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CONTENTS

CHAPTER NO

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CONSTRUCTION
WORKING PRINCIPLE
ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT DETAILS
MECHANIAL ASSEMBLY DIAGRAM
PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS DETAILS
ELECTRICAL WIRING DIAGRAM
COST ESTIMATION
CONCLUSION
BIBLIOGRAPHY

SYNOPSIS
MICROCONTROLLER is playing a major role in the field of industrial
automation.

The main aim for us to select this project work is to acquire

practical knowledge in the field of automation using PNEUMATICS.


We selected MATERIAL ELEVATING CONTROL SYSTEM
USING PNEUMATIC CYLINDER as our project work and we have used
principles of Mechatronics in developing this project work.. In this project
the materials are placed on a platform and transported from the ground floor
to upstairs using a Pneumatic cylinder . This cylinder is controlled through
the 5/3 solenoid operated directional controlled valve which is ON/OFF by
the controller.
There are three magnetic reed sensors placed at each floor for the
purpose of stopping the platform. The materials are transmitted from one
floor to another floor by pressing the switch in the keyboard.

CONSTRUCTION
This project consists of following parts
1. MICROCONTROLLER based control system
2. Air cylinder.
3. Magnetic reed sensor unit
4. 5/3 Directional controlled solenoid valve.

PNEUMATIC ELEVATOR

DOUBLE ACTING
CYLINDER

M.S.STAND

BASE

AIR CYLINDER
AIR cylinder is pneumatic equipment. In this cylinderis used for sliding
LIFT movement . The cylinder and piston Rod is engaged in single solid
unit. It moves across up and down. Air is supplied to cylinder in A+ and Aposition. Movement of slide is depending upon the pressure of air.
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SOLENOID VALVE
Solenoid valve is device, which is used to control the movement of slide.
This is achieved by controlling a coil, when this coil energizes the flow of
the air from compressor through the valve is allowed just by lifting the
stopper with coils magnetic field. We are using 230v ac solenoid valve, it
needs a AC voltage of 230v is needed to energize valves coil. The solenoid
valve is connected to microcontroller output . The valve is connected to air
cylinder.
MAGNETIC REED SENSOR UNIT;
The magnetic sensors are used for limiting the position of the elevator
cabin. Three sensors are mounted on a plastic plate as shown in figure.

MAGNETIC SENSOR

The plastic plate with the sensor is mounted on the left side of the elevator
cabin unit .The height of the plastic plate can be adjusted with the help of
bolt and nuts in order to set the minimum gap between the magnet and
magnetic sensor

MAGNETIC PLATE

MAGNETIC
SENSOR 1

MAGNETIC
SENSOR 2

MAGNETIC
SENSOR 3

PLASTIC PLATE

HEIGHT ADJUSTABLE
BOLT NUT

NOVOPAN PLYWOOD

WORKING PRINCIPLE
MICROCONTROLLER controls the solenoid coil to actuate the cylinder
cabin up and down. To start the operation, the job is placed inside the cabin
and the ON switch is pressed in the switch board. This switch sends the 24v
dc signal to the input of the controller . Controller gives the output signal as
per the program. controller drive the solenoid coil through the 24V relay.
Here we use 5/3 way solenoid operated directional control valve . This valve
is used to stop the piston rod of double acting cylinder at required position
between the A+ and Aposition.
When the cabin crosses the required floor, the magnetic sensor sends
the signal to the input of the controller. Controller switch off the supply to
the solenoid coil at the required floor.
The required floor is selected by pressing the push button in the switch
board. The pressure required to operate this system is 5 to 6 bar.

CIRCUIT DETAILS
1. Micro controller system
2. Interface Circuit for stepper motor
3. Power supply (230V A.C. to 12 V and 5V DC)
4. Key Board Circuit
MICRO CONTROLLER SYSTEM:
This system monitors the engine condition by using PIC 16F870 (28
pin IC Package) micro controller. The pin details of micro controller are
shown in figure.

The circuit diagram for this micro controller board is shown below,

MOTHER BOARD CIRCUIT DETAILS

in no 2&5.The pin no 1 is RESET switch..The INPUTS are connected to


port B .The OUTPUTS are connected to PORT C.6 MHZ crystal is
connected to pin no 9,10.
Keypad interface;
Here seven soft micro switches are soldered in the main board and
their connections are shown below.

PORT B (KEYPAD)INPUT & OUTPUT CIRCUIT

c) 5 to 12V interface circuit:


Here we have to drive the 12V DC stepper motor. The 5V signal from
the PIC 16F 870 micro controller is fed into the input of interface circuit.
TIP 120 Darlington transistor is used here for high speed switching purpose
and the Diode IN 4007 is for the safety of TIP 120 transistor during the
collapsing of magnetic field from the stepper motor coil. This interface
circuit is shown in fig.

5V TO 12V INTERFACE
CIRCUIT

POWER SUPPLY 5V DC AND 12V DC;


A 12 0 v step down transformer is used to step down 230V AC to
12V AC .This 12V AC supply is converted to 12V DC using four rectifier
diodes. The voltage from the rectifier section is regulated to 12V DC using
7812 IC . From 12V DC the 7805 IC is used for regulating 5V DC for the
power supply of microcontroller.
the power supply circuit is shown in fig.

INTRODUCTION:
All the electronic components starting from diode to Intel ICs only
work with a DC supply ranging from +5V to +12V. We are utilizing for the
same, the cheapest and commonly available energy source of 230V-50Hz
and stepping down, rectifying, filtering and regulating the voltage.
STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER:
When AC is applied to the primary winding of the power transformer,
it can either be stepped down or stepped up depending on the value of DC
needed. In our circuit the transformer of 230V/15-0-15V is used to perform
the step down operation where a 230V AC appears as 15V AC across the
secondary winding. Apart from stepping down voltages, it gives isolation
between the power source and power supply circuitries.
RECTIFIER UNIT:
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In the power supply unit, rectification is normally achieved using a


solid state diode. Diode has the property that will let the electron flow easily
in one direction at proper biasing condition. As AC is applied to the diode,
electrons only flow when the anode and cathode is negative. Reversing the
polarity of voltage will not permit electron flow. A commonly used circuit
for supplying large amounts of DC power is the bridge rectifier. A bridge
rectifier of four diodes (4 x IN4007) are used to achieve full wave
rectification. Two diodes will conduct during the negative cycle and the
other two will conduct during the positive half cycle, and only one diode
conducts. At the same time one of the other two diodes conducts for the
negative voltage that is applied from the bottom winding due to the forward
bias for that diode. In this circuit due to positive half cycle D1 & D2 will
conduct to give 0.8V pulsating DC. The DC output has a ripple frequency of
100Hz. Since each alteration produces a resulting output pulse, frequency =
2 x 50 Hz. The output obtained is not a pure DC and therefore filtration has
to be done.
The DC voltage appearing across the output terminals of the bridge
rectifier will be somewhat less than 90% of the applied rms value. Normally
one alteration of the input voltage will reverse the polarities. Opposite ends
of the transformer will therefore always be 180 degree out of phase with
each other. For a positive cycle, two diodes are connected to the positive
voltage at the top winding.
FILTERING CIRCUIT:
Filter circuits which is usually capacitor acting as a surge arrester
always follow the rectifier unit. This capacitor is also called as a decoupling
capacitor or a bypassing capacitor, is used not only to short the ripple with
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frequency of 120Hz to ground but also to leave the frequency of the DC to


appear at the output. A load resistor R1 is connected so that a reference to
the ground is maintained. C1, R1 is for bypassing ripples. C2, R2 is used as
a low pass filter, i.e. it passes only low frequency signals and bypasses high
frequency signals. The load resistor should be 1% to 2.5% of the load.
1000f/25V : for the reduction of ripples from the pulsating
10f/25V

: for maintaining the stability of the voltage at the load side.

0.1f

: for bypassing the high frequency disturbances

BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR POWER SUPPLY

STEP DOWN

TRANSFORMER

BRIDGE

POSITIVE

RECTIFIER

CHARGE
CAPACITOR

5V

12V

REGULATOR

MOTHER

BOARD

VOLTAGE REGULATOR:
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REGULATOR

DISPLAY

BOARD

RELAY

The voltage regulators play an important role in any power supply unit. The
primary purpose of a regulator is to aid the rectifier and filter circuit in
providing a constant DC voltage to the device. Power supplies without
regulators have an inherent problem of changing DC voltage values due to
variations in the load or due to fluctuations in the AC linear voltage. With a
regulator connected to the DC output, the voltage can be maintained within a
close tolerant region of the desired output. IC7812 and 7912 is used in this
project for providing +12V and 12V DC supply.

5 TO 12 V DC DRIVE CARD

Here we have to drive the 12V DC load. The 5V signal from the PIC
16F870 micro-controller is fed into the input of interface circuit. SL100
transistor is used here for high speed switching purpose and IRF 540N

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MOSFET is connected to the motor to handle the larger current drawn by the
motor.

MECHANICAL ASSEMBLY DRAWING

PNEUMATIC ELEVATOR

DOUBLE ACTING
CYLINDER

M.S.STAND

BASE

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DESCRIPTION OF PNEUMATIC
COMPONENTS
1. Double acting air cylinder with piston arrangement.
2. Spool valve (2 position 5 ports valve)
3. Pneumatic fittings
a. Bulk head union
b. Flexible hoses
c. Air compressors
DOUBLE ACTING AIR CYLINDER WITH PISTON
ARRANGEMENT:
It consists of a piston inside a cylindrical housing called a barrel.
Attached to one end of the piston is a rod which the rod end has one port.
This rod end port is used for entrance of air and extends outside one end of
the cylinder. At another end is a port for exit of air.
Double acting cylinder can be extended and retracted pneumatically.
The smallest bore size of an double acting cylinder is 1 1/8 inch. The piston,
which is made of ductile Iron, contains u-cup packing to seal against leakage
between the piston and barrel. The ports are located in the end caps, which
are secured to the barrel by bolts and nuts.

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DIRECTING CONTROL VALVES:


A direction control valve is used to change the direction of air flow as
and when required by the system for reversing the machine tool devices. A
direction control valve may be classified, according to the construction of
the internal moving parts, as
1. Rotary spool Type.
2. Sliding Spool Type.
3. Solenoid operated valves
SOLENOID OPERATED VALVES:
Solenoid valves are electromechanical devices like relays and
contractors. A solenoid valve is used to obtain mechanical movement in
machinery by utilizing fluid or air pressure. The fluid or air pressure is
applied to the cylinder piston through a valve operated by a cylindrical
electrical coil. The electrical coil along with its frame and plunger is known
as the solenoid and the assembly of solenoid and mechanical valve is known
as solenoid valve.

The solenoid valve is thus another important

electromechanical device used in control of machines. Solenoid valves are


of two types,
1. Single solenoid spring return operating valve,(5/2)
2. Double solenoid operating valve.
In fig 1 is shown a single solenoid spring return valve in its de-energized
condition. The symbol for the solenoid and the return are also shown. The
solenoid valve is shown connected to the cylinder to help readers understand
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the solenoid valve action.


In the de energized condition, the plunger and the valve spool position as
shown in figure 1.

In this position of spool, port P is connected to port A and port B is


connected to tank or exhaust (i.e. atmosphere) if air is used. Spring pressure
(S) keeps the spool in this condition as long as the coil is de energized.
Fluid pressure from port P through port A is applied to the left side of the
cylinder piston. Thus the cylinder piston moves in the right direction.
Now when the solenoid coil is energized, plunger is attracted and it pushes
the spool against spring pressure.
The new position of plunger and spool are shown in fig 2.

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In this position of spool, port A gets connected to tank and port P gets connected to
port B. Thus pressure is applied to the cylinder piston from right and moves the piston
rod to the left. At the same time fluid in the other side is drained out to the tank. When
the solenoid coil is again de energized, the spring (S) will move the spool to its original
position as shown in figure 1. Thus, normally when the solenoid coil is de energized the
piston rod remains extended.

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PNEUMATIC FITTINGS:
There are no nuts to tighten the tube to the fittings as in the
conventional type of metallic fittings. The tube is connected to the fitting by
a simple push ensuring leak proof connection and can be released by
pressing the cap and does not require any special tooling like spanner to
connect (or) disconnect the tube from the fitting.
SPECIFICATION OF THE FITTING:
Body Material

- Plastic

Collect/Thread Nipple

- Brass

Seal

- Nitrate Rubber

Fluid Used

- Air

Max. Operating Pressure

- 7 Bar

Tolerance on OD of the tubes

- 1 mm

Min. Wall thickness of tubes

- 1 mm.

FLEXIBLE HOSES:
The Pneumatic hoses, which is used when pneumatic components
such as actuators are subjected to movement. Hose is fabricated in layer of
elastomer or synthetic rubber, which permits operation at high pressure. The
standard outside diameter of tubing is 1/16 inch. If the hose is subjected to
rubbing, it should be encased in a protective sleeve.
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ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS


ADVANTAGES:
The Pneumatic arm is more efficient in the technical field
Quick response is achieved
Simple in constructions
Easy to maintain and repair
Cost of the unit is less when compared to other robotics
No fire hazard problem due to over loading
Comparatively the operation cost is less
The operation of arm is faster because the media to operate is air
Continuous operation is possible without stopping.
LIMITATIONS:
High torque cannot be obtained.
Load Carrying capacity of this unit is not very high (3 5 kgs).
While working, the compressed air produces noise, therefore a silencer may be
used.

APPLICATIONS
DISCHARGE OF WORKPIECE:
The arm fed has wide application in low cost automation. It can be
used in automated assembly lines to pick-up the finished product from
workstation and place them in the bins. It can also be used to pick-up the
raw material and place them on the conveyor belts and vice versa.
JOB CLAMPING:

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This unit can also be used in clamping operations in certain areas of


mass productions where clamping and unclamping have to be done at high
speeds. The applications of this unit is limited to operations which involves
moderate clamping forces.
TRANSFER OF JOBS BETWEEN WORK STATION:
The gripping method used in a low cost automation to move the work
piece from one workstation to another. The combination of an angular
rotary motion is the principle behind this method. The gripper holds the
work rigidly. The to and fro motion is achieved by means of the actuating
cylinder.
TOOL CHANGING APPLICATION:
When the pneumatic arms are made smaller in size they can be used
in automatic tool changer in CNC turning and drilling machines, by
attaching suitable tool holding device to the rotary cylinder.

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PNEUMATIC CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

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COST ESTIMATION

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DETAILS

COST Rs.

1. Double acting cylinder unit

1400

2. 5/3 double solenoid directional control valve

1200

3. M.S. tube stand

300

4. Microcontroller unit

2400

5. Novo ban Board

200

6. Magnetic sensor unit

400

TOTAL

5900/-

CONCLUSION

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We make this project entirely different from other projects. Since concepts
involved in our project is entirely different that a single unit is used to
various purposes, which is not developed by any of other team members.
By doing this project we gained the knowledge of pneumatic system and
how automation can be effectively done with the help of pneumatic system.
It is concluded that any automation system can be done with the help of
controller& pneumatic system.
We have successfully completed the project work on using pneumatic
control at our Institute.
By doing this project work, we understood the working principle and uses of
various controls, switches, relays etc.
It will be of no doubt that pneumatic system will be an integrated part of any
automation process in any industry.
Once again we express our sincere thanks to our staff members.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
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1. Low cost automation with pneumatics

FESTO

2. Electro pneumatics

3. Hydraulics & pneumatics for Power Production -

Harry L Stewart

4. Basic pneumatics

- FESTO

FESTO

5. www.google.com
6. Workshop Technology

- Hajra Chowdry

7. Production Technology

-R.S. Khurmi

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