go the
Achaean camp, but he trusts the
Priam rejoices when he hears that
Hectors body is in pristine
Helen also mourns for Hector.
As Achilles hands back Hector for
ransom, he apologizes to Patroclus.

Achilles can be kind and thoughtful.
Achilles sees his father, Peleus, in Priam.
Despite his strength, Achilles is afraid of what Priam
would do to him if he saw how badly he treated a
Two mortal enemies are weeping together and offer
hospitality in honor of fallen (or-to-be-fallen)9 sons.

Why does Hermes reveal who he actually is to
If Helen was taken 20 years ago, why did the Trojan
War only start 10 years ago?

Troy will fall without Hectors protection.
Hectors son will also die.

Summary: Achilles continues to drag around Hectors body for a total of twelve days while
Apollo keeps it from rotting. Apollo convinces Zeus who then persuades Thetis to tell
Achilles to return Hectors body. Zeus sends Iris as well as a good luck omen to tell Priam
to go to the Achaean camp unarmed with ransom. Hermes disguises himself as a
Myrmidon soldier and leads Priam safely through the Achaean camp. After begging Achilles
on his knees, Achilles agrees to give Priam Hectors body because Priam reminds Achilles
of his own father. Priam eats and sleeps in Achilles tent while Achilles has Hectors body
cleansed. Before he goes to sleep, Priam and Achilles agree on a twelve day truce so that
the Trojans will have time to properly mourn and bury Hector. Hector and his driver quietly
leave the camp with a Hector in the middle of the night and return home where all the
women bawl at the sight of Hector. The Trojans prepare a funeral pyre for nine days and
burn him on the tenth.

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